WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol use

  1. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  2. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  3. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  4. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  5. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  6. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  8. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  9. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considered "problem drinkers." This means that they: Get drunk Have accidents related to alcohol use Get into ... to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls ...

  10. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  11. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  12. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  13. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  14. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  15. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  16. The Burden of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    White, Aaron; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual’s genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community ...

  17. Alcohol polymerization using electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a means of instantaneous alcohol polymerization using electron emission at room temperature. We selected 1-butanol as a source of alcohol polymer. A 1-butanol molecule has a simple molecular structure and is a good candidate for analyzing reaction mechanisms. Direct electron emission onto the surface of volatile 1-butanol prevented intense discharge and gently composed 1-butanol-polymer at room temperature in air. The strategy enabled exciting liquids and instantaneously composing new materials at room temperature

  18. Diagnostic challenges in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, Luisa; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; Francque, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that have been defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to damage of various organs, including the liver. Alcoholic liver disease includes different injuries ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis and implicates a diagnostic assessment of the liver disease and of its possible complications. There is growing interest in the possible different tools f...

  19. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  20. Inequality, deprivation and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, M

    1997-03-01

    There are major social inequalities in health within societies. Alcohol and tobacco are major preventable causes of ill health. Using data from the United Kingdom, this paper examines the social distribution of tobacco and alcohol consumption; the role that tobacco and alcohol may play in mediating or modifying social inequalities in health; and the implications of social distribution for policies to reduce harm associated with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. In the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, there is clear inverse association between socio-economic position and consumption of cigarettes. Over the past three decades, the decline in smoking has been more rapid in men and women in higher socio-economic groups. United Kingdom suggest that among employed men and women, the prevalence of non-drinking shows an inverse association with occupational status; heavy drinking differs little; and moderate drinking is more common among those of higher socio-economic status. Smoking accounts for perhaps 25% of the social class difference in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, more for lung cancer, less for some other diseases. healthier patterns of drinking may contribute to the lower CHD rates of higher social classes. Although other factors are clearly important in generating social inequalities, it is important to take the social distribution of alcohol and tobacco into account when formulating policy. For cigarette consumption, there is evidence that in lower socio-economic groups demand is more sensitive to price; higher socio-economic groups are more responsive to health education. There has been less research of this nature for alcohol. Available analyses suggest that price responsiveness of heavy drinking may be greatest in young men and in those with lower incomes. A pricing strategy has important equity implications. PMID:9167283

  1. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of m...

  2. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related expectan

  3. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810

  4. Use of alcoholic waste as cyclohexane oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Лудин, Анатолій Миколайович; Кожушко, Микола Ігорович; Реутський, Віктор Володимирович

    2013-01-01

    In the process of cyclohexane oxidation, we obtain a number of side compounds, including alcoholic fraction, which has no target purpose. Accordingly, the topical issue is the further use of alcohol fraction since the division of this mixture into components is a difficult and expensive process, therefore, other methods of recycling and use of this mixture are considered.Also, in this case it is possible to use such additional alcoholic waste as fusel oil, which has the structure similar to t...

  5. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cuneyt Evren

    2010-01-01

    High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...

  6. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  7. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  8. Parental alcohol use disorders and alcohol use and disorders in offspring: a community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Roselind; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; ISENSEE, Barbara; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background. We examined the association between parental alcohol use disorders and patterns of alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders in their offspring in a community-based sample of young adults. Methods. Data are based on baseline and 4-year follow-up data of 2427 respondents aged 14–24 at baseline. Alcohol use and disorders in respondents were assessed using the Munich-Composite-International-Diagnostic-Interview with DSM-IV algorithms. Diagnostic information about parent...

  9. [Alcohol use in children: An unrecognized fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, D

    2016-05-01

    Although drinking problems are now well documented in adolescents and young people, few data are available on alcohol use in children younger than 12. In France, studies have shown that 60-70% of 11-year-olds reported having tasted alcohol drinks, 4-7% having experienced drunkenness at least once, and that 5-8% might be regarded as "regular" alcohol users. By comparison, the prevalence of child drinking in the United States seems to be lower. All studies show that parental alcohol-specific attitudes and parental educational practices have a strong influence on the initiation of alcohol use in children. Some of them also indicate that early-onset drinking in children may be related to psychosocial functioning in other life areas, such as problem behaviors, low school engagement, and poor relationships with parents, in association with temperamental and environmental risk factors similar to those described in substance use disorders. Since epidemiological studies showed that early initiation of alcohol use is linked to later alcohol-related problems, these data call for further attention to children's perceptions and attitudes with respect to alcohol in research to prevent alcohol misuse. PMID:27021882

  10. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  11. Understanding alcohol use disorders with neuroelectrophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2014-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits associated with impairments in various brain regions and neural circuitries, particularly involving frontal lobes, have been associated with chronic alcoholism, as well as with a predisposition to develop alcohol use and related disorders (AUDs). AUD is a multifactorial disorder caused by complex interactions between behavioral, genetic, and environmental liabilities. Neuroelectrophysiological techniques are instrumental in understanding brain and behavior relationship...

  12. Hazardous alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in women : characteristics and vulnerability factors

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to study vulnerability factors associated with hazardous alcohol consumption during pregnancy and alcohol use disorders among Swedish women. Different risk-factors and characteristics were studied, and examined for their ability to discriminate or identify different subtypes (type I/late onset and type II/early onset) of alcohol dependence ( alcoholism ). In study I, an RCT at ANC in Stockholm (control, n = 156, intervention, n =147) we...

  13. Does Technology Use Moderate the Relationship Between Parental Alcoholism and Adolescent Alcohol and Cigarette Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to examine the associations between technology use and alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence and to explore whether technology use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and substance use (alcohol and cigarette use). The sample included 328 14-16 year-old adolescent boys and girls. The adolescents completed a battery of self-report questionnaires which included measures that assessed their substance use, their use of technology, and ...

  14. Alcohol use among adolescents in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutula-Golo Dragana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD, the largest international research project, was conducted for the first time in Serbia in 2008. Objective. The objective was to analyze data obtained by ESPAD research on alcohol use among secondary school first grade students, and particularly the difference in the use of alcohol by gender, type of school students attend, their place of residence and the territory among secondary school students in Serbia in 2008. Methods. Attitudes and practice related to alcohol use of 6,553 secondary school first grade students were analyzed. A standardized, internationally approved questionnaire, structured and designed for self­filling was used on a stratified, one­stage sample of students. The data received from the ESPAD research were processed by χ2 test to test the significance of differences between the observed characteristics, with the conclusion level of p<0.01. Results. Over three­quarters of students can easily buy beer or wine. More than one half can buy spirits and alcopops. 89.1% of students drank alcoholic beverages at least once in a lifetime and 78.2% in the last year. At least once in a lifetime 42.2% of students were drunk and 29.7% in the last year. At least once in the last month 32.0% of students had five or more drinks in a row. Boys consumed alcohol more frequently and got drunk more often than girls (p<0.01. Conclusion. This research emphasizes the need for creating a prevention of alcohol use and alcohol abuse program among adolescents and more consistent application of the existing regulations aiming to decrease alcohol use among adolescents in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175087

  15. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  16. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no ...

  17. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Peairs, Kristen F.; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; COSTANZO, PHILIP R.; Grimes, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during ...

  18. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  19. Depressive symptoms and alcohol use among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Isabel C.; Fraga, Sílvia; Ramos, Elisabete

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is the most consumed substance by young people, sometimes it’s associated with depressive symptoms. Objective: Assess the factors associated with alcohol use among 13-year-old teenagers, like depressive symptoms. Methods: Data of a population-based cohort of urban teenagers included cross-sectional information of 919 boys and 1016 girls collected by self-reported questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using Beck Depressive Inventory II (BDI). The Mann-Whitney test was...

  20. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V;

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  1. [Use of tiapride in the anxious alcoholic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, A

    1983-02-24

    The alcoholic patient is usually anxious. Anxiety is increased by withdrawal. The anxiety-relieving effect of tiapride was studied in 20 alcoholics, with a mean age of 44 years. 18 patients were male. Alcoholism was chronic in 18 cases and paroxystic in two. At the time of withdrawal each patient was given 3 intramuscular injections daily for 7 days, then 3 tablets per day. Results, which were evaluated according to the Hamilton score, were excellent in 9 cases, good in 10 and poor in 1: no failure was recorded. The symptoms which responded best were fear, somatic and psychic manifestations of anxiety, depressive feelings and sleep disturbances. Concomitantly, digestive disorders, anorexia, tremor and pain were alleviated. Tolerance was excellent: no neurologic, digestive, cardiovascular or biologic manifestations were recorded. In caring for alcoholic patients, the critical time of withdrawal is undeniably facilitated by the use of tiapride. PMID:6302898

  2. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  3. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  4. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peairs, Kristen F.; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted…

  5. Alcohol-Specific Socialization Practices and Alcohol Use in Dutch Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of alcohol-specific socialization practices and heavy parental drinking with alcohol use in early adolescents. Cross-sectional nationwide survey data from 2599 parent-adolescent (mean age = 12.16) dyads were used to conduct logistic regression analyses. Onset of alcohol use as well as infrequent and…

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between peer alcohol use and own alcohol use in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Tom; Shelton, Katherine; Lifford, Kate; Rice, Frances; McBride, Andrew; Nikolov, Ivan; Neale, Michael C.; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2007-01-01

    Aims Genetically influenced aspects of adolescent behaviour can play a role in alcohol use and peer affiliation. We explored the correlations between friends' alcohol use and adolescent own use with a genetically sensitive design. Design Genetic and environmental factors were estimated on adolescent reports of their friends' alcohol use and their own use and problem use of alcohol. The correlations between the genetic and environmental factors that influence friends' alcohol use and adolescen...

  7. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; Lallukka, Tea; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  8. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  9. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power ...

  10. State Responses to Alcohol Use and Pregnancy: Findings From the Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS)

    OpenAIRE

    DRABBLE, LAURIE; Thomas, Sue; O’CONNOR, LISA; ROBERTS, SARAH CM

    2014-01-01

    This article describes U.S. state policies related to alcohol use during pregnancy, using data from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS). Specifically, this study examines trends in policies enacted by states over time and types of policies enacted across states in the U.S., with a focus on whether laws were supportive or punitive toward women. Findings revealed substantial variability in characteristics of policies (19 primar...

  11. Developmental Alcohol-Specific Parenting Profiles in Adolescence and their Relationships with Adolescents’ Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Ina M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on general parenting have demonstrated the relevance of strict parenting within a supportive social context for a variety of adolescent behaviors, such as alcohol use. Yet, alcohol-specific parenting practices are generally examined as separate predictors of adolescents’ drinking behavior. The present study examined different developmental profiles of alcohol-specific parenting (rule-setting, quality and frequency of communication about alcohol use) and how these patterns rel...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Predicting Post Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examining alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of post-treatment alcohol outcomes. The present study uses a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of alcohol use outcomes were examined in 278 individuals diagnosed with a current DSM-IV schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder and an alcohol use disorder (A...

  14. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  15. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  16. The association between alcohol use, alcohol use disorders and tuberculosis (TB. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, tuberculosis (TB was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8% and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%. The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. Methods A systematic review of existing scientific data on the association between alcohol consumption and TB, and on studies relevant for clarification of causality was undertaken. Results There is a strong association between heavy alcohol use/alcohol use disorders (AUD and TB. A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59. Numerous studies show pathogenic impact of alcohol on the immune system causing susceptibility to TB among heavy drinkers. In addition, there are potential social pathways linking AUD and TB. Heavy alcohol use strongly influences both the incidence and the outcome of the disease and was found to be linked to altered pharmacokinetics of medicines used in treatment of TB, social marginalization and drift, higher rate of re-infection, higher rate of treatment defaults and development of drug-resistant forms of TB. Based on the available data, about 10% of the TB cases globally were estimated to be attributable to alcohol. Conclusion The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. Consequences for prevention and clinical interventions are discussed.

  17. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; Theodorakis, Yannis; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, al...

  18. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing. PMID:16203455

  19. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine...

  20. Examining the Relationships among General Coping, Alcohol-Specific Coping and Alcohol Use in a College Student Population

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, N. Robrina

    2007-01-01

    The coping and alcohol literature indicates certain styles of coping are more protective against alcohol use than others. The purpose of the current study was to explore the associations among general coping styles, alcohol-specific coping skills, drinking to cope motives, and alcohol use in an effort to further examine their theoretical relationships. It was hypothesized that: (1) The relationship between problem-focused coping and alcohol use would be mediated by alcohol-specific coping, (...

  1. Client Attitudes toward Alcohol Use Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Stewart, Scott H.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Because psychiatric illnesses and problematic alcohol use frequently co-occur and heavy alcohol use can exacerbate depression and anxiety, mental health clinicians should perform alcohol-use screenings. The aim of this study was to determine if psychiatric patients would be accepting of their mental health clinician screening them for heavy…

  2. Alcohol use in the service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S

    1994-06-01

    It is frequently alleged that hotel and restaurant personnel drink more than other groups in the service industry, although only indirect evidence has been presented to substantiate this allegation. This paper reports data from two surveys concerning alcohol use in different segments of the service industry. In the first study 84 students at three different colleges in the Stavanger region were interviewed concerning their alcohol habits using the screening instrument AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). The second survey concentrated on service employees in the Rogaland area. One hundred and five respondents answered the AUDIT questionnaire in this study. The results showed that hotel and restaurant affiliated individuals scored significantly higher on the AUDIT than the other respondents. The first survey indicated that students at the Norwegian College of Hotel Management obtained significantly higher AUDIT scores than other groups of students, whereas the second survey indicated that restaurant workers scored significantly higher than employees in other branches of the service industry. Implications of these results, as well as future research demands were indicated. PMID:8069174

  3. The prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders: a population based study in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Zavos, HM; Siribaddana, S.; Ball, HA; Lynskey, MT; Sumathipala, A.; Rijsdijk, FV; Hotopf, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is increasing in non-Western countries. However, the effects of this increase on the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains unknown, particularly in South Asia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and AUD in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Environmental risk factors and psychiatric correlates were also examined. METHODS: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess alcohol use and psychiatric disorders in a popu...

  4. Practical chiral alcohol manufacture using ketoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Gjalt W; Liang, Jack; Krebber, Anke

    2010-04-01

    Over the past two years the application of ketoreductases in the commercial synthesis of chiral alcohols has undergone a revolution. Biocatalysts are now often the preferred catalyst for the synthesis of chiral alcohols via ketone reduction and are displacing reagents and chemocatalysts that only recently were considered break-through process solutions themselves. Tailor-made enzymes can now be generated from advanced, non-natural variants using HTP screening and modern molecular biology techniques. At the same time, global economic and environmental pressures direct industrial process development toward versatile platforms that can be applied to the different stages of product development. We will discuss the technologies that have emerged over the past years that have guided biocatalysis from the bottom of the toolbox, to the power tool of choice. PMID:20071211

  5. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  6. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol Use Disorders Are a Major Problem..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder involves an alcohol-induced imbalance in the brain's reward and stress systems. Moderate alcohol use initially leads to the pleasant feelings associated with mild intoxication. With excessive alcohol use, over time brain changes occur that lead to tolerance, the need ...

  7. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...

  8. Social Anxiety and Motives for Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Frala, Jamie L.; Badour, Christal L.; Ham, Lindsay S.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety evidences significant comorbidity with alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. In an effort to better understand this co-occurrence, researchers are beginning to evaluate specific drinking-related factors, including alcohol use motives, among socially anxious individuals. Drawing upon Cooper’s (1994) four-factor model of drinking motives (enhancement, social, conformity, coping), a growing body of work suggests that socially anxious individuals may consume alcohol i...

  9. Alcohol Use and Cerebral White Matter Compromise in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Elofson, Jonathan; Gongvatana, Win; Carey, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, a period known to be critical in neurodevelopment. The adolescent brain may be particularly susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. While the cognitive deficits associated with alcohol use during adolescence have been well-documented, the neural substrates underlying these effects remain inadequately understood. Cerebral white matter has been suggested as a primary site of alcohol-related damage and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) a...

  10. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  11. Marital and Family Processes in the Context of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is often part of the fabric of marriage and family life, and although it is associated with certain positive effects, excessive drinking and alcohol disorders can exert a negative effect on the marital development and on the development of children in the context of the family. This review considers evidence that alcohol influences and is influenced by marital/family processes, including transitions into marriage and parenthood, marital satisfaction, marital violence, parenting, a...

  12. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  13. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  15. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  16. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Graaf

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  18. Familiar and social influence on alcohol use of college youth

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa F. Lema S; María T. Varela A; Carolina Duarte A; María V. Bonilla G

    2011-01-01

    Objetive: to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use in youth from a private university in Cali – Colombia, and its relation with familiar and social factors. Methodology: secondary source analysis, from a prevalence study. 548 college youth participated, selected through a randomized stratified sampling. Results: the prevalence of alcohol use in life was 96%, last year was 89% and last month was 67%. Actual alcohol use and age of first use were similar between men and women. Age of first use...

  19. Relationships among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Young Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…

  20. Can intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs lead to passive alcoholization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m(3) per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  1. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…, but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs. Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed.

  2. Frequency of alcohol use and obesity in community medicine patients

    OpenAIRE

    Denison Anne; Rohland Barbara M; Rohrer James E; Way Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is an important public health problem. However, the effects of alcohol use on the risk for obesity have not been thoroughly explored. This study focuses on how frequency of alcohol use is related to the risk of obesity in a community medicine clinic population. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey to test the hypothesis that obesity (BMI > 30) is associated with alcohol use. The convenience sample was drawn from three clinics that primarily serve low-in...

  3. Social determinants of alcohol use among drivers in Calabar

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, S.; Fatiregun, A; W O Ndifon; A Oyo-Ita; Ikpeme, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous use of alcohol is a public health problem which accounts for 4.0% of global disease burden. Although the prevalence of alcohol use among drivers of commercial vehicles in Nigeria has been documented, not much is known about its social determinants. This study was, therefore, aimed at assessing the social determinants of alcohol use among drivers of commercial vehicles in Calabar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 360 male comme...

  4. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  5. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  6. Adolescent alcohol use reflects community-level alcohol consumption irrespective of parental drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann;

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use are typically conceptualized at the individual level, and school- and community-level risk factors have received little attention. Based on the theoretical understanding of youth alcohol consumption as a reflection of community social practice, we analyzed...... whether adolescent drunkenness was related to community-level adult alcohol use (AAC), when taking individual and school-level risk factors for drunkenness into account. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between community-level AAC and adolescent drunkenness was attenuated after...

  7. Does Alcohol Use Predict Violent Behaviors? The Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Violence in a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between alcohol and violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents ages 11–26. Data were derived from 10,828 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-III. Survey logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between alcohol use and violence. Even after adjustment for baseline, consistent alcohol use predicted violence in young adulthood (OR =1.41; 95% CI [1.03, 1.91]); however, violence...

  8. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  9. Risky alcohol use in Danish physicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Sørensen, Johanne Korsdal; Bruun, Niels Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Alkoholmisbrug er ikke velundersøgt hos danske læger. Denne undersøgelse viser, at omtrent 19 % af de adspurgte læger havde et risikobetonet alkoholforbrug. En høj grad af udbrændthed og aleksitymi, som er manglende evne til at genkende og beskrive følelser, var forbundet med øget sandsynlighed f......: 46), som var tilfældigt udvalgt blandt Lægeforeningens medlemmer. De besvarede anonymt et elektronisk spørgeskema, som bl.a. indeholdt danske versioner af the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) og the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20...

  10. Anxiety and alcohol involvement across the substance use continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Kristin Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The link between anxiety disorders and alcohol abuse and dependence has been established in adults, but the relationship between anxiety and adolescent alcohol involvement is less clear. In this dissertation, we compared explanatory models of substance use including the self-medication hypothesis, the social learning model, and the rebound hypothesis to characterize the association between anxiety and alcohol use in groups with various levels of experience with drinking. Additionally, we incl...

  11. Association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna de Abreu Costa; Giovanni Abrahão Salum Junior; Luciano Rassier Isolan; Jandira Rahmeier Acosta; Rafaela Behs Jarros; Carolina Blaya; Lísia Von Diemen; Gisele Gus Manfro

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A...

  12. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Onni Niemelä

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specif...

  13. Alcohol and Drug Use Prevalence and Factors Associated With the Experience of Alcohol Use in Iranian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; MOHAMMADI, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other drugs use is a problem among adolescents leading to numerous physical, social, and educational damages. Objective For determining the prevalence of alcohol and other substance use as well as the factors associated with the experience of alcohol use in adolescents. Patients and Methods This is a population-based and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in August 2010 on adolescents aged 15–18 years in Tehran. Data were collected by a Youth Risk Behavior Surve...

  14. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  15. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    OpenAIRE

    Monica C. Skewes; Lewis, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultura...

  16. International Differences in Alcohol Use According to Sexual Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, K.; Wicki, M.; Wilsnack, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...

  17. International differences in alcohol use according to sexual orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Wilsnack, Sharon;

    2011-01-01

    Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used gen...

  18. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abu...

  19. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  20. Childhood Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Use and Abuse Across the Lifespan in Alcohol-Dependent Men

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Laura B.; Haber, John Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between childhood religious affiliation and alcohol use across the lifespan. A sample of 931 men (average age of 51) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, which includes an over-representation of alcohol-dependent men, completed the Lifetime Drinking History interview, which assessed drinking across the lifespan. Childhood religious affiliation was obtained from the men’s spouse/partner. Affiliations were subdivided into four categories: non-religious...

  1. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  2. A Structural Model of Alcohol Use Pathways among Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang Alice; Beck, Kenneth H.; Howard, Donna; Shattuck, Teresa Downs; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the pathways to alcohol use among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study of risk and protective factors among a sample of Latino youth (aged 11-13) was conducted. Results: Peer norms and school connectedness had direct pathways to alcohol use. Self-concept was related to peer norms. Youth who were less acculturated…

  3. Students' Drinker Prototypes and Alcohol Use in a Naturalistic Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, R.; Larsen, H.; Gibbons, F.X.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Perceptions about the type of people who drink, also referred to as drinker prototypes May strengthen Young people's motivation to engage in alcohol use. Previous research has shown that drinker prototypes are related to alcohol consumption in both adolescents and young adults. However.

  4. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  5. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.

  6. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Monica C.; Lewis, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN) since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities. PMID:26850112

  7. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  8. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  9. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most…

  10. Trends in alcohol-specific parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use between 2007 and 2011 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, Margreet; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van Dorsselaer, Saskia A F M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Schulten, Ingrid; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following increased research and policy attention on the harmful effects of alcohol use among adolescents and the implementation of prevention programs aimed at reducing adolescent alcohol use, this study examined whether alcohol-specific parenting practices have become stricter and whet

  11. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  12. Relationships Among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Young Women in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one’s neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescen...

  13. Effectiveness of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention: changes in alcohol use of adolescents after 1 and 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Izeboud, C.; Rover, de C.; Veer, van 't P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Underage alcohol drinking is a severe public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention on alcohol use of adolescents in the second and fourth grade of high school. Methods: The community interven

  14. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  15. Moderate alcohol use and cardiovascular disease from Mendelian randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu Lun Au Yeung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies show moderate alcohol use negatively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, healthier attributes among moderate users compared to never users may confound the apparent association. A potentially less biased way to examine the association is Mendelian randomization, using alcohol metabolizing genes which influence alcohol use. METHODS: We used instrumental variable analysis with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotypes (AA/GA/GG as instrumental variables for alcohol use to examine the association of alcohol use (10 g ethanol/day with CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids and glucose and morbidity (self-reported IHD and CVD among men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. RESULTS: ALDH2 genotypes were a credible instrument for alcohol use (F-statistic 74.6. Alcohol was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L per alcohol unit, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.02 to 0.08 and diastolic blood pressure (1.15 mmHg, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.07 but not with systolic blood pressure (1.00 mmHg, 95% CI -0.74 to 2.74, LDL-cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.08, log transformed triglycerides (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08 or log transformed fasting glucose (0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.03, self-reported CVD (odds ratio (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27 or self-reported IHD (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.45. CONCLUSION: Low to moderate alcohol use among men had the expected effects on most CVD risk factors but not fasting glucose. Larger studies are needed to confirm the null associations with IHD, CVD and fasting glucose.

  16. Display of alcohol use on Facebook: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beullens, Kathleen; Schepers, Adriaan

    2013-07-01

    The present study has two main objectives. First, to examine how alcohol use is portrayed in the visual and textual references on Facebook, and second, to determine how friends react to these alcohol-related postings. A theoretically based content analysis of 160 Facebook profiles generated 2,575 pictures and 92 status updates referring to alcohol use, which represented about 6.50% of the pictures in the total sample and 2.90% of the status updates. These visual and textual references, as well as the peer reactions to these posts, mostly referred to alcohol use in a positive context (72.23% of the pictures and 72.83% of the messages). Furthermore, multiple regression analyses identified the number of Facebook friends and the number of status updates referring to alcohol use as significant predictors of the total number of uploaded pictures containing alcohol use. The results of this study are discussed within the framework of expectancy models of behavior and media effects theories, and show that alcohol-related references are quite common, while negative reactions to these posts are seldom. Further research into the effects of these visual and textual messages is warranted. PMID:23617225

  17. Trends in Alcohol Use among Hawai‘i Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ta, Van M; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Pham, Linda A; Williams, Rebecca J; Eller, LaShanda N; Nigg, Claudio R

    2010-01-01

    It is important to review trends in youth alcohol use over time in order to effectively tailor prevention programs to address those trends. This article reviews data on alcohol use behaviors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Hawai‘i from 1993 to 2007. Five alcohol use indicators were examined and stratified by grade level, from 9th grade through 12th grade. Significant drops in nearly all indicators are seen among 9th through 11th graders, but...

  18. Social network as predictor for onset of alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne S; Becker, Ulrik;

    2015-01-01

    prospective design. METHODS: Information on social network and covariates was obtained from 9589 men and women aged 21-99 years in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, followed for registration of alcohol use disorder in the Danish National Patient Registry and the WINALCO database. RESULTS: Men who lived alone......OBJECTIVE: Social network has been linked to alcohol use disorder in several studies. However, since the majority of such findings are cross-sectional, causal interpretation is difficult. The aim of the present study was to test if social network characteristics predict alcohol use disorder in a...

  19. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244

  20. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  1. Screening for alcohol use disorders in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ward

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many chronic health conditions have been linked to alcohol consumption, as well as excess morbidity, mortality and an increased financial burden on the National Health Service (NHS. The British HIV Association (BHIVA recommends that HIV patients be asked about alcohol due to its effect on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend screening for alcohol use disorders in patients attending genitourinary medicine (GUM clinics. In this study we looked at the use of a screening tool for alcohol use disorders in HIV patients in a metropolitan city. We assessed HIV patients over a 6-month period for alcohol use disorders using the AUDIT-C questionnaire. Patients with a score >4 were identified as higher risk and provided with brief advice about alcohol and offered written information and support. Demographic data was collected along with hepatitis B and C status, information on sexually transmitted infection (STI testing and diagnosis. 352 patients were reviewed with a mean age of 41. 297 (84.4% patients were male, 235 (66.8% were white British and 251 (71.3% were men who have sex with men (MSM. 277 (78.7% patients were on antiretroviral therapy with 254 (91.7% of these having an undetectable viral load. Alcohol use disorders were assessed using the AUDIT-C score in 332 (94.3% patients with no patient declining assessment. 166 (50% patients had an AUDIT-C score >4 signifying higher risk. Alcohol advice was provided to 161 (97% of these patients and a Drink Smart guide offering advice on alcohol self help offered to 103 (64% patients and accepted by 45 (43.7%. An opportunistic STI screen was offered to 258 (73.3% patients on that visit in line with best practice guidelines and was accepted by 83 (32.2%. 25 infections were found in 20 patients, of which 13 (65% had AUDIT-C scores >4. There were 8 active hepatitis C co-infected patients of which 3 had an AUDIT-C score >4 and 12

  2. 27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubbing alcohol general... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.118 Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. (a) Rubbing alcohol is an article made with S.D.A. Formula No. 23-H (1) containing 70% ethyl alcohol by...

  3. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  4. Access to alcohol and heart disease among patients in hospital: observational cohort study using differences in alcohol sales laws

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Jonathan W.; Dewland, Thomas A.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Gladstone, Rachel A; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and heart disease by using differences in county level alcohol sales laws as a natural experiment. Design Observational cohort study using differences in alcohol sales laws. Setting Hospital based healthcare encounters in Texas, USA. Population 1 106 968 patients aged 21 or older who were residents of “wet” (no alcohol restrictions) and “dry” (complete prohibition of alcohol sales) counties and admitted to hospital between 2005...

  5. Self- and collateral spouse-reported alcohol use in Malawi: Exploring social drinking norms' potential for alcohol prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Henrik; Eide, Arne Henning; Døving, Matilda Hultberg; Hessen, Annika Linge; Hoel, Erik; Ndawala, Jameson; Azalde, Gloria; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Munthali, Alister

    2014-01-01

    Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women’s alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women respectively. Male and female alcohol users’ mean consumption was 8.05 litres and 1.51 litres of pure alcohol respectively. Spouses reported 55 and 61% higher consumption level ...

  6. Alcohol and Drug Use and the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is an important neurodevelopmental period marked by rapidly escalating rates of alcohol and drug use. Over the past decade, research has attempted to disentangle pre- and post-substance use effects on brain development by using sophisticated longitudinal designs. This review focuses on recent, prospective studies and addresses the following important questions: (1) what neuropsychological and neural features predate adolescent substance use, making youth more vulnerable to engage in heavy alcohol or drug use, and (2) how does heavy alcohol and drug use affect normal neural development and cognitive functioning? Findings suggest that pre-existing neural features that relate to increased substance use during adolescence include poorer neuropsychological functioning on tests of inhibition and working memory, smaller gray and white matter volume, changes in white matter integrity, and altered brain activation during inhibition, working memory, reward, and resting state. After substance use is initiated, alcohol and marijuana use are associated with poorer cognitive functioning on tests of verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, psychomotor speed, working memory, attention, cognitive control, and overall IQ. Heavy alcohol use during adolescence is related to accelerated decreases in gray matter and attenuated increases in white matter volume, as well as increased brain activation during tasks of inhibition and working memory, relative to controls. Larger longitudinal studies with more diverse samples are needed to better understand the interactive effects of alcohol, marijuana, and other substances, as well as the role of sex, co-occurring psychopathology, genetics, sleep, and age of initiation on substance use. PMID:26984684

  7. How the quality of peer relationships influences college alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Borsari, Brian; Carey, Kate B.

    2006-01-01

    Peer relationships are consistently linked to alcohol use in college students. However, this disparate literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of peer influence. In this review, we use an organisational framework based on social learning theory (SLT) to demonstrate how the quality of peer relationships may influence personal alcohol use. We propose that the quality of peer relationships enhance the influence of social reinforcement, modelling and cogni...

  8. Adapting Motivational Interventions for Comorbid Schizophrenia and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Kate B.; Leontieva, Luba; Dimmock, Jacqueline; Maisto, Stephen A; Batki, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    The co-occurrence of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders often leads to poor treatment retention and adherence. Both empirical research and statements of best practices suggest that interventions including motivational interviewing principles can enhance treatment engagement and improve outcomes. This article describes a set of exercises used within a motivational enhancement protocol for outpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum and alcohol use disorders. We describe how each exercise was ...

  9. Family functioning and adolescent alcohol use: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S

    2016-06-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  10. The Effects of Heavy Episodic Alcohol Use on Student Engagement, Academic Performance, and Time Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Pryor, John

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use literature has linked heavy episodic alcohol use and academic consequences, but has not examined the influence of such use on student engagement. This study uses survey data from over 40,000 students at 28 selective private colleges and universities to examine the connection between heavy episodic alcohol use and engagement. The…

  11. Determination of alcohol compounds using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hai-yan; HUANG Guo-dong; JIN Shun-ping; ZHENG Pei-chao; XU Guo-hua; LI Jian-quan; WANG Hong-mei; CHU Yan-nan

    2007-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a very fast, highly sensitive, and inexpensive technique, it permits efficient monitoring of volatile organic compounds like alcohols. In this article, positive ion mobility spectra for six alcohol organic compounds have been systematically studied for the first time using a high-resolution IMS apparatus equipped with a discharge ionization source. Utilizing protonated water cluster ions (H2O)nH+ as the reactant ions and clean air as the drift gas, alcohol organic compounds, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 2-octanol, all exhibit product ion characteristic peaks in their respective ion mobility spectrometry, that is a result of proton transfer reactions between the alcohols and reaction ions (H2O)nH+. The mixture of these alcohols, including two isomers, has been detected, and the result shows that they can also be distinguished effectively in the ion mobility spectrum. The reduced mobility values have been determined, which are in very well agreement with the traditional 63Ni-IMS experimental values. The exponential dilution method was used to calibrate the alcohol concentrations, and a detection limit available for the alcohols is in order of magnitude of a few ng/L.

  12. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

  13. Perceived physical availability of alcohol at work and workplace alcohol use and impairment: testing a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R; Trinidad, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into 3 dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and 2 dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  14. Childhood cigarette and alcohol use: Negative links with adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Maggs, Jennifer L; Cundiff, Kelsey; Evans-Polce, Rebecca J

    2016-11-01

    Children who initiate cigarette or alcohol use early-during childhood or early adolescence-experience a heightened risk of nicotine and alcohol dependence in later life as well as school failure, crime, injury, and mortality. Using prospective intergenerational data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we investigate the association between early substance use initiation (cigarettes or alcohol) and age 11 school engagement, academic achievement, and wellbeing. The ongoing MCS tracks the development of a nationally representative sample of children in the United Kingdom (born 2000-2002) from infancy through adolescence. At age 11, MCS children (n=13,221) indicated whether they had ever used cigarettes or alcohol; at age 7 and 11 they reported on school engagement and wellbeing and completed investigator-assessed tests of academic achievement. Using propensity score methods, children who had initiated cigarette or alcohol use by age 11 were matched to abstaining children with similar risks (or propensities) of early substance use, based on numerous early life risk and protective factors assessed from infancy to age 7. We then examined whether early initiators differed from non-initiators in age 11 adjustment and achievement. Results show that substance use by age 11 was uncommon (3% cigarettes; 13% alcohol). After matching for propensity for early initiation, school engagement and wellbeing were significantly lower among initiators compared to non-initiators. Academic achievement was not consistently related to early initiation. We conclude that initiation of smoking and drinking in childhood is associated with poorer adjustment. PMID:27347653

  15. The Use of Alcohol and Condoms during Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    Sexual assault remains an important public health issue, due to the violence involved as well as the potential for health risks such as STI transmission. Alcohol has been associated with both violent and risky sexual behavior. This study assessed the frequency of sexual assault perpetration, alcohol use, and condom use during sexual assault in a community sample of young heterosexual male social drinkers. Participants (N=115) completed measures of their sexual assault perpetration. Slightly o...

  16. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Voas, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (wh...

  17. Social determinants of alcohol use among drivers in Calabar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hazardous use of alcohol is a public health problem which accounts for 4.0% of global disease burden. Although the prevalence of alcohol use among drivers of commercial vehicles in Nigeria has been documented, not much is known about its social determinants. This study was, therefore, aimed at assessing the social determinants of alcohol use among drivers of commercial vehicles in Calabar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 360 male commercial drivers. A semistructured questionnaire, which included the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, was administered at interview. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify social determinants of any and hazardous alcohol use. Results: Determinants of any alcohol use (binary logistic were history of use by parents (adjusted odds ratios (AOR=2.7; 95% CI=1.1-6.3, friends (AOR=3.2; 95% CI=1.3-7.8 and ready availability (AOR=4.1; 95% CI=1.9-8.8 while determinants of hazardous use (multinomial logistic were history of use by parents (AOR=5.8; 95% CI=2.0-16.9, siblings (AOR=7.0; 95% CI=2.6-16.9, friends (AOR=6.6; 95% CI=1.8-24.4, hostile upbringing environment (AOR=3.8; 95% CI=1.3-11.1, use of other drugs (AOR=55.6, 95% CI=14.5-200, and respondents who had fathers with a maximum of primary or no formal education (AOR=4.6; 95% CI=1.8-11.8. Conclusion: Alcohol use was associated with family use, friends′ use, and use of other drugs. Multiple health education interventions are needed to tackle these challenges.

  18. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small changes can make a big difference in reducing your chances of having alcohol-related ...

  19. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  20. Ritalin Use Modifies Alcohol Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Blake R. Sonne; Nachum Dafny

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD), known as Ritalin, is a common drug prescribed for those diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).There are reports that many MPD users consume alcohol, resulting in toxic effects and hospitalization. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol in rats concomitant with acute and repetitive MPD exposure. Rats were divided into four groups, control (saline), 0.6 mg/kg MPD, 2.5 mg/kg MPD, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD groups and lasted for 12...

  1. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain...

  2. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in “high resolution.” Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex ...

  3. Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wackernah RC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robin C Wackernah,1 Matthew J Minnick,1 Peter Clapp2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUD continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. Keywords: abuse, alcohol, alcoholism, craving, dependence, relapse

  4. Trajectories of alcohol use over time among adults with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Krentzman, Amy R; Mowbray, Orion; Robinson, Elizabeth A R

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of drinking behavior change over time in a sample of adults with current alcohol use disorder (AUD). We conducted secondary analyses of seven waves of data from a prospective longitudinal study of 364 adults (mean age=44.0 years, SD=12.8 years) who met criteria for DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD), 74.4% of whom were entering alcohol treatment. Participants were followed for 2 1/2 to 3 years with in-person interviews every 6 months. Results from latent class growth analyses of drinks per drinking day over 3 years indicated five trajectory classes: 1) Moderate Baseline→Slow Decline; 2) Heavy Baseline→Stable Abstinent; 3) Heavy Baseline→Slow Decline; 4) Heaviest Baseline→Steep Decline, and 5) Heaviest Baseline→Stable Heavy. Findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that these trajectory classes might represent longitudinal phenotypes of alcohol involvement across diverse samples. Treatment modality, Alcoholics Anonymous involvement, and purpose in life were associated with diverse trajectories of drinking behavior among adults with AD. AA involvement was associated with higher odds of membership in trajectory classes that showed declines in drinking from baseline, and having higher purpose in life predicted lower odds of membership in the Heaviest Baseline→Stable Heavy class. AA involvement predicts different pathways of recovery characterized by stable abstinence, steep declines, and/or slower declines in drinking over time. Higher purpose in life may protect against chronic heavy drinking by strengthening motivations to pursue goals that are unrelated to substance use. PMID:24613058

  5. Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Outcome Expectancies, and Partner Aggression Among Males Court-Mandated to Batterer Intervention Programs: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, Hope; Morean, Meghan E; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Moore, Todd M; Zuckosky Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Labrecque, Lindsay; Plasencia, Maribel; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    Additional work is needed to determine how and/or why the relationship between alcohol use and increased risk of partner aggression (PA) exists. Researchers have begun to examine whether alcohol-related outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the cognitive and behavioral effects of alcohol) are associated with PA irrespective of alcohol use. We examined the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and PA among 360 males arrested for a domestic violence offense and court-mandated to treatment. Results indicate that certain alcohol expectancies do play a role in the relationship between alcohol use and some forms of PA. PMID:25519237

  6. Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use. PMID:25315353

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND CORRELATES OF ALCOHOL USE FROM AGES 13–20*

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Susan C; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Terry E.; Strycker, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined alcohol use development from ages 13–20 years. The sample comprised 256 youth (50.4% female; 51.2% White, 48.8% African American) assessed annually for 6 years. A cohort-sequential latent growth model was used to model categorical alcohol use (non-use vs. use). Covariates included gender, race, income, parent marital status, risk taking, spiritual beliefs, parent alcohol use, family alcohol problems, family cohesion, friends’ alcohol use, and normative peer use. The alcoho...

  8. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  9. The role of parental alcohol-specific communication in early adolescents’ alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Burk, W.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Many alcohol prevention programs advocate conversations about alcohol between parents and children because verbal communication is the most direct way for parents to express their thoughts, rules, and concerns about alcohol to their children, so called alcohol-specific communication. Nevertheless, r

  10. Frequency of alcohol use and obesity in community medicine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denison Anne

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is an important public health problem. However, the effects of alcohol use on the risk for obesity have not been thoroughly explored. This study focuses on how frequency of alcohol use is related to the risk of obesity in a community medicine clinic population. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey to test the hypothesis that obesity (BMI > 30 is associated with alcohol use. The convenience sample was drawn from three clinics that primarily serve low-income populations. Independent variables included frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, demographic characteristics, health behaviors and health status. Results In comparison to non-drinkers, people who consumed alcohol 3 or more days per month had lower odds of being obese (Adjusted Odds Ratio = .49, p Conclusion More frequent drinking and less television time are independently associated with reduced odds of obesity in this sample of community medicine patients. Additional research is needed to isolate casual mechanisms.

  11. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2005-10-04

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323K, which was about 100-200mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion{sup R}. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol>glycerol>methanol>erythritol>xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode. (author)

  12. Alcohol Expectancies and Self-Efficacy as Moderators of Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrhart, Ian James

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety is widely thought to be positively associated with alcohol use. However, these studies rely primarily on self-report of drinking behavior. This research aimed to further explore this research by assessing blood alcohol concentration (BAC), a physiological measure of alcohol intoxication, as the dependent measure in naturalistic settings (i.e., fraternity parties). Results from Study 1 suggest a weak relationship between self-reported anxiety levels and BAC. Study 2 was based on...

  13. Perceived Physical Availability of Alcohol at Work and Workplace Alcohol Use and Impairment: Testing a Structural Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived phy...

  14. Influence of Motivational Interviewing on Explicit and Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognition and Alcohol Use in At-Risk Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thush, Carolien; Wiers, Reinout W.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    Both implicit and explicit cognitions play an important role in the development of addictive behavior. This study investigated the influence of a single-session motivational interview (MI) on implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognition and whether this intervention was successful in consequently decreasing alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were assessed at pretest and one month posttest in 125 Dutch at-risk adolescents ranging in age from...

  15. Effectiveness of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention: changes in alcohol use of adolescents after 1 and 5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Izeboud, C.; Rover, de, M.; Veer, van 't, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Underage alcohol drinking is a severe public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention on alcohol use of adolescents in the second and fourth grade of high school. Methods: The community intervention integrated health education, regulation, and enforcement in multiple settings, targeting adolescents as well as their environments. In order to evaluate effectiveness, a quasi-experimental pre...

  16. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Thomas; Michel Clément; Vincent Bessonneau

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increa...

  17. Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

  18. Hazardous alcohol use among doctors in a Tertiary Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Obadeji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Doctors have been identified as one of the key agents in the prevention of alcohol-related harm, however, their level of use and attitudes toward alcohol will affect such role. Aim: This study is aimed at describing the pattern of alcohol use and the predictors of hazardous drinking among hospital doctors. Setting: Study was conducted at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional survey involving all the doctors in the teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: All the consenting clinicians completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and alcohol use was measured using the 10-item alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT and psychological well-being was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square tests with Yates correction were used to describe the relationship between respondent′s characteristics and AUDIT scores as appropriate. Results: There were a total of 122 participants. Eighty-five (69.7% of them were abstainers, 28 (23% were moderate drinkers, and 9 (7.3% hazardous drinkers. With the exception of age, there was no significant relationship between sociodemographic status, years of practice, specialty of practice, and hazardous alcohol use. Experiencing stress or GHQ score above average is significantly associated with hazardous drinking. Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among hospital doctors appears to be essentially a problem of the male gender, especially among those older than 40 years. Stress and other form of psychological distress seem to play a significant role in predicting hazardous drinking among doctors.

  19. How Patients Recovering From Alcoholism Use a Smartphone Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Fiona M; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Shah, Dhavan; Gustafson, David H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile technology has the potential to radically improve addiction treatment and continuing care by offering emotional and instrumental support anywhere and just in time. This is particularly important in addiction because timing is critical to preventing relapse. Although most experts consider alcoholism to be a chronic disease, providers do not typically offer ongoing support for relapse prevention after patients complete treatment, even though a central characteristic of alcoholism and other addictive behaviors is their chronically relapsing nature. A-CHESS is a smartphone-based system for preventing relapse to heavy drinking among people leaving active alcohol dependence treatment. A-CHESS is designed to improve competence, social relatedness, and motivation, the three tenets of Self-Determination Theory. This paper reports on the relative impact and use of A-CHESS four months after patients entered the study and discusses implications of the results on treating addiction and chronic diseases generally. METHODS: A total of 349 individuals with alcohol dependence leaving residential treatment were randomly assigned to either receive A-CHESS+Treatment as Usual or Treatment as Usual (standard aftercare). Patients came from two treatment agencies, one in the Midwest and one in the Northeast. Patients assigned to A-CHESS received a smartphone for 8 months and were followed for 12. The authors analyzed use patterns during the first 4 months of use by those receiving A-CHESS. RESULTS: Participants used A-CHESS heavily and sustained their use over time. Ninety-four percent of A-CHESS participants used the application during the first week after residential treatment. At week 16, almost 80% continued to access A-CHESS. Participants with alcohol and drug-dependence showed higher levels of system use than those with alcohol dependence only. Participants with a mental health diagnosis had slightly lower levels of use at the end of the intervention period (week

  20. Adolescent Work and Alcohol Use Revisited: Variations by Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Gregory C.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research finds adolescent work hours to be associated with increased alcohol use. Most studies, however, fail to account for possible selection effects that lead youth to both work and substance use. Using data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 12,620), a fixed effects regression method…

  1. Problematic Alcohol Use and Mild Intellectual Disability: Standardization of Pictorial Stimuli for an Alcohol Cue Reactivity Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Bloemsaat, Gijs; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the first step in developing a cue reactivity task for studying cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and alcohol use-related problems: the standardization of pictorial stimuli. Participants (N = 40), both with and without a history of alcohol use-related problems and…

  2. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Collegiate Women: A Review of Research on Alcohol Myopia Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2010-01-01

    A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…

  3. Outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders among subjects 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Bühringer, Gerhard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of 60+ years with excessive alcohol intake varies in western countries between 6-16 % among men and 2-7 % among women. Specific events related to aging (e.g. loss of job, physical and mental capacity, or spouse) may contribute to onset or continuation of alcohol use...... six months after treatment initiation. Controlled use is defined as maximum blood alcohol content not exceeding 0.05 % during the last month. Total abstinence is a secondary outcome, together with quality of life andcompliance with treatment. DISCUSSION: The study will provide new knowledge about...... into the possible interaction of service system differences and related patient characteristics in predictionof treatment outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT02084173 , March 7, 2014....

  4. Physical activity and risk of alcohol use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen Ejsing, Louise; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohortstudy with focus on leisure-time physical activity. Methods: Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City HeartStudy (CCHS), performed in 1976–1978, 1981......–1983, 1991–1994 and 2001–2003. Information on physical activity (classified asModerate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol usedisorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central...... Research Register and the Winalcodatabase. In total, 18,359 people participated in the study, a mean follow-up time of 20.9 years. Cox proportional hazards model withdelayed entry was used. Models were adjusted for available covariates (age, smoking habits, alcohol intake, education, income...

  5. Alcohol use in the perspective of cultural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A J

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the use of alcohol in traditional agrarian society reveals that drinking and the drinking context is for the most part integrative, conflict-reducing, and reinforcing of corporate identity. With acculturation and modernization, and the introduction of full-scale cash-based economies, alcohol use is more frequently a social and pathological and serves individual as opposed to jointly shared objectives. Analysis of these issues is accomplished through a review of the cultural ecological perspectives on drinking and culture in a variety of societies around the world. PMID:6203143

  6. Daily Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol-Related Outcomes Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Matthew R.; D’Lima, Gabrielle M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and alcohol-related outcomes (alcohol consumption, negative alcohol consequences, and positive alcohol consequences) using a daily diary approach. This approach is less affected by retrospective memory biases than typical self-reports of alcohol-related variables and allows the examination of both between-subject and within-person effects. Using hierarchical linear modeling of da...

  7. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan Bickram; Chappuis François; Baral Dharanidhar; Karki Prahlad; Rijal Suman; Hadengue Antoine; Gache Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non...

  8. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were largely…

  9. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  10. Alcohol and drug use by rapists and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, J M; Osuna, E; Luna, A

    1989-01-01

    Rape is the expression of a model of sexual behaviour in which violence, whether physical or mental, reaches its height, and in which alcohol and other psychoactive substances as factors associated with the crime play a large part. The purpose of this study was to use discriminant analysis to establish those variables which would allow us to establish, within the sphere of such crimes, the consumption of alcohol and other substances, either singly or in combination, by the aggressor and/or in combination, by the aggressor and/or the victim. A total of 86 cases of rape heard before the provincial court of Murcia (Spain) between 1980 and 1986 were analyzed. The data was analyzed with the BMDP statistics package. Alcohol consumption by aggressors was significantly associated with evening and night hours and injury to the victim. PMID:2516593

  11. Kinetic study of an alcoholic fermentation, using honey like substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a kinetic study of an alcoholic fermentation using honey like substrate; for this effect they were carried out nine fermentations in discontinuous process with a volume, of 10 L, following the behavior of the substrate concentrations, biomass and product in the time. It was evaluated the convenience of factors like the agitation and the addition of nutritious, also, it was observed the effect of the initial concentrations of substrate and inoculate and the type of honey looking for the best conditions of the process for the obtaining of an alcoholic drink

  12. Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaluw, Carmen S. van der; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting, alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol use over time. A total of 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (mean age 13.4 and 15.2 years at Time 1) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study with annual waves. A series of path analyses were conducted us...

  13. Female Intercollegiate Athlete Alcohol Use: The Impact of Peer Social Networks on the Alcohol Use of NCAA Division III Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentson, Sally Ingrid Sagen

    2010-01-01

    Using a quantitative, correlational-exploratory design, this study explored the impact of peer social network size and composition on the alcohol use rates of first-year female athletes after 6 weeks of their first year of college, using the National College Health Assessment II and researcher-composed supplemental questions. Additionally, this…

  14. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  15. Physical, Social, and Perceived Availabilities of Alcohol and Last Month Alcohol Use in Rural and Small Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to provide a greater understanding of the factors that determine the perceived availability of alcohol and its role in predicting adolescents' alcohol use. Participants were 151,703 7th-12th grade students (50% female) from a sample of 219 rural communities across the United States, with oversampling for predominantly…

  16. The Association between Scholastic Measures, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Alcohol Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Harvey, Séamus A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is associated with both short-term (truancy, illness, trouble with police) and long-term (dependence, unemployment) negative consequences. Moreover, because of its developmental nature, adolescent drinking behaviour is difficult to accurately assess. Individual-level scholastic variables and alcohol outcome…

  17. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Colleen A; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-04-01

    Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity. PMID:26792773

  18. USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and ...

  19. The contribution of parental alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric illness to the risk of alcohol use disorders in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Manzardo, Ann M; Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Madarasz, Wendy; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Becker, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    Few population-based studies have investigated associations between parental history of alcoholism and the risk of alcoholism in offspring. The aim was to investigate in a large cohort the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the offspring of parents with or without AUD and with or without...... hospitalization for other psychiatric disorder (OPD)....

  20. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  1. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    OpenAIRE

    Earleywine Mitch; Barnwell Sara

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studi...

  2. A natural experiment of peer influences on youth alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Li, Yi; Owen, Craig; Wang, Hongyu; Duncan, Greg J

    2015-07-01

    This study estimates peer effects on alcohol use, drawing from a database of about 2000 randomly-assigned roommates on a college campus. The estimation of peer influences also takes into consideration ego's history of alcohol use and friendship with the peer. College students averaged an additional two-fifths of a binge drinking episode per month and an additional one-half of a drinking episode per month when randomly assigned a roommate who drank in high school than when assigned a roommate who did not drink in high school. An individual's prior history of alcohol use proves important. Peer effects on binge drinking as well as drinking for those who already drank in high school were about twice as large as average peer effects. When one did not have a history of alcohol use, negative peer influences were absent. Also important is the friendship between peers. When a peer is considered a best friend, the step-up effect (or positive interaction effect) increased by 1.25-1.61 drinking episodes per month. However, even when a peer is not considered a best friend, a drinking peer still increased ego's drinking episodes by 0.75-1.00 per month. PMID:26004457

  3. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  4. Protease determination using an optimized alcohol enzyme electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeletti, G; Carillon, C

    1993-12-01

    A new method for the determination of protease activities is described. In this large family, trypsin is used as a protease model that cleaves the ethyl or methyl ester of artificial substrates producing ethanol or methanol. Alcohol is detected using an alcohol oxidase enzyme electrode. The H2O2 production that occurs is measured amperometrically. At 30 degrees C, in a 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, the enzyme electrode response for ethanol was calibrated at 3.10(-6)-3.10(-3)M and for methanol from 3.10(-7) to 4.10(-4)M in the cell measurement. Trypsin levels as determined by the proposed method and by a conventional spectrophotometric method are in good agreement when using the same measurement conditions. A detection limit of 10 U.L-1 and a linear calibration curve of 10-100,000 U.L-1 in the sample were obtained. Measuring time for the required trypsin solution concentration was from 4 min (for the most dilute samples) to 1 min (for the most concentrate samples). In a typical experiment, protease measurements did not inactivate the alcohol oxidase on the probe, nor did a more classical use for alcohol detection. The procedure developed could permit any protease estimation on the condition that they hydrolyze ester bonds from synthetic substrate. PMID:8109959

  5. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  6. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders.

  7. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-02-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  8. Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy interactive toxicity beliefs and daily medication adherence and alcohol use among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy (ART) interactive toxicity beliefs reflect perceived adverse outcomes of mixing alcohol and ART. Previous research has shown a significant relationship between alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and ART non-adherence, over and above other correlates of non-adherence such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)symptoms and frequency of alcohol use. Most past studies have collected data over extended periods and have not determined if alcohol use and missed medications occur at the day-level among people holding interactive toxicity beliefs. Previous daily analyses, however, have been limited by self-reported adherence and relatively short periods of observation. To address these gaps in the literature, men and women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, were enrolled in a 45-day observational cohort study. Daily alcohol use was collected using two-way interactive text message surveys and daily adherence was collected via the Wisepill device. Fifty-seven participants completed a measure of alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and contributed 2565 days of daily data. Participants who endorsed high levels of interactive toxicity beliefs had significantly more days when they missed doses of medication. Alcohol-antiretroviral toxicity beliefs predicted missing doses of medication on days when participants were drinking and on days when they were not drinking. Multilevel multivariate regressions showed that these toxicity beliefs predicted daily missed doses of medication over and above quantity of alcohol consumed, depression and general medication concerns. This study replicates and extends previous literature and indicates the necessity of addressing alcohol-ART toxicity beliefs within adherence interventions. PMID:26964014

  9. Childhood adversities and risk for problematic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Hardt, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    The findings from studies exploring the relationship between childhood adversities (CAs) and adolescent and adult drinking problems are inconclusive - some researchers have found strong effects, others virtually none. In this study, we sought to examine the associations between 23 types of retrospectively reported CAs and adult problematic alcohol use in two samples, one drawn from Germany, the other from Poland. A total sample of 1008 participants was recruited via the internet: 500 in Germany and 508 in Poland. They completed a set of questionnaires including questions regarding various types of CA, and also the CAGE tool for the identification of problem drinking. CAs were grouped into four categories: Negative Personal Experience, Family Adversities, Parental Disorders, Parent-Child Relationships; this last category included role reversal. Separate logistic regression analyses were performed, with age, gender and country as potential confounders. The probability of having an alcohol problem was higher in men, and higher in Poland than in Germany. Of the risk factors tested, three displayed a significant association with problematic alcohol use. The risk factors concerned were Regular Arguments Between the Parents, plus two types of adversities from the Parent-Child Relationships cluster: Maternal Control and Maternal Role Reversal. The results serve to underline the importance of examining links between childhood risk factors and problematic alcohol use, and also suggest that certain less visible symptoms of a disordered parent-child (particularly mother-child) relationship, such as parentification, may constitute important risk factors for the development of drinking problems in later life. PMID:27082746

  10. Nonnormality and Divergence in Posttreatment Alcohol Use: Reexamining the Project MATCH Data “Another Way”

    OpenAIRE

    Witkiewitz, Katie; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Hufford, Michael R; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol lapses are the modal outcome following treatment for alcohol use disorders, yet many alcohol researchers have encountered limited success in the prediction and prevention of relapse. One hypothesis is that lapses are unpredictable, but another possibility is the complexity of the relapse process is not captured by traditional statistical methods. Data from Project Matching Alcohol Treatments to Client Heterogeneity (Project MATCH), a multisite alcohol treatment study, were reanalyzed ...

  11. Alcohol Use, Risk Taking, Leisure Activities and Health Care Use Among Young People in Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thi Kim Thoa; Dang H. Hoang; Nguyen Dang Vung; Pham H. Tien; Plant, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex.  Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people.  Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of healt...

  12. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included. PMID

  13. Alcohol use and extramarital sex among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiysonge Charles

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13

  14. Routine activities and alcohol use: constraints on outlet utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J; Nephew, T M; Ponicki, W R

    1995-02-01

    Studies of consumers' use of alcohol beverage outlets have provided a basis for understanding drinking behaviors in different drinking environments. These studies have shown that drinking environments are related to both demographic and drinking pattern measures. Absent from these studies has been a theoretical basis on which to make predictions regarding drinking patterns and choices of drinking environments under the various social, economic, and environmental constraints typically confronting alcohol consumers. This study presents one such theoretical approach. The approach assumes that, in the context of individual preferences for alcohol, drinking choices are constrained by consumers' economic and time-energy budgets for consumption. All other things being equal, it is suggested that greater budgets for consumption will be related to greater alcohol use, quality of beverages purchased, amenity values of purchase locations, or all three. Because on-premise drinking entails greater economic costs, greater drinking levels will be related to lower utilization of on-premise establishments. The predictions of this approach were tested using data obtained from telephone surveys of consumers conducted in 1990 and 1991. The results showed that controlling for income, variables related to greater time-energy budgets for consumption (i.e., marital status and household composition) were related to greater consumption levels and greater utilization of on-premise establishments. Controlling for demographic measures, greater income was related to greater utilization of restaurants and increased beverage quality. Controlling for all other measures, frequencies of consumption were inversely related to consumption at on-premise establishments, reflecting the expected moderation in costs for heavier consumers on a limited alcohol budget. PMID:7771662

  15. USEFULNESS OF A NEW PROGNOSTIC INDEX FOR ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazon Romilson de Souza ALMEIDA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and severe forms of alcoholic hepatitis are associated with a high short-term mortality. Objectives To analyze the importance of age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score as an index of mortality and predictor for complications in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. To evaluate its correlation with those complications, with risk of death, as well as the scores model for end stage liver disease (MELD and Maddrey’s discriminat function. Methods A total of 46 medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with alcoholic hepatitis were assessed retrospectively with lab tests on admission and after seven days. Score calculations were carried out and analyzed as well. Results The scores showed positive reciprocal correlation and were associated with both hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. ABIC index, which was classified as high risk, presented as a risk factor for these complications and for death. In univariate logistic regression analysis of mortality, the ABIC index at hospital admission odds ratio was 19.27, whereas after 7 days, it was 41.29. The average survival of patients with ABIC of low and intermediate risk was 61.1 days, and for those with high risk, 26.2 days. Conclusions ABIC index is a predictor factor for complications such as ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, as well as for risk of death. Thus, it is a useful tool for clinical practice.

  16. [The influence of alcohol use and violent behaviour on the beliefs related to alcohol use and aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácskai, Erika; Pintye, István; Gerevich, József

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of personal involvement (drinking, violent behaviour) on beliefs concerning the causal connections between drinking alcohol and aggressive behavior. The sample of the study comprised 1200 persons representative of the population over 18 years of age and was selected by a two-step, group stratified sampling method. The measuring instruments used for the study were the questionnaire on alcohol-aggression beliefs applied by Paglia and Room, the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the sociodemographic characteristics of gender, age and education. Analyses using multivariate regression models showed that aggressive behaviour, particularly verbal and physical aggression, and heavy drinking significantly influence the belief of a causal connection between alcohol and aggression. The more a person drinks and the more aggressive he becomes, the more likely he is not to believe the opinion that drinking leads to aggression. Women and older people have a stronger belief in the causal role played by alcohol in aggressive behaviour. These results draw attention to the importance of the cognitive effect of personal involvement. Heavy drinking and aggressivity can prevent a person from recognizing the danger that drinking can have aggressive, criminal consequences. This relationship can be used well in clinical and criminological practice of crime prevention strategy for patients treated with drinking problems and facing proceedings or condemned for criminal actions. The findings of the study also raise a theoretical consideration that the theory of social learning is not a sufficient explanatory model for the connections between drinking and aggression. PMID:16783033

  17. Adolescent Work and Alcohol Use Revisited: Variations by Family Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Rocheleau, Gregory C.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research finds adolescent work hours to be associated with increased alcohol use. Most studies, however, fail to account for possible selection effects that lead youth to both work and substance use. Using data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 12,620), a fixed effects regression method is employed to control for stable between-person differences neglected by previous studies. Results show little relationship between work hours and ...

  18. Adolescent Characters and Alcohol Use Scenes in Brazilian Movies, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structured assessment of 193 scenes depicting substance use from a convenience sample of 50 Brazilian movies was performed. Logistic regression and analysis of variance or multivariate analysis of variance models were employed to test for two different types of outcome regarding alcohol appearance: The mean length of alcohol scenes in seconds and the prevalence of alcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescent characters was associated with a higher prevalence of alcohol use scenes compared to nonalcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescents was also associated with a higher than average length of alcohol use scenes compared to the nonalcohol use scenes. Alcohol use was negatively associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other drugs use. However, when the use of cannabis, cocaine, or other drugs was present in the alcohol use scenes, a higher average length was found. This may mean that most vulnerable group may see drinking as a more attractive option leading to higher alcohol use. PMID:27166357

  19. PREVALENCE AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL INTAKE AMONG INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN MANGALORE: AN APPRAISAL BY ALCOHOL USE DISORDER IDENTIFICATION TEST (AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Viquar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO estimates two billion alcoholic beverages consumers and 76.7 million people with diagnosable alcohol - use disorders worldwide(WHOand ranks 5th as a risk factor for avoidable disease measured by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY (WHO , 2002. OBJECTIVE: 1. To Assess Prevalence alcohol use among the selected Industr ial workers. 2. Factors associated with alcohol use . METHODS: This cross - sectional study was conducted in one of selected wood and plywood industry among all the industrial workers aged 18 years and above from October to November 2013. Socio - demographic pr ofile of all the participants was collected, questions on prevalence and dependence on alcohol use and its dependence was assessed using AUDIT questionnaire modified as per local needs and validated was used. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 . RESULTS: Mean age of the study subjects was 33.4 years, most of the participants (44.8% were in the age group of 18 - 28 years and majority were Hindu and were belonging to class IV socio - economic status. MAJORITY: (55.2% of the study participants were a lcohol users and majority (61.6% was in the age group of 18 - 28 years. Religion and socio - economic status were the factors found to be statistically significant with alcohol use. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of alcohol use was significantly higher in the selecte d industry were religion and socio - economic status were the significant factors associated with tobacco use. Counseling and continuous monitoring is needed to reduce the prevalence of alcohol use and also further study is recommended on a larger scale.

  20. The Belief that Alcohol Use is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly L Henry; Shtivelband, Annette; COMELLO, MARIA LEONORA G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use ...

  1. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Mortality Weekly Report ( MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing ... 44 years (N = 198,098) who reported any alcohol use or binge drinking, † by selected characteristics — Behavioral ...

  2. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role. PMID:22830488

  3. Experimental Investigation of Using Fuel Additives - Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Fayyad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an investigation of the effects of ethanol addition to low octane numbergasoline, on the fuel octane number and on the performance of the engine. In this study, the tested gasoline(octane number = 90 is blended with five different percentages of ethanol, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% onvolume basis. Then these fuel blends, as well as the base gasoline fuel, w ere burnt in the tested engine. It isfound that the octane number of gasoline increases continuously and linearly with increasing the ethanolpercentage in gasoline. Hence, ethanol is an effective compound for increasing the value of the octane numberof gasoline. Also, it is also noticed that the best performance of the engine was obtained when 15% of ethanolwas used in the gasoline blend.

  4. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing ou...

  5. Characteristics of children of alcoholics: putative risk factors, substance use and abuse, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Walitzer, K S; Wood, P K; Brent, E E

    1991-11-01

    A sample of 253 children of alcoholics (COAs) and 237 children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs) were compared on alcohol and drug use, psychopathology, cognitive ability, and personality. COAs reported more alcohol and drug problems, stronger alcohol expectancies, higher levels of behavioral undercontrol and neuroticism, and more psychiatric distress in relation to non-COAs. They also evidenced lower academic achievement and less verbal ability than non-COAs. COAs were given Diagnostic Interview Schedule alcohol diagnoses more frequently than non-COAs. The relation between paternal alcoholism and offspring alcohol involvement was mediated by behavioral undercontrol and alcohol expectancies. Although gender differences were found, there were few Gender X Family History interactions; the effects of family history of alcoholism were similar for men and women. When gender effects were found, they showed greater family history effects for women. PMID:1757657

  6. PTSD and Alcohol Use After the World Trade Center Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased alcohol use, but the findings have not been consistent. We assessed alcohol use, binge drinking, and psychotropic medication use longitudinally in 1,681 New York City adults, representative of the 2000 census, 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks. We found that, with the exception of a modified CAGE Questionnaire index for alcohol, alcohol use showed a modest increase over time and was related to ...

  7. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrøm, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and ...

  8. Personality Disorder Symptoms, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol Use and Consequences: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Trull, Timothy J.; Park, Aesoon

    2007-01-01

    Research shows high comorbidity between Cluster B personality disorders (PDs) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Studies on personality traits and alcohol use have identified coping and enhancement drinking motives as mediators in the relations among impulsivity, affective instability, and alcohol use. To the extent that PDs reflect extreme expression of these traits, drinking motives should mediate the relation between PD symptoms and alcohol involvement. This was tested using path models est...

  9. Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene Particles Using Alcohol as Reaction Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Shin, Cheol Hwan; Han, Sujin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization using alcohol as reaction medium to prepare colloidal clusters of the latex beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC) were used as dispersion stabilizer and comonomer, respectively. The particle size could be controlled by adjusting the reactant compositions such as the amount of stabilizer, comonomer, and water in the reactant mixture. The size and monodispersity of the polymeric particles could be also controlled by changing the reaction medium with different alcohols other than ethanol or adjusting the polymerization temperature. The synthesized particles could be self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporation-driven self-assembly to produce colloidal clusters of the polymeric nanospheres.

  10. Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene Particles Using Alcohol as Reaction Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Shin, Cheol Hwan; Han, Sujin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization using alcohol as reaction medium to prepare colloidal clusters of the latex beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC) were used as dispersion stabilizer and comonomer, respectively. The particle size could be controlled by adjusting the reactant compositions such as the amount of stabilizer, comonomer, and water in the reactant mixture. The size and monodispersity of the polymeric particles could be also controlled by changing the reaction medium with different alcohols other than ethanol or adjusting the polymerization temperature. The synthesized particles could be self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporation-driven self-assembly to produce colloidal clusters of the polymeric nanospheres. PMID:26831684

  11. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekwaletswe CT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an

  12. Early puberty and adolescent pregnancy: The influence of alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Julianna; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Christopher, F Scott; Roosa, Mark W.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Early pubertal timing predicts deleterious outcomes for young girls, including substance use, risky sexual behavior, and pregnancy. In turn, adolescent pregnancy predicts long-term negative consequences such as reduced educational attainment and income-earning potential. Despite evidence of the direct links between early puberty and negative outcomes, this study is the first to examine the role that alcohol plays in the timing of sexual intercourse and pregnancy among early-maturin...

  13. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre; María Magdalena Alonso-Castillo; Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency...

  14. Adenosine Signaling in Striatal Circuits and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, ...

  15. Focus On: Women and the Costs of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Wilsnack, Richard W.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Although light-to-moderate drinking among women is associated with reduced risks of some cardiovascular problems, strokes, and weakening of bones, such levels of drinking also are associated with increased risks of breast cancer and liver problems, and heavy drinking increases risks of hypertension and bone fractures and injuries. Women’s heavy-drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders are associated with increased likelihood of many psychiatric problems, including depression, posttraumatic...

  16. 27 CFR 19.373 - Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines and... Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.373 Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials. A...

  17. Residence Hall Room Type and Alcohol Use among College Students Living on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jennifer E.; Zimmerman, Don; O'Grady, Megan A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to explore the relation between the built environment of residence halls and the alcohol use of college students living on campus from the perspective of the theory of routine activity. This exploratory study examined data from two samples on one college campus. Online surveys assessed alcohol use, attitudes toward alcohol use,…

  18. Bayesian Peer Calibration with Application to Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Miles Q; Hogan, Joseph W; Gile, Krista J; Linkletter, Crystal; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-08-30

    Peers are often able to provide important additional information to supplement self-reported behavioral measures. The study motivating this work collected data on alcohol in a social network formed by college students living in a freshman dormitory. By using two imperfect sources of information (self-reported and peer-reported alcohol consumption), rather than solely self-reports or peer-reports, we are able to gain insight into alcohol consumption on both the population and the individual level, as well as information on the discrepancy of individual peer-reports. We develop a novel Bayesian comparative calibration model for continuous, count, and binary outcomes that uses covariate information to characterize the joint distribution of both self and peer-reports on the network for estimating peer-reporting discrepancies in network surveys, and apply this to the data for fully Bayesian inference. We use this model to understand the effects of covariates on both drinking behavior and peer-reporting discrepancies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26940774

  19. Use of alcohol before and after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro de Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess alcohol intake in the bariatric surgery pre and postoperative periods. METHODS: Patients were interviewed atSurgery Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - HC/UFPE (Brazil from July 2011 to March 2012. We analyzed socioeconomic, anthropometric and clinical variables. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT C. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen patients were enrolled (mean age: 41.23+11.30 years, with a predominance of the female gender (83.2%, non-Caucasian race (55%, married individuals or in a stable union (65.5%, with a high school education (40.3%and active in the job market (37%. Weight and body mass index (BMI were 128.77+25.28Kg and 49.09+9.26Kg/m2,respectively in the preoperative period (class II obesity and 87.19+19.16Kg and 33.04+6.21Kg/m2, respectively in the postoperative period (class I obesity (p<0.001. Hypertension was the most frequent disease in the pre (66.6% and postoperative (36.5% periods. The prevalence of alcohol use was 26.6% in the preoperative period, of which 2.2% of high risk, and 35.1% in the postoperative period, of which 1.4% of probable dependence; this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.337. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abusive alcohol intake and/or probable dependence was low in both the pre and postoperative periods, with little evidence of risky consumption among the patients submitted to bariatric surgery.

  20. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  1. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABAA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-toleranc...

  2. Patterns and Predictors of Alcohol Use in Male and Female Urban Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ballenger, James F.; Best, Suzanne R.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Wasserman, David A.; Mohr, David C.; Liberman, Akiva; Delucchi, Kevin; Weiss, Daniel S.; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of urban police officers, 18.1% of males and 15.9% of females reported experiencing adverse consequences from alcohol use and 7.8 % of the sample met criteria for lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence. Female officers had patterns of alcohol use similar to male officers and substantially more than females in the general population. Critical incident exposure and PTSD symptoms were not associated with level of alcohol use. Greater psychiatric symptoms were related to adverse c...

  3. Sweet sixteen and never been drunk? : adolescent alcohol use, predictors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hoof, van, Joris J.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use, especially at a young age, has many negative consequences, both on the individual and the societal level. After an introduction describing a conceptual model of predictors and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, the first two chapters in this dissertation report on two studies on alcohol intoxication related admissions of adolescents in Dutch hospitals. Data collected in 2007 and 2008 underline the societal relevance of the problem of adolescent alcohol use. The nu...

  4. A longitudinal study of alcohol use and antisocial behaviour in young people

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To examine the direction of causation between young people's antisocial behaviour and alcohol (mis)use in the longer and shorter term, together with their joint effects on alcohol-related trouble. Methods: A longitudinal study (2586 pupils) supplied data, allowing exploration of the causal effects of alcohol (mis)use and antisocial behaviour between ages 11 and 15, using structural equation models of longer and shorter-term relationships and joint-effects models in respect of alcohol-re...

  5. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  6. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  7. Gender Differences in Relationships among PTSD Severity, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol Use in a Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and PTSD Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lehavot, Keren; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinica...

  8. Role of astrocytic glutamate transporter in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer R; Jia, Yun-Fang; Qiu, Yan-Yan; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-03-22

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the most widespread neuropsychiatric conditions, having a significant health and socioeconomic impact. According to the 2014 World Health Organization global status report on alcohol and health, the harmful use of alcohol is responsible for 5.9% of all deaths worldwide. Additionally, 5.1% of the global burden of disease and injury is ascribed to alcohol (measured in disability adjusted life years, or disability adjusted life years). Although the neurobiological basis of AUD is highly complex, the corticostriatal circuit contributes significantly to the development of addictive behaviors. In-depth investigation into the changes of the neurotransmitters in this circuit, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyricacid, and glutamate, and their corresponding neuronal receptors in AUD and other addictions enable us to understand the molecular basis of AUD. However, these discoveries have also revealed a dearth of knowledge regarding contributions from non-neuronal sources. Astrocytes, though intimately involved in synaptic function, had until recently been noticeably overlooked in their potential role in AUD. One major function of the astrocyte is protecting neurons from excitotoxicity by removing glutamate from the synapse via excitatory amino acid transporter type 2. The importance of this key transporter in addiction, as well as ethanol withdrawal, has recently become evident, though its regulation is still under investigation. Historically, pharmacotherapy for AUD has been focused on altering the activity of neuronal glutamate receptors. However, recent clinical evidence has supported the animal-based findings, showing that regulating glutamate homeostasis contributes to successful management of recovery from AUD. PMID:27014596

  9. Social-Context Factors, Refusal Self-Efficacy, and Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; LIN, DANHUA; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in a social or individual context can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social-context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSW...

  10. Usefulness of Heavy Drinking and Binge Drinking for the Diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Sung, Han Na

    2016-01-01

    Background This research investigated the sensitivity and specificity of heavy and binge drinking for screening of alcohol use disorder. Methods This retrospective study was conducted with 976 adults who visited the Sun Health Screening Center for health screenings in 2015. Daily drinking amount, drinking frequency per week, and weekly drinking amount were investigated. Using criteria from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, participants were classified as normal drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers, and grouped by age and sex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of heavy and binge drinking were compared for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 4th edition-text revision and alcohol use disorder using the DSM 5th edition. Results The sensitivity of heavy and binge drinking for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol use disorder were 51.7%, 43.8%, and 35.3%, and 69.0%, 62.5%, and 48.2%, respectively. The specificity of these were 90.1%, 91.7%, and 95.5%, and 84.3%, 86.8%, and 91.2%, respectively. The PPV of these were 24.8%, 40.5%, and 72.7%, and 21.7%, 38.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. The NPV of these were 96.7%, 92.6%, and 81.2%, and 97.8%, 94.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusion Heavy and binge drinking did not show enough diagnostic power to screen DSM alcohol use disorder although they did show high specificity and NPV. PMID:27468339

  11. Longitudinal cohort study of depression, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use in South African women who attend alcohol serving venues

    OpenAIRE

    Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A.; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-01-01

    Background In South Africa, alcohol use poses a public health burden. Hazardous alcohol use often co-occurs with psychological distress (e.g., depression and post-traumatic stress). However, the majority of the research establishing the relationship between alcohol use and psychological distress has been cross-sectional, so the nature of co-occurring changes in psychological distress and alcohol use over time is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudina...

  12. The Use of a Qualitative Approach in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace Xuequin; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines American-Indian adolescents' perceptions of risk factors and effects associated with alcohol use during pregnancy, and age-related prevention strategies for fetal alcohol syndrome. Results indicate peer pressure, influences of adult drinking behaviors, stressful family environment, and acceptance of alcohol use in Indian community may be…

  13. Use of Alcohol and Drugs in the Transitional Phase from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Torild; Vaglum, Per

    1990-01-01

    Studied use of alcohol and drugs in transitional phase from adolescence to young adulthood by analyzing data from a prospective longitudinal national survey of 2000 young adults. Findings showed a significant impact of this transitional period on both alcohol consumption and use of cannabis and a higher alcohol consumption among those who had left…

  14. Effects of a Natural Community Intervention Intensifying Alcohol Law Enforcement Combined With a Restrictive Alcohol Policy on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman-Offermans, K.; Knibbe, R.A.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Casswell, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determining whether intensified inspections on alcohol retailers, combined with a policy withdrawing liquor licenses if retailers are fined twice per annum, is effective in reducing adolescents' odds to initiate weekly drinking and drunkenness. Causal pathways by which the intervention was a

  15. Differentiating between sensation seeking and impulsivity through their mediated relations with alcohol use and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, Viktoriya; MacLean, Michael G.; Colder, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Disinhibition is a strong correlate of alcohol use, yet limited alcohol research has examined the facets of this personality construct. Recent work suggests that sensation seeking and impulsivity show differential relations with alcohol outcomes, indicating unique mechanisms of risks associated with each of these dimensions of disinhibition. The goal of the study was to examine sensation seeking and impulsivity as unique predictors of alcohol use and problems, and to test a broad range of dri...

  16. Greater than the Sum of its Parts: The Combined Effect of Early Alcohol Use and Violence on Alcohol Abuse and Violence in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Reingle, Jennifer; Livingston, Melvin D; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and violence are key contributors to leading causes of death among youth. Yet, the relationship between violence and alcohol use is complex and the developmental impact of this association merits further investigation. The current study used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate how violence and alcohol use coexist in adolescence and how this coexistence predicts alcohol abuse and violence in adulthood. ...

  17. Early-Age Alcohol Use and Later Alcohol Problems in Adolescents: Individual and Peer Mediators in a Bi-National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early-age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N=1945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors,...

  18. Focus On: The Use of Animal Models for the Study of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Shannon E.; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable efforts to educate women not to abuse alcohol during pregnancy have failed to reduce the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Therefore, other approaches to limit the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are under consideration, including the development of prevention programs and interventions. For these strategies to be as successful as possible, it also is important to improve methods for identifying affected children. The use of animal models in prenatal alcohol exposure rese...

  19. Predicting early initiation of alcohol use: a prospective study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty Elizabeth; Hemphill, Sheryl; Reid, Sophie; Patton, George; Toumbourou, John

    2013-03-01

    This study explores the social, contextual and individual factors that predict early initiation of alcohol use. A state-wide representative sample of 927 fifth-grade students, in Victoria, Australia were surveyed. Students were resurveyed in the sixth and seventh grade. Risk and protective factors were measured with a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey. Alcohol use was measured to assess transition from alcohol nonuse to use. Social contexts perceived to provide easier access to alcohol and drugs were found to be the clearest predictors of early onset alcohol use. The limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23390887

  20. Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. OAS Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    Findings from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) show a substantial decrease in alcohol use by youth during the past decade. Yet despite these trends, an estimated 1 in 5 teenagers were current alcohol drinkers and 1 in 13 were binge alcohol drinkers. This report provides data showing the relationship between emotional state,…

  1. Alcohol Use, Eating Patterns, and Weight Behaviors in a University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…

  2. Obturator neurolysis using 65% alcohol for adductor muscle spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Ghai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is motor alteration characterized by muscle hypertonia and hyperreflexia. It is an important complication of spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis. If uncorrected, fibrosis and eventually bony deformity lock the joint into a fixed contracture. Chemical neurolysis using various agents is one of the therapeutic possibilities to alleviate spasticity. We are, hereby, reporting 3 patients in whom 65% alcohol was used as neurolytic agent for the treatment of hip adductor spasticity, and the effect lasted for a variable period.

  3. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol in physical assault perpetration and victimization . J Stud Alcohol 1999;60:528–536. Hayward l, Zubrick ... assault: A common problem among college students . J Stud Alcohol Suppl 2002;14:118–128. American Cancer ...

  4. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink . 5 Excessive drinking may disrupt the menstrual cycle and increase the risk of infertility. 6,7 ... PDF-264KB]. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; June ... Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college students . J ...

  5. Perception of tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol use of others is associated with one’s own use

    OpenAIRE

    Bertholet N.; Faouzi M.; Studer J.; Daeppen J.B.; Gmel G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions have been developed to reduce overestimations of substance use among others, especially for alcohol and among students. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge on misperceptions of use for substances other than alcohol. We studied the prevalence of misperceptions of use for tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol and whether the perception of tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol use by others is associated with one's own use. METHODS: Participants (n=5216) in a cohort study from...

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  7. Do Alcohol and Marijuana Use Decrease the Probability of Condom Use for College Women?

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (Mage = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual part...

  8. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810

  9. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  10. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  11. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future. PMID:26259002

  12. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  13. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disorders are classified as either alcohol dependence (alcoholism) or alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, the more serious of the disorders, is a ... due to their drinking. Like many other diseases, alcoholism is usually considered chronic, meaning that it lasts ...

  14. Really underage drinkers: the epidemiology of children's alcohol use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John E

    2007-09-01

    Little attention has been paid to alcohol use by children aged 12 and younger. The present article summarizes findings on the prevalence of alcohol use from US national and statewide surveys of children in grades 6 and younger based on reports located in searches of the literature and the Internet. Four national surveys and seven statewide surveys of children's alcohol and drug use were located that present rates of lifetime sipping and tasting, lifetime experience of more than a sip, alcohol use in the past year, use in the past month, and use in the past week. Prevalence rates decrease with the level of involvement assessed. Alcohol use increases with age, doubling between grades four and six, with the largest jump in prevalence between grades five and six. At each grade level, boys are more likely to have used alcohol than girls. African-American children are nearly as likely as white and Hispanic children to have used alcohol. Over the past decade or so, the prevalence of both lifetime and current alcohol use has been declining in children. The failure to assess intensity of children's use hampers evaluation of the level of risk experienced by children. There is a need for ongoing nationwide surveillance of alcohol use in this population and for greater education of parents regarding the dangers of introducing children to alcohol use. PMID:17629790

  15. Diagnostic Orphans for Alcohol Use Disorders in a Treatment-Seeking Psychiatric Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Miranda, Robert; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    Individuals who endorse one or two of the DSM-IV criterion items for alcohol dependence but do not meet criteria for either alcohol abuse or dependence have been referred to in the literature as “diagnostic orphans.” The goal of the present study is to compare diagnostic orphans for alcohol use disorders (AUD) to patients with lifetime DSM-IV alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and those with no-AUD symptoms on a series of demographic, diagnostic, and clinical measures. Participants were treat...

  16. Dental fear, tobacco use and alcohol use among university students in Finland: a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pohjola, Vesa; Rannanautio, Lauri; Kunttu, Kristina; Virtanen, Jorma I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco- and alcohol use are associated with psychological problems. Individuals with high dental fear also more often report other psychological problems than do those with lower level of dental fear. We evaluated the association between dental fear and tobacco- and alcohol use while controlling for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations. Methods The data (n = 8514) were collected from all universities in Finland with an electronic inquiry sent to all first-ye...

  17. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030

  18. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077443

  19. Alcohol use among reserve-dwelling adult First Nation members: Use, Problems, and Intention to Change Drinking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Greenfield, Brenna; Venner, Kamilla; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol use was not part of traditional First Nations (FN) life, alcohol misuse currently poses a significant public health problem. There is a dearth of research efforts to understand both alcohol misuse and efforts to resolve these problems. The primary aims of this study were to 1) present descriptive data on alcohol use in FN adults living on one reserve in Eastern Canada; and 2) explore correlates of help seeking intentions and past behaviors. We administered questionnaires to 2...

  20. When Is Sport Participation Risky or Protective for Alcohol Use? The Role of Teammates, Friendships, and Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Andrea E.; Simpkins, Sandra D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and…

  1. Attitudes and Descriptive Norms of Alcohol-Related Problems as Predictors of Alcohol Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Meg E.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Higginbotham, John C.; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of alcohol use based on personal values and several constructs from the Integrated Behavioral Model (i.e., attitudes, injunctive norms and descriptive norms) among undergraduate college students. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used with a convenience sample of college…

  2. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  3. Alcohol Use, Risk Taking, Leisure Activities and Health Care Use Among Young People in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Kim Thoa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex.  Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people.  Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam.  The study involved a cross-sectional, community survey using a standardised interview.  This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years.  Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam. The findings presented here were part of a larger health risk behaviour survey.  Levels of alcohol use were low. Overall, 16.5% of participants were experienced drinkers, and only 4% of them were current drinkers. Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females.  Alcohol and its effects on young people are clearly a growing public health issue in Vietnam.  Because of this, more detailed behavioral research should be conducted into the relationship between alcohol consumption and other risky behaviours amongst young people.  It is also

  4. Early adolescent alcohol use in context: how neighborhoods, parents, and peers impact youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W

    2014-05-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  5. Immobilization of activated sludge using improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microbial immobilization method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel as an immobilizing material was improved and used for entrapment of activated sludge. The OUR (oxygen uptake rate) was used to characterize the biological activity of immobilized activated sludge. Three kinds of PVA-immobilized particles of activated sludge, that is, PVA-boric acid beads, PVA-sodium nitrate beads and PVA-orthophosphate beads was prepared, and their biological activity was compared by measuring the OUR value. The bioactivity of both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms of activated sludge was determined using different synthetic wastewater media (containing 250 mg/L COD and 25 mg/L NH4+-N). The experimental results showed that the bioactivity and stability of the three kinds of immobilized activated sludge was greatly improved after activation. With respect of the bioactivity and the mechanical stability, the PVA-orthophosphate method may be a promising and economical technique for microbial immobilization.

  6. The Effects of Prices on Alcohol Use and its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; Frank J. Chaloupka

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, economists and others have devoted considerable effort to assessing the impact of alcoholic-beverage taxes and prices on alcohol consumption and its related adverse consequences. Federal and State excise taxes have increased only rarely and, when adjusted for inflation, have declined significantly over the years, as have overall prices for alcoholic beverages. Yet studies examining the effects of increases of monetary prices (e.g., through raising taxes) on alcoho...

  7. Alcohol use and abuse in training conscripts of the Hellenic navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menoutis Vassilis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Alcohol abuse and addiction are big current problems of the developed world having multivariate causality and multiple effects. Alcohol abuse in young people is a matter of central importance due to its wide range long lasting effects, especially so in Greece where the problem has only recently started growing. The Hellenic Navy is interested in the complications of alcohol abuse in training conscripts. Because young conscripts will be placed in demanding positions, but also because in Greece the military service is obligatory and represents an important period for the socialization of young men. Methods In the present study, levels of alcohol use and abuse were measured in a sample of 650 male training conscripts of the Hellenic Navy. The tools used are: (a two questionnaires measuring frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and psychosocial variables, (b the CAGE test, which is a questionnaire measuring hidden alcoholism. Results 38,1% conscripts were characterized problematic drinkers according the adolescents criteria. Additional psychological complications were related to alcohol use. Using the stricter criterion for adults (plus psychological complications 8.9% were found to be problematic drinkers. The use of CAGE questionnaire which is measuring hidden alcoholism, identified 16% of the total sample as hidden alcoholics. Discussion The findings regarding unregular levels of alcohol use and abuse are presented as well as their relation to psychosocial complications and to demographic characteristics. The results are discussed in the light of Creek and international bibliography.

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis: prevalence of alcohol use among young people in eastern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, JM; Grosskurth, H; Changalucha, J; Kapiga, SH; Weiss, HA

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of alcohol use among young people (age 15-24 years) in eastern Africa to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and determine the extent of use of standardised screening questionnaires in alcohol studies. METHODS: Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Africa-wide, and PsycINFO) were searched for publications until 30th June 2013. Results were summarised using the guidelines on preferred reporting items for systematic re...

  9. Dynamic associations among alcohol use and anxiety symptoms in early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pardee, Carolyn Speidel; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use in adolescence remains unclear, with evidence for no association, as well as risk and protective effects of anxiety. Considering developmental trajectories may be important for understanding the association between anxiety and alcohol use, and may help clarify prior mixed findings. The present study examined trajectories of alcohol use, social anxiety and general anxiety symptoms in early to middle adolescence using univariate and parallel proc...

  10. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Kask; Anna Markina; Zuzana Podana

    2013-01-01

    In Europe use of alcohol by adolescents is a large and increasing problem. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of family factors such as structure, social control, affluence, and negative life events on adolescents' risky alcohol use. Data on alcohol use and family factors were obtained from the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2). Using multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense ...

  11. Gender differences in risk factors and consequences for alcohol use and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2004-12-01

    Women drink less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems than men. Women appear to be less likely than men to manifest certain risk factors for alcohol use and problems and are more likely to have certain protective factors against these problems: women perceive greater social sanctions for drinking; women are less likely to have characteristics associated with excessive drinking including aggressiveness, drinking to reduce distress, behavioral undercontrol, sensation-seeking and antisociality; and women are more likely to have desirable feminine traits (e.g., nurturance) protective against excessive drinking. In addition, consequences of heavy alcohol use, or alcohol use disorders, appear to be more negative for women than men, at least in some domains: women suffer alcohol-related physical illnesses at lower levels of exposure to alcohol than men, and some studies suggest women suffer more cognitive and motor impairment due to alcohol than men; women may be more likely than men to suffer physical harm and sexual assault when they are using alcohol; heavy alcohol use in women is associated with a range of reproductive problems. Implications of these findings for future research and public health education campaigns are discussed. PMID:15533281

  12. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Kask

    2013-01-01

    multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense alcohol use whereas negative life events in the family and high family affluence were increasing youngsters' intense alcohol use. Differences between regions of Europe were present for all family factors except affluence. Namely, in Northern Europe the impact of family structure and social control on intense alcohol use was stronger than that in other regions (e.g., Western Europe, Mediterranean, and Postsocialist countries. Also, in Northern Europe where the proportion of adolescents who have not experienced negative life events is the highest, the impact of negative life events on intense alcohol use was stronger; that is, negative life events increased the alcohol use. We conclude that family plays a significant role in adolescents' risky alcohol use.

  13. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, C; Van den Brink, W; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large r

  14. Development and implementation of a structured intervention for alcohol use disorders for telephone helpline services

    OpenAIRE

    Best, David; Hall, Kate; Guthrie, Anna; Abbatangelo, Moses; Hunter, Barbara; Lubman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A six-session intervention for harmful alcohol use was piloted via a 24-hour alcohol and other drug (AOD) helpline, assessing feasibility of telephone-delivered treatment. The intervention, involving practice elements from Motivational Interviewing, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and node-link mapping, was evaluated using a case file audit (n D 30) and a structured telephone interview one month after the last session (n D 22). Average scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (...

  15. Pre- to Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Trajectories among Recent Latino Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Mariana; La Rosa, Mario; Blackson, Timothy C.; Sastre, Francisco; Rojas, Patria; Li, Tan; Dillon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The escalation of alcohol use among some Latino immigrant groups as their time in the United States increases has been well-documented. Yet, little is known about the alcohol use behaviors of Latino immigrants prior to immigration. This prospective longitudinal study examines pre- to post-immigration alcohol use trajectories among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants. Retrospective pre-immigration data were collected at baseline from a sample of 455 Cuban, South American and Central American ...

  16. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents’ alcohol use.

    OpenAIRE

    Margot Peeters; Tim Janssen; Karin Monshouwer; Wouter Boendermaker; Thomas Pronk; Reinout Wiers; Wilma Vollebergh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstr...

  17. A systematic review of physical activity correlates in alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; De Herdt, Amber; DETRAUX, JOHAN; Probst, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity might promote mental and physical health in persons with alcohol use disorder. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of participation in physical activity in persons with alcohol use disorder is an essential first step in order to devise effective physical activity interventions. Objective: The present review provides a systematic quantitative review of the correlates of physical activity in people with alcohol use disorder. Methods: Major...

  18. Similarities in drinking behavior of twin's friends: moderation of heritability of alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R. C. M. E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D I; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The Netherlands Twin Register were available for 1,526 twin pairs aged 16-25 years. We categorized the twin pairs as concordant (both report similar alcohol use in their friends) or discordant for the a...

  19. Domestic Violence and Alcohol Use: Trauma-related Symptoms and Motives for Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, Debra; Dillworth, Tiara M.; Simpson, Tracy; Waldrop, Angela; Larimer, Mary E.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol use is frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially in the face of chronic traumatic experiences. However, the relationship between alcohol use and symptoms associated with chronic trauma exposure has not been evaluated. This study examined alcohol use in recently battered women (N = 369). Differences were found in trauma symptoms between abstainers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, with heavy drinkers reporting more severe symptoms. Mediational an...

  20. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescen...

  1. DRINKING MOTIVES AS MEDIATORS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN PERSONALITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS AND ALCOHOL USE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Trull, Timothy J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Park, Aesoon

    2008-01-01

    Research shows high comorbidity between Cluster B Personality Disorders (PDs) and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Studies of personality traits and alcohol use have identified coping and enhancement drinking motives as mediators of the relation among impulsivity, negative affectivity or affectivity instability, and alcohol use. To the extent that certain PDs reflect extreme expression of these traits, drinking motives were hypothesized to mediate the relation between PD symptoms and presence/ab...

  2. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  3. Relations Between Cognitive Functioning and Alcohol Use, Craving, and Post-Traumatic Stress: An Examination Among Trauma-Exposed Military Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Pennington, David L; Cohen, Nicole; Schmeling, Brandi; Lasher, Brooke A; Schrodek, Emily; Batki, Steven L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and trauma exposure and is, in turn, associated with worse clinical outcomes. Accordingly, disruptions in cognitive functioning may be conceptualized as a trans-disease phenomenon representing a potential high-yield target for intervention. Less is known though about how different cognitive functions covary with alcohol use, craving, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity among trauma-exposed individuals with AUD. Sixty-eight male and female trauma-exposed military veterans with AUD, entering treatment trials to reduce alcohol use, completed measures assessing alcohol use and craving, post-traumatic stress symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. In multivariate models, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptom severity, poorer learning and memory was associated with higher alcohol consumption and higher risk taking/impulsivity was associated with stronger preoccupations with alcohol and compulsions to drink. Alcohol consumption and craving, but not performance on cognitive tests, were positively associated with post-traumatic stress symptom severity. Findings suggest that interventions to strengthen cognitive functioning might be used as a preparatory step to augment treatments for AUD. Clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of cognitive functioning, in addition to post-traumatic stress symptom severity, in treatment planning and delivery for this vulnerable and high-risk population. PMID:27391620

  4. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, Kristjan; Markina, Anna; Podana, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    In Europe use of alcohol by adolescents is a large and increasing problem. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of family factors such as structure, social control, affluence, and negative life events on adolescents' risky alcohol use. Data on alcohol use and family factors were obtained from the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2). Using multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense alcohol use whereas negative life events in the family and high family affluence were increasing youngsters' intense alcohol use. Differences between regions of Europe were present for all family factors except affluence. Namely, in Northern Europe the impact of family structure and social control on intense alcohol use was stronger than that in other regions (e.g., Western Europe, Mediterranean, and Postsocialist countries). Also, in Northern Europe where the proportion of adolescents who have not experienced negative life events is the highest, the impact of negative life events on intense alcohol use was stronger; that is, negative life events increased the alcohol use. We conclude that family plays a significant role in adolescents' risky alcohol use. PMID:24236275

  5. The Impact of Parental Modeling and Permissibility on Alcohol Use and Experienced Negative Drinking Consequences in College

    OpenAIRE

    Abar, Caitlin; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of parental modeled behavior and permissibility of alcohol use in late high school on the alcohol use and experienced negative drinking consequences of college students. Two-hundred ninety college freshmen at a large university were assessed for perceptions of their parents’ permissibility of alcohol use, parents’ alcohol-related behavior, and own experienced negative consequences associated with alcohol use. Results indicate that parental permissibility of alco...

  6. Testing Demographic Differences for Alcohol Use Initiation among Adolescents for the Decisional Balance and Situational Temptations Prevention Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Sillice, Marie A.; Andrea L. Paiva; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather A.; Rossi, Joseph R.; REDDING, Colleen A.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were a...

  7. Pattern of alcohol use by users of a family health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes Sanches Verardino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the context of drugs, alcoholism is one of the major problems in public health. Objective: To identify the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages by users of a Family Health Unit in São Paulo state during reception. Method: Exploratory cross-sectionalstudy of quantitative methodology with the use of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT in 100 adult users of a Primary Health Care network. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Of the total sample, (74% were women, (85% made use of alcoholic beverages at low risk, and (19% were young adults; binge drinking was reported by a minority of the interviewees. The Catholics in the sample (42% reported never using alcohol excessively, followed by the Evangelicals with 22%. Conclusions: Health professionals need to have knowledge of the alcohol consumption pattern of the residents from the territory of their unit, so that they can develop prevention and health promotion programs.

  8. Reasons for substance use: A comparative study of alcohol use in tribals and non-tribals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Sreeraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of alcohol has been attributed to different reasons by consumers. Attitude and knowledge about the substance and addiction can be influenced by the cultural background of the individual. The tribal population, where alcohol intake is culturally accepted, can have different beliefs and attributes causing one to take alcohol. This study attempts to examine the reasons for alcohol intake and the belief about addiction and their effect on the severity of addiction in people with a different ethnic background. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at a Psychiatric institute with a cross-sectional design. The study population included patients hailing from the Jharkhand state, twenty each, belonging to tribal and non-tribal communities. Patients fulfilling the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria of mental and behavioral disorders due to the alcohol dependence syndrome, with active dependence, were taken, excluding those having any comorbidity or complications. The subjects were assessed with specially designed Sociodemographic-Clinical Performa, modified version of Reasons for Substance Use scale, Addiction Belief scale, and the Alcohol Dependence scale. Statistical Analysis and Results: A significantly high number of tribals cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Addiction was severe in those consuming alcohol to cope with distressing emotions. Belief in the free-will model was noted to be stronger across the cultures, without any correlation with the reason for intake. This cross-sectional study design, which was based on patients, cannot be easily generalized to the community. Conlusion: Societal acceptance and pressure as well as high emotional problems appears to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalce of substance depedence in tribals. Primary prevention should be planned to fit the needs of the

  9. Alcohol Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Vaughn, Brigitte; Barry, Megan; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of high school students consume alcohol, with nearly a quarter of 12th grade students reporting binge drinking in the past two weeks. Drinking alcohol in adolescence is associated with a variety of other risky behaviors, as well as with an increased likelihood of long-term problems reaching into adulthood. This "Adolescent…

  10. Alcohol use among Asian American adolescent girls: the impact of immigrant generation status and family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking among Asian American adolescent girls is not well understood. Based on family interaction theory, the study examined the interrelationships among acculturation variables, family relationships, girls' depressed mood, peer alcohol use, and girls' alcohol use in a sample of 130 Asian American mother-daughter dyads. The mediating role of family relationships, girls' depressed mood, and peer alcohol use on girls' drinking was also assessed. The study advances knowledge related to alcohol use among early Asian American adolescent girls, highlights the effect of immigrant generation status and family relationships, and has implications for culturally specific underage drinking prevention programs. PMID:22150128

  11. Attitude and Peer Cross-pressure: Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Stanley S.; Johnson, Eric O.

    1996-01-01

    Uses the concept of cross-pressures to predict frequency of adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. Eighth-, 10th-, and 12-grade respondents reported frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and drug use for 30 days prior to the survey. They also reported perceptions of friends' approval/disapproval of substance use, peer pressure to use, and their…

  12. Hyperproduction of Alcohol Using Yeast Fermentation in Highly Concentrated Molasses Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾燕松; 周政懋; 乔敏; 周全; 陈国强

    2001-01-01

    Cane molasses, a major byproduct in the sugar industry, is generally consumed for alcohol production. However, the alcohol production process needs to overcome three major challenges including increasing the productivity of alcohol fermentation, lowering the energy consumption for alcohol conversion and decreasing the environmental pollution caused by the alcoholic yeast fermentation process. To meet these challenges, a screening process was conducted using 13 high osmotic tolerant yeast strains. Among the strains, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1912 was found to produce high alcohol concentrations during fermentation with high starting molasses concentrations such as 50% (W/V) molasses. In the test, 13.6% (V/V) alcohol was produced in the molasses fermentation broth after 72 h of incubation with an initial Yunnan molasses concentration of 50% in a 5 L fermentor. 15.0% (V/V) alcohol was obtained after 48 h of fermentation in shaking flasks containing 30% (W/V) initial total sugar concentration in diluted molasses. The performance of this strain in the shaking flasks was successfully scaled up to a 5-L fermentor vessel. Strain 1912 seems to be a better alcohol producer than the currently used alcohol production strain 2. 1190.

  13. Alcohol use and implications for public health: Patterns of use in four communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol is one of the leading causes of death and disability globally and in India. Information on quantum and pattern of consumption is crucial to formulate intervention programs. Objectives: To identify the extent and pattern of alcohol use in urban, rural, town and slum populations using a uniform methodology. Materials and Methods: Door-to-door survey was undertaken and simple random sampling methodology was adopted; households were the primary sampling unit. One respondent in each alcohol-user household was randomly chosen for detailed interview. Results: Overall, 13% of males and females consumed alcohol. Proportion of users was greater in town (15.7% and among 26-45 years (67.4%. Whisky (49% and arrack (35% were the preferred types and the preferences differed between rural (arrack and urban (beer areas. Nearly half (45% of rural population were very frequent users (consuming daily or every alternate-days as against users in town (23% or slum (20%. Two-thirds were long-term users and the proportions were greater in the rural and town areas. While, overall 17% of the users were heavy-users, frequent-heavy-drinking was more in slum and rural areas. Nearly two-thirds consumed alcohol in liquor-shops, restaurants, bars and pubs. Habituation and peer-pressure were the key reasons for alcohol use. Conclusions: The study documented alcohol use and patterns of use in four different communities particularly in transitional areas using similar methodology. Many of the patterns identified are detrimental to health both immediate and over the long period of time.

  14. Prospective Changes in Alcohol Use Among Hazardous Drinkers in the Absence of Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dearing, Ronda L.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Connors, Gerard J.; Walitzer, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the natural course of hazardous alcohol consumption could inform the development of brief interventions to encourage self-change. In the current study, hazardous drinkers (based on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score) were recruited using advertisements to participate in a 2-year multi-wave prospective study. Participants (N = 206) provided self-reports every six months during the study, including reports of daily alcohol consumption. The current ...

  15. Paroxetine reduces social anxiety in individuals with a co-occurring alcohol use disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Patrick K.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder who are seen in clinical practice commonly have additional psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol use disorders. The first line treatment for social anxiety disorder is selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. However, the efficacy of SSRIs has been determined with studies that excluded alcoholics. Forty two subjects with social anxiety and a co-occurring alcohol use disorder participated in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo...

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Paul B. Perrin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associ...

  17. Adolescent alcohol use in Spain: Connections with friends, school, and other delinquent behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Diane Goldberg-Looney; Miriam eSánchez-SanSegundo; Rosario eFerrer-Cascales; Natalia eAlbaladejo-Blazquez; Paul B. Perrin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 640) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alc...

  18. Use of and attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol among adults in southern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Ostbye, Truls

    2013-09-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  19. Alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning in first-year undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Martin, E D; Wood, P K; Rutledge, P C

    1997-08-01

    The relation between alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning was examined in 489 first-year undergraduates, approximately half of whom had a history of alcoholism in their biological fathers. Factor analyses of 17 neuropsychological tests and subtests produced the following 5 factors that were the basis of subsequent analyses: Language/Verbal Memory, Visuospatial Ability, Motor Speed, Booklet Category Performance, and Attention. Participants with alcohol use disorders showed deficits in visuospatial ability. Those who had alcohol dependence showed deficits in both visuospatial ability and motor speed relative to participants who abused alcohol. The differences in neuropsychological functioning remained even after several potential confounding variables were controlled statistically. Results suggest that alcohol use disorders in first-year college students are associated with deficits in neuropsychological measures that are not attributable to several potential third-variable explanations. PMID:9260079

  20. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  1. Adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, decreased A2AR function is associated with decreased CREB activity in the DMS, which enhances goal-oriented behaviors and contributes to excessive ethanol drinking in mice. Interestingly, caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive substance, is known to inhibit both the A1R and A2AR. This dampened adenosine receptor function may mask some of the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol. Furthermore, based on the fact that A2AR activity plays a role in goal-directed behavior, caffeine may also promote ethanol-seeking behavior. The A2AR is enriched in the striatum and exclusively expressed in striatopallidal neurons, which may be responsible for the regulation of inhibitory behavioral control over drug rewarding processes through the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit. Furthermore, the antagonistic interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors in the striatum also play an integral role in alcoholism and addiction-related disorders. This review focuses on regulation of adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and the possible implication of caffeine in goal-directed behaviors and addiction. PMID:23912595

  2. Impulsive and reflective processes related to alcohol use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePieters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in adult samples (for a meta-analysis see Rooke, Hine, & Thorsteinsson, 2008. The purpose of this study was to test these processes as they relate to emerging alcohol use in adolescents. Specifically, the interactive effects of several measures of impulsive and reflective processes and working memory capacity are examined as predictors of changes in alcohol use among adolescents. It was expected that measures of reflective processes would better predict changes in alcohol use than measures of impulsive processes. Moreover, it was anticipated that working memory capacity would moderate the relation between alcohol-specific impulsive and reflective processes and changes in adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The sample consisted of 427 adolescents (47.7% male between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 13.96, SD = .78 who reported drinking alcohol at least once. Four measures of impulsive processes were included. Attentional bias for alcohol was assessed with a Visual Probe Test; approach bias toward alcohol was assessed with a Stimulus Response Compatibility Test (SRC; and memory associations with alcohol were assessed with an Implicit Association Test (IAT and a Word Association Test (WAT. Two measures of reflective measures were included: positive and negative expectancies. Working memory capacity was measured using a Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT.Results: Results showed that positive expectancies predicted changes in alcohol use, but this effect was qualified by an interaction with IAT scores. Moreover, SRC scores predicted changes in alcohol use only when negative expectancies were low. Attentional bias and word association scores did not predict changes in

  3. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population. PMID:26547044

  4. GABAB receptor ligands for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: preclinical and clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAgabio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies conducted to define the anti-alcohol pharmacological profile of the prototypic GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and its therapeutic potential for treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD. Numerous studies have reported baclofen-induced suppression of alcohol drinking (including relapse- and binge-like drinking and alcohol reinforcing, motivational, stimulating, and rewarding properties in rodents and monkeys. The majority of clinical surveys conducted to date – including case reports, retrospective chart reviews, and randomized placebo-controlled studies – suggest the ability of baclofen to suppress alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, and alcohol withdrawal symptomatology in alcohol-dependent patients. The recent identification of a positive allosteric modulatory binding site, together with the synthesis of in vivo effective ligands, represents a novel, and likely more favorable, option for pharmacological manipulations of the GABAB receptor. Accordingly, data collected to date suggest that positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor reproduce several anti-alcohol effects of baclofen and display a higher therapeutic index (with larger separation – in terms of doses – between anti-alcohol effects and sedation.

  5. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). PMID:24033426

  6. Alcohol and Drug Use in Young Apprentices: Effect of Social Control in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu, Esra

    2003-01-01

    Examined the social control used by families of young apprentices in Turkey in relation to deviant behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use. Data for 397 apprentices show that those who use alcohol are most frequently exposed to stringent controls and oral and physical violence, and those who use drugs frequently were exposed to battering by their…

  7. The Influence of Parental Warmth and Control on Latino Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongro-Wilson, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Latino adolescent alcohol use is related to substance use, later life addiction, and other negative outcomes. The lack of knowledge on parenting and the parent-youth relationship in Latino families in the context of acculturation and its affects on alcohol use prompted this study. Secondary data analysis using the Add Health data set indicates…

  8. Alcohol use amongst learners in rural high school in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thembisile M. Chauke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking behaviour by adolescents is a significant public health challenge nationally and internationally. Alcohol use has serious challenges that continue to deprive adolescents of their normal child growth and development. Drinking is associated with dangers that include fighting, crime, unintentional accidents, unprotected sex, violence and others.Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate drinking patterns, and factors contributing to drinking, amongst secondary school learners in South Africa.Method: The sample included 177 male (46.6% and 206 female (53.4% respondents in the age range from 15–23 years, selected by stratified random sampling.Results: The results indicated that 35.5% of male and 29.7% of female respondents used alcohol. Both male and female respondents consumed six or more alcohol units (binge drinking within 30 days; on one occasion the consumption was 17.5% and 15.9% respectively. It was found that alcohol consumption increases with age, 32.2% of 15–17 year-olds and 53.2% of 18–20 year-olds consumed different types of alcohol. It was deduced that 28.9% respondents reported that one of the adults at home drank alcohol regularly, and 9.3% reported that both their parents drank alcohol daily. It was found that 27.6% of the respondents agreed that friends made them conform to drinking. The tenth and eleventh grade reported 15.2% of male and 13.9% of female respondents were aware that alcohol can be addictive.Conclusion: This study found that age, gender, parental alcohol use and peer pressure were found to be the major contributing factors to alcohol use amongst learners Prevention campaigns such as introducing the harmful effects of alcohol use amongst learners are of utmost importance in reducing alcohol use amongst learners in South Africa.

  9. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: Testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Fleming, Kimberly A.; VERGÉS, ALVARO; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to rep...

  10. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders: a Danish prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Becker, Ulrik; Makhija, Nita; Sher, Leo; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...

  11. The Effects of Parental Diagnosis and Changing Family Norms on Alcohol Use and Related Problems among Urban American Indian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Swaim, Randall C.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, R. Dale; Silk-Walker, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parental diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence and perceived family norms for adolescent drinking on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among urban American Indian youth. A total of 251 urban, American Indian youth and their parents/caregivers were followed from age 13 to age 18. Perceived family norms against alcohol decreased and alcohol use increased from age 13 to age 18. Relative to no parental diagnosis, youth with one or two parents diagnosed w...

  12. Modeling alcohol use disorder severity: an integrative structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    NathashaRMoallem; LaraARay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol dependence is a complex psychological disorder whose phenomenology changes as the disorder progresses. Neuroscience has provided a variety of theories and evidence for the development, maintenance, and severity of addiction; however, clinically, it has been difficult to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate and validate a data-driven approach to capturing alcohol severity in a community sample. Method: Participants we...

  13. Modeling Alcohol Use Disorder Severity: An Integrative Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moallem, Nathasha R.; Courtney, Kelly E.; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol dependence is a complex psychological disorder whose phenomenology changes as the disorder progresses. Neuroscience has provided a variety of theories and evidence for the development, maintenance, and severity of addiction; however, clinically, it has been difficult to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate and validate a data-driven approach to capturing alcohol severity in a community sample. Method: Participants were...

  14. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Ya Li; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the pro...

  15. Two Sides of the Same Story: Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Taking in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Krishnan, A. K.; Kumarasamy, N; Krishnan, Gopal; Solomon, Davidson; Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Vasudevan, C. K.; Solomon, Raja; Maria L Ekstrand

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the role of alcohol in sexual risk among male migrant workers and female sex workers in two South Indian states. Most men reported using alcohol for increased energy and courage prior to their sexual experiences and to reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation. Sex workers, on the other hand, often stated that they avoided alcohol prior to sex in order to stay alert and reduce the risk of violence. Both groups reported that drinking often increased male aggre...

  16. Alcohol use and abuse among rural Zimbabwean adults: A test of a community-level intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  17. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Veterans with Comorbid PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, Debra; Schumm, Jeremiah; Pedersen, Eric R.; Seim, Richard W.; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Chard, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Posttramatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD) frequently present comorbidly in veteran populations. Traditionally those with alcohol dependence have been excluded from PTSD treatment outcome studies, thus we do not know how those with alcohol dependence may tolerate or respond to PTSD-specific interventions; no studies to date have examined the extent to which cognitive PTSD interventions are tolerated or effective for those with comorbid PTSD/AUD. The present study exam...

  18. Alcohol use in the first three years of bereavement: a national representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilling János

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier results concerning alcohol consumption of bereaved persons are contradictory. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between bereavement and alcohol consumption accounting for time and gender differences on a nationally representative sample from Hungary ("Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel Survey", N = 4457 Methods Drinking characteristics of mourning persons (alcohol consumption, dependence symptoms, and harmful consequences of alcohol use in the first three years of grief were examined among persons between 18-75 years using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Results Men bereaved for one year scored higher on two dimensions of AUDIT (dependence symptoms and harmful alcohol use, while men bereaved for two years scored higher on all three dimensions of AUDIT compared to the non-bereaved. The rate of men clinically at-risk concerning alcohol consumption among the non-bereaved is 12.9%, and among men bereaved for one year is 18.4% (a non-significant difference, while 29.8% (p Conclusion Among bereaved men, the risk of alcohol related problems tends to be higher, which can be shown both among men bereaved for one year as well as men bereaved for two years. Considering the higher morbidity and mortality rates of bereaved men, alcohol consumption might play a mediator role. These facts draw attention to the importance of prevention, early recognition, and effective therapy of hazardous drinking in bereaved men.

  19. The Role of Parenting in Alcohol and Tobacco Use among Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Kelley, Norma J.; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L.; Schmitz, Katherine E.; Kolody, Bohdan; Chambers, Christina D.; Friedman, Lawrence S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San…

  20. 49 CFR 40.225 - What form is used for an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol... foreign-language version of the ATF approved by ODAPC. You may use such a non-English language form only in a situation where both the employee and BAT/STT understand and can use the form in that language....

  1. Increased Exposure to Alcohol and Cannabis Education and Changes in Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G.

    1989-01-01

    Used data from Ontario Alcohol and Drug Use Among Students survey (N=4,267) to determine how reported alcohol and cannabis (marijuana) use changed with increased exposure to drug education. Concluded drug education had stronger influence on younger students and lighter drinkers but little impact on heavy drinkers. Found decrease in cannabis use…

  2. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  3. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashok V.; Balagopal, Shekar; Pendelton, Justin

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  4. Alcohol and cannabis use in Norway during the period 1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin K. Bye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of alcohol and cannabis use in the period 1995-2009 is based on data from five sets of surveys. Sales figures for alcohol consumption are also included. Alcohol sales in Norway increased by 40 per cent during the period 1995-2009, from 4.8 to 6.7 litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant aged 15 years and over. This increase largely reflects a sharp increase in the sale of wine. Also when taking into account unregistered alcohol consumption, the consumption of alcohol increased considerably in Norway during the period in question. The increased alcohol consumption seems to be due to an increase in moderate alcohol consumers and/or an increase in situations involving moderate alcohol consumption. Population surveys indicate that there has been an increase in the proportion who drink alcohol and in the proportion of people who drink relatively often, but the increased drinking frequency is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the proportion who often drink until they are intoxicated. On average, men drink more often and greater quantities than women, with the exception of wine. The proportion who drink alcohol at least twice a month or more has increased in all age groups, and the increase has been particularly marked among those above the age of 50. Despite a reduction in consumption among young people in recent years, consumption and drinking until intoxicated are still widespread. Young girls drink alcohol as often as boys and are equally often intoxicated. As for cannabis, there was an increase in the age group 15-20 years in the second half of the 1990s, followed by a decrease and stagnation since the turn of the millennium. There was little or no difference between boys and girls in the 15-20 age group in the use of cannabis, while among young adults, far more men than women reported that they had used cannabis

  5. Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kasey G Creswell; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether ...

  6. The Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative (ACTIVE): Purpose and Goals for Assessing Important and Salient Issues for Medications Development in Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Raymond F; Litten, Raye Z.; Falk, Daniel E.; Palumbo, Joseph M.; Bartus, Raymond T.; Robinson, Rebecca L; Kranzler, Henry R.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Meyer, Roger E; O'Brien, Charles P; Mann, Karl; Meulien, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, more effective treatments are needed. In the last 15 years, several medications have been approved for use in alcohol dependence but have only limited effectiveness and clinical acceptance. While academics have developed some ‘standards' for the performance of clinical trials for alcohol dependence, they vary considerably, in the type of populations to be studied, the length of trials, salient outcome measures, and dat...

  7. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975

  8. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Levy

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  9. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control. PMID:26905765

  10. Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented high levels of alcohol use and sexual risk among young mothers. We examined parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy in relation to alcohol use problems and sexual risk among 346 young African American women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial, 41 % (n = 141) of whom were mothers. Among mothers, greater parenting satisfaction was associated with a reduced likelihood of problematic alcohol use, having multiple sex partners, and testing positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Relative to non-parenting women, mothers reported lower condom use. Compared to non-parenting women, mothers with the highest parenting satisfaction reported fewer alcohol use problems; mothers with the lowest parenting satisfaction reported lower condom use and were more likely to have multiple partners and test positive for T. vaginalis. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with the outcomes examined. Future research investigating relationships between parenting satisfaction, alcohol use and sexual risk may be useful for improving multiple maternal health outcomes. PMID:26499334

  11. Workshop on Alcohol Use and Health Disparities 2002: a call to arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Denise; Purohit, Vishnudutt; Foudin, Laurie; Salin, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a "Workshop on Alcohol Use and Health Disparities 2002: A Call to Arms," on December 5, 2002, in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. This workshop was part of the NIAAA/NIH comprehensive strategic plan to reduce, and ultimately eliminate, health disparities. Eleven topics were addressed: (1). biomedical risk factors that may contribute to disparities in the toxic effects of alcohol; (2). alcohol and gene-environment interactions that affect the health of diverse groups; (3). alcohol pharmacogenetics in Mexican-Americans; (4). determinants of risk for alcoholism in minority populations; (5). consideration of population groups in linkage-disequilibrium studies to identify genes associated with alcohol dependence; (6). interaction between alcohol dependence and African-American ethnicity in disordered sleep, nocturnal cytokines, and immunity; (7). disparities of brain functional reserve capacity affecting brain morbidity related to substance abuse; (8). alcohol and pregnancy disparities; (9). role of alcohol in cancer risk disparities; (10). ethnic diversity in alcoholic cardiomyopathy; and (11). postmenopausal health disparities. On the basis of these presentations, seven conclusions emerged: (1). Genetic variations in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes exist in various populations. (2). These enzymes play a role in the variation in health effect outcomes seen in different populations, owing to alcohol consumption. (3). Differences between and among population groups can be critically important for the design and interpretation of studies in genetics. These include differences in expression of phenotype, in locus heterogeneity, in risk alleles, and in population structure. (4). Incidence rates for fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are greater in African-Americans and Native-Americans than in Caucasians. Genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, and

  12. Do alcohol and marijuana use decrease the probability of condom use for college women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1,856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (M age = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; in addition, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  13. Brain responses to emotional salience and reward in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Ferrara, L; Müller-Oehring, E M; Sullivan, E V; Pfefferbaum, A; Schulte, T

    2016-03-01

    Heightened neural responsiveness of alcoholics to alcohol cues and social emotion may impede sobriety. To test mesocorticolimbic network responsivity, 10 (8 men) alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients sober for 3 weeks to 10 months and 11 (8 men) controls underwent fMRI whilst viewing pictures of alcohol and non-alcohol beverages and of emotional faces (happy, sad, angry). AUD and controls showed similarities in mesocorticolimbic activity: both groups activated fusiform for emotional faces and hippocampal and pallidum regions during alcohol picture processing. In AUD, less fusiform activity to emotional faces and more pallidum activity to alcohol pictures were associated with longer sobriety. Using graph theory-based network efficiency measures to specify the role of the mesocorticolimbic network nodes for emotion and reward in sober AUD revealed that the left hippocampus was less efficiently connected with the other task-activated network regions in AUD than controls when viewing emotional faces, while the pallidum was more efficiently connected when viewing alcohol beverages. Together our findings identified lower occipito-temporal sensitivity to emotional faces and enhanced striatal sensitivity to alcohol stimuli in AUD than controls. Considering the role of the striatum in encoding reward, its activation enhancement with longer sobriety may reflect adaptive neural changes in the first year of drinking cessation and mesocorticolimbic system vulnerability for encoding emotional salience and reward potentially affecting executive control ability and relapse propensity during abstinence. PMID:25875013

  14. Bullying victimization among college students: Negative consequences for alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consi...

  15. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these chal...

  16. Assessment of alcohol problems using AUDIT in a prison setting: more than an 'aye or no' question

    OpenAIRE

    MacAskill Susan; Parkes Tessa; Brooks Oona; Graham Lesley; McAuley Andrew; Brown Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major UK and international public health issue. The prevalence of alcohol problems is markedly higher among prisoners than the general population. However, studies suggest alcohol problems among prisoners are under-detected, under-recorded and under-treated. Identifying offenders with alcohol problems is fundamental to providing high quality healthcare. This paper reports use of the AUDIT screening tool to assess alcohol problems among prisoners. Met...

  17. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  18. Alcohol Use, Psychopathology, and Treatment Utilization in a University Mental Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigers, Danielle K. L.; Carey, Kate B.

    2010-01-01

    In the general population, alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders co-occur. Despite ample evidence of the adverse effects of alcohol use on treatment outcomes, these relationships have not been examined among college students presenting at counseling centers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of hazardous drinking…

  19. The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…

  20. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  1. The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

  2. Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…

  3. Alcohol Use and Participation in Organized Recreational Sports among University Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W.; Gryczynski, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined alcohol use among students involved in recreational sports. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of alcohol use in which researchers separate recreational sports participants from intercollegiate athletes and examine them as a separate group of interest. Participants: The authors generated a random…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors for Recent Alcohol Use among African-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 7488 7th-12th grade African-American students completed a survey assessing factors associated with recent alcohol use. Results indicated that 13.6% used alcohol in the past month. A series of odds ratios revealed that making good grades, participating in school activities, attending church, and having parents/teachers talk about the…

  5. Similarities in drinking behavior of twin's friends: moderation of heritability of alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The N

  6. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  7. Conscientiousness, Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Use: Testing for Mediated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…

  8. Rurality, Region, Ethnic Community Make-Up and Alcohol Use among Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As the most widely used substance among adolescents in the United States, alcohol remains a critical public health issue. The majority of research in this area has focused on individual-level variables. This study examined the contextual effects of rurality, geographic region, and community ethnicity in the prediction of alcohol use among…

  9. The crown of love: intimate relations and alcohol use in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaluw, Carmen S. van der; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Buitelaar, Jan; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Remarkably, little attention has been paid to the role of intimate partners and their drinking behavior in relation to adolescent alcohol use. In the current study, we examined associations between adolescent alcohol use and romantic partners? drinking behavior. Methods A total of 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (age...

  10. Academic Achievement as a Moderator of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, K. Paige; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests a link between academic performance and alcohol use during adolescence, but the degree to which this association reflects actual protective effects continues to be debated. We investigated the role of genetic factors in the association between academic achievement and adolescent alcohol use and whether achievement might…

  11. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  12. Sweet sixteen and never been drunk? : adolescent alcohol use, predictors and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris Jasper

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use, especially at a young age, has many negative consequences, both on the individual and the societal level. After an introduction describing a conceptual model of predictors and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, the first two chapters in this dissertation report on two st

  13. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique versus Comorbid Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youths were surveyed when they were 10 years…

  14. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  15. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average…

  16. Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When we compare the categories about alcohol, and substance-related disorders in DSM-IV and DSM-5, the new category, named addictive disorders is the most striking change. Only gambling disorder have been identified currently in this category. This may be the most remarkable change among the changes in the DSM-5. Because the expansion of the existing diagnostic criteria may cause the assessment of and lsquo;normal behavior' as a disorder. Additionally, withdrawal of caffeine and cannabis are defined in the DSM-5. Disorders collected under the title of substance-related disorders in the DSM-IV were collected under the name of substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5. Specific criterias for substance abuse and substance addiction have been combined into the name of "substance use disorders". In substance abuse, "experienced legal problems" criteria was removed and "a strong desire or urge or craving for substance use" criteria has been introduced. Henceforth, substance abuse is defined as a mild form of substance use disorders in the DSM-5. A change in the prevalence of substance use disorders should be investigated by the new researches.

  17. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. PMID:24776849

  18. Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

    1982-04-01

    Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

  19. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  20. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases and...

  1. Alcohol Use and STI among men in India: Evidences from a national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use has been found to correlate with risky sexual behavior as well as with sexually transmitted infections (STI among populations with high-risk behavior in India. Objective: To examine the correlates of alcohol use and its association with STI among adult men in India. Materials and Methods: Data from a national representative large-scale household sample survey in the country were used. It included information on sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use as a part of substance use. Clinical as well laboratory testing was done to ascertain the STI. Results: The overall STI prevalence among adult males was found to be 2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-3.1. Over 26% adult men were found to have been using alcohol in the study population. It was higher among men who were illiterate and unskilled industrial workers/drivers. The men who consumed alcohol had higher prevalence of STI (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1 than those who did not consume alcohol (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.5-2.6. The degree of association between alcoholism and STI was slightly reduced after adjusting for various sociodemographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.9-2.3; P=0.06. Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest integrating alcohol risk reduction into STI/HIV prevention programmes.

  2. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy; Meredith,Steven; Alessi,Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Steven E Meredith, Sheila M Alessi, Nancy M Petry Calhoun Cardiology Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA Abstract: Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applic...

  3. Frequency of alcohol use among elementary school pupils at Belgrade territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcoholism is one of the most frequent modern diseases. These kinds of epidemiological studies have not been carried out in this country at a global level. Objective The aim of the study was to establish the spread of alcohol abuse among the young regarding the sex, and find the connection between the alcohol abuse and the consumption of drugs and cigarettes. Methods The study was carried out among the elementary school pupils of the seventh and eighth grade in the area of Belgrade from October 2003 to January 2004. Total of 457 pupils were involved; 229 (50.1% were boys and 228 (49.9% girls, aged 12-15 years, the average age being 13.4 years. The method used was the modified questionnaire European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which the pupils filled in individually, voluntarily and anonymously. χ2-test, Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney Logistic Regression Test were used in statistical processing of the data. Results Almost 70% of the examinees have tried alcohol. Most of the examinees had the first contact with alcohol at the age of 11. Half of our examinees got drunk at least once in their life and about one fifth more than 20 times. The binge form of consumption (five or more drinks in a row was evident in a quarter of our examinees. Our examinees use alcohol together with other psychoactive substances, mostly marijuana. It was observed that certain types of behavior, such as frequent going out in the evening, were directly related to the abuse of alcohol. Conclusion Two thirds of the examinees have tried alcohol. The first contact with alcohol is shifted to an earlier age (11 years. New trends of alcohol abuse have been noticed, such as binge form of consumption and the connection of use with other psychoactive substances. .

  4. Alcohol use and gamma-glutamyltransferase using a mendelian randomization design in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Au Yeung, Shiu Lun Ryan; Zhang, Wei Sen; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, Catherine Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational studies and small intervention studies suggest alcohol raises gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). We used Mendelian randomization to assess the causal effect of alcohol use on GGT in older Chinese people. Methods An instrumental variable (IV) analysis in 2,321 men and 2,757 women aged 50+ years from phase 3 of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study with ALDH2 (rs671) genotyped, alcohol use and GGT available was used to assess the causal effect of alcohol use on GGT. Rs671 wa...

  5. Implications of Cannabis Use and Heavy Alcohol Use on HIV Drug Risk Behaviors in Russian Heroin Users

    OpenAIRE

    Walley, Alexander Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny M.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Raj, Anita; Edwards, Erika M; Bridden, Carly; Egorova, Valentina Y.; Zvartau, Edwin E.; Woody, George E.; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis and heavy alcohol use potentially increase HIV transmission by increasing risky drug behaviors. We studied 404 subjects entering treatment for heroin dependence, in St. Petersburg, Russia. We used the HIV Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) drug subscale to measure risky drug behavior. Although all heavy alcohol users had risky drug behaviors, their drug RAB scores did not differ from non-heavy alcohol users in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Cannabis use was significantly associated with...

  6. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents’ alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Peeters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems. Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p = .01 and first binge drinking episode (p = .04 while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p = .01. These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies.

  7. The role of romantic relationship status in pathways of risk for emerging adult alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Thomas, Nathaniel S; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-05-01

    Dating several people in emerging adulthood has been associated with higher alcohol use compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship. As a follow-up to that report, we examined whether romantic relationship status is part of a pathway of risk between antecedent alcohol use risk factors and subsequent alcohol outcomes. Participants were 4,410 emerging adults assessed at 2 time-points during their first year of college. We found that a parental history of alcohol problems was indirectly related to dating several people via 2 modestly correlated pathways. The first pathway was through conduct problems. The second pathway was through positive urgency (i.e., a positive emotion-based predisposition to rash action). In turn, dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use. Our results suggest that these familial and individual-level alcohol risk factors are related to emerging adults' selection into subsequent romantic relationship experiences that are associated with higher alcohol use. These findings have implications for how romantic relationship experiences may fit into developmental models of the etiology of alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214170

  8. Simulation of an alcoholic fermentation, using honey like substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the implementation of a mathematical model for the simulation of an alcoholic fermentation using honey like substrate. To carry out it, the kinetic data were adjusted to equations of curves with which were calculated the derivates of the concentrations in the time, with the objective of calculating the specific speeds of growth and product formation; once fact this, it proceeded to evaluate the adjustment of the different inhibition models, so much of substrate as of product on the kinetics of the process, finding that the pattern that more it was adjusted it was the exponential, also working lineal, parabolic model, etc. with the equations for μ (specific speed of growth of biomass) and v (specific speed of product formation) it proceeded to carry out the balances of mass, with the purpose of outlining the pattern of differential equations of first order and with conditions given initials. This system was solved for numeric methods using the Euler algorithm modified for that which was required to elaborate a computer program and this way, the behavior of the feigned fermentation, for its later confrontation with the experimental data

  9. Alcohol use disorders and psychiatric diseases in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Prada, Sergio I

    2016-01-01

    Background: An accurate understanding of co-occurrence and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Colombia is crucial for public health. Objective: A secondary analysis was conducted, using a 2003/2004 government´s population database to determine the lifetime associations between AUD and other mental and addictive disorders in people of Colombia aged 18-65 years. Methods: Several statistical analysis were performed: testing prevalence difference in mental disorders by whether the individual had an AUD; a stratified analysis by gender and logistic regression analyses accounting for differences in demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and self-reported health status variables. Results: People with AUD comprised 9% of the population, of which 88% were males and on average 37 years old. They were more likely to be males, be working, and be current smokers; and less likely to be at home or retired. The population with AUD had greater chance to comply with criteria for all disorders but minor depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence, and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population with AUD in Colombia. The findings highlight the importance of comorbidity as a sign of disease severity and impact on public health and supports the need for training of more professionals and developing appropriate interventions and services. PMID:27226662

  10. Relationships among alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence victimization among young women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W; Iritani, Bonita J; Christ, Sharon L; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one's neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents into adulthood. Participants were young adult females age 18 to 26 at Wave III. Of the 4,571 female respondents who reported a current heterosexual relationship and had IPV data, 13.2% reported having been the victim of physical violence only and 6.5% experienced sexual only or physical and sexual violence in the relationship during the past year. In the regression models tested, there was no significant direct association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and IPV victimization nor was there an association between outlet density and drinking behaviors, thus eliminating the possibility of an indirect association. Results of fully adjusted models indicate females who drank heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, were at significant risk for experiencing sexual only IPV or sexual and physical IPV. Asians and Native Americans were at significantly greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical IPV compared with non-Hispanic Whites, while non-Hispanic Blacks were at significantly greater odds for physical only IPV. We conclude that a continuous measure of alcohol outlet density was not associated with IPV in models controlling for individual and other neighborhood characteristics. Young women who drink heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, have greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical compared to abstainers. Similar to previous study

  11. Reasons for attempting suicide among men who use alcohol and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danilo Bertasso; Terra, Marlene Gomes; Soccol, Keity Laís Siepmann; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Camillo, Lucia Amabile; Plein, Fátima Aparecida Dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Objective To understand the reasons that lead men who use alcohol and other drugs to attempt suicide. Methods Qualitative research at an alcohol and psychosocial drugs support centre (CAPSad) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in December of 2011, with 11 men who use alcohol and other drugs and who attempted suicide. Data were collected by means of phenomenological interviewing. The phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schütz was used to analyse and interpret the interview statements. Results The results led to three categories: attempted suicide triggered by alcohol and drug use; attempted suicide triggered by the family lifeworld; and attempted suicide triggered by everyday feelings. Conclusion We found that alcohol and drug abuse and the different life circumstances of men in their families and social relationships contributed to the suicide attempt. PMID:27074308

  12. Alcohol and drug use in the workplace : managing the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbon, D. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The importance of implementing comprehensive drug and alcohol policies in the workplace was discussed with particular emphasis on the procedures which are needed to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements regarding alcoholism and drug abuse. A study of workplace substance abuse issues in Alberta revealed that 80 per cent of the Alberta workforce uses alcohol, 27 per cent use cold medication, and 6.5 per cent use illicit drugs. The impact of drug and alcohol use in the workplace was also reviewed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policy procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities. 3 refs.

  13. Brief Nurse Consultations for Preventing Alcohol Use among Urban School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined how brief nurse consultations helped prevent alcohol use among urban youth. Surveys of sixth-eighth graders who did and did not complete the consultations indicated that intervention students reduced and control students increased their heavy drinking following the intervention. There were no differences on other alcohol use…

  14. Multidisciplinary View of Alcohol Use Disorder: From a Psychiatric Illness to a Major Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Stefano; Golfieri, Lucia; Caputo, Fabio; Grandi, Silvana; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a significant health problem being a cause of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol-related illness has a relevant economic impact on the society and a negative influence on the life of patients and their family members. Psychosocial support might be useful in the management of people affected by alcohol use disorder since psychiatric and pharmaceutical approaches show some limits. In fact, many drugs are accessible for the treatment of alcohol disorder, but only Baclofen is functional as an anti-craving drug in patients with advanced liver disease. The alcohol-related liver damage represents the most frequent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe, and it is the main cause of death among adults with high alcohol consumption. The multidisciplinary action of clinical-psychologists, psychiatrics and hepatologists, is essential in the management of patients with alcohol liver disease especially in the case of liver transplantation. In general, the multidisciplinary approach is necessary in prevention, in framing patients and in the treatment. More resources should be used in prevention and research with the main aim of decreasing the harmful alcohol consumption. PMID:26784248

  15. Multidisciplinary View of Alcohol Use Disorder: From a Psychiatric Illness to a Major Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gitto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder is a significant health problem being a cause of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol-related illness has a relevant economic impact on the society and a negative influence on the life of patients and their family members. Psychosocial support might be useful in the management of people affected by alcohol use disorder since psychiatric and pharmaceutical approaches show some limits. In fact, many drugs are accessible for the treatment of alcohol disorder, but only Baclofen is functional as an anti-craving drug in patients with advanced liver disease. The alcohol-related liver damage represents the most frequent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe, and it is the main cause of death among adults with high alcohol consumption. The multidisciplinary action of clinical-psychologists, psychiatrics and hepatologists, is essential in the management of patients with alcohol liver disease especially in the case of liver transplantation. In general, the multidisciplinary approach is necessary in prevention, in framing patients and in the treatment. More resources should be used in prevention and research with the main aim of decreasing the harmful alcohol consumption.

  16. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  17. The Culture of High-Risk Alcohol Use among Club and Intramural Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andes, Stacy; Poet, Kathryn; McWilliams, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the drinking patterns of club and intramural college athletes and compare their alcohol consumption, perceived norms around the excessive use of alcohol, experience of negative consequences, and employment of protective strategies with those of campus varsity athletes. Participants: A total of…

  18. Cancer incidence among patients with alcohol use disorders--long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Pernille; Andersen, Tina Veje;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the cancer morbidity in a large cohort of patients with alcohol use disorders in the general Danish population. METHODS: We included 15,258 men and 3552 women free of cancer when attending the Copenhagen Outpatient Clinic for Alcoholics in the period fro...

  19. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Water, E. de; Braams, B.R.; Crone, E.A.; Peper, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation betwe

  20. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  1. PTSD as a Mediator between Childhood Rape and Alcohol Use in Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    1998-01-01

    Women (N=3,213) were interviewed initially, and again a year later, concerning childhood rape history, lifetime symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime alcohol use. Analysis found a history of childhood rape doubled the number of alcohol-abuse symptoms that women experienced in adulthood, suggesting that PTSD symptomatology…

  2. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  3. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple…

  4. Religiousness and Alcohol Use in College Students: Examining Descriptive Drinking Norms as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechting, Emily H.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Religiousness has consistently emerged in the literature as a protective factor for alcohol use. Relatively few studies have empirically explored possible mechanisms for this robust effect. The present study examines descriptive drinking norms as a potential mediator of the religiousness--alcohol consumption association. Consistent with the…

  5. Influencing Adolescent Social Perceptions of Alcohol Use to Facilitate Change through a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T.; Monreal, Teresa K.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the effectiveness of a voluntary high school-based alcohol intervention by investigating one proposed mechanism of change in adolescent alcohol involvement: perception of peer use. High school students reporting lifetime drinking (N = 2055) completed fall and spring surveys that assessed demographic information,…

  6. Study Habits and the Level of Alcohol Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Williams, Jenny; Wechsler, Henry

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on the 1997 and 1999 waves of the College Alcohol Study to examine the effect of alcohol consumption on the study habits of college students. A generalized least squares estimation procedure is used to account for the potential correlation in the unobserved characteristics determining drinking behavior and study habits. Our…

  7. Assessment of alcohol use in health professionals during the economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria; Karra, Aphrodite; Kourakos, Michael; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of alcohol in health professionals during the economic crisis in Greece. The sample included 579 health professionals. Despite the fact that alcohol consumption was low and women held more negative views on the effectiveness of its use compared to men, they consumed more than men both in quantity (mean 1.57 vs 1.46, p=0.291) and in frequency (mean 1.98 vs 1.73, p=0.132). Employees with a higher level of education expressed more opposition to the use of alcohol than those with a basic level of education (93.5% vs 66.7%, p=0.004). There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed after a stressful event and the frequency with which this amount of alcohol consumption occurred in workers. PMID:27081734

  8. Feasibility of an alcohol intervention programme for TB patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD--a qualitative study from Chennai, South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The negative influences of alcohol on TB management with regard to delays in seeking care as well as non compliance for treatment has been well documented. This study is part of a larger study on the prevalence of AUD (Alcohol Use Disorder among TB patients which revealed that almost a quarter of TB patients who consumed alcohol could be classified as those who had AUD. However there is dearth of any effective alcohol intervention programme for TB patients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD. METHODOLOGY: This qualitative study using the ecological system model was done to gain insights into the perceived effect of alcohol use on TB treatment and perceived necessity of an intervention programme for TB patients with AUD. We used purposive sampling to select 44 men from 73 TB patients with an AUDIT score >8. Focus group discussions (FGDs and interviews were conducted with TB patients with AUD, their family members and health providers. RESULTS: TB patients with AUD report excessive alcohol intake as one of the reasons for their vulnerability for TB. Peer pressure has been reported by many as the main reason for alcohol consumption. The influences of alcohol use on TB treatment has been elaborated especially with regard to the fears around the adverse effects of alcohol on TB drugs and the fear of being reprimanded by health providers. The need for alcohol intervention programs was expressed by the TB patients, their families and health providers. Suggestions for the intervention programmes included individual and group sessions, involvement of family members, audiovisual aids and the importance of sensitization by health staff. CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for urgent need based interventions which need to be pilot tested with a randomized control trial to bring out a model intervention programme for TB patients with AUD.

  9. Client Evaluation of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder in COMBINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Megan; Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M

    2016-08-01

    Practitioners and researchers across disciplines have been interested in identifying variables that act as indicators of treatment success or failure and one straightforward approach to measuring treatment success is to assess client satisfaction with treatment. Existing measures of treatment satisfaction do not address the specific aspects relevant to alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. Researchers in the COMBINE Study developed a new measure of treatment satisfaction to assess satisfaction in AUD treatment: The Evaluation of Treatment (EOT) measure. The aims of the present study were to examine the factor structure of items from the EOT measure and to examine the association between the EOT measure and other measures of client engagement, as well as AUD treatment outcomes. We also extended the model to test for possible mediation effects of treatment evaluation on the relationship between client treatment engagement components and AUD treatment outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated a 6-factor model with a higher order treatment satisfaction factor provided an excellent fit to the data (χ2 (246)=499.44, palcohol-related problems and global severity. Findings suggest that client evaluations of treatment play a substantial role in predicting AUD treatment outcomes and should be considered in future treatment and research. PMID:27296660

  10. The relationship between early drinking contexts of women "coming out" as lesbian and current alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Cheryl A; Hughes, Tonda L; Kinnison, Kelly E

    2007-01-01

    Several decades of research show that lesbians are at risk for hazardous drinking. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbians are less likely to abstain from drinking, less likely to decrease their alcohol consumption as they age, and more likely to report alcohol-related problems. Stress associated with lesbian identity and reliance on lesbian or gay bars for socialization and support are frequently posited--but largely untested--explanations for lesbians' heightened risk. Results from general population studies indicate that patterns of alcohol use established early in the life-course or during life transitions influence later alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Further, heavy-drinking peers, availability of alcohol, and drinking in particular social contexts--such as at bars and parties--are believed to contribute to heavier drinking and to alcohol-related problems. To better understand lesbians' risks for hazardous drinking, we examined relationships between retrospective accounts of drinking patterns and drinking contexts in the early stages of lesbian identity development and current drinking outcomes in a large sample of adult lesbians. Findings suggest that early drinking patterns and drinking contexts influence later alcohol use and have important implications for risk reduction and prevention among lesbians. PMID:19042906

  11. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes ...

  12. The influence of gene-environment interactions on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Prescott, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    Since 2005, a rapidly expanding literature has evaluated whether environmental factors such as socio-cultural context and adversity interact with genetic influences on drinking behaviors. This article critically reviews empirical research on alcohol-related genotype-environment interactions (GxE) and provides a contextual framework for understanding how genetic factors combine with (or are shaped by) environmental factors to influence the development of drinking behaviors and alcohol use disorders. Collectively, evidence from twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies indicates that the degree of importance of genetic influences on risk for drinking outcomes can vary in different populations and under different environmental circumstances. However, methodological limitations and lack of consistent replications in this literature make it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the nature and effect size of alcohol-related GxE. On the basis of this review, we describe several methodological challenges as they relate to current research on GxE in drinking behaviors and provide recommendations to aid future research. PMID:21530476

  13. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action. PMID:26751438

  14. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  15. The Efficacy of Disulfiram for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte H; Pedersen, Bolette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    the primary outcome of an intake of alcohol below 30 and 20 g/d for men and women, respectively, as well as secondary outcomes such as days until relapse, alcohol intake, and numbers of drinking days. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane......Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) involving hazardous, harmful, and addictive misuse of alcohol are widespread in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to review the effect of disulfiram in the treatment of patients with AUD. The effect of disulfiram was evaluated according to...... regarding more days until relapse and/or reduction in drinking days. Conclusions: Supervised treatment with disulfiram has some effect on short-term abstinence and days until relapse as well as number of drinking days when compared with placebo, none, or other treatments for patients with alcohol dependency...

  16. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  17. Alcohol Use, Partner Type, and Risky Sexual Behavior Among College Students: Findings from an Event-Level Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer L; Vanable, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students and may contribute to elevated rates of sexual risk taking. Using event-level data, the hypothesis that partner type would moderate the effect of alcohol consumption on condom use was tested. Sexually active college students (N = 330; 67% female) reported on characteristics of their most recent sexual encounter, including partner type, alcohol use, and condom use, along with measures of sex-related alcohol expectancies, sensation seeking, and ty...

  18. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Leenke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required.

  19. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  20. [THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTIONS CONCERNING OF ALCOHOL USING DURING PREGNANCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, T N; Volkova, E N; Isurina, G L; Pechenejskaia, M S; Skitnevskaia, L V; Tsvetkova, L A

    2015-01-01

    The article considers experience of application of focus-group technique for both analyzing social psychological conceptions about harm of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and development of prevention programs concerning fetal alcoholic syndrome, an incurable children disease developing because of mother's consumption of alcohol during her pregnancy. The development of preventive program is possible only on the basis the study results allowing getting reliable information about existing in different population groups (first of all in pregnant women, women of childbearing age and medical workers) attitudes concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy and factors effecting decrease or stopping alcohol consumption by pregnant women as well. The study was carried out involving 7 focus groups: three with physicians (n=23) and four with women (n=23) and their husbands (n=5). The protocols of focus groups were analyzed using software A TLAS-ti 5.0. The most typical attitudes concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy were established. It was discovered that neither women nor physicians have no essential knowledge about effect of alcohol on fetus and about fetal alcoholic syndrome. PMID:26411168

  1. Modeling alcohol use disorder severity: an integrative structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathasha R Moallem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol dependence is a complex psychological disorder whose phenomenology changes as the disorder progresses. Neuroscience has provided a variety of theories and evidence for the development, maintenance, and severity of addiction; however, clinically, it has been difficult to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD severity. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate and validate a data-driven approach to capturing alcohol severity in a community sample. Method: Participants were non-treatment seeking problem drinkers (n = 283. A structural equation modeling (SEM approach was used to (a verify the latent factor structure of the indices of AUD severity; and (b test the relationship between the AUD severity factor and measures of alcohol use, affective symptoms, and motivation to change drinking. Results: The model was found to fit well, with all chosen indices of AUD severity loading significantly and positively onto the severity factor. In addition, the paths from the alcohol use, motivation, and affective factors accounted for 68% of the variance in AUD severity. Greater AUD severity was associated with greater alcohol use, increased affective symptoms, and higher motivation to change.Conclusions: Unlike the categorical diagnostic criteria, the AUD severity factor is comprised of multiple quantitative dimensions of impairment observed across the progression of the disorder. The AUD severity factor was validated by testing it in relation to other outcomes such as alcohol use, affective symptoms, and motivation for change. Clinically, this approach to AUD severity can be used to inform treatment planning and ultimately to improve outcomes.

  2. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  3. Use of alcohol and drugs by Norwegian employees: a pilot study using questionnaires and analysis of oral fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh J Michael; Yttredal Borghild; Moan Inger S; Christophersen Asbjørg S; Gjerde Hallvard; Normann Per T; Mørland Jørg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of alcohol and drugs may affect workplace safety and productivity. Little is known about the magnitude of this problem in Norway. Methods Employee recruitment methods with or without individual follow-up were compared. The employees filled in a questionnaire and provided a sample of oral fluid. Samples were analysed for alcohol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG; a biological marker of recent large alcohol intake), psychoactive medicinal drugs and illegal drugs. Results Parti...

  4. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in alcohol dependents using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alternations in alcohol dependents ,comparing with normal subjects using statistical parametric mapping. Methods: 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain imaging were performed in 14 alcohol dependents diagnosed with SCID-AD, and 23 age matched normal controls for comparison situation of rCBF in alcohol dependents was analyzed by SPM. Results: The rCBF of bilateral frontal lobe, fight cingulate gyms, right caudate body , bilateral cerebellar tonsil were significantly decreased in alcohol dependents, and the rCBF of left inferior temporal gyms, left middle temporal gyms, bilateral precentral gyms, left thalamus, leftparahippocampal gyms, right lentiform nucleus was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: SPM analysis showed that significant rCBF change in alcohol dependents. (authors)

  5. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use Among Patients with Hepatitis C: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Omar T; Maynard, Quentin R; Melton, Pam A

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol use is a barrier to pharmacologic treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is advantageous for medical and clinical social workers engaged in HCV care to be knowledgeable of behavioral interventions that can be used to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV. This article identifies and describes studies that designed and implemented behavioral interventions to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, this article conducts a rigorous systematic review to identify peer-reviewed articles, describes each behavioral intervention, and reports primary outcomes of each study included in the review. PMID:27295132

  6. "Becoming Bold": Alcohol use and sexual exploration among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is correlated with unprotected sex, which may place YMSM who use alcohol with sex at increased risk for contracting HIV. However, little is known about how this link develops. This study used qualitative interviews to explore how alcohol became associated with sex and sexual risk among YMSM. We purposively sampled 20 Black and 20 Latino YMSM (N=40), ages 21–24, who used substances (alcohol, marijuana, and crystal methamphetamine) with sex. Interviews focused on participants’ perso...

  7. Childhood ADHD and Growth in Adolescent Alcohol Use: The Roles of Functional Impairments, ADHD Symptom Persistence, and Parental Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Cheong, JeeWon; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Curran, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the relation between childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and adolescent alcohol use has found mixed results. Studies are needed that operationalize alcohol use in developmentally appropriate ways and that test theoretically plausible moderators and mediators in a longitudinal framework. The current study tested childhood ADHD as a predictor of alcohol use frequency at age 17, and age-related increases in alcohol use frequency, through adolescence for 163 adol...

  8. The Feasibility of Assessing Alcohol Use among College Students Using Wireless Mobile Devices: Implications for Health Education and Behavioural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Cremeens, Jennifer; Usdan, Stuart; Martin, Ryan J.; Arriola, Kimberly J.; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of using wireless mobile devices (MDs) to collect daily alcohol information among college students, in particular examining feasibility in the context of costs associated with the use of wireless MDs. This study reports on practical aspects of using MDs to collect alcohol data, including compliance,…

  9. Alcohol Use and the Effects on University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; Lebrasseur, Rolland

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol consumption on university undergraduate students in eight management schools in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study establishes two contrasting groups--the socially oriented and the academically oriented. It elaborates on the potential consequences that excessive drinking may have on the learning,…

  10. Possible contributors to the gender differences in alcohol use and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Hilt, Lori

    2006-10-01

    Research on alcohol use and problems has demonstrated a much higher rate of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among men compared with women. The authors review the most frequently researched biological and psychosocial factors that may play a role in the gender differences in alcohol use and problems. Among the biological factors, women might carry a lower genetic risk for AUDs and tend to suffer more negative biological consequences from drinking as compared with men. Regarding psychosocial factors, men appear to be more likely than women to manifest certain risk factors for alcohol use and problems (e.g., fewer perceived social sanctions for drinking, positive expectancies for alcohol use, personality traits such as impulsivity) and have fewer protective factors. Although these findings have helped to explain some of the gender differences in alcohol use and problems, there are inconsistencies in the literature. Additionally, many studie may not have enough statistical power to detect gender differences. The authors suggest that the biological and social consequences of alcohol abuse for women may be especially potent protective factors against AUDs and discuss the possibility of public health campaigns developed on the basis of this idea. PMID:17128956

  11. Interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals: a review and critique of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; DeMartini, Kelly S; Sales, Jessica M; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use disorders are common among HIV-infected individuals and are associated with adverse physiological complications and increased engagement in other health risk behaviors. This paper provides a review and critique of interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, including a: (a) synthesis of core intervention components and trial designs; (b) summary of intervention efficacy to reduce alcohol use outcomes; and (c) methodological critique and guidance for future research. We reviewed 14 behavioral interventions that reported on alcohol use outcomes among HIV-infected individuals. Findings were mixed for intervention efficacy to reduce alcohol frequency and quantity. There was limited evidence that interventions reduced binge drinking frequency or alcohol abuse or dependence symptoms. Despite the prevalence of disordered alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, there is lack of efficacious intervention approaches. Efficacious intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals are urgently needed. PMID:23990322

  12. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Vancouver Secondary School Students: 1970, 1974 and 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Marcus J.; Macurdy, E. Ann

    In 1970, 1974 and 1978 similar surveys of alcohol and drug use were conducted using 10% random samples of Vancouver secondary school students (grades 8-12). The reported use of alcohol increased from 61% in 1970 to 71% in 1974 and 78% in 1978, while the use of cannabis increased from 39% in 1970 to 42% in 1974 and 47% in 1978. The use of tobacco,…

  13. Why do we need to control alcohol use through legislative measures? A south east asia perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddichha Sahoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though prevalence of alcohol use in the world is very high, it has not been brought under legal control in several countries, contrary to other controlled substances like opium, cocaine, cannabis, and so on. Aim: To demonstrate the similarities in both alcohol and opioid dependence by comparing and contrasting the course of clinical dependence for both substances. Patients and Methods: Consecutively admitted patients during the period August 2005 to May 2006, in the Center for Addiction Psychiatry, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, India, with ICD-10 (DCR diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome or opioid dependence syndrome were recruited for the study and administered the alcohol or other drug (opioid section of SSAGA-II, respectively, and the data was entered in the corresponding tally sheet. Results: The total sample size was 150, of which 112 consented to participate. Eighty-one (72% were alcohol-dependent and 31 (28% were opioid-dependent. Mean ages of the patients of alcohol dependence for opioid dependence was 35.16 ± 10.2 compared to 26.09 ± 5.65. Mean age of onset of alcohol and opioid use were similar (18.72 ± 6.84 and 20.73 ± 3.93 years, respectively. Patterns of dependence were also similar for both substances, from the first criteria to dependence (0.49 years for alcohol versus 0.64 years for opioids, and from the appearance of the second criteria to dependence (0.24 years versus 0.28 years. Conclusion: This study recommends alcohol to be treated on par with opioids and calls for legislations for the control of alcohol, uniformly, across the world, as a public health policy, on the lines of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control.

  14. The alcohol harm paradox: using a national survey to explore how alcohol may disproportionately impact health in deprived individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, MA; Hughes, K; Nicholls, J.; Sheron, N.; Gilmore, I.; Jones, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internationally, studies show that similar levels of alcohol consumption in deprived communities (vs. more affluent) result in higher levels of alcohol-related ill health. Hypotheses to explain this alcohol harm paradox include deprived drinkers: suffering greater combined health challenges (e.g. smoking, obesity) which exacerbate effects of alcohol harms; exhibiting more harmful consumption patterns (e.g. bingeing); having a history of more harmful consumption; and disproportionat...

  15. The alcohol harm paradox: using a national survey to explore how alcohol may disproportionately impact health in deprived individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, M.A.; Hughes, K; Nicholls, J.; Sheron, N.; Gilmore, I.; Jones, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, studies show that similar levels of alcohol consumption in deprived communities (vs. more affluent) result in higher levels of alcohol-related ill health. Hypotheses to explain this alcohol harm paradox include deprived drinkers: suffering greater combined health challenges (e.g. smoking, obesity) which exacerbate effects of alcohol harms; exhibiting more harmful consumption patterns (e.g. bingeing); having a history of more harmful consumption; and disproportiona...

  16. Alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas and alcohol use of young people: Current status and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R. C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on alcohol portrayals on-screen and the associated gaps and challenges in alcohol media research. Results: Thirteen longitudinal studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 6 experimental studies examined ...

  17. Parental Divorce and Initiation of Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0–5, ages 6–9, age 10+). Cox proportional-hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. PMID:27322803

  18. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322803

  19. [Alcohol use in young adolescents. A survey in French secondary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, D; Rouchaud, A; Garcia, C; Roehrig, C; Ferley, J-P

    2015-05-01

    Among young adolescents, early use of alcohol has been shown to be related to later alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems in numerous epidemiologic studies. However, if drinking problems are now well documented in young people, few data are available on alcohol use in children and young adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes with respect to alcohol use among young adolescents entering their first year of secondary school (mean age, 11.5 years). Data were collected from the ESPACE program, a preventive program conducted in the educational district of Limoges, France. Of the 2268 respondents with complete data, 73.4% (77.1% in males vs. 69.9% in females; Pcannabis use (6.0% in regular users vs. 0.9% in occasional users and 0.2% in nonusers) were found to be significantly more frequent in regular alcohol users than in other students (Pdepressed, lacking self-assurance, dissatisfied with their physical appearance and their way of life, and they felt that they exhibited significantly more impairments in their interactions with parents, peers, and the school environment. Similarly, they were found to have significantly more frequently an inclination for risk behaviors and a significantly more positive view of drinking than other students. These results look almost like those reported in adolescents and young people, and show that the alcohol abuse pattern is drawn early in childhood. They also highlight the value of epidemiologic investigations for planning preventive interventions. PMID:25836668

  20. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:25618591

  1. The Indirect Effect of Alcohol Use on GPA in First-Semester College Students: The Mediating Role of Academic Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James M.; DiPlacido, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on first-semester college students, investigating (a) indirect effects of aggregate alcohol use on grade point average (GPA) through academic effort (skipping class and time on schoolwork) and (b) daily effects of alcohol use on reduced effort. Eighty students reported daily alcohol use and academic effort (skipping class and…

  2. There’s alcohol in my soap: portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Fennis, Bob M.; Gosselt, Jordy F.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character, drinkin

  3. The Effect of Pubertal and Psychosocial Timing on Adolescents' Alcohol Use: What Role Does Alcohol-Specific Parenting Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.

    2011-01-01

    In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Because alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence and young adulthood and may have long-term consequences, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study annually assesses various measures of alcohol use among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students. These analyses have found that although alcohol use among these age groups overall has been declining since 1975, levels remain high. Thus, in 2011 about one-quarter of 8th graders, one-half of 10th graders, and almost two-thirds of 12th graders ...

  5. The great recession and employee alcohol use: A U.S. population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study to examine broadly the overall net change in U.S. population estimates of alcohol use related to a recession-The Great Recession-among individuals who remain employed. The alcohol variables included drinker status, usual frequency and quantity of alcohol use, frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication, as well as contextual assessments of the frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the workday and after work. The moderating influence of gender, race, and age also was explored. Data for this repeated cross-sectional study were obtained from 2 national telephone surveys of U.S. workers. The first survey occurred prior to the Great Recession (2002-2003; N = 2,501), whereas the second survey occurred during and after the official end of the Great Recession (2008-2011; N = 2,581). The results revealed that the recession was related to a higher proportion of drinkers among middle-aged employees, but not among young employees. Gender and race did not moderate the relation of the recession to drinker status. Among drinkers, the recession was not related to usual alcohol use (frequency and quantity), but was positively related to the frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication. Further, the recession had a differential relation to the contextual alcohol measures. It was negatively related to the frequency and quantity of workday alcohol use, but was positively related to the frequency and quantity of afterwork alcohol use. Among drinkers, gender, race, and age did not moderate the relation of the recession to alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692295

  6. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter Networks in Individuals with Current and Remitted Alcohol Use Disorders and Comorbid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Monnig, Mollie A.; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A.; Gasparovic, Charles; Ruhl, David A.; Lysne, Per; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Thoma, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders show white matter abnormality relative to normal samples, yet differences in white matter profiles have not yet been investigated as a function of abstinence. Individuals with current alcohol use disorders (AUD-C; n = 10), individuals with alcohol use disorders in remission for at least one year (AUD-R; n = 9), and healthy control participants (HC; n = 15) matched to alcohol groups on age and smoking status underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dif...

  7. Posttraumatic Stress and Alcohol Use Motives: A Test of the Incremental and Mediating Role of Distress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation first examined the incremental validity of distress tolerance in terms of alcohol use coping motives within a trauma-exposed community sample of adults, beyond the variance contributed by posttraumatic stress symptom severity, difficulties in emotion regulation, alcohol consumption, and other (noncriterion) alcohol use motives. Secondly, the potential mediating role of distress tolerance in the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and alcohol use coping...

  8. Gender, Acculturation and Alcohol Use among Latina/o Adolescents: A Multi-Ethnic Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Ana-María González; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the relationship between acculturation and alcohol use by gender and ethnicity using a nationally representative sample of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Specifically, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use and binge drinking for a sample that includes 6792 non-Hispanic whites, 910 Mexican Americans, 290 Cuban Americans, and 336 Puerto Ricans. Bivariate results reveal significan...

  9. Predicting alcohol use with a recoding-free variant of the Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Rothermund, Klaus; Wiers, Reinout W

    2009-05-01

    Recently, a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the IAT-RF (IAT-Recoding Free) was developed which prevents recoding processes by switching response assignments randomly between trials rather than between blocks. In this study, the IAT-RF was used to measure and examine the predictive validity of recoding-free implicit alcohol associations with positive arousal. Findings with the IAT-RF demonstrated that alcohol was overall more strongly associated with negative sedation than with positive arousal. However, more importantly, the size of this compatibility effect was positively correlated with alcohol use indicating that stronger implicit alcohol associations with positive arousal are related to increased drinking. Further, implicit alcohol associations with positive arousal measured with the IAT-RF also predicted unique variance in alcohol use above the variance explained by explicit measures. Hence, the present findings suggest that implicit associations with positive arousal may play an important role in drinking behavior, and demonstrate the validity of the IAT-RF as a measure of implicit alcohol associations. PMID:19162409

  10. Correlation and prediction of environmental properties of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants using the UNIFAC method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental properties of one type of nonionic surfactants, the alcohol ethoxylates (polyoxyethylene alcohols), are predicted using the UNIFAC (universal quasi-chemical functional group activity coefficient) method. Various properties are considered; the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow...... 12). Thus, the Kow values are predicted here via UNIFAC and compared to the few available experimental data. Based on the predicted Kow values, a correlation between Kow and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is establi2shed because HLB is a widely used parameter in surfactant applications. Finally......, BCF and toxicity of alcohol ethoxylates are correlated with their Kow. The proposed approach can be extended to other families of nonionic surfactants....

  11. Predictors of driving after alcohol and drug use among adolescents in Valencia (Spain).

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Dols, S.; Álvarez, FJ; Llorens, N.; Vidal-Infer, A.; Torrijo, MJ; Valderrama-Zurián, JC

    2010-01-01

    Producción Científica Background: Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs has been identified as a risk factor for road traffic crashes. We have assessed the prevalence and predictor factors for driving after alcohol and drug use by adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 11,239 students aged 14–18 years from 252 private and public schools in the Valencia region of Spain was conducted. The prevalence and predictors of driving after alcohol use, alco...

  12. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  13. Modelling alcohol consumption during adolescence using zero inflated negative binomial and decision trees

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Palmer; Jona Roca; Berta Cajal; Elena Gervilla

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is currently the most consumed substance among the Spanish adolescent population. Some of the variables that bear an influence on this consumption include ease of access, use of alcohol by friends and some personality factors. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the predictive value of these variables specifically on alcohol consumption in the adolescent population. The useful sample was made up of 6,145 adolescents (49.8% boys and 50.2% girls) with a mean age of 15.4 ye...

  14. The use of alcohol by Miami's adolescent public school students 1992: peers, risk-taking, and availability as central forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnold, B M

    1998-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of alcohol by 535 adolescents in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by adolescents include: the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, and their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk-taker, who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone; and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking did not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, school clubs, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of alcohol by adolescents. Although the typical adolescent who consumed alcohol was older (in grades 9 through 12), this was not a significant variable. PMID:9816807

  15. Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Male Mexican and Central American Im/migrant Laborers: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Paula A.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses a growing concern regarding alcohol use in adult male Latino im/migrant laborers in the United States. The review draws from alcohol studies focusing on "Hispanic" populations, and from health behavior studies of Latino im/migrant laborers, research that includes alcohol use. Specifically, this review addresses (a) alcohol…

  16. Relationship Between Neighborhood Context, Family Management Practices and Alcohol Use Among Urban, Multi-ethnic, Young Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context, protective home and family management practices, and alcohol use among urban, racial/ethnic minority, adolescents. The sample comprised 5,655 youth who were primarily low SES (72%), African American (43%) and Hispanic (29%). Participants completed surveys in 2002–2005 (ages 11–14 years). Items assessed alcohol use, accessibility of alcohol at home and parental family management practices. Neighborhood context measures inc...

  17. Executive Functioning in Alcohol Use Studies: A Brief Review of Findings and Challenges in Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ahern, David C.; Clark, Uraina S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alco...

  18. Analysis of genes for alcoholism using two-disease-locus models

    OpenAIRE

    Shete Sanjay; Wu Chih-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Using model-based two-locus methods for mapping genes, we analyzed the family data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Microsatellite data from 143 families ascertained through having three or more individuals affected with alcohol dependence were used for this investigation. Four regions showing evidence for linkage were identified using single-locus models from previous investigations. We investigated the genetic linkage, pattern of disease inheritance, and ...

  19. The use of acute and preventive medical services by a general population: relationship to alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cryer, Colin; Jenkins, Linda M.; Cook, Adam; Ditchburn, James S.; Harris, Colin K.; Davis, Alison R.; Peters, Timothy J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the hypothesis that increasing alcohol consumption is accompanied by increasing use of acute, but decreasing use of preventative, medical services among the general population. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Health and life-style survey of 41,000 randomly-sampled adults in SE England who self-completed a validated questionnaire covering socio-demographics, alcohol and tobacco usage and use of acute (A&E department and general practitioner) and preventative (dental, optician, ma...

  20. Comparison of Participatively-set and Assigned Goals in the Reduction of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, Brian Edward

    2008-01-01

    The effects of setting goals on goal commitment and goal achievement in the context of an alcohol use intervention were examined using an experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to participatively-set goals, assigned goals, and no goal conditions. The current study provides information regarding the links between degree of participation in goal setting, goal commitment, self-efficacy for oneâ s goal, subsequent alcohol use, and goal achievement. It was hypothesized t...

  1. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  2. RACE-SPECIFIC TRANSITION PATTERNS AMONG ALCOHOL USE CLASSES IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah E. Dauber; Paulson, James F.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine transitions among alcohol use classes in 2225 White and African American adolescent girls, and race differences in predictors of transition into and out of problematic drinking classes. Latent class analysis confirmed four classes for White girls and three for AA girls, defined in a previous study. Latent transition analysis revealed more stable abstainers and decreasing alcohol use among AA girls, and more incr...

  3. Black-white differences in alcohol use by women: Baltimore survey findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Lillie-Blanton, M; MacKenzie, E; Anthony, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Although black women suffer disproportionately from alcohol-related illnesses and causes of death, little is known about the extent to which poorer outcomes are a function of differences in drinking, the use of health services, or some combination of these factors. This study, using interview data obtained in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area household survey, compares racial differences in alcohol use and abuse among a sample of 2,100 women. After controlling for differences in soci...

  4. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Janelle E.; Josephine M. Hawke; Arias, Albert J.; Yifrah Kaminer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED) symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs). Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate...

  5. Initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence: Links with exposure to community violence across time

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie, Mrug; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Early alcohol use initiation has been linked with exposure to community violence, but the direction of these associations and the roles of witnessing violence vs. victimization are not clear. This study used a cross-lagged structural equation model to examine the prospective relationships between alcohol use initiation and witnessing community violence and victimization in early adolescence. A sample of 603 boys and girls provided two waves of data 16 months apart. After controlling for conti...

  6. Men’s Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21–35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of alcohol prior to these acts, and their use of condoms during acts involving penetration. Descriptive statistics and, Pearson's chi-square tests were u...

  7. Testing the Effects of Peer Socialization versus Selection on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Treated Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community ...

  8. Improved breath alcohol analysis with use of carbon dioxide as the tracer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art breath analysers require a prolonged expiration into a mouthpiece to obtain the accuracy required for evidential testing and screening of the alcohol concentration. This requirement is unsuitable for breath analysers used as alcolock owing to their frequent use and the fact that the majority of users are sober drivers; as well as for breath testing in uncooperative persons. This thesis presents a method by which breath alcohol analysis can be improved, using carbon dioxide (C...

  9. Novel QTL at chromosome 6p22 for alcohol consumption: Implications for the genetic liability of alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Mark Z; Glahn, David C; Carless, Melanie A; Olvera, Rene; McKay, D Reese; Quillen, Ellen E; Gelernter, Joel; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Deng, Hong-Wen; Kent, Jack W; Dyer, Thomas D; Göring, Harald H H; Curran, Joanne E; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Linkage studies of alcoholism have implicated several chromosome regions, leading to the successful identification of susceptibility genes, including ADH4 and GABRA2 on chromosome 4. Quantitative endophenotypes that are potentially closer to gene action than clinical endpoints offer a means of obtaining more refined linkage signals of genes that predispose alcohol use disorders (AUD). In this study we examine a self-reported measure of the maximum number of drinks consumed in a 24-hr period (abbreviated Max Drinks), a significantly heritable phenotype (h(2)  = 0.32 ± 0.05; P = 4.61 × 10(-14)) with a strong genetic correlation with AUD (ρg  = 0.99 ± 0.13) for the San Antonio Family Study (n = 1,203). Genome-wide SNPs were analyzed using variance components linkage methods in the program SOLAR, revealing a novel, genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 4.17; P = 5.85 × 10(-6)) for Max Drinks at chromosome 6p22.3, a region with a number of compelling candidate genes implicated in neuronal function and psychiatric illness. Joint analysis of Max Drinks and AUD status shows that the QTL has a significant non-zero effect on diagnosis (P = 4.04 × 10(-3)), accounting for 8.6% of the total variation. Significant SNP associations for Max Drinks were also identified at the linkage region, including one, rs7761213 (P = 2.14 × 10(-4)), obtained for an independent sample of Chinese families. Thus, our study identifies a potential risk locus for AUD at 6p22.3, with significant pleiotropic effects on the heaviness of alcohol consumption that may not be population specific. PMID:24692236

  10. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akduman, Begüm [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Murat [Koçarlı Vocational and Training School, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktaş, E-mail: daktas@adu.edu.tr [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Akgöl, Sinan [Biochemistry Department, Ege University, İzmir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Chemistry Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  11. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  12. Are patients with panic disorder respiratory subtype more vulnerable to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have documented high use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs in patients with panic disorder (PD. The comorbid substance use disorders worsen the prognosis of mood and anxiety disorders. The respiratory subtype (RS of PD seems to represent a more severe and distinct form of this disorder associated with higher familial history of PD and more comorbidity with other anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVES: Describe the patterns of tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use in PD patients, and also to ascertain if patients with the RS use these substances more than those of the non-respiratory subtype. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 71 PD patients. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Fagerstrom Tobacco Questionnaire were used in the evaluation. Patients with four or five respiratory symptoms were classified in the RS, the remaining patients were classified as non-respiratory subtype. RESULTS: In our sample 31.0% were smokers, 11.3% were hazardous alcohol users and none of them was using illicit drugs. There were no differences between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes regarding the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants and hallucinogens. DISCUSSION: The RS was not correlated to the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Additional epidemiological and clinical studies focusing the relationship between PD and substance use are warranted.

  13. Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Felipe González; Coe, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beli...

  14. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1993-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Determination of alcohol- and sugar concentration in aqueous solutions using reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Uffe; Merbold, H.; Folkenberg, J. R.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2007-01-01

    We use self-referencing reflection THz spectroscopy to measure the alcohol- and sugar concentration with high precision in small volumes of aqueous solutions, independent of carbonation and the contents of yeast or other small organic particles.

  16. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  17. Alcohol and Energy Drink Use among Adolescents Seeking Emergency Department Care

    OpenAIRE

    Bonar, Erin E.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Polshkova, Svitlana; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) visits due to energy drinks rose drastically from 2007 to 2011. Consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks by young people is particularly concerning. Among youth (ages 14–20) in the ED reporting past-year alcohol use, we assessed frequency, reasons, and medical consequences of consuming alcohol and energy drinks in the same beverage or on the same occasion, and relationships with other risk behaviors. The sample included 439 youth (Mage=18.6 years, SD=1.4; 41% male;...

  18. Job loss and alcohol abuse: a test using data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, R; Dooley, D; Wilson, G; Hough, R

    1993-09-01

    The hypothesis that job loss affects the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is tested using panel data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Results suggest that the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is greater among those who have been laid off than among those who have not. However, employed persons in communities in which total employment is unexpectedly low are at reduced risk of becoming alcohol abusers. The implications of the results for economic policy and for mental health services are discussed briefly. PMID:7989666

  19. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Susan K; Wu, Ruilian; Silks, L A Pete

    2011-04-15

    Transition metal-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation is an attractive method for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds, but most catalytic systems feature precious metals and require pure oxygen. The vanadium complex (HQ)(2)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (2 mol %, HQ = 8-quinolinate) and NEt(3) (10 mol %) catalyze the oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols with air. The catalyst can be easily prepared under air using commercially available reagents and is effective for a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols. PMID:21434606

  20. Estimating Driver Risk Using Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock BAC Tests and Psychometric Assessments: Initial Descriptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul; Tippetts, Scott; Allen, John; Javors, Martin; Alling, Christer; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and followup blood samples (n=302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n=130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n=92) and ETG (n=146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Timeline Followback (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC), and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were significantly related to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall ANOVA F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were strongly correlated with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when relicensing. PMID:19922520

  1. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. Implementation of integrated stepped care for unhealthy alcohol use in HIV clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, E. Jennifer; Hansen, Nathan B.; Cutter, Christopher J.; Danton, Cheryl; Fiellin, Lynn E.; O’Connor, Patrick G.; Williams, Emily C.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Bryant, Kendall J.; FIELLIN, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective counseling and pharmacotherapy for unhealthy alcohol use are rarely provided in HIV treatment settings to patients. Our goal was to describe factors influencing implementation of a stepped care model to address unhealthy alcohol use in HIV clinics from the perspectives of social workers, psychologists and addiction psychiatrists. Methods We conducted two focus groups with Social Workers (n = 4), Psychologists (n = 2), and Addiction Psychiatrists (n = 4) involved in an ong...

  3. Fraternity and Sorority Involvement, Social Influences, and Alcohol Use Among College Students: A Prospective Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Christy; Wood, Mark D.; Borsari, Brian; Laird, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This study used latent growth curve modeling to investigate whether the effects of gender and Greek involvement on alcohol use and problems over the first 2 years of college are best characterized by selection, socialization, or reciprocal influence processes. Three social influences (alcohol offers, social modeling, and perceived norms) were examined as potential mediators of these effects. Undergraduate participants (N = 388) completed self-report measures prior to enrollment and in the spr...

  4. Brief Report: Tailgating as a unique context for parental modeling on college student alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Abar, Caitlin; Turrisi, Rob; ABAR, BEAU

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been directed toward potential differential effects of the various contexts in which parents model alcohol use. The present study examined college football tailgating as a potential context in which parental modeling may be more or less risky. 290 college freshmen were assessed for perceptions of their parents’ drinking and tailgating behaviors, individual alcohol use and consequences. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed and results revealed that parental tai...

  5. Motivation to Change Alcohol Use and Treatment Engagement in Incarcerated Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Mary; Stein, L. A. R.; Martin, Rosemarie; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Monti, Peter M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents have been reported to be less motivated to engage and remain in substance abuse treatment than adults. When they appear motivated, it is often due to external motivators such as family pressure or court mandated treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents’ motivation to change alcohol use was related to treatment engagement while incarcerated and alcohol use after release. Participants (N=114) were youth in a state correctional facility in the Northeast an...

  6. Racial/ethnic workplace discrimination: association with tobacco and alcohol use.

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, LJ; Ornelas, IJ; Lyles, CR; Williams, EC

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity.To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surv...

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique Versus Comorbid Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression were examined. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youth were surveyed when they were 10 years-old in 1985 and followed to age 21 years years in 1996 (95% retention). Protective factors were measured at age 14 years years. Young adult disorders were...

  8. Determination of alcohol- and sugar concentration in aqueous solutions using reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Merbold, H; Folkenberg, J R; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2007-01-01

    We use self-referencing reflection THz spectroscopy to measure the alcohol- and sugar concentration with high precision in small volumes of aqueous solutions, independent of carbonation and the contents of yeast or other small organic particles.......We use self-referencing reflection THz spectroscopy to measure the alcohol- and sugar concentration with high precision in small volumes of aqueous solutions, independent of carbonation and the contents of yeast or other small organic particles....

  9. Exercise and Coping-Oriented Alcohol Use among a Trauma-Exposed Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Johnna L.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Irons, Jessica G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the relation between exercise intensity and alcohol use coping motives among trauma-exposed adults. Participants were 114 adults (58 women; Mage = 22.31 years, SD = 8.89) who reported exposure to at least one traumatic event (APA, 2000) and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Partially consistent with expectation, engagement in vigorous-intensity activities (>6 resting metabolic rate [MET] score) demonstrated a significant, incremental (negative) association wi...

  10. Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-05-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986227

  11. Moderators of the Dynamic Link between Alcohol Use and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between wi...

  12. Alcohol Use Among Depressed Patients: The Need for Assessment and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Patricia A. Engler; Stein, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    For many depressed patients, drinking may interfere with the successful treatment of their depression. Even among patients whose alcohol use does not rise to the level of an alcohol-use disorder, drinking can have a deleterious effect on depression and depressive symptoms and may dampen the impact of treatment for depression. However, subclinical drinking may not be addressed during the course of psychological or psychiatric treatment for depression. The authors advocate for the routine asses...

  13. Alcohol Use and Comorbid Anxiety, Traumatic Stress, and Hopelessness Among Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Arthur W.; Resor, Michelle R.; Villanueva, Michael R.; Braddy, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the comorbidity of alcohol use, anxiety, hopelessness, and trauma among Mexican Americans, especially those living in impoverished and often isolated communities or neighborhoods (colonias in Spanish) along the U.S.-Mexico border that may be particularly vulnerable due to stressful living conditions. The current study utilized a community participatory model to investigate the relationships of alcohol use, acculturation, anxiety, hopelessness, and trauma in 100 Mexican o...

  14. Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling ...

  15. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL- AND ILLICIT DRUG-USE IN FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION IMMIGRANTS IN SWEDEN

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Mikael; Hagquist, Curt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper adolescent alcohol- and illicit drug-use among 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from Nordic, non-Nordic European and non-European countries were compared with the Swedish majority population. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed based on survey data from three different Swedish regions including 24 municipalities sampled in 2005 including 13,070 adolescents. Immigrants from Nordic countries were more likely to use alcohol (OR: 1.10-1.37) while immigrants from n...

  16. Onset to First Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Network Diffusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Light, John M.; Greenan, Charlotte C.; Rusby, Julie C.; Nies, Kimberley M.; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2013-01-01

    A novel version of Snijders’s stochastic actor-based modeling (SABM) framework is applied to model the diffusion of first alcohol use through middle school-wide longitudinal networks of early adolescents, aged approximately 11–14 years. Models couple a standard SABM for friendship network evolution with a proportional hazard model for first alcohol use. Meta-analysis of individual models for 12 schools found significant effects for friendship selection based on the same alco...

  17. Differential Susceptibility: The Genetic Moderation of Peer Pressure on Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Amanda M.; Cleveland, H. Harrington.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Although peer pressure can influence adolescents’ alcohol use, individual susceptibility to these pressures varies across individuals. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence adolescents’ susceptibility to their peer environment due to the role dopamine plays in reward sensation during social interaction. We hypothesized that DRD4 genotype status would moderate the impact of 7th-grade antisocial peer pressure on 12th-grade lifetime alcohol use (n ...

  18. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  19. The effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structures and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the neurocognitive and neuroimaging literature regarding the effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structure and function. Adolescents who engage in heavy alcohol use, even at subdiagnostic levels, show differences in brain structure, function, and behavior when compared with non-drinking controls. Preliminary longitudinal studies have helped disentangle premorbid factors from consequences associated with drinking. Neural abnormalities and cognitive disadvantages both appear to predate drinking, particularly in youth who have a family history of alcoholism, and are directly related to the neurotoxic effect of alcohol use. Binge drinking and withdrawal and hangover symptoms have been associated with the greatest neural abnormalities during adolescence, particularly in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. PMID:25307592

  20. Disordered eating and alcohol use among college women: associations with race and big five traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica L; Groth, Gabrielle; Longo, Laura; Rocha, Tracey L; Martens, Matthew P

    2015-04-01

    Excessive alcohol use and disordered eating are considerable health-related problems among college women. The purpose of the present study was to examine how specific patterns of disordered eating (i.e., anorexia, bulimia, binge eating) are related to alcohol use and related problems and the influence of racial group membership and Big Five personality traits on the co-occurrence of these behaviors. Participants were 153 undergraduate women. Results indicated that White women reported more binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, disordered eating, anorexia nervosa symptoms, and bulimia nervosa symptoms than non-White women. Women with higher levels of openness and who engage in extreme exercise, dieting, fasting, or purging were more at risk for heavy and problematic alcohol use. Implications for the treatment of co-occurring disorders among college students and further research are discussed. PMID:25734858

  1. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol prod...

  2. Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Runaway Youths: A Test-Retest Study of the Form 90

    OpenAIRE

    SLESNICK, NATASHA; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    While excellent adolescent alcohol and drug screening tools are available, there are relatively few, if any, psychometrically validated measures to use in the assessment of adolescent treatment outcome. This study conducted a test-retest exercise of the Form 90 Drug and Alcohol (Form 90 DnA) to determine the stability of adolescent responses when administering the day-by-day calendar/grid approach. Homeless youth (N = 37) with alcohol, drug, or alcohol and drug abuse/dependence combined were ...

  3. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara R. Braams; Peper, Jiska S.; Dianne van der Heide; Sabine Peters; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol...

  4. Alcohol Use among Italian University Students: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Peer Group Norms and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…

  5. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol Use Outcomes among College Women Drinkers: Does Disordered Eating and Race Moderate This Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…

  6. The Moderating Effects of Culture on Peer Deviance and Alcohol Use among High-Risk African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal

    2007-01-01

    African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…

  7. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebena Rene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions

  8. Differential Susceptibility: The Genetic Moderation of Peer Pressure on Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda M; Cleveland, H Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Although peer pressure can influence adolescents' alcohol use, individual susceptibility to these pressures varies across individuals. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence adolescents' susceptibility to their peer environment due to the role dopamine plays in reward sensation during social interaction. We hypothesized that DRD4 genotype status would moderate the impact of 7th-grade antisocial peer pressure on 12th-grade lifetime alcohol use (n = 414; 58.7% female; 92.8% White). The results revealed significant main effects for antisocial peer pressure, but no main effects for DRD4 genotype on lifetime alcohol use. Adolescent DRD4 genotype moderated the association between peer pressure and lifetime alcohol use. For individuals who carried at least one copy of the DRD4 7-repeat allele (7+), antisocial peer pressure was associated with increased lifetime alcohol use. These findings indicate that genetic sensitivity to peer pressure confers increased alcohol use in late adolescence. PMID:26307243

  9. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  10. Religiousness and Levels of Hazardous Alcohol Use: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Peter J; Hardy, Sam A; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S; Schwartz, Seth J; Kim, Su Yeong; Forthun, Larry F; Bersamin, Melina M; Donovan, Roxanne A; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A; Cano, Miguel Ángel

    2015-10-01

    Prior person-centered research has consistently identified a subgroup of highly religious participants that uses significantly less alcohol when compared to the other subgroups. The construct of religious motivation is absent from existing examinations of the nuanced combinations of religiousness dimensions within persons, and alcohol expectancy valuations have yet to be included as outcome variables. Variable-centered approaches have found religious motivation and alcohol expectancy valuations to play a protective role against individuals' hazardous alcohol use. The current study examined latent religiousness profiles and hazardous alcohol use in a large, multisite sample of ethnically diverse college students. The sample consisted of 7412 college students aged 18-25 (M age = 19.77, SD age = 1.61; 75% female; 61% European American). Three latent profiles were derived from measures of religious involvement, salience, and religious motivations: Quest-Intrinsic Religiousness (highest levels of salience, involvement, and quest and intrinsic motivations; lowest level of extrinsic motivation), Moderate Religiousness (intermediate levels of salience, involvement, and motivations) and Extrinsic Religiousness (lowest levels of salience, involvement, and quest and intrinsic motivations; highest level of extrinsic motivation). The Quest-Intrinsic Religiousness profile scored significantly lower on hazardous alcohol use, positive expectancy outcomes, positive expectancy valuations, and negative expectancy valuations, and significantly higher on negative expectancy outcomes, compared to the other two profiles. The Extrinsic and Moderate Religiousness profiles did not differ significantly on positive expectancy outcomes, negative expectancy outcomes, negative expectancy valuations, or hazardous alcohol use. The results advance existing research by demonstrating that the protective influence of religiousness on college students' hazardous alcohol use may involve high levels on

  11. Maternal risk taking on the balloon analogue risk task as a prospective predictor of youth alcohol use escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Felton, Julia W; Dahne, Jennifer; Ninnemann, Andrew; Lejuez, C W

    2015-10-01

    The transition from late childhood through middle adolescence represents a critical developmental period during which there is a rapid increase in the initiation and escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol use is part of a constellation of risk taking behaviors that increase during this developmental transition, which can be explained by environmental and genetic factors. Social learning theory (SLT) implicates observations of parental drinking in the development of alcohol use in youth. Parental risk taking more broadly has not previously been examined as a factor predictive of alcohol use escalation in youth across adolescence. The current study examined the relative contributions of maternal risk taking on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and maternal alcohol use in the prediction of alcohol escalation among youth over three years. Participants were a sample of 245 youth (55.0% male, 49.6% Caucasian) who participated annually between grades 8 and 10, drawn from a larger study of adolescent risk taking. Within our sample, maternal risk taking, as measured by the BART, predicted increases in alcohol use. Interestingly, maternal alcohol use and other youth factors were not predictive of escalations in youth alcohol use. Our findings suggest the importance of considering maternal riskiness more broadly, rather than solely focusing on maternal alcohol use when attempting to understand youth alcohol use across adolescence. These findings emphasize the relevance of maternal risk taking as measured by a behavioral task and suggest a general level of riskiness displayed by mothers might encourage youth to behave in a riskier manner themselves. PMID:26046400

  12. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  13. Age of Alcohol and Cannabis Use Onset Mediates the Association of Transmissible Risk in Childhood and Development of Alcohol and Cannabis Disorders: Evidence for Common Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph; Ridenour, Ty; Zhai, Zu Wei; Fishbein, Diana; Reynolds, Maureen; Vanyukov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Age at the time of first alcohol and cannabis use was investigated in relation to a measure of transmissible (intergenerational) risk for addiction in childhood and development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). It was hypothesized that age at the time of first experience with either substance mediates the association between transmissible risk and subsequent diagnosis of both disorders. The Transmissible Liability Index (TLI; (Vanyukov et al., 2009) was administer...

  14. Detection and quantitative determination of diethylene glycol in ethyl alcohol using gamma- ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagani, Chikkappa; Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the toxic diethylene glycol contamination in ethyl alcohol demands a rapid, accurate and reliable method. Diethylene glycol (DEG) ingestion, accidental or intentional, can lead to death. Clinical and analytical methods used to detect diethylene glycol in alcohol require several hours to days due to tedious instrument handling and measurements. Enzymatic assays face difficulty due to analytic problems. As an alternative method of data analysis, we have used γ-ray spectroscopic method to estimate the diethylene glycol contamination in alcohol by monitoring the variation in the linear and mass attenuation coefficients. This method is simple, robust, portable and can provide reliable and quantitative information about the ethyl alcohol adulterated with diethylene glycol which is of broader interest to society. PMID:26243958

  15. Biomolecules and Biomarkers Used in Diagnosis of Alcohol Drinking and in Monitoring Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu M. Nanau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quantitative, measurable detection of drinking is important for the successful treatment of alcohol misuse in transplantation of patients with alcohol disorders, people living with human immunodeficiency virus that need to adhere to medication, and special occupational hazard offenders, many of whom continually deny drinking. Their initial misconduct usually leads to medical problems associated with drinking, impulsive social behavior, and drunk driving. The accurate identification of alcohol consumption via biochemical tests contributes significantly to the monitoring of drinking behavior. Methods: A systematic review of the current methods used to measure biomarkers of alcohol consumption was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases (2010–2015. The names of the tests have been identified. The methods and publications that correlate between the social instruments and the biochemical tests were further investigated. There is a clear need for assays standardization to ensure the use of these biochemical tests as routine biomarkers. Findings: Alcohol ingestion can be measured using a breath test. Because alcohol is rapidly eliminated from the circulation, the time for detection by this analysis is in the range of hours. Alcohol consumption can alternatively be detected by direct measurement of ethanol concentration in blood or urine. Several markers have been proposed to extend the interval and sensitivities of detection, including ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine, phosphatidylethanol in blood, and ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters in hair, among others. Moreover, there is a need to correlate the indirect biomarker carbohydrate deficient transferrin, which reflects longer lasting consumption of higher amounts of alcohol, with serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, another long term indirect biomarker that is routinely used and standardized in laboratory medicine.

  16. An evolutionary perspective on the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Adam; Miloyan, Beyon; Brilot, Ben; Gullo, Matthew J; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) commonly co-occurs with, and often precedes, Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In this paper, we address the relationship between SAD and AUD by considering how natural selection left socially anxious individuals vulnerable to alcohol use, and by addressing the underlying mechanisms. We review research suggesting that social anxiety has evolved for the regulation of behaviors involved in reducing the likelihood or consequences of threats to social status. The management of potential threats to social standing is important considering that these threats can result in reduced cooperation or ostracism - and therefore to reduced access to coalitional partners, resources or mates. Alcohol exerts effects upon evolutionarily conserved emotion circuits, and can down-regulate or block anxiety (or may be expected to do so). As such, the ingestion of alcohol can artificially signal the absence or successful management of social threats. In turn, alcohol use may be reinforced in socially anxious people because of this reduction in subjective malaise, and because it facilitates social behaviors - particularly in individuals for whom the persistent avoidance of social situations poses its own threat (i.e., difficulty finding mates). Although the frequent co-occurrence of SAD and AUD is associated with poorer treatment outcomes than either condition alone, a richer understanding of the biological and psychosocial drives underlying susceptibility to alcohol use among socially anxious individuals may improve the efficacy of therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing or treating this comorbidity. PMID:26914963

  17. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle E. Arias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs. Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate regression was used to test the associations between ED symptoms and alcohol consumption. Results: 26.4% of the participants had at least one ED symptom, with the highest number of symptoms occurring in females. The number of ED symptoms was associated with increases in the number of times that they became intoxicated in the year before entering treatment, the number of alcohol-related social problems, and the number of alcohol-related physical symptoms after taking into consideration the effects of age and gender. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of EDs is high in adolescents with AOSUDs, with the number of ED symptoms correlating with increased alcohol consumption. Further studies on the course and treatment of adolescents with AOSUDs and symptoms of EDs are warranted.

  18. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kekwaletswe CT; Morojele NK

    2014-01-01

    Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a...

  19. Gut-brain peptides in corticostriatal-limbic circuitry and alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Doo-SupChoi; Jun HyunPark

    2014-01-01

    Peptides synthesized in endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract and neurons are traditionally considered regulators of metabolism, energy intake, and appetite. However, recent work has demonstrated that many of these peptides act on corticostriatal-limbic circuitry and, in turn, regulate addictive behaviors. Given that alcohol is a source of energy and an addictive substance, it is not surprising that increasing evidence supports a role for gut-brain peptides specifically in alcohol use...

  20. Should we use carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker for alcohol abusers?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is one of the conventional markers for chronic alcohol consumption, is used by researchers and clinicians. A number of enzymes are affected by ethanol intake. The induction or inhibition of sialyl transferase and plasma sialidase may be involved in the CDT level elevation. An alteration of protein transport during post-translational modification could be a primary mechanism in the impairment of protein metabolism associated with chronic alcohol abuse. ...