... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...
... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...
McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D
Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886
... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...
Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.
Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...
... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...
Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P
This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.
Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J
Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
DeVido, Jeffrey; Bogunovic, Olivera; Weiss, Roger D
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are less prevalent in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, but these disorders can create a host of clinical challenges when encountered. Unfortunately, little evidence is available to guide clinical decision making in this population. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can have negative consequences on both fetus and mother, but it remains controversial as to the volume of alcohol consumption that correlates with these consequences. Likewise, little evidence is available to support the use of particular pharmacologic interventions for AUDs during pregnancy or to guide the management of alcohol detoxification in pregnant women. The use of benzodiazepines (the mainstay of most alcohol detoxification protocols) in pregnant women is controversial. Nevertheless, despite the lack of robust data to guide management of AUDs in pregnancy, clinicians need to make management decisions when confronted with these challenging situations. In that context, this article reviews the epidemiology of AUDs in pregnancy and the pharmacologic management of both AUDs and alcohol withdrawal in pregnant women, with the goal of informing clinicians about what is known about managing these co-occurring conditions.
Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia
AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School.......68-0.90). Weekly drinking was associated significantly with weak restrictions on availability (OR boys = 2.82, CI = 1.74-4.54, OR girls = 2.00, CI = 1.15-3.46) and advertising (OR boys = 1.56, CI = 1.02-2.40, OR girls = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Comparing data cross-nationally, high levels of adult...
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.
Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...
Barnett, Nancy P.; Meade, E.B.; Glynn, Tiffany R.
The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use.
... PTSD » Public » PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use Public This section ...
environments and encounter new social and institutional factors that may foster heavy alcohol use. Little is known about alcohol use disorders in non-western cultures. Aims This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use disorders among students in Nigerian ...
Divane de Vargas
Full Text Available Background : The attitudes toward issues related to alcohol and alcoholism have been noted as important predictors of the quantity and quality of care provided to individuals who have problems related to alcohol use. The Scale of Attitudes toward Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholics (EAFAAA (Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e à pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool – EAFAAA has been widely used among students in health-related fields. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested among professionals. Objective : The goal of this study was to determine the construct validity of the EAFAAA for use among health professionals. Methods : A preliminary version of the EAFAAA was distributed to a sample of health care professionals (n = 1,025. For the construct validation of the scale, the data were subjected to a factorial analysis, and the internal consistency was examined; the cutoff score of the instrument was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results : The exploratory factor analysis and the refinement of the EAFAAA items resulted in a final version consisting of 50 items divided into four factors: (1 Work and interpersonal relationships with patients with alcohol use disorders, (2 The individual with an alcohol use disorder, (3 Etiology of alcoholism and (4 Alcoholic beverages and their use. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (Cronbach’s α > 0.80, and the instrument cutoff score was set at 3.15. Discussion : The results suggest that the instrument is valid for identifying attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders among health professionals.
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason
We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.
Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.
Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810
Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related
... and/or stressed when you are not drinking Types of AUDs include alcoholism (also called alcohol dependence), and ... enhancement therapy helps you build and strengthen the motivation to change ... over a short period of time. The therapy starts with identifying the pros ...
van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit
In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is
Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model
Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.
Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own
Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.
NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J
To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.
Full Text Available BackgroundAlcohol is attributable to many diseases and injury-related health conditions, and it is the fifth leading risk factor of premature death globally. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the proportion and associated factors of problematic alcohol use among University students.Material and methodsCross-sectional study was conducted among 725 randomly selected University students from November to December 2015. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and problematic alcohol use was assessed by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Chi-square test was used to show association of problematic use and each variable and major predicators was identified using logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI; and variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.ResultsAbout 83 (11.4% of the samples were problematic alcohol users of which 6.8% had medium level problems and 4.6% had high level problems. Significantly associated variables with problematic alcohol use among students were presence of social phobia (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8, lifetime use of any substance (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 3.8, 12.7, higher score in students cumulative grade point average (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9, and having intimate friend who use alcohol (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.8.ConclusionProblematic alcohol use among university students was common and associated with social phobia, poor academic achievement, lifetime use of any substance, and peer pressure. Strong legislative control of alcohol in universities is important to reduce the burden of alcohol.
Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J
This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross
Borges, Allison M; Lejuez, Carl W; Felton, Julia W
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of anxious symptoms and the belief that these symptoms may have negative physical, social, and cognitive consequences, is one personality trait that emerges in early adolescence and may be linked to alcohol use. However, findings are equivocal as to whether elevated AS during adolescence directly predicts alcohol use. Adolescents do report increases in positive alcohol use expectancies during this developmental period, and these expectancies have been found to be significantly associated with alcohol use. The current study examined whether positive alcohol use expectancies and AS in early adolescence predicted changes in alcohol use throughout adolescence. This aim was examined via secondary data analyses from a longitudinal study examining the development of risk behaviors in adolescents. Results of univariate latent growth curve modeling suggest that AS alone was not a significant predictor of baseline alcohol use or change in use over time after controlling for gender, age, and self-reported anxiety. However, AS in early adolescence was found to be a significant predictor of increases in alcohol use across adolescence for youth who reported greater positive alcohol use expectancies. These results indicate that beliefs regarding the positive effects of alcohol use are an important moderator in the relation between AS and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The overall aim of this thesis was to study vulnerability factors associated with hazardous alcohol consumption during pregnancy and alcohol use disorders among Swedish women. Different risk-factors and characteristics were studied, and examined for their ability to discriminate or identify different subtypes (type I/late onset and type II/early onset) of alcohol dependence ( alcoholism ). In study I, an RCT at ANC in Stockholm (control, n = 156, intervention, n =147) we...
Emiliussen, Jakob; Morrison, Alastair
with humanistic cultural analysis. Specifically, it seeks to show how the desire to cope alone can be linked to generationally specific constructions of hegemonic masculinity. Method: Clinical empirical methods are fused here with those of literary analysis. The subjects which the clinical researcher chooses...... found a strong link between the values of masculinity and the values of independence. Older men’s resistance of institutional treatment for alcohol problems has motivations which go beyond the desire not to rely on outside aid, a desire which may apply to any illness. As Lucky Jim helps us show, alcohol...
Barnett, Nancy P; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M
Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5 to $17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barnett, Nancy P.; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G.; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M.
Background Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5-$17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Results Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Conclusion Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. PMID:21665385
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura
College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men ( Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of "Playboy" and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men.
Koning, Ina M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Objective: There is convincing evidence that parental rules about alcohol are important in curbing adolescents' alcohol use. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which the direct link between alcohol-specifi c parenting and alcohol use is obtained. In this study, we investigated the
Smit, K.; Voogt, C.V.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Purpose: Developmental changes in alcohol expectancies (AE) have been proposed to lead to alcohol use initiation and later alcohol use in adolescence. This systematic review aims to provide longitudinal evidence of the development of AE and the relation of AE to alcohol outcomes from childhood to
Lutula-Golo Dragana N.
Full Text Available Introduction. European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD, the largest international research project, was conducted for the first time in Serbia in 2008. Objective. The objective was to analyze data obtained by ESPAD research on alcohol use among secondary school first grade students, and particularly the difference in the use of alcohol by gender, type of school students attend, their place of residence and the territory among secondary school students in Serbia in 2008. Methods. Attitudes and practice related to alcohol use of 6,553 secondary school first grade students were analyzed. A standardized, internationally approved questionnaire, structured and designed for selffilling was used on a stratified, onestage sample of students. The data received from the ESPAD research were processed by χ2 test to test the significance of differences between the observed characteristics, with the conclusion level of p<0.01. Results. Over threequarters of students can easily buy beer or wine. More than one half can buy spirits and alcopops. 89.1% of students drank alcoholic beverages at least once in a lifetime and 78.2% in the last year. At least once in a lifetime 42.2% of students were drunk and 29.7% in the last year. At least once in the last month 32.0% of students had five or more drinks in a row. Boys consumed alcohol more frequently and got drunk more often than girls (p<0.01. Conclusion. This research emphasizes the need for creating a prevention of alcohol use and alcohol abuse program among adolescents and more consistent application of the existing regulations aiming to decrease alcohol use among adolescents in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175087
Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H
Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Joel M Francis
Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Kenny Susan C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.
... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...
Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V
An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...
Serafini, Kelly A; Stewart, David G
Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants' self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings' quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants' quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants' alcohol use patterns.
Colder, Craig R; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Trucco, Elisa M; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I
Early adolescence is a dynamic period for the development of alcohol appraisals (expected outcomes of drinking and subjective evaluations of expected outcomes), yet the literature provides a limited understanding of psychosocial factors that shape these appraisals during this period. This study took a comprehensive view of alcohol appraisals and considered positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies, as well as subjective evaluations of expected outcomes. Developmental-ecological theory guided examination of individual, peer, family, and neighborhood predictors of cognitive appraisals of alcohol and use. A community sample of 378 adolescents (mean age 11.5 years at Wave 1, 52% female) was assessed annually for 4 years. Longitudinal path analysis suggested that the most robust predictors of alcohol appraisals were peer norms. Furthermore, perceived likelihood of positive and negative alcohol outcomes prospectively predicted increases in drinking. There was limited support for appraisals operating as mediators of psychosocial risk and protective factors.
Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun
Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.
Carson, George; Cox, Lori Vitale; Crane, Joan; Croteau, Pascal; Graves, Lisa; Kluka, Sandra; Koren, Gideon; Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; Midmer, Deana; Nulman, Irena; Poole, Nancy; Senikas, Vyta; Wood, Rebecca
to establish national standards of care for the screening and recording of alcohol use and counselling on alcohol use of women of child-bearing age and pregnant women based on the most up-to-date evidence. published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in May 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy complications, alcohol drinking, prenatal care) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, alcohol consumption, risk reduction). Results were restricted to literature published in the last five years with the following research designs: systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment (HTA) and HTA-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, clinical practice guideline collections, and clinical trial registries. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. the quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. these consensus guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Quebec; the Canadian Association of Midwives; the Canadian Association of Perinatal, Women's Health and Neonatal Nurses (CAPWHN); the College of Family Physicians of
Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.
Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negativ...
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T
.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T
.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...
O'Farrell, Anne M
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur
de Bruijn, H.; Korzec, A.; Arndt, T.; van den Brink, W.
The purpose of this study was to establish the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses within a population of well-functioning male heavy drinkers. A group of 57 subjects with a consumption of at least 28 alcoholic units (AU)/week was recruited from wine-tasting clubs. Within
Pieters, S.; Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.
Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1; N
Pieters, S.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1: N
Mares, S.H.W.; Stone, L.L.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
According to the cognitive model of intergenerational transference, modeling of alcohol use is an indirect process in which parental drinking shapes alcohol expectancies of children, which in turn are associated with later alcohol use in adolescents. The present study examined whether parental
DRABBLE, LAURIE; THOMAS, SUE; O’CONNOR, LISA; ROBERTS, SARAH CM
This article describes U.S. state policies related to alcohol use during pregnancy, using data from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS). Specifically, this study examines trends in policies enacted by states over time and types of policies enacted across states in the U.S., with a focus on whether laws were supportive or punitive toward women. Findings revealed substantial variability in characteristics of policies (19 primar...
Barnett, Nancy P; Meade, E B; Glynn, Tiffany R
The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use. Heavy drinking adults (N = 66, 46% female) wore the SCRAM for 1-28 days and reported their alcohol use in daily Web-based surveys. Participant reports of alcohol use were matched with drinking episodes identified from bracelet readings. On days when bracelets were functional, 690 drinking episodes were reported and 502 of those episodes (72.8%) were detected using sensor data. Using generalized estimating equations, we found no gender differences in detection of reported drinking episodes (77% for women, 69% for men). In univariate analyses, at the level of fewer than 5 drinks, women's episodes were more likely to be detected, likely because of the significantly higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels of these episodes, whereas at the level of 5 or more drinks, there was no gender difference in detection (92.6% for women, 93.4% for men). In multivariable analyses, no variables other than number of drinks significantly predicted alcohol detection. In summary, the SCRAM sensor is very good at detecting 5 or more drinks; performance of the monitor below this level was better among women because of their higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels. Individual person characteristics and bracelet features were not related to detection after number of drinks was included. Minimal bracelet malfunctions were noted.
Rhodes, Warren A; Peters, Ronald J; Perrino, Carrol S; Bryant, Sharronne
Using secondary data analysis,this study compares alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems experienced by African-American students attending a historically Black university who use alcohol only versus those who use alcohol plus marijuana. Results indicate that students who used marijuana plus alcohol experienced more AOD problems than their counterparts who used alcohol only. The current findings are similar to previous research with a majority White college student population.
Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael
A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright
Flynn, Heather A; Chermack, Stephen T
The purpose of this study was to examine a broader array of lifetime factors that theoretically may be associated with prenatal alcohol use than have previously been studied together, including family history of alcohol-use problems, history of physical or sexual abuse, lifetime major depressive disorder, alcohol-use disorder, illicit-drug-use problems, and partner violence. A total of 186 pregnant women, all of whom used alcohol in the year before pregnancy, were initially recruited in prenatal care settings. Women who reported no prenatal alcohol use (n = 96) were compared with women who drank 1-10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 75) and with women who drank more than 10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 13), considered to be a higher risk group, on the lifetime risk variables. Because of the public health implications, secondary analyses compared women who abstained during pregnancy with those who used any alcohol. Significant intercorrelations were found among most of the lifetime risk factors studied. Multivariate analyses showed that drug-use problems and partner violence were most strongly associated with prenatal alcohol use than any other variable studied. Consistent with a life span risk framework for alcohol-use problems, results of this study show that childhood abuse, familial alcoholism, lifetime major depressive disorder, and alcohol- and drug-use problems are interrelated. However, when considered together, only lifetime partner violence and drug use are significantly related to various levels of prenatal alcohol use. Identification, assessment, and intervention efforts should integrate these important factors.
... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Navarro Junior, L.
The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)
Jones, Jermaine D; Comer, Sandra D; Kranzler, Henry R
Annually, the use and abuse of alcohol contributes to millions of deaths and billions of dollars in societal costs. To determine the impact of genetic variation on the susceptibility to the disorder and its response to treatment, studies have been conducted to assess the contribution of a variety of candidate genetic variants. These variants, which we review here, were chosen based upon their observed or hypothesized functional relevance to alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk or to the mechanism by which medications used to treat the disorder exert their effects. This qualitative review examines studies in which candidate polymorphisms were tested as moderator variables to identify pharmacogenetic effects on either the subjective response to alcohol or the outcomes of pharmacotherapy. Although findings from these studies provide evidence of a number of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic effects, the literature is limited and there are conflicting findings that require resolution. Pharmacogenetic studies of AUD treatment that use greater methodological rigor and better statistical controls, such as corrections for multiple testing, may help to resolve inconsistent findings. These procedures could also lead to the discovery of more robust and clinically meaningful moderator effects. As the field evolves through methodological standardization and the use of larger study samples, pharmacogenetic research has the potential to inform clinical care by enhancing therapeutic effects and personalizing treatments. These efforts may also provide insights into the mechanisms by which medications reduce heavy drinking or promote abstinence in patients with an AUD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy
Pingen, D.L.L.; Müller, C.; Vogt, D.
Hydrogen shuttle: For the first time secondary alcohols and ammonia can be directly converted into primary amines with a selectivity of up to 99¿% by using a simple ruthenium/phosphine catalyst (see scheme; R1, R2= alkyl, aryl, alkenyl; M=[Ru3(CO)12]; and L=phosphine ligand).
Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N
South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women.
Leggio, Lorenzo; Lee, Mary R.
Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although alcohol abstinence is the crucial therapeutic goal for patients with alcoholic liver disease, these patients have less access to psychosocial, behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder. Psychosocial and behavioral therapies include 12-step facilitation, brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy. In addition to medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for alcohol use disorder (disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate), recent efforts to identify potential new treatments have yielded promising candidate pharmacotherapies. Finally, more efforts are needed to integrate treatments across disciplines toward patient-centered approaches in the management of patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease. PMID:27984008
Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Previous research suggests adolescent alcohol use is largely influenced by environmental factors, yet little is known about the specific nature of this influence. We hypothesized that peer deviance and alcohol expectancies would be sources of environmental influence because both have been consistently and strongly correlated with adolescent alcohol use. The sample included 206 genetically related and 407 genetically unrelated sibling pairs assessed in mid-to-late adolescence. The heritability of adolescent alcohol use (e.g., frequency, quantity last 12 months) was minimal and not significantly different from zero. The associations among peer deviance, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use were primarily due to shared environmental factors. Of special note, alcohol expectancies also significantly explained nonshared environmental influence on alcohol use. This study is one of few that have identified specific environmental variants of adolescent alcohol use while controlling for genetic influence.
Midanik, Lorraine T.; Tam, Tammy W.; Weisner, Constance
This study estimates the prevalence, assesses predictors and evaluates factors associated with concurrent and simultaneous use of drugs and alcohol in the United States population. Using data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (n = 7,612), respondents were asked if they used specific drugs in the last 12 months. Current drinkers who reported using each type of drug were asked if they used alcohol and the drug at the same time. Approximately 10% reported using marijuana in the last 12 month...
Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.
Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140
Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W
Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, tuberculosis (TB was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8% and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%. The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. Methods A systematic review of existing scientific data on the association between alcohol consumption and TB, and on studies relevant for clarification of causality was undertaken. Results There is a strong association between heavy alcohol use/alcohol use disorders (AUD and TB. A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59. Numerous studies show pathogenic impact of alcohol on the immune system causing susceptibility to TB among heavy drinkers. In addition, there are potential social pathways linking AUD and TB. Heavy alcohol use strongly influences both the incidence and the outcome of the disease and was found to be linked to altered pharmacokinetics of medicines used in treatment of TB, social marginalization and drift, higher rate of re-infection, higher rate of treatment defaults and development of drug-resistant forms of TB. Based on the available data, about 10% of the TB cases globally were estimated to be attributable to alcohol. Conclusion The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. Consequences for prevention and clinical interventions are discussed.
de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; van Dalen, Wim
This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-alcohol branded media exposure. Prospective observational study (11-12- and 14-17-month intervals), using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model. School-based sample in 181 state-funded schools in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland. A total of 9075 eligible respondents participated in the survey (mean age 14 years, 49.5% male. Adolescents reported their frequency of past-month drinking and binge drinking. Alcohol marketing exposure was measured by a latent variable with 13 items measuring exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising, alcohol sport sponsorship, music event/festival sponsorship, ownership alcohol-branded promotional items, reception of free samples and exposure to price offers. Confounders were age, gender, education, country, internet use, exposure to non-alcohol sponsored football championships and television programmes without alcohol commercials. The analyses showed one-directional long-term effects of alcohol marketing exposure on drinking (exposure T1 on drinking T2: β = 0.420 (0.058), P 0.05). Similar results were found in the binge drinking model (exposure T1 on binge T2: β = 0.409 (0.054), P 0.05). There appears to be a one-way effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' alcohol use over time, which cannot be explained by either previous drinking or exposure to non-alcohol-branded marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
A semistructured questionnaire, which included the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, was administered at interview. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify social determinants of any and hazardous alcohol use. Results: Determinants of any alcohol use ...
Burns, Lucy; Mattick, Richard P; Cooke, Margaret
To date, no population-level data have been published examining the obstetric and neonatal outcomes for women with an alcohol-related hospital admission during pregnancy compared with the general obstetric population. This information is critical to planning and implementing appropriate services. Antenatal and delivery admissions to New South Wales (NSW) hospitals from the NSW Inpatient Statistics Collection were linked to birth information from the NSW Midwives Data Collection over a 5-year period (1998-2002). Birth admissions were flagged as positive for maternal alcohol use where a birth admission or any pregnancy admission for that birth involved an alcohol-related International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) code. Key demographic, obstetric, and neonatal variables were compared for births to mothers in the alcohol group with births where no alcohol-related ICD10-AM was recorded. A total of 416,834 birth records were analyzed over a 5-year period (1998-2002). In this time, 342 of these were coded as positive for at least 1 alcohol-related ICD-10-AM diagnosis. Mothers in the alcohol group had a higher number of previous pregnancies, smoked more heavily, were not privately insured, and were more often indigenous. They also presented later on in their pregnancy to antenatal services and were more likely to arrive at hospital unbooked for delivery. Deliveries involved less epidural and local and more general anesthesia. Cesarean sections were more common to women in the alcohol group and were performed more often for intrauterine growth retardation. Neonates born to women in the alcohol group were smaller for gestational age, had lower Apgar scores at 5 minutes, and were admitted to special care nursery more often. This study shows that linked population-level administrative data provide a powerful new source of information for examining the maternal and neonatal outcomes
Jalbert, Jessica J; Quilliam, Brian J; Lapane, Kate L
The risk of adverse events among alcohol-interactive medication users can occur with one standard alcoholic drink. Research on the extent to which this occurs is scant. To examine the prevalence and correlates of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive (AI) medication use across different levels of risk for an alcohol-related adverse event in a nationally representative sample of American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of past year, self-reported drinking history as well as past month, self-reported and visually inspected prescription drug use data from the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 NHANES questionnaire section (n = 8,246). Medications were considered AI if concurrent use of alcohol and the prescription drug could intensify the effects of alcohol, resulting in increased sedation, drowsiness, or dizziness. Weighted prevalence estimates and polytomous logistic regression accounted for the complex survey design. Overall, 13.5% took prescription AI medications, of which 5.6% reported alcohol consumption of three or more drinks on each drinking occasion. Correlates of such use were being a man [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-10.35], between the ages of 20 and 54 (AOR=12.28; 95% CI: 3.12-48.25), and currently smoking (AOR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.28-5.29), with alcohol-abstaining AI users as the referent group. Combining alcohol and AI medications is a common phenomenon, and the risk of alcohol-related adverse drug events may be nontrivial. Screening for alcohol use before prescribing AI medications would be prudent. Better communication regarding the dangers of mixing alcohol with AI medications is warranted.
Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.
... workplace alcohol use and work engagement among 228 University of Nigeria, Nsukka, workers. The results of the regression analyses showed that job stress significantly predicted workplace alcohol use (â = .17, p < .01). Workplace alcohol use also significantly predicted employee work engagement (â = -.35, p < .001).
... and consequences for alcohol use and problems . Clinical Psychology Review 2004;24:981. Centers for Disease Control ... Trends in alcohol-related morbidity among short-stay community hospital discharges, United States, 1979–2005 [PDF 1. ...
Marczinski, Cecile A
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Piasecki, Thomas M
Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults. The participants were 2434 18-26-year-old twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants completed in-home interviews in which alcohol use was assessed. Alcohol outlet densities were extracted from state-level liquor license databases aggregated at the census tract level to derive the density of outlets. There was evidence that the estimates of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use varied as a function of the density of alcohol outlets in the community. For example, the heritability of the frequency of alcohol use for those residing in a neighborhood with ten or more outlets was 74% (95% confidence limits = 55-94%), compared with 16% (95% confidence limits = 0-34%) for those in a neighborhood with zero outlets. This moderating effect of alcohol outlet density was not explained by the state of residence, population density, or neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The results suggest that living in a neighborhood with many alcohol outlets may be especially high-risk for those individuals who are genetically predisposed to frequently drink.
Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Barrera, Manuel; Mena, Laura A; Aguirre, Katherine M
For the period of almost 75 years, we examined the literature for studies regarding the influences of culture on alcohol use and misuse. This review is a chronology of research articles published from 1940 to 2013. From a structured literature search with select criteria, 38 articles were identified and 34 reviewed. This analysis revealed a progression across this period of research from studies that began as descriptive ethnographic evaluations of one or more indigenous societies or cultural groups, evolving to studies using complex multivariate models to test cross-cultural effects in two or more cultural groups. Major findings across this period include the assertions that (a) a function of alcohol use may be to reduce anxiety, (b) certain cultural groups possess features of alcohol use that are not associated with negative consequences, (c) the disruptive effects of acculturative change and the stressors of new demands are associated with an increase in alcohol consumption, (d) cultural groups shape expectations about the effects of alcohol use and their definition of drunkenness, and (e) the hypothesized relationships of culture with alcohol use and misuse have been demonstrated in multivariate model analyses. Across this 75-year period, the early proposition that culture is an important and prominent correlate of alcohol use and misuse has persisted. Within the current era of alcohol studies, this proposition has been supported by multivariate model analyses. Thus, the proposition that culture might affect alcohol use remains prominent and is as relevant today as it was when it was first proposed nearly 75 years ago.
Morris, Vanessa; Amlung, Michael; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Petker, Tashia; MacKillop, James
Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics. Responses on the APT were highly systematic (crowdsourcing websites for investigating behavioral economic determinants of alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety. ...
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.
Background: Adolescent alcohol use continues to be a critical public health problem with both short- and long-term negative health consequences. Defining oneself in terms of alcohol, a drinking-related identity, has been shown to predict high levels of alcohol use. Because adolescence is the developmental period during which identity development…
Meden F. Isaac-Lam
Full Text Available Alcohol or ethanol is considered the most widely used recreational drug worldwide, and its production, consumption, and sale are strictly regulated by laws. Alcohol content of alcoholic beverages (wine, beers, and spirits is about 3–50% v/v. Analytical methods to determine the alcohol content must be reliable, precise, and accurate. In this study, the amount of ethanol in several alcoholic beverages was determined using a 45 MHz low-field benchtop NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Internal standard and standard addition analytical methods were utilized to quantify ethanol. For both methods, acetic acid or acetonitrile was used as internal standard to quantify alcohol content by using the peak area corresponding to the methyl peaks of ethanol, acetic acid, or acetonitrile. Results showed that internal standard method gave values of percent alcohol that are in close agreement with the indicated label as confirmed by running the samples in a 400 MHz high-field NMR spectrometer using acetic acid as internal standard. This study demonstrates the utility of a benchtop NMR spectrometer that can provide an alternative technique to analyze percent alcohol in alcoholic products.
Prevalence of Khat, Cigarette and Alcohol Use Among Students of Technology and Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University. E Eshetu, T Gedif ... devise mechanisms to develop the awareness of students on the health and social impacts of khat chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Keywords: khat, cigarette, alcohol, ...
Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia: Findings from the 2015 national non-communicable diseases STEPS survey. ... overall prevalence of lifetime alcohol consumption was 49.3%, and 40.7% of the study participants reported consumption of alcohol in the past 30 days, defined as current drinkers.
Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.
Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…
Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James
Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.
Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.
This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…
Hotton, Tina; Haans, Dave
This analysis presents the prevalence of substance use among young adolescents. The extent to which factors such as peer behaviour, parenting practices and school commitment and achievement are associated with drinking to intoxication and other drug use is investigated. The data are from the 1998/99 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Analysis is based on a cross-sectional file from 4,296 respondents aged 12 to 15. Prevalence estimates for alcohol and drug use were calculated by sex. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, peer and parent substance use, parenting practices, school commitment/attachment, emotional health and religious attendance. In general, drinking to intoxication and drug use were more common among 14- and 15-year-olds than among 12- and 13-year-olds. The odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use were highest among adolescents whose friends used alcohol or drugs or were often in trouble, who reported low commitment to school, or whose parents had a hostile and ineffective parenting style.
Hustad, John T P; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Urwin, Rachel; Zeman, Suzanne; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Research indicates that pregaming (drinking before a social event) and tailgating (drinking before a sporting event) are two culturally ingrained alcohol use behaviors by college students. We examined the prevalence of these two activities in a sample of college students (N = 354) who violated campus alcohol policy and were mandated to receive an alcohol intervention in fall 2010. Results indicated that alcohol consumption and other risk factors were related to pregaming and tailgating. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical implications and future directions for research. This study was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health.
de Silva, Varuni; Samarasinghe, Diyanath; Hanwella, Raveen
The harm from alcohol and tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries includes substantial economic cost to the individual. Our aim was to describe the expenditure on concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in relation to family income in two districts in Sri Lanka. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in two districts in Sri Lanka. We sampled 2684 men over 18 years of age using multistage cluster sampling. Cost of alcohol and cigarettes was calculated using the retail price for each brand and multiplying by the amount consumed. Among current alcohol users 63.1% were also smokers. Among current smokers 61.9% were also using alcohol. Prevalence of concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in urban areas was 20.1% and in rural areas 14%. The two lowest income categories (meaning in such settings. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.
Braitman, Abby L.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Ladage, Jessica; Schroeder, Valarie; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Klostermann, Keith
The present paper compared drinking and drug use in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), compared to non-ACOAs, among college students. Participants were 572 undergraduates. ACOAs were more likely to be current drug users than non-ACOAs. ACOAs reported initiating alcohol use earlier than non-ACOAs; however, ACOAs did not drink more often or more…
Wiersma, Tj; Flikweert, S; Zeeman, K; Schagen van Leeuwen, J H
Recently, the Dutch Health Council published a report on the risks of the use of alcohol during conception, pregnancy and lactation. Because the medical literature does not prove the safety of the use of small amounts of alcohol, the Health Council recommends using no alcohol whatsoever. One may wonder whether the advice of the Health Council is not too rigid. Since Karl Popper, it is evident that the truth of the hypothesis that the consumption of small amounts of alcohol is safe will never be verified. Because the medical literature also does not prove the harmfulness of the irregular use of small amounts of alcohol, it is not necessary to upset pregnant women who occasionally take an alcoholic beverage. It is preferable to use no alcohol; however, the rare consumption of a single glass does not seem to be harmful.
Eilin K. Erevik
Full Text Available This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms, social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later (p < 0.001, when no covariates were controlled for. Frequent disclosure of content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol predicted stable or slightly increased alcohol use at Time 2 (p < 0.01, even when all covariates (i.e., demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media use were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure
Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin
Early age at onset of alcohol use is a risk factor for later heavy alcohol use, but some individuals are buffered from this risk. To better understand this process, this study investigated the interactive contributions of parental coping suggestions, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR), and age at onset of alcohol use on heavy alcohol use in college students. College students (N = 146, 77% female) reported their age at onset of alcohol use, frequency of recent heavy alcohol use, and their parents' coping suggestions; SCLR was monitored as participants completed a laboratory challenge task. In addition, students' parents (N = 73, 77% mothers) reported on their coping suggestions. Results indicated that in the presence of physiological risk only (blunted SCLR, late age at onset of alcohol use), higher frequencies of engagement and disengagement parental coping suggestions were protective against heavy alcohol use in college students. However, if both risk factors were present (blunted SCLR, early age at onset of alcohol use), more engagement suggestions predicted more heavy alcohol use among college students. These findings extend previous findings on the impact of parenting on heavy alcohol use among college students and provide novel evidence for the moderating role of sympathetic stress reactivity.
Jankowski, Peter J; Hardy, Sam A; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S
The current study examined a conditional indirect effects model of the association between religiousness and adolescents' hazardous alcohol use. In doing so, we responded to the need to include both mediators and moderators, and the need for theoretically informed models when examining religiousness and adolescents' alcohol use. The sample consisted of 383 adolescents, aged 15-18, who completed an online questionnaire. Results of structural equation modeling supported the proposed model. Religiousness was indirectly associated with hazardous alcohol use through both positive alcohol expectancy outcomes and negative alcohol expectancy valuations. Significant moderating effects for alcohol expectancy valuations on the association between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use were also found. The effects for alcohol expectancy valuations confirm valuations as a distinct construct to that of alcohol expectancy outcomes, and offer support for the protective role of internalized religiousness on adolescents' hazardous alcohol use as a function of expectancy valuations. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marczinski, Cecile A.
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590
Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Scholl, Jamie L; Fercho, Kelene A; Pearson, Kami; Kallsen, Noah A; Davies, Gareth E; Ehli, Erik A; Olson, Seth; Schweinle, Amy; Baugh, Lee A; Forster, Gina L
A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…
de Graaf, A.
This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of
Walitzer, Kimberly S; Dearing, Ronda L
This review explores gender differences in relapse and characteristics of relapse events in alcohol and substance use. For alcohol, relapse rates were similar across gender. Although negative mood, childhood sexual abuse, alcohol-related self-efficacy, and poorer coping strategies predicted alcohol relapse, gender did not moderate these effects. Gender did moderate the association between marriage and alcohol relapse. For women, marriage and marital stress were risk factors for alcohol relapse; among men, marriage lowered relapse risk. This gender difference in the role of marriage in relapse may be a result of partner differences in problem drinking. Alcoholic women are more likely to be married to heavy drinking partners than are alcoholic men; thus, alcoholic women may be put at risk of relapse by marriage and alcoholic men may be protected by marriage. There are fewer studies documenting gender differences in substance abuse relapse so conclusions are limited and tentative. In contrast to the lack of gender differences in alcohol relapse rates, women appear less likely to experience relapse to substance use, relative to men. Women relapsing to substance use appear to be more sensitive to negative affect and interpersonal problems. Men, in contrast, may be more likely to have positive experiences prior to relapse.
Koning, Ina M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
There is convincing evidence that parental rules about alcohol are important in curbing adolescents' alcohol use. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which the direct link between alcohol-specific parenting and alcohol use is obtained. In this study, we investigated the mediating effect of adolescent self-control on the relationship between alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' drinking behavior and whether this mediation effect depends on the level of quality of communication. A total of 883 adolescents participated in this longitudinal study at ages 13, 14, and 15 years. Strict rules predicted lower rates of drinking, but no direct effect of the quality of communication on adolescents' alcohol use was found. A higher level of self-control was related to lower rates of drinking in adolescents. The indirect effect of rules about alcohol through adolescents' self-control was statistically significant, yet only in adolescents with high qualitative parent-child communication about alcohol. In adolescents with low quality of parent-child communication, self-control was not related to drinking. These findings imply that strict rule setting in combination with qualitative parent-child communication is an important target for prevention. In addition, findings point at the importance of high qualitative parent-child communication for adolescents' motivation to engage in self-control to avoid drinking.
Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura
The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.
Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non
O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
Economists debate whether changes in availability of alcohol or cannabis are positively or negatively related to changes in use of the other substance. Implicit in these arguments are two competing, individual-level hypotheses-that people use alcohol and cannabis either as complements or substitutes for one another. This is the first study to test these hypotheses using micro-longitudinal data on individuals' alcohol and cannabis use on a given evening. United States college students who use alcohol and cannabis (n=876) were selected from a larger sample who participated in a 30-day online daily diary study. At baseline, students reported their proclivity to use alcohol/drugs to cope with stress. Each day students reported their level of alcohol use from the prior evening as well as whether they had used cannabis. Evening levels of alcohol use and mean levels of alcohol use positively predicted the likelihood of evening cannabis use, results indicative of complementary use. This relation, however, was moderated by coping style, such that students who were more likely to use alcohol/drugs to cope were less likely to use cannabis as their evening or mean alcohol use levels increased, results indicative of substitution. Substance-using college students showed evidence for complementary alcohol and cannabis use at both the within- and between-person levels. Students with a proclivity toward using alcohol/drugs to cope, however, showed evidence of substitution. These findings suggest that studies based on economic theories of substance use should take into account individual differences in substance use motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
17. Zhou P, Ross RA, Pywell CM, Liangpunsakul S, Duffield GE. Disturbances in the murine hepatic circadian clock in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis ...liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis , and alcoholic pancreatitis) among returning veterans at the younger age (~31 years old), compared to previously...Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: A Systemic Review and Meta- Analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2016;50:80-84. 7. Gough G, Heathers L, Puckett D
Full Text Available Abstract: There is a lack of information about alcohol use by transgender women. We estimated the prevalence of dangerous alcohol use in the last 12 months by transgender women, who are known as travestis in Brazil, and we identified the associated risk factors. Three hundred travestis were recruited using Respondent Driving Sampling (RDS. We applied the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. We controlled the sample by applying a weight to each interviewee. Three quarters (74.2% of travestis were regular drinkers, half (48.7% scored over eight in the AUDIT and 14.8% scored over 20. The risk factors for alcohol use were: aged over 24, low income and unprotected sex. The dangerous use of alcohol is prevalent among travestis. Given that this group has a greater risk of HIV infection and transmission, and that the dangerous use of alcohol was associated with unsafe sex, specific intervention strategies are required.
May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; de Vries, Marlene M; Barnard, Ronel; Botha, Isobel; Roux, Sumien; Doms, Cate; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Manning, Melanie A; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya
Determine any effects that maternal alcohol consumption during the breastfeeding period has on child outcomes. Population-based samples of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), normally-developing children, and their mothers were analyzed for differences in child outcomes. Ninety percent (90%) of mothers breastfed for an average of 19.9 months. Of mothers who drank postpartum and breastfed (MDPB), 47% breastfed for 12 months or more. In case control analyses, children of MDPB were significantly lighter, had lower verbal IQ scores, and more anomalies in comparisons controlling for prenatal alcohol exposure and final FASD diagnosis. Utilizing a stepwise logistic regression model adjusting for nine confounders of prenatal drinking and other maternal risks, MDPB were 6.4 times more likely to have a child with FASD than breastfeeding mothers who abstained from alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol use during the period of breastfeeding was found to significantly compromise a child's development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this work, the characteristics of wood degradation using supercritical alcohols have been studied. Supercritical ethanol and supercritical methanol were used as solvents. The kinetics of wood degradation were analyzed using the nonisothermal weight loss technique with heating rates of 3.1, 9.8, and 14.5 °C/min for ethanol and 5.2, 11.3, and 16.3 °C/min for methanol. Three different kinetic analysis methods were implemented to obtain the apparent activation energy and the overall reaction order for wood degradation using supercritical alcohols. These were used to compare with previous data for supercritical methanol. From this work, the activation energies of wood degradation in supercritical ethanol were obtained as 78.0–86.0, 40.1–48.1, and 114 kJ/mol for the different kinetic analysis methods used in this work. The activation energies of wood degradation in supercritical ethanol were obtained as 78.0–86.0, 40.1–48.1, and 114 kJ/mol. This paper also includes the analysis of the liquid products obtained from this work. The characteristic analysis of liquid products on increasing reaction temperature and time has been performed by GC-MS. The liquid products were categorized according to carbon numbers and aromatic/aliphatic components. It was found that higher conversion in supercritical ethanol occurs at a lower temperature than that of supercritical methanol. The product analysis shows that the majority of products fall in the 2 to 15 carbon number range.
Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Greenwald, Anthony G
Addiction is characterized by dyscontrol - substance use despite intentions to restrain. Using a sample of at-risk drinkers, the present study examined whether an implicit measure of alcohol motivation (the Implicit Association Test [IAT]; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480) would predict dyscontrol of alcohol use. Participants completed an IAT and, to elicit motivation to restrain alcohol use, were instructed that greater consumption in a taste test would impair performance on a later task for which they could win a prize. All participants viewed aversive slides and then completed a thought-listing task. Participants either exerted self-control by suppressing negative affect and thoughts regarding the slides or did not exert self-control. Post-manipulation, the groups did not differ in mood, urge to drink or motivation to restrain consumption. During the subsequent taste test, participants whose self-control resources were depleted consumed more alcohol than did those in the control group. Additionally, the IAT, but not an explicit measure of alcohol motivation, more strongly predicted alcohol use when self-control resources were depleted. The results indicate that the IAT may have utility in predicting dyscontrolled alcohol use.
Capone, Christy; Wood, Mark D
Previous studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) in college students have typically relied on dichotomous indices of paternal drinking. This study examined the prevalence of FHA and its effects on alcohol use and problems using a density measure in a sample (n = 408) of college students. Undergraduate students completed an anonymous survey in exchange for course credit. Data was collected between 2005 and 2006. Using a density measure of FHA, we observed an overall prevalence rate of 65.9% and a rate of 29.1% for FHA in both first and second-degree relatives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate relations among FHA, alcohol use/problems and previously identified etiological risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Results indicated a significant positive association between FHA and alcohol-related problems and this relationship was mediated by age of onset of drinking, behavioral undercontrol and current cigarette use. Behavioral undercontrol also mediated the relationship between gender and alcohol problems. Additionally, FHA was associated with an earlier age of onset of drinking and this was related to greater alcohol use. Assessing density of FHA in future trajectory research may capture a greater number of students at risk for acute alcohol-related problems and/or future development of AUDs. Future preventive interventions with this population, which should begin well before the college years, may benefit from considering personality factors and incorporating smoking cessation to help identify at-risk students and assist those who wish to cut down on their alcohol use but find that smoking acts as a trigger for increased drinking.
Kim, Youngjung; Hack, Laura M; Ahn, Elizabeth S
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population. Herein, we provide practical pharmacotherapy strategies to improve treatment outcome for AUD. We review the efficacy and side effects of both on- and off-label agents with a particular focus on clinical applicability. Recommendations are supported by findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses selected to be representative, where possible, of current treatment guidelines. The goal of this paper is to help readers use pharmacotherapy with greater confidence when treating patients with AUD. PMID:29445407
Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population. Herein, we provide practical pharmacotherapy strategies to improve treatment outcome for AUD. We review the efficacy and side effects of both on- and off-label agents with a particular focus on clinical applicability. Recommendations are supported by findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT and meta-analyses selected to be representative, where possible, of current treatment guidelines. The goal of this paper is to help readers use pharmacotherapy with greater confidence when treating patients with AUD.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a widespread mental disease denoted by chronic alcohol use despite significant negative consequences for a person’s life. It affected more than 14 million persons in Europe alone and accounted for more than 5% of deaths worldwide in 2011-2012. Understanding the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms driving the development and maintenance of pathological alcohol use is key to conceptualizing new programs for prevention and therapy of AUD. There has been a v...
Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.
This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected].
Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause
Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Sørensen, Johanne Korsdal; Bruun, Niels Henrik
Alkoholmisbrug er ikke velundersøgt hos danske læger. Denne undersøgelse viser, at omtrent 19 % af de adspurgte læger havde et risikobetonet alkoholforbrug. En høj grad af udbrændthed og aleksitymi, som er manglende evne til at genkende og beskrive følelser, var forbundet med øget sandsynlighed f......: 46), som var tilfældigt udvalgt blandt Lægeforeningens medlemmer. De besvarede anonymt et elektronisk spørgeskema, som bl.a. indeholdt danske versioner af the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) og the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20...
The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.
Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann
Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use are typically conceptualized at the individual level, and school- and community-level risk factors have received little attention. Based on the theoretical understanding of youth alcohol consumption as a reflection of community social practice, we analyzed...... whether adolescent drunkenness was related to community-level adult alcohol use (AAC), when taking individual and school-level risk factors for drunkenness into account. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between community-level AAC and adolescent drunkenness was attenuated after...
Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.
Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle
This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms), social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often) disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later ( p social media use) were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure. Disclosing content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol was the only independent variable that could predict further alcohol use when other factors, like baseline alcohol use, were held constant. This finding suggests that disclosure of alcohol content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol might
van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein
To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2) = 0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use.
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....
Hong, Hae-Sook; Park, Jeong-Eun; Park, Wan-Ju
This study was done to identify the patterns and significant predictors influencing hospitalization of Korean men for alcohol use disorder. A descriptive study design was utilized. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 143 inpatients who met the DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria and were receiving treatment and 157 social drinkers living in the community. The questionnaires included Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Problems, Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ), Life Position, and The Korean version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-K). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, χ²-test, F-test, Pearson correlation coefficients, and logistic regression with forward stepwise. AUDIT had significant correlations with alcohol problems, alcohol expectancy, and parents' alcoholism. In logistic regression, factors significantly affecting hospitalization were divorced (OR=4.18, 95% CI: 1.28-13.71), graduation from elementary school (OR=28.50, 95% CI: 8.07-100.69), middle school (OR=6.66, 95% CI: 2.21-20.09), high school (OR=6.31, 95% CI: 2.59-15.36), drinking alone (OR=9.07, 95% CI: 1.78-46.17), family history of alcoholism (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.11-5.25), interpersonal relationship problems (OR=1.28, 95% CI:1.17-1.41), and sexual enhancement of alcohol expectancy (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94), which accounted for 53% of the variance. Results suggest that interpersonal relationship programs and customized cognitive programs for social drinkers in the community are needed to decreased alcohol related hospitalization in Korean men.
Soravia, Leila M; Schläfli, Katrin; Stutz, Sonja; Rösner, Susanne; Moggi, Franz
There is evidence that drinking during residential treatment is related to various factors, such as patients' general control beliefs and self-efficacy, as well as to external control of alcohol use by program's staff and situations where there is temptation to drink. As alcohol use during treatment has been shown to be associated with the resumption of alcohol use after discharge from residential treatment, we aimed to investigate how these variables are related to alcohol use during abstinence-oriented residential treatment programs for alcohol use disorders (AUD). In total, 509 patients who entered 1 of 2 residential abstinence-oriented treatment programs for AUD were included in the study. After detoxification, patients completed a standardized diagnostic procedure including interviews and questionnaires. Drinking was assessed by patients' self-report of at least 1 standard drink or by positive breathalyzer testing. The 2 residential programs were categorized as high or low control according to the average number of tests per patient. Regression analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between internal and external control suggesting that patients with high internal locus of control and high frequency of control by staff demonstrated the least alcohol use during treatment (16.7%) while patients with low internal locus of control in programs with low external control were more likely to use alcohol during treatment (45.9%). No effects were found for self-efficacy and temptation. As alcohol use during treatment is most likely associated with poor treatment outcomes, external control may improve treatment outcomes and particularly support patients with low internal locus of control, who show the highest risk for alcohol use during treatment. High external control may complement high internal control to improve alcohol use prevention while in treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley
Bor, Jacob; Basu, Sanjay; Coutts, Adam; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between 2006 and 2010. The prevalence of any alcohol use significantly declined during the economic recession, from 52.0% in 2006-2007 to 51.6% in 2008-2009 (P Great Recession there was an increase in abstention from alcohol and a rise in frequent binging.
SELECTED ASPECTS OF DUAL ALCOHOL AND MARIJUANA USAGE Naďa Serafínová SERAFÍNOVÁ, Naďa. Selected Aspects of dual alcohol and marijuana usage. Prague, 2017. 51 pages.. Bachelor thesis (Bc.). Charles Unversity, First Faculty of Medicine , Department of Addictology. Tutor: Vopravil, Jiří. ABSTRACT Background: Patterns of use of alcohol as well as motivations for alcohol use are well described in the addiction research and theory. What is not clear is whether the increasing availability and consum...
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…
Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marczinski, Cecile A.; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F.; Stamates, Amy L.; O’Connor, Kathleen
The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use. PMID:28138317
Lee, Christine M; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Patrick, Megan E
Although there are serious negative harms associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, little is known about the self-reported acute effects of SAM use and how they may be similar to or different than effects experienced when using alcohol or marijuana only. The current study examines the perceived acute effects of SAM use, compared to using alcohol or marijuana only, as well as demographic and substance use predictors of overall SAM effects. Participants were a community sample of young adults ages 18-23 participating in a longitudinal study on social role transitions and substance use during young adulthood. Young adults who reported SAM use at least once in their lifetime were selected for the present analyses (N=315; mean age=21.42; 58% female) and reported the effects they experienced from typical alcohol use, marijuana use, and SAM use. There were significant differences in the extent to which young adults perceived the effects depending on the substances used. Most effects (i.e., clumsy, confused, dizzy, difficulty concentrating) were rated strongest when engaging in SAM use, compared to typical alcohol or marijuana use alone. Feeling high and feeling marijuana effects were rated strongest when engaging in marijuana use alone compared to SAM use, but feeling drunk was greater during SAM use compared to alcohol use alone. Greater alcohol use and increased time spent high during typical SAM use were associated with greater overall SAM effects. When young adults engage in SAM use they report experiencing greater negative physiological and cognitive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
is designed to evaluate the utility of levels of two phospholipids in serum as a marker of past drinking behavior across month- level time horizons...in an attempt to improve ability to measure alcohol quantity consumed and associated damage better than can be done with ethyl alcohol level measures...and other existing tests that only measure very recent exposure and poorly reflect quantity consumed . This will be achieved by correlating detailed
Background: Students' alcohol and khat use have been associated with various health related problems. However, its magnitude and associated factors among Ethiopian students are not yet well documented. Objective: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use, khat chewing and its associated factors ...
Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out ...
Background: Alcohol has been reported to be frequently used among vehicle drivers in western societies. Few studies have been done in North western Nigeria. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol use among commercial interstate vehicle (cars and buses) drivers. Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was ...
Assessing personality risks using the Surps for alcohol and other drug problems in Cape Town, South Africa. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... In this crosssectional study, the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) was applied to measure these traits and assess the questionnaire's reliability from a ...
Findings from this recent literature indicate that while some Nigerian university students use alcohol to enhance sexual performance, boost confidence and reduce stress, others use heavy episodic drinking as means of constructing social identity. Other findings reveal that a majority combine alcohol with other drugs and ...
Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda
There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…
Objective: To examine psychosocial correlates of lifetime alcohol use among adolescents in rural South African high schools. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 1600 students from 20 randomly selected high schools in the Mankweng district within Limpopo province. Self-report data on alcohol use, demographic, ...
Diggs, Olivia N; Neppl, Tricia K; Jeon, Shinyoung; Lohman, Brenda J
This study investigates the association between mother and father harsh parenting, and parent-child communication, and parental alcohol use on males' alcohol use from early adolescence into emerging adulthood. Data come from the Iowa Youth and Families Project, a prospective 28-year longitudinal study of rural Midwestern youth and their families. Mother and father harsh parenting, parent-child communication, and alcohol use were assessed at time 1 when males were in early adolescence (13 years old, n = 215). Target male alcohol use was assessed at time 2 during late adolescence (18 and 19 years old, n = 206, 96% follow-up rate), and at time 3 in emerging adulthood (23 and 25 years old, n = 197, 92% follow-up rate). Results obtained from structural equation modeling using Mplus, version 7, statistical software indicated that father harsh parenting in early adolescence was directly associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood. Mother communication was negatively associated while father alcohol use was positively associated with adolescent alcohol use in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Alcohol use in late adolescence was significantly related to alcohol use in emerging adulthood. This study offers unique insights into how mother- and father-son dyads differ in communication and parenting styles, as well as how these associations influence adolescent male alcohol use continuing into emerging adulthood. Multiple informants utilized in the current study provide a more complex understanding of how each parent uniquely contributes to the role of their adolescent's alcohol use in late adolescence into emerging adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Context: Alcohol use contributes to considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Screening for alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD at the primary care level can help in reducing this burden. While several community studies have been conducted to estimate the AUD, there apparently are no studies on opportunistic screening in a primary care setting in India. Aims: The aim was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and AUD in a primary care setting. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adult male outpatients in a primary care setting in Puducherry, South India. Subjects and Methods: Male outpatients aged 18 and above were interviewed for alcohol use. Current alcohol users were screened for AUD using World Health Organization - AUD identification test (AUDIT questionnaire, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions were used to describe the study population and the main study findings. The Chi-square test was used to find out the association between sociodemographic factors and alcohol use. Results: Of 256 subjects studied, 39.8% were found to be current alcohol users and 10.9% had AUD (AUDIT score ≥8. The sociodemographic factors did not show any association with an alcohol use in the current setting. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, four current alcohol users are to be screened to identify one patient with AUD. Screening at the primary health care level can help in identifying the risk group and thus help in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to alcohol use in the population.
Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J
The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.
Dull, R. Thomas
Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…
The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these
Slutske, Wendy S.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.
The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder by examining whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than the children of non-alcoholic parents even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of their 18–39 year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured psychiatric telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of non-alcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best. PMID:18729607
Alcohol continues to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Despite the scientific advances, alcohol use related problems continue to pose a major challenge to medicine and public health. Internet offers a new mode to provide health care interventions. Web based interventions (WBIs) provide the health ...
Factors associated with consumption of alcohol use were being worried, bullied, smoking cigarettes, truant, and lack of parental supervision. Students who were never worried were 49% (AOR=0.51 [95%CI (0.36, 0.72)]) less likely to consume alcohol compared to students who were most of the time or always worried.
Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health and oral mucosa. The subjects with tobacco and alcohol use, were subjected to thorough clinical examination of the oral cavity for the evaluation of the ...
This article provides a review of several studies, which used the Minnesota Multiphasis Personality Inventory (MMPI) to attempt to differentiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). The studies focused on either non-clinical ACOAs or alcoholic ACOAs. Overall, the MMPI differentiated ACOAs, but the degree and patterns of elevations varied…
Monica C. Skewes
Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.
reasons include inadequate medical school and residency training in addictions and a lack of adequate faculty role models who intervene and diagnose alcohol dependence (30). The likelihood that a physician will detect and address alcohol use disorders in patients varies according to the physician's field of training (8).
An exploration of alcohol use amongst undergraduate female psychology students at a South African university. ... Abuse of alcohol is attributed to curiosity and experimentation, peer pressure, low self-esteem, enjoyment, parental modelling, socio-cultural influences, stress and life events, self-medication and concerns ...
Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.
Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…
Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale
This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…
Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.
Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…
Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul
This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…
Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J
The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from secondary sources. Care was taken to avoid possible causes of cost overestimation, in particular double counting and, as far as possible, second-round effects of alcohol abuse. The combined total tangible and intangible costs of alcohol harm to the economy were estimated at 10 - 12% of the 2009 gross domestic product (GDP). The tangible financial cost of harmful alcohol use alone was estimated at R37.9 billion, or 1.6% of the 2009 GDP. The costs of alcohol-related harms provide a substantial counterbalance to the economic benefits highlighted by the alcohol industry to counter stricter regulation. Curtailing these costs by regulatory and policy interventions contributes directly and indirectly to social well-being and the economy. CONCLUSIONS; Existing frameworks that guide the regulation and distribution of alcohol frequently focus on maximising the contribution of the alcohol sector to the economy, but should also take into account the associated economic, social and health costs. Current interventions do not systematically address the most important causes of harm from alcohol, and need to be informed by reliable evidence of the ongoing costs of alcohol-related harms.
Hammond, Christopher J; Niciu, Mark J; Drew, Shannon; Arias, Albert J
Alcoholic patients suffer from harmful allostatic neuroplastic changes in the brain causing an acute withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of drinking followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome and an increased risk of relapse to heavy drinking. Benzodiazepines have long been the treatment of choice for detoxifying patients and managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsants (NBACs) are increasingly being used both for alcohol withdrawal management and for ongoing outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence, with the goal of either abstinence or harm reduction. This expert narrative review summarizes the scientific basis and clinical evidence supporting the use of NBACs in treating AWS and for reducing harmful drinking patterns. There is less evidence in support of NBAC therapy for AWS, with few placebo-controlled trials. Carbamazepine and gabapentin appear to be the most promising adjunctive treatments for AWS, and they may be useful as monotherapy in select cases, especially in outpatient settings and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate low-risk patients with the AWS. The body of evidence supporting the use of the NBACs for reducing harmful drinking in the outpatient setting is stronger. Topiramate appears to have a robust effect on reducing harmful drinking in alcoholics. Gabapentin is a potentially efficacious treatment for reducing the risk of relapse to harmful drinking patterns in outpatient management of alcoholism. Gabapentin's ease of use, rapid titration, good tolerability, and efficacy in both the withdrawal and chronic phases of treatment make it particularly appealing. In summary, several NBACs appear to be beneficial in treating AWS and alcohol use disorders.
Ostrowsky, Michael K
This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.
Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Shams, Jamal; Faghihimohamadi, Mohamadmahdi; Zahiroddin, Hanieh; Hallgren, Mats; Kallmen, Hakan
Iran is a developing and Islamic country where the consumption of alcoholic beverages is banned. However, psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders are often co-occurring. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and examined the psychometric properties of the test among psychiatric outpatients in Teheran, Iran. AUDIT was completed by 846 consecutive (sequential) patients. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of alcohol use, reliability and construct validity. 12% of men and 1% of women were hazardous alcohol consumers. Internal reliability of the Iranian version of AUDIT was excellent. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the construct validity and the fit of previous factor structures (1, 2 and 3 factors) to data were not good and seemingly contradicted results from the explorative principal axis factoring, which showed that a 1-factor solution explained 77% of the co-variances. We could not reproduce the suggested factor structure of AUDIT, probably due to the skewed distribution of alcohol consumption. Only 19% of men and 3% of women scored above 0 on AUDIT. This could be explained by the fact that alcohol is illegal in Iran. In conclusion the AUDIT exhibited good internal reliability when used as a single scale. The prevalence estimates according to AUDIT were somewhat higher among psychiatric patients compared to what was reported by WHO regarding the general population.
... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...
Vorst, H. van der; Schuck, K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Hermans, R.C.J.
To prevent harmful drinking, it is essential to understand factors that promote alcohol use at an early age. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of parental alcohol use in children's selection of alcoholic beverages in a virtual reality (VR) environment and their intentions to drink
McCabe, Karen E; Ling, Jonathan; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A
UK society is ageing. Older people who drink alcohol, drink more than those from previous generations, drink more frequently than other age groups and are more likely to drink at home and alone. Alcohol problems in later life however are often under-detected and under-reported meaning older people experiencing alcohol problems have high levels of unmet need. This study sought to identify existing services within South of Tyne, North East England to capture the extent of service provision for older drinkers and identify any gaps. The Age UK definition of 'older people' (aged 50 and over) was used. Services were contacted by telephone, managers or their deputy took part in semi-structured interviews. Forty six service providers were identified. Only one provided a specific intervention for older drinkers. Others typically provided services for age 18+. Among providers, there was no definitive definition of an older person. Data collection procedures within many organisations did not enable them to confirm whether older people were accessing services. Where alcohol was used alongside other drugs, alcohol use could remain unrecorded. To enable alcohol services to meet the needs of older people, greater understanding is needed of the patterns of drinking in later life, the experiences of older people, the scale and scope of the issue and guidance as to the most appropriate action to take. An awareness of the issues related to alcohol use in later life also needs to be integrated into commissioning of other services that impact upon older people. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.
Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Li, Tiandong; Innadda, Saranya
A sample of 2019 Thai secondary school students in grades equivalent to U.S. 10 through 12 completed a 43-item alcohol expectancy questionnaire in June 2000. Factor analysis revealed four factors: (a) positive expectancies, (b) negative expectancies, (c) sex and power expectancies, and (d) religious expectancies. Practicing Buddhists were less likely to drink than nonpracticing Buddhists and had fewer positive and more negative expectancies about alcohol. Among students who did drink, Buddhist beliefs did not appear to influence whether or not they were binge drinkers. Buddhist beliefs may influence decisions to drink but not decisions related to drinking patterns.
Erevik, Eilin K.; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S.; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle
This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-rela...
Morean, Meghan E; Cooney, Judith L
Military service is associated with increased rates of heavy drinking. Widely used clinical practices (e.g., motivational interviewing) indicate that addressing both negative and positive drinking consequences is essential to effective treatment. However, research on effectively assessing positive drinking consequences in a clinical population is absent. The current study (1) evaluated the utility of the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ), a measure previously validated in an undergraduate sample, for use with treatment-seeking veterans, and (2) evaluated relationships between positive drinking consequences and alcohol expectancies, pre-treatment alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Ninety-seven veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems completed an anonymous survey (97.9% male; mean age = 49.76[11.40], 67.0% Caucasian). The PDCQ evidenced a single factor latent structure and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90). Positive drinking consequences and expectancies were related yet distinct constructs. After controlling for demographic factors, experiencing more positive drinking consequences at program intake was associated with heavier pretreatment drinking (ηp(2) = .10, p = .003) and alcohol-related problems (ηp(2) = .18, p alcohol use (ηp(2) = .12, p = .002) and alcohol-related problems (ηp(2) = .11, p = .003) when expectancies also were included in the model. Positive drinking consequences are assessed reliably by the PDCQ in a clinical sample and appear to play an important role in the drinking behavior of veterans seeking alcohol treatment.
Carter, R Colin; Senekal, Marjanne; Dodge, Neil C; Bechard, Lori J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Molteno, Christopher D; Duggan, Christopher P; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W
Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among nonpregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk. One hundred and twenty-three heavy drinking Cape Coloured pregnant women and 83 abstaining controls were recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 3 prenatal study visits, each gravida was interviewed about alcohol, smoking, and drug use and weight, height, and arm skinfolds were measured. Dietary intakes of energy, protein, fat, and major micronutrients were assessed from three 24-hour recall interviews. The majority of women gained less than the recommended 0.42 kg/wk during pregnancy. Whereas methamphetamine use was associated with smaller biceps skinfolds, an indicator of body fat, alcohol consumption was not related to any anthropometric indicator. Alcohol was related to higher intake of phosphorus, choline, and vitamins B12 and D. Alcohol, cigarette, and methamphetamine use were related to lower vitamin C intake. Insufficient intake was reported by >85% of women for 10 of 22 key nutrients, and >50% for an additional 3 nutrients. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with meaningful changes in diet or anthropometric measures in this population, suggesting that poor nutrition among drinkers does not confound the extensively reported effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurobehavior. The poor gestational weight gain and high rates of insufficient intake for several nutrients in both the alcohol-exposed and control groups are also of public health importance. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103
Antony C. Moss
Full Text Available Dual process accounts of the alcohol-behaviour link hypothesise that differences in drinking patterns will moderate the effects of exposure to alcohol-related cues on behaviour, such as when a placebo is administered. We test this hypothesis by adapting a paradigm used in alcohol myopia research to examine the effects of alcohol-related priming on self-enhancement behaviour amongst social drinkers. Participants were asked to engage in a computerised self-rating task prior to being exposed to alcohol related and/or motivational primes. A staged computer error then occurred, and participants were then asked to complete their self ratings again – this method allowed for an immediate assessment of the impact of alcohol and motivational primes on self enhancement. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory, the overall effect of priming with alcohol-related cues was not significant irrespective of response-conflict manipulations. However, drinker type moderated this effect such that heavier drinkers self-enhanced more after exposure to alcohol-related cues, but only in high-conflict conditions. This suggests that the efficacy of a placebo may be significantly moderated by individual differences in reactions to alcohol-related stimuli, and that dual process accounts of the effects of alcohol on behaviour better explains this variation than alcohol myopia theory.
Johnson, J Aaron; Lee, Anna; Vinson, Daniel; Seale, J Paul
As programs for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use disseminate, evidence-based approaches for identifying patients with unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence (AD) are needed. While the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Clinician Guide suggests use of a single alcohol screening question (SASQ) for screening and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual checklists for assessment, many SBIRT programs use alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) "zones" for screening and assessment. Validation data for these zones are limited. This study used primary care data from a bi-ethnic southern U.S. population to examine the ability of the AUDIT zones and other AUDIT-based approaches to identify unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Existing data were analyzed from interviews with 625 female and male adult drinkers presenting to 5 southeastern primary care practices. Timeline follow-back was used to identify at-risk drinking, and diagnostic interview schedule was used to identify alcohol abuse and dependence. Validity measures compared performance of AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT dependence domains scores, with and without a 30-day binge drinking measure, for detecting unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Optimal AUDIT scores for detecting unhealthy alcohol use were lower than current commonly used cutoffs (5 for men, 3 for women). Improved performance was obtained by combining AUDIT cutoffs of 6 for men and 4 for women with a 30-day binge drinking measure. AUDIT scores of 15 for men and 13 for women detected AD with 100% specificity but low sensitivity (20 and 18%, respectively). AUDIT dependence subscale scores of 2 or more showed similar specificity (99%) and slightly higher sensitivity (31% for men, 24% for women). Combining lower AUDIT cutoff scores and binge drinking measures may increase the detection of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. Use of lower cutoff scores and dependence subscale
Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are a health problem of high prevalence in most communities and such problems account for 5% of the total burden of disease worldwide. Clinical toxicologists are commonly required to treat patients having AUDs and associated drug/alcohol-related harm. There have been recent changes to some of the diagnostic criteria (notably in DSM V relevant to AUDs, with older terms “alcohol abuse” and “alcohol dependence” no longer being classified. AUDs may sometimes not be clearly recognizable and use of evidence-based screening interventions can help identify such conditions and lead to effective brief interventions (e.g. SBIRT programs in emergency departments. AUDs are viewed as chronic disorders of alcohol consumption occurring across a spectrum of severity. While most AUDs are mild to moderate in severity and usually self-limiting conditions, more severe presentations are more commonly encountered by physicians in emergency settings. Hence, clinical toxicologists are more likely to see patients within the more severe form of disorder, at end of the spectrum of AUDs. Among this group of patients, multi-morbidity and particularly high mortality risk exists, and thus they usually require management collaboration with specialist services. Patients with AUDs are most likely to be recognized by a clinical toxicologist in the following scenarios: following acute heavy alcohol ingestion and subsequently developing acute alcohol intoxication (ethanol toxidrome, following accidental or intentional drug overdosage where alcohol has also been consumed, following acute alcohol consumption that has been associated with behavioral risk-taking and/or self-harming (e.g. poisoning, envenomation, etc., when alcohol withdrawal reactions are severe requiring hospitalization and possibly following an adverse drug reaction.
de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Aims: To compare the discriminant validity of the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 classification of alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an alternative classification, the craving withdrawal model (CWM). CWM requires craving and withdrawal for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence and raises the alcohol abuse
Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others
The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum presents a framework for alcohol education…
Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…
Shiu Lun Au Yeung
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies show moderate alcohol use negatively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, healthier attributes among moderate users compared to never users may confound the apparent association. A potentially less biased way to examine the association is Mendelian randomization, using alcohol metabolizing genes which influence alcohol use. METHODS: We used instrumental variable analysis with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotypes (AA/GA/GG as instrumental variables for alcohol use to examine the association of alcohol use (10 g ethanol/day with CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids and glucose and morbidity (self-reported IHD and CVD among men in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. RESULTS: ALDH2 genotypes were a credible instrument for alcohol use (F-statistic 74.6. Alcohol was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.05 mmol/L per alcohol unit, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.02 to 0.08 and diastolic blood pressure (1.15 mmHg, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.07 but not with systolic blood pressure (1.00 mmHg, 95% CI -0.74 to 2.74, LDL-cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.08, log transformed triglycerides (0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08 or log transformed fasting glucose (0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.03, self-reported CVD (odds ratio (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27 or self-reported IHD (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.45. CONCLUSION: Low to moderate alcohol use among men had the expected effects on most CVD risk factors but not fasting glucose. Larger studies are needed to confirm the null associations with IHD, CVD and fasting glucose.
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F
Adolescent alcohol use continues to be a critical public health problem with both short- and long-term negative health consequences. Defining oneself in terms of alcohol, a drinking-related identity, has been shown to predict high levels of alcohol use. Because adolescence is the developmental period during which identity development is most salient, preventing the development of the drinker identity and early identification of youth who have a developing drinker identity may be important for prevention and early intervention. We review the theory- and evidence-based literature about identity development and the effects of a drinker identity on alcohol use behaviors in adolescents, discuss potential determinants of the drinker identity, and discuss future implications for practice and research. There is some evidence that the drinker identity forms in early adolescence and becomes more well-developed during adolescence. The drinker identity predicts alcohol use behaviors both concurrently and over time in adolescence and young adulthood. There is also some evidence that early exposure to alcohol may contribute to formation of the drinker identity. Identity-based approaches may be promising strategies to identify adolescents who are at risk for alcohol use and to intervene with early prevention or treatment within the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Gupta, Himanshu; Lam, Tina; Pettigrew, Simone; Tait, Robert J
Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.
Coates, Jason M; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD; Dingle, Genevieve A; Connor, Jason P
Modification of elevated positive expectations of alcohol consumption (alcohol outcome expectancies; AOEs) is a key feature of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approaches to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Despite extensive research supporting the efficacy of CBT for AUD, few studies have examined AOE change. This study aimed to assess AOE change following completion of CBT for AUD and its association with drinking behaviour. One-hundred and seventy-five patients who completed a 12-week CBT program for AUD were administered the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ) at pre-treatment assessment and upon completion of treatment. Abstinence was achieved by 108 (61.7%) of completing patients. For patients who lapsed, the mean proportion of abstinent days was 93%. DEQ scales assessing expectations of positive alcohol effects on tension reduction, assertiveness, and cognitive enhancement were significantly lower post-treatment (pscale. Greater percentage of abstinent days over treatment was associated with lower pre-and post-treatment tension reduction expectancy scores (p<0.05). Drinking during treatment was associated with smaller changes in expectations of negative effects of alcohol on mood (p<0.05). Individuals who completed CBT treatment for AUD showed significant AOE change. Tension reduction and affective change expectancies may be particularly important for abstinence and useful markers of lapse risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.
Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan
Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J
Pregnancy alcohol consumption has been linked to poor birth outcomes and long-term developmental problems. Despite this, a significant number of women drink during pregnancy. Although most prenatal care providers are asking women about alcohol use, validated screening tools are infrequently employed. Research has demonstrated that currently available screening methods and intervention techniques are effective in identifying and reducing pregnancy drinking. Implementing universal screening and appropriate intervention for pregnancy alcohol use should be a priority for prenatal care providers, as these efforts could substantially improve pregnancy, birth, and longer term developmental outcomes for those affected.
A significant segment of the Latino migrant worker population in the United States is at high risk for alcohol abuse and related risk behaviors. Information about the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse and its association with sociodemographic and psychological variables is needed for designing effective intervention prevention strategies. Cross-sectional data were drawn from a baseline assessment that was part of a randomized controlled trial of 278 Latino migrant workers (LMWs) conducted between 2008 and 2010. About one-third (32%) of participants engaged in heavy drinking in the past 30 days prior to baseline interview. More females than males reported no alcohol use in the past 30 days (53.5% vs. 20.5%). On the other hand, more males reported drinking every day or nearly (25.2% vs. 7.1%). Five factors-gender, country of origin, relationship status, living arrangements, and acculturation-were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol consumption. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, country of origin, education attainment, relationship status, living arrangement, living with children, length of stay in the US, religious beliefs, acculturation, and depression were associated with frequent heavy drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence, and unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol. There is significant variation in alcohol use among Latino migrant workers. Although a substantial proportion of this population abstains from alcohol, an equally substantial proportion report levels of alcohol use that pose significant risk. More research is needed to better understand drinking patterns in this community in order to design prevention strategies specifically tailored for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Idris Atadashi Musa
Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.
Hoge, W H
A process is described for producing ethanol (EtOH) from cellulosic materials by first hydrolyzing the material to sugars and then converting the sugars to alcohol by digestion and fermentation. Thus, fibrous cellulosic material obtained from municipal waste slurry was sterilized by autoclaving, followed by inoculation with Trichoderma viride cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 100 g of raw material, 25 mL of 95% EtOH was produced by this method.
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M.; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S.
The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1,031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C
This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Kozicki, Zigmond A.
Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)
Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne; Becker, Ulrik
in a prospective design. Methods: Information on social network and covariates was obtained from 9589 men and women aged 21–99 years in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, followed for registration of alcohol use disorder in the Danish National Patient Registry and the WINALCO database. Results: Men who lived alone......Objective: Social network has been linked to alcohol use disorder in several studies. However, since the majority of such findings are crosssectional, causal interpretation is difficult. The aim of the present study was to test if social network characteristics predict alcohol use disorder......, were separated or divorced or widowers had a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder: HR among men living alone vs. men not living alone was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.59–3.27), and HR among separated/divorced men vs. married men was 2.55 (95% CI: 1.33–4.89). No such associations were found among women...
African Health Sciences Vol 13 Issue 3 September 2013. 777. Beyond prevalence ... pattern of alcohol/substance use can inform the inclusion of rehabilitation strategies in intervention policies. ..... cigarette smoking and advertisement among.
... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...
Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.
This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and two dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831
Romaguera, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Papaseit, Esther; Arellano, Ana Lucia; Farré, Magi
Concurrent use of cannabis and alcohol is frequent. According different studies, the prevalence is among 20-34% depending on different samples studied. In contrast with the wide evidence available about neuropsychiatric effects associated to the use of cannabis or alcohol separately, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of their combination. Our aim was to review the literature regarding this topic. We performed a search in MEDLINE and from 114 potentially eligible studies, 27 were selected. Most of them studied the relation between cannabis and alcohol, and with them combined to other substances of abuse, but only a few considered their concurrent effect among mental disorders (ADHD, bipolar disorder) and neuropsychological performance. More research in the neuropsychiatric effects of the concomitant use of cannabis and alcohol is needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R
Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement. Summary baseline variables regarding the social media platform used (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), social media measures assessed (e.g., number of alcohol photographs posted), alcohol measures (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Timeline Follow back Interview), and the number of time points at which data were collected were extracted from each published study. We used the Q statistic to examine heterogeneity in the correlations between alcohol-related social media engagement and both drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems. Because there was significant heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to evaluate the difference from zero of the weighted aggregate correlations. We used metaregression with study characteristics as moderators to test for moderators of the observed heterogeneity. Following screening, 19 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The primary findings indicated a statistically significant relationship and moderate effect sizes between alcohol-related social media engagement and both alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.44, p social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19
Testa, M; Leonard, K E
Alcohol has been posited to serve as an "excuse" for deviant behavior, including domestic violence. A recent study suggested that wives hold husbands less responsible for their aggressive behavior when husbands are problem drinkers. To replicate and extend this study, the independent and interactive effects of husband physical aggression and husband alcohol use on wives' marital satisfaction and thoughts of divorce were examined among newlywed couples (n = 387). Husband physical aggression had a significant negative effect on marital satisfaction and a significant positive effect on divorce ideation regardless of the measure of husband alcohol use employed. Alcohol dependence had a negative effect on satisfaction; however, in no case was there an interaction between alcohol and aggression. Results fail to replicate an earlier study supporting an excuse function of alcohol and suggest that alcohol does not mitigate the negative effects of domestic violence on marital functioning.
Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John
Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Schools therefore have the potential to play a role in the socialisation of alcohol use through school policies and practices regarding consumption of alcohol by adults at school events in the presence of children. This survey was undertaken to a) compare the extent to which alcohol is used at secondary school events, when children are present, in the states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (VIC), Australia; b) describe principals' level of agreement with these practices; c) their awareness of state policies on this issue; and d) the predictors of such events. A random sample of secondary schools, stratified to represent metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools were invited to participate. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted with p values schools consented to participate in the study. Fifteen percent of participating NSW schools and 57% of VIC schools held at least one event in which alcohol was consumed by adults in the presence of children in the year before the survey. Of the 100 reported events, 78% were Year 12 graduation dinners, and 18% were debutante balls. Compared to NSW principals, VIC principals were significantly more likely to agree with the use of alcohol at these events; significantly less likely to be aware of their state education department policy on this issue; have a policy at their own school or support policy that prohibits alcohol use at such events; and less likely to report having enough information to make decisions about this. There is a growing focus on adults' use of alcohol at school events when children are present. Schools can play an important role in educating and socialising children about alcohol via both the curriculum and policies regarding adults' alcohol use at school events. Findings from this study suggest education department and school-based policies that
Zeller, Meg H; Washington, Gia A; Mitchell, James E; Sarwer, David B; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita P; Peugh, James L; Michalsky, Marc P; Inge, Thomas H
Problematic alcohol use and increased sensitivity postoperatively in adult weight loss surgery patients heightens concerns. No data have characterized these behaviors in adolescents-a gap, given adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking are public health concerns. To examine alcohol use behavior in adolescents who underwent weight loss surgery across the first two post-operative years in comparison to nonsurgical adolescents. Five academic medical centers. Utilizing a prospective controlled design, adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (n = 242) and nonsurgical adolescents with severe obesity (n = 83) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test. Analyses included 216 surgical (M age = 17.1 ± 1.5, M BMI = 52.9 ± 9.3, 91.8% female, 67.6% white) and 79 nonsurgical participants (M age = 16.2 ± 1.4, M BMI = 46.9 ± 6.1, 82.3% female, 53.2% white), with baseline data and at 12 or 24 months postoperatively. The majority reported never consuming alcohol within the year before surgery (surgical, 92%; nonsurgical, 91%) or by 24 months (surgical, 71%; nonsurgical, 74%), when alcohol use disorder approached 9%. Among alcohol users at 24 months (n = 52 surgical, 17 nonsurgical), 35% surgical and 29% nonsurgical consumed 3+drinks on a typical drinking day; 42% surgical and 35% nonsurgical consumed 6+drinks on at least 1 occasion. For the surgical group, alcohol use changed as a function of older age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.47, P = .01) and lower body mass index (OR = .94, PBariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.
Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Bühringer, Gerhard
BACKGROUND: The proportion of 60+ years with excessive alcohol intake varies in western countries between 6-16 % among men and 2-7 % among women. Specific events related to aging (e.g. loss of job, physical and mental capacity, or spouse) may contribute to onset or continuation of alcohol use...... into the possible interaction of service system differences and related patient characteristics in predictionof treatment outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT02084173 , March 7, 2014....
Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J
BACKGROUND: The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. METHODS: We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from s...
Spijkerman, Renske; Larsen, Helle; Gibbons, Frederick X; Engels, Rutger C M E
Perceptions about the type of people who drink, also referred to as drinker prototypes, may strengthen young people's motivation to engage in alcohol use. Previous research has shown that drinker prototypes are related to alcohol consumption in both adolescents and young adults. However, the evidence for the strength of these relationships remains inconclusive. One of the caveats in former studies is that all insights about prototype relations are based on self-reported data from youngsters themselves, mostly gathered in a class situation, which may contain bias due to memory distortions and self-presentation concerns. The present study examined the impact of drinker prototypes on young adults' drinking patterns by using a less obtrusive measure to assess alcohol consumption, i.e. ad lib drinking among friend groups in the naturalistic setting of a bar lab. Drinker prototypes, self-reported alcohol use in the past, and observed alcohol intake in the bar lab were assessed among 200 college students. Relations between participants' drinker prototypes and their self-reported and observed drinking behavior were examined by computing correlations and conducting multilevel analyses. Drinker prototypes were related to both self-reported and observed alcohol use. However, the drinking patterns of friend group members had a strong impact on participants' individual drinking rates in the bar lab. After these group effects had been controlled for, only heavy drinker prototypes showed relations with observed alcohol intake in the bar lab. These findings further establish the value of drinker prototypes in predicting young adults' drinking behavior and suggest that people's motivation to drink alcohol in real-life drinking situations is related to their perceptions about heavy drinkers.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Chaput, J-P
Research indicates that screen time (e.g. TV viewing) is associated with alcohol consumption in adolescents; however, very little is known about the link between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and alcohol intake in this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the use of SNSs and alcohol consumption among Canadian middle and high school students, and to test whether this link varies by sex and drinking frequency or intensity. School-based cross-sectional study. Self-reported data on time spent on SNSs, alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained from 10,072 participants within the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide survey of students in grades 7-12 (11-20 years old). Adolescent females who reported daily use of SNSs (≤2 hours/day or >2 hours/day) were more likely than those who use them infrequently or do not use them at all to report both occasional and regular alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, while adolescent males who reported daily use of SNSs were more likely than those who use SNSs infrequently or do not use them at all to report regular alcohol use in the past 12 months. The use of SNSs was also associated with report of binge drinking (defined as drinking five or more drinks on one occasion) in the past 4 weeks in both males and females. Results provide evidence that the use of SNSs is associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents. Differences between males and females in the reported associations warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Voogt, Carmen; Beusink, Miriam; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger; Smit, Koen; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of the impact of parental alcohol use on the acquisition of children's alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol-related knowledge, alcohol-related norms, alcohol expectancies) in the developmental period from age two to ten. METHODS: A
Voogt, C.V.; Beusink, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Smit, K.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Background: This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of the impact of parental alcohol use on the acquisition of children's alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol-related knowledge, alcohol-related norms, alcohol expectancies) in the developmental period from age two to ten. Methods: A
Diep, Pham Bich; Knibbe, Ronald A; Giang, Kim Bao; De Vries, Nanne
In many countries worldwide, heavy drinking can cause harm not only to drinkers but also to those around them. To examine the prevalence and predictors of secondhand effects of alcohol use among students in Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, a multistage sampling strategy was used to select 6,011 students (from the first to final study year) of 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. During class, students filled in a questionnaire asking for demographic information, and about alcohol-related problems and details of secondhand effects of alcohol during the past year. Exploratory factor analysis of the secondhand effects indicated two factors: non-bodily harm and bodily harm. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between predictors and non-bodily harm and bodily harm. The prevalence of secondhand effects of alcohol is high among students in Vietnam: 77.5% had non-bodily effects and 34.2% had bodily effects. More than 37% of the population reported three to four non-bodily effects and more than 12% reported two to three bodily harms due to the drinking of others. However, most respondents who reported secondhand effects experienced these less than once per month. Factors most strongly associated with the yearly non-bodily harm were the weekly drinking habits of the people the respondents live with, and living in a smaller city; the factor most strongly associated with the yearly bodily harm was the respondent's own alcohol-related problems. Moreover, weekly drinking habits of the people the respondents live with, and respondent's own alcohol-related problems are strongly associated with the frequent experience of non-bodily and bodily effects of alcohol. In addition to dealing with alcohol-related harm of drinkers themselves, preventing secondhand effects should also be a major focus of prevention policy.
Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.
Brion, Mélanie; Dormal, Valérie; Lannoy, Séverine; Mertens, Serge; de Timary, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre
Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) simultaneously present decreased inhibitory control and increased attention towards alcohol-related cues. The dual-process models have proposed that these symptoms reflect an imbalance between prefrontal/reflective and limbic/automatic systems, respectively leading to cognitive dysfunctions in executive processes and to alcohol-related bias. However, most previous research has focused on a separate exploration of these systems among ALC, and the direct measure of their interactions remains to be conducted. Moreover, no study has explored the evolution of this imbalance across the successive stages of alcohol-related disorders, and particularly in Korsakoff syndrome (KS), the most frequent neurological complication of alcohol-dependence. Ten KS, 14 ALC, and 14 matched control participants performed a modified Flanker task, the "Alcohol Flanker Task," based on congruent, incongruent, and neutral conditions with alcohol-related stimuli. This task required inhibitory processing on alcohol-related stimuli and evaluated, through a behavioral approach, the interaction between reflective and automatic systems, as well as its evolution between ALC and KS. ALC and KS both presented high reactivity towards alcohol-related stimuli, confirming the presence of alcohol-related bias. KS showed increased omission rates (related to distractor interference) while ALC showed higher false-alarm rates (related to prepotent response inhibition). These results suggest that different inhibitory subcomponents might be altered at the successive stages of the pathology, and experimentally confirms the crucial role of the interaction between reflective and automatic processes in alcohol-use disorders. The present results reinforce the proposal that alcohol-related cues significantly impact inhibitory control in alcohol-related disorders. However, ALC and KS present different patterns of deficits depending on task complexity (i.e., executive load), thus
Asana, Olubunmi O; Ayvaci, Emine R; Pollio, David E; Hong, Barry A; North, Carol S
Homeless individuals with alcohol use disorders have multiple comorbidities and therefore various service needs. Despite need for services, homeless individuals face numerous barriers to treatment. Little is known about the associations of specific services in relation to homelessness in the context of alcohol problems. The current study analyzed 2-year prospective longitudinal data on a homeless sample, examining relationships between alcohol use disorder, alcohol use, housing status, and service use over time. 255 of 400 individuals recruited systematically from shelters and street locations completed 3 annual assessments (69% completion). Data on lifetime and current psychiatric disorders, housing status, and past year service use were obtained and merged with service use data gathered from local agencies. GEE models were created to predict dependent outcome variables of stable housing, alcohol use, and service use in both follow-up years. Lifetime alcohol use disorder was positively associated with substance and medical service use. Alcohol problems did not hinder attainment of stable housing, and placement in housing did not necessarily increase risk for alcohol use. Stable housing was negatively associated with psychiatric and substance service use. In the second year, when alcohol use was finally associated with receiving substance services, it appears that these services provided a gateway to psychiatric services. The psychiatric services in turn appeared to provide a gateway to medical services. Alcohol use acted differently compared to lifetime alcohol use disorder in relation to service use. Lack of association between alcohol use and housing supports Housing First policy. Obtaining housing may have ameliorative effects on mental health, diminishing perceived need for psychiatric services. Services may also be more accessible during homelessness. Obtaining substance treatment may provide a gateway for those who use alcohol after becoming homeless to
Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea
This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…
Kleczkowska, Patrycja; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena
Cannabinoids are still classified as illegal psychoactive drugs despite their broad and increasingly acknowledged therapeutic potential. These substances are most famous for their wide recreational use, particularly among young adults to either alter the state of consciousness, intensify pleasure induced by other psychoactive substances or as an alternative to the previously abused drugs. It is important to emphasize that cannabinoids are often taken together with a variety of medications intended for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). These medications include disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the knowledge of possible beneficial effects and interactions between cannabinoids and drugs commonly used for treatment of AUD and AWS either comorbid or existing as a separate disorder.
Vorst, H. van der; Burk, W.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Many alcohol prevention programs advocate conversations about alcohol between parents and children because verbal communication is the most direct way for parents to express their thoughts, rules, and concerns about alcohol to their children, so called alcohol-specific communication. Nevertheless,
Kheokao, Jantima K; Kirkgulthorn, Tassanee; Yingrengreung, Siritorn; Singhprapai, Phuwasith
This study explored effects of family, school, and marketing communications on alcohol use and intention to drink of Thai students. We conducted a survey in which 5,184 students participated. Respondents were selected randomly from school districts throughout Thailand. In this survey we measured the exposure to, reception of, and perceptions concerning alcohol marketing communication, school absenteeism and achievement, family alcohol use, students' alcohol use, and drinking intentions. Findings indicated students' low alcohol use, moderate intention to drink, and high prevalence of family drinking. The levels of exposure and also the information receptivity to alcohol media marketing of Thai students were low. The respondents had a high level of media literacy on alcohol marketing communication. Multiple regression and focus group discussions provided support for the contention that there were significant effects of school achievement, absenteeism and media marketing communication on alcohol use (R2 = 14%) and intention to drink (R2 = 11%). Therefore, consideration of relevant school and alcohol policies, including monitoring of media marketing communication, will be needed.
Roessler, Kirsten K.; Bilberg, Randi; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette
AIMS: To examine whether physical activity as an adjunct to outpatient alcohol treatment has an effect on alcohol consumption following participation in an exercise intervention of six months' duration, and at 12 months after treatment initiation. METHODS: The study is a randomized controlled stu...... was protective against excessive drinking following treatment. A dose-response effect of exercise on drinking outcome supports the need for implementing physically active lifestyles for patients in treatment for alcohol use disorder.......AIMS: To examine whether physical activity as an adjunct to outpatient alcohol treatment has an effect on alcohol consumption following participation in an exercise intervention of six months' duration, and at 12 months after treatment initiation. METHODS: The study is a randomized controlled study...... regression model was used to evaluate the odds of excessive drinking among the three groups, based on intention-to-treat. Changes in level of physical activity in all three groups were tested by using a generalized linear mixed model. A multiple linear model was used to test if there was an association...
Armstrong, R W
Data from 100 Chinese, 50 Malay, and 50 Indian adults resident in 1980 in the greater urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, indicate a heavy use of cigarettes among males of all ethnic groups, light use among female Chinese, and none among female Malay and Indian. Consumption of other tobacco products was important only among Indian males; chewing betal quid among Indian males and also among Malay and Indian females. Alcohol use is increasing among both sexes and all ethnic groups, but Chinese and Indian groups use alcoholic drinks more frequently and in larger quantity than Malay. Beer and liquor are the most common drinks.
Schneier, F R; Foose, T E; Hasin, D S; Heimberg, R G; Liu, S-M; Grant, B F; Blanco, C
To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001-2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version. Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.
Full Text Available Background: Doctors have been identified as one of the key agents in the prevention of alcohol-related harm, however, their level of use and attitudes toward alcohol will affect such role. Aim: This study is aimed at describing the pattern of alcohol use and the predictors of hazardous drinking among hospital doctors. Setting: Study was conducted at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional survey involving all the doctors in the teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: All the consenting clinicians completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and alcohol use was measured using the 10-item alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT and psychological well-being was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square tests with Yates correction were used to describe the relationship between respondent′s characteristics and AUDIT scores as appropriate. Results: There were a total of 122 participants. Eighty-five (69.7% of them were abstainers, 28 (23% were moderate drinkers, and 9 (7.3% hazardous drinkers. With the exception of age, there was no significant relationship between sociodemographic status, years of practice, specialty of practice, and hazardous alcohol use. Experiencing stress or GHQ score above average is significantly associated with hazardous drinking. Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among hospital doctors appears to be essentially a problem of the male gender, especially among those older than 40 years. Stress and other form of psychological distress seem to play a significant role in predicting hazardous drinking among doctors.
Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron
Alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms may serve as easily quantifiable markers for AUD relapse after remission and might help prevention workers identify at-risk individuals. We investigated the predictive value of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms on relapse. Data are from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). We selected 506 people in ≥12-month DSM-5 AUD remission at baseline and assessed their status at 3-year follow-up. AUD symptoms and drinking patterns were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Time since remission was assessed retrospectively at baseline and ranged from 1 to 48 years. Predictors for relapse were examined using Cox regression analysis. Cumulative AUD relapse rate was 5.6% at 5 years, 9.1% at 10 years and 12.0% at 20 years. Relapse was predicted by both medium (15-28/22-42 drinks weekly for women/men) and high (≥29/43) past alcohol intake, 6+ lifetime AUD symptoms, 'impaired control over use', and at-risk (≥8/15) current intake. The risk of relapse was especially high when medium or high past intake or 6+ lifetime symptoms coincided with current at-risk drinking. Only a minority of people in DSM-5 AUD remission relapsed, but the risk of relapse increased substantially with the presence of at least one of the risk factors. Moreover, at-risk current drinking coupled with other risk factors substantially increased the likelihood of relapse. Therefore, current drinking may provide an adequate reference point for relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lindsay, Helen A; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Bradfield, Charles N; Mitchell, Simon J
Appropriate hand hygiene reduces hospital-acquired infections. Anesthesiologists work in environments with numerous hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs). In a prospective observational study, we investigated the potential for an anesthesiologist to return a positive alcohol breath test during routine practice when using alcohol hand gel. We observed ten volunteer anesthesiologists over four hours while they implemented the World Health Organization (WHO) "five moments for hand hygiene" using our hospital's adopted standard 70% ethanol hand gel. We measured the expired alcohol concentration at shift start and every fifteen minutes thereafter with a fuel cell breathalyzer calibrated to measure the percentage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Blood alcohol specimens (analyzed with gas chromatography) were collected at shift start and, when possible, immediately after a participant's first positive breathalyzer test. Of the 130 breathalyzer tests obtained, there were eight (6.2%) positive breath alcohol results from six of the ten participants, all within two minutes of a HHO. The highest value breathalyzer BAC recorded was 0.064%, with an overall mean (SD) of 0.023 (0.017)%. Five (62.5%) of the positive breathalyzer tests returned to zero in less than seven minutes. All of three blood specimens obtained immediately after a positive breathalyzer reading tested negative for alcohol. Anesthesia practitioners using alcohol hand gel in a manner that conforms with recommended hand hygiene can test positive for alcohol on a breathalyzer assay. Positive tests probably arose from inhalation of alcohol vapour into the respiratory dead space following gel application. If workplace breath testing for alcohol is implemented, it should be completed more than 15 min after applying alcohol hand gel. Positive results should be verified with a BAC test.
Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy
The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. This study used a 2-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred. Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week. Data were collected across 389 drinking days; 40 of these days involved AmED use. Multilevel modeling findings revealed that odds of drinking AmEDs were higher on days where individuals drank at a bar or club and drank at home relative to other locations. In addition, odds of pregaming were higher on AmED days as compared to non-AmED days. AmED use was linked with lower odds of drinking game behavior. Overall, AmEDs appear to be consumed in potentially risky contexts. In combination with prior findings that AmED days are linked with heavier alcohol use and more harms experienced, these findings support the unique nature of AmED consumption in terms of the factors that may predict or maintain potentially hazardous drinking patterns. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dolman, Jonathan M; Hawkes, Neil D
Alcohol consumption is often under-reported in patients admitted to general hospitals with acute illness. For alcohol-dependent individuals hospital admission results in an enforced period of abstinence with potential alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and possible life threatening complications. Early detection of alcohol use is therefore beneficial to patients and health services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire in the acute medical setting, and the effect of combining routine biological markers-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) on its performance in the early identification of in-patients with alcohol use disorders and at risk of developing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prospective study in consecutive patients admitted to an acute medical admissions ward. All patients were screened using the AUDIT questionnaire and routine blood tests. Patients were then monitored for symptoms of withdrawal using clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Of the 874 patients screened using the AUDIT, 98 (11%) screened positive of whom 17 (2% of the 874) experienced clinically significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms, when using serial CIWA-Ar. The AUDIT and serial CIWA-Ar detected all patients who went on to manifest acute withdrawal symptoms. There was no loss of sensitivity at an AUDIT cut-off of 13 or more compared with the lower cut-off of 8 or more. A positive predictive value of 17.3% for an AUDIT score of 8 or more in the detection of withdrawal, increased to 47.1% when found in combination with at least two abnormal biological markers whilst maintaining a sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.9%. These findings confirm that AUDIT is a useful alcohol screen in general medical settings and that its ability to correctly predict which patients will experience alcohol withdrawal is
Cox, Jared M; Bates, Scott C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived normative use of alcohol and reported consumption in an environment where relatively little alcohol use occurs. A total of 585 undergraduate students completed an online survey on alcohol use in March 2006. Participants reported personal alcohol use and perceptions of use by "friends," "the average student," and "the average student who drinks." Due to the large number of students reporting zero alcohol use, zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to analyze the data. Results showed that perceptions of use and beliefs about the acceptability of use by proximal groups were strongly and positively correlated with personal alcohol use. Perceptions of distal groups were either not correlated or were correlated negatively with personal use. These findings suggest that the use of distal referent groups for a social norms campaign in a low-use environment may have paradoxical effects.
Ejsing, Louise Kristiansen; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne S
.5- to 2-fold increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder (Hazard ratios for men 1.64; 95% CI 1.29-2.10 and women 1.45; 1.01-2.09) in individuals with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity, compared with a moderate to high level. However, when stratifying by presence of other psychiatric......AIMS: To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohort study with focus on leisure-time physical activity. METHODS: Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), performed in 1976-1978, 1981......-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003. Information on physical activity (classified as Moderate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol use disorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric...
Rangé, Bernard P; Marlatt, G Alan
Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been successfully used to treat addiction. This article is in part a review on addiction models such as relapse prevention by Marlatt & Gordon, stages of change by Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, deriving from motivational interview, developed by Miller & Rollnick, as well as the cognitive models by Beck et al. Based on literature evidence for the development of effective treatment programs, we report on a group treatment model used in a group of alcoholics referred by the Department of Worker's Health Surveillance at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to the Alcoholism Rehabilitation and Research Center. Results are presented indicating that this type of treatment could be one alternative to others treatments in use. New research is needed to better validate cognitive-behavioral approach to alcohol and drug problems.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.
Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. Current treatments, both psychological and pharmacological are poor, with high rates of relapse after medical detoxification and dedicated treatment programs. The earliest historical roots of psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy in the 1950s were associated with Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy to treat what was then called, alcoholism. But results were varied and psychedelic therapy with LSD and other 'classical' psychedelics fell out of favour in the wake of socio-political pressures and cultural changes. A current revisiting of psychedelic clinical research is now targeting substance use disorders - and particularly alcohol use disorder - again. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy has never been formally explored as a treatment for any form of substance use disorder. But in recent years MDMA has risen in prominence as an agent to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With its unique receptor profile and a relatively well-tolerated subjective experience of drug effects when used clinically, MDMA Therapy is ideally suited to allow a patient to explore and address painful memories without being overwhelmed by negative affect. Given that alcohol use disorder is so often associated with early traumatic experiences, the author is proposing in a current on-going UK-based study that patients with alcohol use disorder who have undergone a medical detoxification from alcohol might benefit from a course of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knight, John R; Sherritt, Lon; Harris, Sion Kim; Holder, David W; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A; Gabrielli, Joy; Chang, Grace
Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents' use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality. Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis. Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean +/- SD age was 16.0 +/- 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping--Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping--Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping--Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84), and Belief (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.83), which are
Knight, John R.; Sherritt, Lon; Harris, Sion Kim; Holder, David W.; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A.; Gabrielli, Joy; Chang, Grace
Background Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents’ use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality. Methods Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis. Results Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean ± SD age was 16.0 ± 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping –Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54–0.84), and Belief
Na Young Shin
Full Text Available Empirical research has produced mixed results regarding the effects of acupuncture on the treatment of alcohol use disorder in humans. Few studies have provided a comprehensive review or a systematic overview of the magnitude of the treatment effect of acupuncture on alcoholism. This study investigated the effects of acupuncture on alcohol-related symptoms and behaviors in patients with this disorder. The PubMed database was searched until 23 August 2016, and reference lists from review studies were also reviewed. Seventeen studies were identified for a full-text inspection, and seven (243 patients of these met our inclusion criteria. The outcomes assessed at the last posttreatment point and any available follow-up data were extracted from each of the studies. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that an acupuncture intervention had a stronger effect on reducing alcohol-related symptoms and behaviors than did the control intervention (g=0.67. A beneficial but weak effect of acupuncture treatment was also found in the follow-up data (g=0.29. Although our analysis showed a significant difference between acupuncture and the control intervention in patients with alcohol use disorder, this meta-analysis is limited by the small number of studies included. Thus, a larger cohort study is required to provide a firm conclusion.
Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry
Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol
Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida
This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…
Suter, Marius; Strik, Werner; Moggi, Franz
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and depressive disorders often co-occur. Findings on the effects of major depressive disorder (MDD) or depressive symptoms on posttreatment alcohol relapse are controversial. The study's aim is to examine the association of MDD and depressive symptoms with treatment outcomes after residential AUD programs. In a naturalistic-prospective, multisite study with 12 residential AUD treatment programs in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, 64 patients with AUD with MDD, 283 patients with AUD with clinically significant depressive symptoms at admission, and 81 patients with AUD with such problems at discharge were compared with patients with AUD only on alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and treatment service utilization. MDD was provisionally identified at admission and definitively defined at discharge. Whereas patients with MDD did not differ from patients with AUD only at 1-year follow-up, patients with AUD with clinically significant depressive symptoms had significantly shorter time-to-first-drink and a lower abstinence rate. These patients also had elevated AUD indices and treatment service utilization for psychiatric disorders. Our results suggest that clinically significant depressive symptoms are a substantial risk factor for relapse so that it may be important to treat them during and after residential AUD treatment programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metrik, Jane; Gunn, Rachel L; Jackson, Kristina M; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Borsari, Brian
The study aims were to examine daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use and the extent to which the association differs as a function of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis. Timeline Followback interview data was collected in a study of veterans (N = 127) recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital who reported at least 1 day of co-use of marijuana and alcohol in the past 180 days (22,860 observations). Participants reported 40% marijuana use days, 28% drinking days, with 37% meeting DSM-5 criteria for CUD, 40% for AUD, and 15% for both. Use of marijuana on a given day was used to predict a 3-level gender-adjusted drinking variable (heavy: ≥5 (men)/4 (women) drinks; moderate: 1 to 4/3 drinks; or none: 0 drinks). A categorical 4-level variable (no diagnosis, AUD, CUD, or both) was tested as a moderator of the marijuana-alcohol relationship. Multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated that participants were more likely to drink heavily compared to moderately (OR = 2.34) and moderately compared to not drinking (OR = 1.61) on marijuana use days relative to nonuse days. On marijuana use days, those with AUD and those with AUD + CUD were more likely to drink heavily (OR = 1.91; OR = 2.51, respectively), but those with CUD were less likely to drink heavily (OR = 0.32) compared to moderately, nonsignificant differences between any versus moderate drinking in interaction models. Heavy drinking occurs on days when marijuana is also used. This association is particularly evident in individuals diagnosed with both AUD and CUD and AUDs alone but not in those with only CUDs. Findings suggest that alcohol interventions may need to specifically address marijuana use as a risk factor for heavy drinking and AUD. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Adermark, Louise; Bowers, M. Scott
Several laboratories recently identified that astrocytes are critical regulators of addiction machinery. It is now known that astrocyte pathology is a common feature of ethanol exposure in both humans and animal models, as even brief ethanol exposure is sufficient to elicit long-lasting perturbations in astrocyte gene expression, activity, and proliferation. Astrocytes were also recently shown to modulate the motivational properties of ethanol and other strongly reinforcing stimuli. Given the role of astrocytes in regulating glutamate homeostasis, a crucial component of alcohol use disorder, astrocytes might be an important target for the development of next generation alcoholism treatments. This review will outline some of the more prominent features displayed by astrocytes, how these properties are influenced by acute and long term ethanol exposure, and future directions that may help to disentangle astrocytic from neuronal functions in the etiology of alcohol use disorder. PMID:27476876
Korzec, A.; Bär, M.; Koeter, M. W.; de Kieviet, W.
In several European countries, drivers under influence (DUI), suspected of an alcohol use disorder (AUD, 'alcoholism') are referred for diagnostic examination. The accuracy of diagnostic procedures used in diagnosing AUD in the DUI population is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare three
Ryman, Sephira G.; Gillman, Arielle S.; Weiland, Barbara J.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Bryan, Angela D.
Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents’ decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications. PMID:26290051
Cleveland, Michael J.; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; White, Helene R.
Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring’s alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother’s heavy alcohol use on their offspring’s alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18–22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based Internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers’ and daughters’ drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults’ heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities. PMID:24583277
Pfinder, Manuela; Liebig, Stefan; Feldmann, Reinhold
The study aimed to investigate (a) the association between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in adolescence and (b) whether the associations are modified by gender and ethnicity. The subjects of the study were 5922 children and adolescents, aged from 11 to 17 years, enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the KiGGS study). Information on PAE is based on parental self-report questionnaires. Use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed through self-report questionnaires for adolescents. Low to moderate PAE was associated with an increased risk of drinking alcohol (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.18) and also of illicit drug use (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23, 2.14). The associations between PAE and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs differed according to gender and ethnicity. Gender-stratified analyses resulted in adverse effects of PAE on drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in females; however, in German males, the associations disappeared. Stronger associations between PAE and the outcome measures were found in non-Germans. Our findings indicate that low to moderate levels of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy are a risk factor for use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs by the offspring, with stronger associations in females and non-Germans.
Chapman, Cath; Slade, Tim; Hunt, Caroline; Teesson, Maree
This study explored the patterns and correlates of time to first treatment contact among people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Australia. Specifically it examined the relationship between sex, birth cohort, onset of AUD symptoms, severity, comorbidity, symptom type and time to first treatment contact (treatment delay) among those with alcohol abuse and dependence in a large population sample. Data came from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (N=8841). A modified version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to determine the presence and age of onset of DSM-IV AUD and other mental disorders and the age at which respondents first sought treatment for alcohol or other drug-related problems. Median time to first treatment contact for an AUD was 18 years (14 years dependence, 23 years abuse). Projected lifetime treatment rates were 78.1% for alcohol dependence and 27.5% for abuse. Those with earlier onset and from older cohorts reported longer delay and were less likely to ever seek treatment compared to those with later onset or from more recent cohorts. Those with comorbid anxiety but not mood disorder, or who reported alcohol-related role disruption or recurrent interpersonal problems were more likely to ever seek treatment and reported shorter delay compared to those who did not report these symptoms. Treatment delay for alcohol use disorder in Australia is substantial. Those with earlier onset and those with comorbid mood disorder should be a target for earlier treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The participants completed a survey measuring possible psychosocial determinants of alcohol, khat and bhang (i.e., marijuana) use patterns. The sample evidenced high levels of substance use particularly involving the locally available substances (i.e., bottled beer, local brews, chewing khat, smoking bhang). Males in ...
Patrícia Veríssimo Costa e Silva
Conclusion: Harmful consumption of alcohol in the evaluated sample was very low. The average of used medicines (2.5 medicines/day was similar to those obtained previously in elderly populations in the same region, with relatively low use of inappropriate drugs for the elderly.
Oxidation of alcohols have been conducted with metal nitrate reagents on various mineral supports such as clay, silica and zeolite etc. To circumvent the limitations of these supported reagents namely their preparation using solvents and short shelf-life, we explored the use of i...
Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.
Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…
Otto, Jacqueline M; Gizer, Ian R; Deak, Joseph D; Fleming, Kimberly A; Bartholow, Bruce D
A functional polymorphism within the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene, rs1799971 (A118G), previously has been associated with measures of alcohol use and sensitivity to its effects, but findings have been inconclusive. A recent study suggested that a second nearby variant within OPRM1, rs3778150, is robustly associated with heroin dependence and fully explained a smaller observed association with rs1799971. Given evidence that the rs3778150-C allele is associated with decreased OPRM1 expression levels in the human brain, the current study sought to test the hypothesis that rs3778150 represents a causal variant within OPRM1 that increases risk for a variety of alcohol use phenotypes. Participants with genotype and phenotype data from a larger experimental study (N = 152) were assessed on measures of subjective response to alcohol and alcohol use. Measures included (i) the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol and the Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire, (ii) the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and ratings of subjective intoxication, and (iii) average number of drinks per week in the past month. Compared to rs3778150-T homozygous individuals, carriers of the rs3778150-C allele exhibited significantly lower retrospective self-report levels of alcohol sensitivity. Carriers of the rs3778150-C allele also exhibited lower levels of BAES alcohol-related stimulation during an alcohol challenge and reported higher levels of drinking in the last 30 days. With the exception of lower levels of BAES alcohol-related sedation, the rs1799971 variant did not show consistent significant association with any of the alcohol phenotypes in the presence of rs3778150. Results suggest that rs3778150 may be causally related to alcohol use phenotypes, and could potentially account for previously observed associations of rs1799971 with substance use phenotypes. Future studies may investigate potential causal relations among genetic variants in OPRM1, subjective response to alcohol, and
Gomez, Jose Angel; Castano, Hader Ivan; Arias Mario
The paper describes a kinetic study of an alcoholic fermentation using honey like substrate; for this effect they were carried out nine fermentations in discontinuous process with a volume, of 10 L, following the behavior of the substrate concentrations, biomass and product in the time. It was evaluated the convenience of factors like the agitation and the addition of nutritious, also, it was observed the effect of the initial concentrations of substrate and inoculate and the type of honey looking for the best conditions of the process for the obtaining of an alcoholic drink
Robinson, N; Kavanagh, D; Connor, J; May, J; Andrade, J
publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Assessment of motivation to control alcohol use: The motivational thought frequency and state motivation scales for alcohol control journaltitle: Addictive Behaviors articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.02.038 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…
Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others
The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum aims to present a framework for alcohol…
Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron
BackgroundAlthough it seems intuitive that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) include excessive alcohol consumption (EAC), this notion is not well established. This study investigates to which degree EAC (defined as >14/21 drinks weekly for women/men and at least three 5+ drinking days per week) and AUD
Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron
Although it seems intuitive that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) include excessive alcohol consumption (EAC), this notion is not well established. This study investigates to which degree EAC (defined as >14/21 drinks weekly for women/men and at least three 5+ drinking days per week) and AUD overlap and
Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S.
This study examined the influence of the duration and frequency of a baseline episode of participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) among 473 individuals with alcohol use disorders on 1-year and 8-year outcomes and the effect of additional participation and delayed participation on outcomes. Compared with individuals who did not participate,…
Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.
Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…
José J. Miguel-Hidalgo
Full Text Available Postmortem studies reveal structural and molecular alterations of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in both the gray and white matter (GM and WM of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in human subjects with chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. These glial cellular changes appear to parallel and may largely explain structural and functional alterations detected using neuroimaging techniques in subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. Moreover, due to the crucial roles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in neurotransmission and signal conduction, these cells are very likely major players in the molecular mechanisms underpinning alcoholism-related connectivity disturbances between the PFC and relevant interconnecting brain regions. The glia-mediated etiology of alcohol-related brain damage is likely multifactorial since metabolic, hormonal, hepatic and hemodynamic factors as well as direct actions of ethanol or its metabolites have the potential to disrupt distinct aspects of glial neurobiology. Studies in animal models of alcoholism and postmortem human brains have identified astrocyte markers altered in response to significant exposures to ethanol or during alcohol withdrawal, such as gap-junction proteins, glutamate transporters or enzymes related to glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA metabolism. Changes in these proteins and their regulatory pathways would not only cause GM neuronal dysfunction, but also disturbances in the ability of WM axons to convey impulses. In addition, alcoholism alters the expression of astrocyte and myelin proteins and of oligodendrocyte transcription factors important for the maintenance and plasticity of myelin sheaths in WM and GM. These changes are concomitant with epigenetic DNA and histone modifications as well as alterations in regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs that likely cause profound disturbances of gene expression and protein translation. Knowledge is also available about interactions between astrocytes and
This report presents the prevalence estimates for alcohol-involved driving derived from the recently completed U.S. : national field survey of alcohol- and drug-involved driving (primarily of nighttime weekend drivers, but also daytime : Friday drive...
Penzenstadler, Louise; Chatton, Anne; Van Singer, Mathias; Khazaal, Yasser
Apps for smartphones are opening an important range of opportunities for improving the care of people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of English language apps for AUDs and to compare paid and free apps. The keywords 'alcohol', 'alcohol addiction', 'alcohol help' and 'stop drinking' were entered into the iTunes Store search engine. Apps were evaluated using a standardized assessment designed to rate the quality of apps in terms of accountability, interactivity, self-help score and evidence-based content. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the 'Health on the Net' label were also used as content quality indicators. Of the 137 unique apps identified, 52 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the content quality and self-help scores of these AUD apps were poor. The main quality indicators were not linked to payment status. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted content quality. Poor content quality and self-help scores of AUD smartphone apps underline the gap between their potential promises and the overall quality of available products in stores. The quality indicators used in the present study may be used for further app developments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sørensen, Holger J; Manzardo, Ann M; Knop, Joachim
Few population-based studies have investigated associations between parental history of alcoholism and the risk of alcoholism in offspring. The aim was to investigate in a large cohort the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the offspring of parents with or without AUD and with or without...
Babic, K.; Driessen, G.H.M.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Haan, A.B.
The performance of extractant impregnated resin (EIR) technology for chiral separation of amino-alcohols has been investigated. Phenylglycinol was selected as an archetype model enantiomer and azophenolic crown ether was used as a versatile enantioselective extractant. 1-Phenyloctane was selected as
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. Sarbani Basu Yeong-Her Wang C Ghanshyam Pawan Kapur. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 521-533 ...
willingness of patients to accept the offer of an intervention. A few studies from high-income countries have identified factors that predict intervention uptake in ED settings, but these studies have been limited to people who used alcohol.[2,3] Studies that identify factors associated with intervention uptake are urgently needed ...
Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.
Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…
Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.; Noel, Nora E.; Clifford, Patrick R.
Objective: This study examined the associations between college students' self-reported alcohol use and corresponding collateral reports and identified factors that influence agreement between both sets of reports. Participants/Methods: Subject-collateral pairs (N = 300) were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Results: Data yielded…
Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.
Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528
Similarly, family substance use history (AOR 4.8; 95% CI 2.5-9.3) and peer influence (AOR 4.6; ... been associated with risky sexual behavior, predisposi- ... control confounding variables. ..... which might be helpful in buying alcohol and khat.
Investigated relationship between beliefs about drinking and alcohol use and abuse among college students (n=526). Results indicated overall students agreed with responsible drinking statements, but when effects of intervening variables were assessed, men, fraternity and sorority members, and students living in fraternity houses were much more…
Cox, W. Miles
This transcript of a conference presentation describes a motivational model of alcohol use that shows the interrelationship between the various factors that affect drinking. First, a flow diagram is presented and described that shows how complex biological, psychological, and environmental variables contribute to a person's motivation for…
A Comparison of Alcohol Use and Correlates of Drinking Patterns among Men and Women Aged 50 and Above in Ghana and South Africa. ... Factors independently associated drinking patterns differed between countries and by gender, although similarities included religion and smoking. Smoking status contributed to the ...
School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, ... Results: The current prevalence of student's alcohol and khat use were 29.5% (95% CI: 25.8-33.3) and 16.3% (95% CI: 13.7- .... Elementary to Grade 12 228 (38.9%) ..... tion among youths visiting HIV testing and counseling.
... drink include: Beer: 12 fluid ounces (355 milliliters) Wine: 5 fluid ounces (148 milliliters) Distilled spirits (80 proof): 1.5 fluid ounces (44 milliliters) Moderate alcohol use may be of most benefit if you have existing risk factors for heart ...
Shields, Alan L.; Caruso, John C.
Evaluated the reliability of scores from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. Sounders and others, 1993) in a reliability generalization study based on 17 empirical journal articles. Results show AUDIT scores to be generally reliable for basic assessment. (SLD)
Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.
This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…
Full Text Available Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders.
In this study, the association between stressful life events and alcohol use among young adults pursuing university education in a university in Botswana was studied. A total of 312 young adults participated in the study (55.4% females, mean age = 21.58 (SD =1.87)). Student Stress Scale adapted from Holmes and Rahe's ...
Objective. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa (SA). Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 4 900 (54.5% men, 45.5% women) consecutively selected TB patients (including new TB and new TB retreatment patients) ...
van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Fennis, B.M.; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus
Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character,
O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y
Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of
Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R
Underage drinking among American youth is a growing public concern. However, while extensive research has identified individual level predictors of this phenomenon, few studies have theorized and tested the effect of structural social forces on children's and youths' alcohol consumption. In an attempt to address this gap, we study the effects of residential environments on children's and youths' underage drinking (while accounting for personality and familial processes). Integrating informal social control and opportunity explanations of deviance, we first suggest that while neighborhood collective efficacy prevents adolescents' underage drinking, individuals' access to local alcohol retail shops encourages such behavior. Focusing on the interactive effects of communal opportunities and controls, we then suggest that high presence of alcohol outlets and sales in the neighborhood is likely to increase youths' probability of alcohol consumption in the absence of communal mechanisms of informal social control. We test our theoretical model using the unprecedented data design available in the PHDCN. Results from a series of multilevel logit models with robust standard errors reveal partial support for our hypotheses; specifically, we find that alcohol sales in a given neighborhood increase adolescents' alcohol use. In addition, while the direct effect of collective efficacy is insignificantly related to children's and youths' alcohol consumption, our models suggest that it significantly attenuates the effect of local alcohol retailers and sales on underage drinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Megan Sc; Hare, James D; Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M
Alcohol brands are incorporating social networking sites (SNS) into their marketing programmes. SNS are also being used to reduce alcohol consumption and harms by health promotion organisations. Marketing via SNS can attempt to influence consumers using a range of strategies from traditional marketing, social media, and behaviour change theory. This study systematically quantifies marketing strategies used by alcohol brands and health promoters on Facebook. We identified the 10 most popular alcohol brands and health promotion organisations in Australia on Facebook and extracted all posts from April 2014. A framework was developed, listing 33 SNS marketing strategies. The frequency of use of each strategy in posts was counted for all profiles. The median number of fans of alcohol brands was 189,290 compared with 7562 for health promotion pages. A total of 210 Facebook posts were analysed. Popular marketing strategies included visual attraction, connecting with other organisations, and links to culture and events. Time-specific and day-specific posts and tweets were used more regularly by alcohol brands than health promotion agencies. Alcohol brands remain substantially more popular than health promotion organisations, and this difference is likely driven by offline factors rather than specific use of marketing strategies. However, health promotion organisations can learn from the strategies used by popular brands, particularly in the use of time and day-specific content.
... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...
Anderson, Peter; de Bruijn, Avalon; Angus, Kathryn; Gordon, Ross; Hastings, Gerard
To assess the impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on future adolescent alcohol use. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycLIT, from 1990 to September 2008, supplemented with searches of Google scholar, hand searches of key journals and reference lists of identified papers and key publications for more recent publications. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' exposure to commercial communications and media and alcohol drinking behaviour at baseline, and assessed alcohol drinking behaviour at follow-up. Participants were adolescents aged 18 years or younger or below the legal drinking age of the country of origin of the study, whichever was the higher. Thirteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 38,000 young people met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including estimates of the volume of media and advertising exposure, ownership of branded merchandise, recall and receptivity, and one study on expenditure on advertisements. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 96 months. One study reported outcomes at multiple time-points, 3, 5, and 8 years. Seven studies provided data on initiation of alcohol use amongst non-drinkers, three studies on maintenance and frequency of drinking amongst baseline drinkers, and seven studies on alcohol use of the total sample of non-drinkers and drinkers at baseline. Twelve of the thirteen studies concluded an impact of exposure on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking amongst existing drinkers, with a dose response relationship in all studies that reported such exposure and analysis. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for. The thirteenth study, which tested the impact of outdoor advertising placed near schools failed to detect an impact on alcohol use, but found an impact on
Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H
Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included
Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13
Rauch, M.C.R.; Schmidt, S.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; oppelt, K.; Kara, S; Hollmann, F.
The photocatalytic oxidation of NADH using a flavin photocatalyst and a simple blue LED light source is reported. This in situ NAD+ regeneration system can be used to promote biocatalytic, enantioselective oxidation reactions. Compared to the traditional use of white light bulbs this method enables
van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J; Ostafin, Brian D; Wiers, Reinout W
This study examined whether attentional bias for alcohol stimuli was associated with alcohol use in young adolescents, and whether the frequently demonstrated relationship between reward sensitivity and adolescent alcohol use would be partly mediated by attentional bias for alcohol cues. In addition, this study investigated the potential moderating role of executive control (EC), and tested whether the relationship between alcohol-related attentional bias and alcohol use was especially present in young adolescents with weak EC. Participants were 86 adolescents (mean age=14.86), who completed a Visual Probe Task (VPT) as an index of attentional bias, a flanker-task based Attention Network Task (ANT) as an index of EC, the sensitivity of punishment and sensitivity of reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as an index of reward sensitivity, and an alcohol use questionnaire. High reward sensitivity, high alcohol-related attentional bias, and weak EC were all related to alcohol use. The relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use was not mediated by alcohol-related attentional bias. As hypothesized, attentional bias was only associated with alcohol use in participants with weak EC. Together, the present findings are consistent with the view that high reward sensitivity and low EC may be considered as risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. The independent contribution of reward sensitivity and attentional bias might suggest that adolescents who are highly reward sensitive and display an attentional bias for alcohol cues are at even higher risk for excessive alcohol use and developing alcohol abuse problems. Future research using a longitudinal approach would allow an examination of these risk factors on subsequent alcohol use. Treatment implications are discussed, including the importance of strengthening EC and reducing the rewarding value of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jazon Romilson de Souza ALMEIDA
Full Text Available Background Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and severe forms of alcoholic hepatitis are associated with a high short-term mortality. Objectives To analyze the importance of age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score as an index of mortality and predictor for complications in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. To evaluate its correlation with those complications, with risk of death, as well as the scores model for end stage liver disease (MELD and Maddrey’s discriminat function. Methods A total of 46 medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with alcoholic hepatitis were assessed retrospectively with lab tests on admission and after seven days. Score calculations were carried out and analyzed as well. Results The scores showed positive reciprocal correlation and were associated with both hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. ABIC index, which was classified as high risk, presented as a risk factor for these complications and for death. In univariate logistic regression analysis of mortality, the ABIC index at hospital admission odds ratio was 19.27, whereas after 7 days, it was 41.29. The average survival of patients with ABIC of low and intermediate risk was 61.1 days, and for those with high risk, 26.2 days. Conclusions ABIC index is a predictor factor for complications such as ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, as well as for risk of death. Thus, it is a useful tool for clinical practice.
Penza, M.; Cassano, G.; Aversa, P.; Antolini, F.; Cusano, A.; Cutolo, A.; Giordano, M.; Nicolais, L.
We demonstrate the integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and standard silica optical fiber (SOF) sensor for alcohol detection at room temperature. Different transducing mechanisms have been used in order to outline the sensing properties of this class of nanomaterials, in particular the attention has been focused on two key parameters in sensing applications: mass and refractive index changes due to gas absorption. Here, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films consisting of tangled bundles of SWCNTs without surfactant molecules have been successfully transferred onto QCM and SOF. Mass-sensitive 10MHz QCM SWCNTs sensor exhibited a resonant frequency decreasing upon tested alcohols exposure; also the normalized optoelectronic signal (λ=1310nm) of the refractive index-sensitive SOF SWCNTs sensor was found to decrease upon alcohols ambient. Highly sensitive, repeatable and reversible responses of the QCM and SOF SWCNTs sensors indicate that the detection, at room temperature, in a wide mmHg vapor pressures range of alcohols and potentially other volatile organic compounds is feasible.
Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal
Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A
This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (pmusic (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. © The Author(s) 2015.
... that parents should have a say in the music they listen to, and 26 percent believe their ... M.; et al. Monitoring the Future National Survey: Trends in Lifetime Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs ...
Solid acid catalysts were prepared through silicon substitution into aluminophosphate frameworks. Silicon incorporation was confirmed using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The nature of the acid sites generated was determined using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. These materials were tested as catalysts for the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene at low operating temperatures. The materials were active for dehydration of ethanol to ethylene with significant differ...
Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Wilsnack, Sharon
Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...... general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high-volume and risky single-occasion drinking by sexual orientation. Data from 248 gay men and lesbians and 3720 heterosexuals were analyzed in a case-control design. In several countries partnered or recently partnered gay men and lesbians had...... no greater risk of heavy drinking or engaging in heavy drinking than heterosexual controls. Only lesbians in North America showed higher risk for both indicators. Future general population health research should include larger samples of gays and lesbians and use more comprehensive measures of sexual...
Bloomfield, K.; Wicki, M.; Wilsnack, S.
Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...... general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high-volume and risky single-occasion drinking by sexual orientation. Data from 248 gay men and lesbians and 3720 heterosexuals were analyzed in a case-control design. In several countries partnered or recently partnered gay men and lesbians had...... no greater risk of heavy drinking or engaging in heavy drinking than heterosexual controls. Only lesbians in North America showed higher risk for both indicators. Future general population health research should include larger samples of gays and lesbians and use more comprehensive measures of sexual...
Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J
Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.
This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year. PMID:23519434
Henry, Kimberly L; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D
This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year.
... use disorder can cause major health, social, and economic problems, and can endanger affected individuals and others ... Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424857/ Citation on PubMed Zhu EC, Soundy TJ, ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...
Khokhar, Jibran Y; Todd, Travis P
Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and contributes greatly to its morbidity. Unfortunately, the neural and behavioral underpinnings of alcohol drinking in these patients are not well understood. In order to begin to understand the cognitive and reward-related changes that may contribute to alcohol drinking, this study was designed to address: 1) latent inhibition; 2) conditioning; and 3) extinction of autoshaping in a neurodevelopmental rat model with relevance to co-occurring schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders, the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesioned (NVHL) rat. NVHL lesions (or sham surgeries) were performed on post-natal day 7 (PND7) and animals were given brief exposure to alcohol during adolescent (PND 28-42). Latent inhibition of autoshaping, conditioning and extinction were assessed between PND 72-90. On PND90 animals were given alcohol again and allowed to establish stable drinking. Latent inhibition of autoshaping was found to be prolonged in the NVHL rats; the NVHL rats pre-exposed to the lever stimulus were slower to acquire autoshaping than sham pre-exposed rats. NVHL rats that were not pre-exposed to the lever stimulus did not differ during conditioning, but were slower to extinguish conditioned responding compared to sham controls. Finally, the NVHL rats from both groups drank significantly more alcohol than sham rats, and the extent of latent inhibition predicted future alcohol intake in the pre-exposed animals. These findings suggest that the latent inhibition of autoshaping procedure can be used to model cognitive- and reward-related dysfunctions in schizophrenia, and these dysfunctions may contribute to the development of co-occurring alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W
Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Hye Jeong; Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Rothman, Emily F; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
Alcohol use is one of the most widely accepted and studied risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV). Too little research has explored longitudinally if it is true that an adolescent's alcohol use and TDV involvement simultaneously occur. In the current study, we examined whether there were latent status based on past-year TDV and alcohol use and whether female adolescents changed their statuses of TDV and alcohol use over time. The sample consisted of 583 female youths in seven public high schools in Texas. Three waves of longitudinal data collected from 2011 to 2013 were utilised in this study. Participants completed self-report assessments of alcohol use (past-year alcohol use, number of drinks in the past month and episodic heavy drinking within the past month) and psychological and physical TDV victimisation and perpetration. Latent transition analysis was used to examine if the latent status based on TDV and alcohol use changed over time. Five separate latent statuses were identified: (i) no violence, no alcohol; (ii) alcohol; (iii) psychological violence, no alcohol; (iv) psychological violence, alcohol; and (v) physical and psychological violence, alcohol. Latent transition analysis indicated that adolescents generally remained in the same subgroup across time. This study provides evidence on the co-occurrence of alcohol use and teen dating violence, and whether teens' status based on dating violence and alcohol use are stable over time. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of targeting both TDV and substance use in intervention and prevention programs. [Choi HJ, Elmquist J, Shorey RC, Rothman EF, Stuart GL,Temple JR. Stability of alcohol use and teen dating violence for female youth: Alatent transition analysis. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:80-87]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Ipser, Jonathan C; Wilson, Don; Akindipe, Taiwo O; Sager, Carli; Stein, Dan J
Anxiety disorders are a potentially disabling group of disorders that frequently co-occur with alcohol use disorders. Comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders are associated with poorer outcomes, and are difficult to treat with standard psychosocial interventions. In addition, improved understanding of the biological basis of the conditions has contributed to a growing interest in the use of medications for the treatment of people with both diagnoses. To assess the effects of pharmacotherapy for treating anxiety in people with comorbid alcohol use disorders, specifically: to provide an estimate of the overall effects of medication in improving treatment response and reducing symptom severity in the treatment of anxiety disorders in people with comorbid alcohol use disorders; to determine whether specific medications are more effective and tolerable than other medications in the treatment of particular anxiety disorders; and to identify which factors (clinical, methodological) predict response to pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders. Review authors searched the specialized registers of The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group (CCDANCTR, to January 2014) and the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG, to March 2013) for eligible trials. These registers contain reports of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) from: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Review authors ran complementary searches on EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO and the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database (ETOH) (to August 2013). We located unpublished trials through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RePORTER service and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to August 2013). We screened reference lists of retrieved articles for additional studies. All true RCTs of pharmacotherapy for treating
Park, Hae-Seong; Bauer, Scott; Oescher, Jeffrey
Examines the relationship between religiousness and alcohol use of adolescents based on a sample of high school seniors. Results provide support for examining religiousness variables as predictors of alcohol use patterns of adolescents. (Contains 16 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)
Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...
Estimating the burden of disease attributable to alcohol use in South Africa in 2000. ... liver cirrhosis, epilepsy, alcohol use disorder, depression and intentional and ... Injuries and cardiovascular incidents ranked first and second in terms of ...
Conclusions: These findings suggest feelings of hopelessness may predict alcohol consumption through a complex pathway and future research should use these findings to identify individuals at risk of increased alcohol use.
Peeters, M.; Monshouwer, K.; van de Schoot, R.; Janssen, T.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Wiers, R.W.
Objective: Early onset of alcohol use and persistent use of alcohol during adolescence have been associated with later problem behavior, such as heavy drinking and the use of other substances. Several personality characteristics have been related to the onset and persistent use of alcohol during
Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Swift, Robert M; Leggio, Lorenzo
Disulfiram was the first pharmacotherapy approved to treat alcohol use disorder in the 1950s. Disulfiram alters ethanol pharmacokinetics and causes uncomfortable reactions (e.g. headache, tachycardia, nausea, flushing and hypotension) when alcohol is consumed. Subsequently, a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways involved in alcohol use disorder led to the development of other medications (e.g. naltrexone and acamprosate). These neurobiological-based medications act on alcohol use disorder-related phenotypes including craving, stress, and/or withdrawal. The original approach to treat alcohol use disorder, by altering ethanol pharmacokinetics has been much less investigated. Recent research on ethanol pharmacokinetics has shed light on the mechanisms of action underlying alcohol use disorder and how some medications that alter ethanol pharmacokinetics may be helpful in treating alcohol use disorder. This review summarizes and discusses the complex pharmacokinetics of ethanol, and proposes that altering ethanol pharmacokinetics via novel pharmacological approaches may be a viable approach to treat alcohol use disorder.
Sellers, Brealyn; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Nachbar, Martin
Alcoholics Anonymous is not yet fully employed by the medical community as a means to enhance patient outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate visitors' use of an Internet course on Alcoholics Anonymous, and to compare how various disciplines learned about, gained access to and participated in the course. Demographic information was collected from 414 visitors to the course. 64% of the 414 respondents received their last educational degree within the last 10 years, and had an interest in the topic of addiction prior to their accessing the site. 294 (71%) of those who accessed the course completed it, and those who accessed it learned about it from various sources other than print advertisement in professional journals. Within the 230 physician respondents, 143 (62%) were psychiatrists, 82 (78%) of whom learned about the Internet course via professional journal. Given the need for further training among physicians in the use of Alcoholics Anonymous, the Internet can be utilized to make information available to a large number of people. Because it allows the user to access information outside the traditional means, the barriers to its use are minimal, and it has the potential to effectively convey useful clinical information.
Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A
In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an
Fairlie, Anne M; Garcia, Tracey A; Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A
Few studies have examined associations between using alcohol only and using both alcohol and marijuana with sexual behavior on specific occasions. The current study examined alcohol and marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience in association with relationship characteristics, psychological issues, and condom use. Young adult drinkers aged 18-25 who reported not using a condom during sex in the past month were recruited nationally. An analytic subsample (N = 378) was identified based on substance use during the most recent sexual experience [53% female, 70% Caucasian; mean age = 22.42 years (SD = 1.90)]. Using logistic regression, two dummy codes compared the alcohol use only group (n = 197) and the both alcohol and marijuana group (n = 95) to the group who used neither substance (n = 86). Participant sex, drinking frequency, and number of sexual partners were included as covariates. The alcohol only group and the both alcohol and marijuana group had greater odds of being with a casual acquaintance and loss of respect compared to the group who used neither substance. The alcohol only group had greater odds of being with someone they just met and embarrassment compared to the group who used neither substance. No associations were found for condom use or emotional difficulties. Preventative interventions may need to address both alcohol and marijuana to more effectively reduce risky behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerhard E; Gmel, Gerrit; Hasan, Omer S M; Imtiaz, Sameer; Popova, Svetlana; Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Shuper, Paul A
Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). Systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied. For liver cirrhosis, quality of alcohol was additionally considered. For all outcomes (mortality and/or morbidity): cause of death and disease/injury categories based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used in global CRAs; harm to others. In total, 255 reviews and meta-analyses were identified. Alcohol use was found to be linked causally to many disease and injury categories, with more than 40 ICD-10 three-digit categories being fully attributable to alcohol. Most partially attributable disease categories showed monotonic relationships with volume of alcohol use: the more alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of disease or death. Exceptions were ischaemic diseases and diabetes, with curvilinear relationships, and with beneficial effects of light to moderate drinking in people without heavy irregular drinking occasions. Biological pathways suggest an impact of heavy drinking occasions on additional diseases; however, the lack of medical epidemiological studies measuring this dimension of alcohol use precluded an in-depth analysis. For injuries, except suicide, blood alcohol concentration was the most important dimension of alcohol use. Alcohol use caused marked harm to others, which has not yet been researched sufficiently. Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered. Epidemiological
Ana Carolina Ribeiro de Amorim
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess alcohol intake in the bariatric surgery pre and postoperative periods. METHODS: Patients were interviewed atSurgery Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - HC/UFPE (Brazil from July 2011 to March 2012. We analyzed socioeconomic, anthropometric and clinical variables. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT C. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen patients were enrolled (mean age: 41.23+11.30 years, with a predominance of the female gender (83.2%, non-Caucasian race (55%, married individuals or in a stable union (65.5%, with a high school education (40.3%and active in the job market (37%. Weight and body mass index (BMI were 128.77+25.28Kg and 49.09+9.26Kg/m2,respectively in the preoperative period (class II obesity and 87.19+19.16Kg and 33.04+6.21Kg/m2, respectively in the postoperative period (class I obesity (p<0.001. Hypertension was the most frequent disease in the pre (66.6% and postoperative (36.5% periods. The prevalence of alcohol use was 26.6% in the preoperative period, of which 2.2% of high risk, and 35.1% in the postoperative period, of which 1.4% of probable dependence; this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.337. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abusive alcohol intake and/or probable dependence was low in both the pre and postoperative periods, with little evidence of risky consumption among the patients submitted to bariatric surgery.
Barnett, Nancy P; Celio, Mark A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Murphy, James G; Colby, Suzanne M; Swift, Robert M
We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) non-contingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. Pilot randomized controlled design with 1 baseline week, 3 intervention weeks and 1-month follow-up. New England, USA. Heavy drinking adults (46.7% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to (1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n = 15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or (2) yoked NR (n = 15). Reinforcement for CR participants started at $5 and increased $2 every subsequent day on which alcohol was not detected or reported, to a maximum of $17. Participants received no reinforcement for days on which alcohol use was detected or reported, and the reinforcer value was re-set to $5 the day after a drinking day. NR participants were yoked to the daily reinforcer value of an individual in the CR condition, in order of enrollment. Paired participants in CR and NR therefore received the same amount of money, but the amount for the NR participant was not behavior-related. The primary outcome was percentage of days without sensor-detected drinking. Secondary outcomes were number of consecutive days with no detected drinking, peak transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), self-reported drinks per week and drinking below NIH low-risk guidelines. Controlling for baseline, CR had a higher percentage of days with no drinking detected (54.3%) than NR (31.2%) during intervention weeks [P = 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.007-1.47]. The longest period of consecutive days with no drinking detected was 8.0 for CR versus 2.9 for NR (P = 0.03, d = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.08-1.61). Peak TAC during intervention showed a non-significant group difference (P = 0.20; d = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.00-1.18); a similar result was found for drinks per week (P = 0.12; d = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.00-1.30). Four times more
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine employer...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies the...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master, or...
Although most people in Western society drink alcohol and regard this to be harmless and normal, some people drink excessively and develop an alcohol use disorder. This thesis examined the onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population using 3-year longitudinal data
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines and... Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.373 Use of spirits, wines and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor...
Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Wall, M.M.; Hasin, D.S.
Background Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005
Research has shown that persons who engage in binge alcohol use as teenagers are at increased risk for binge drinking as young adults. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update asks respondents aged 12 or older to report their frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the month before the survey. NSDUH defines binge…
Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Wall, M. M.; Hasin, D. S.
Background. Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted
Baker, Leigh; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley
Objective: This study examines differences in reported levels of drug and alcohol use between college students with and without ADHD. Method: The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and several self-report and interview questions, developed by Barkley, were used to examine the drug and alcohol use of college students with and without ADHD.…
Anon, Ramon; Guijarro, Jorge; Amoros, Cirilo; Gil, Joaquin; Bosca, Marta M.; Palmero, Julio; Benages, Adolfo
We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a congenital splenic cyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 14-year-old female adolescent presented with a nonsymptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen that was believed to be congenital. After ultrasonography, a drainage catheter was placed in the cavity. About 250 ml of serous liquid was extracted and sent for microbiologic and pathologic studies to rule out an infectious or malignant origin. Immediately afterwards, complete drainage and local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed. This therapy was repeated 8 days later, after having observed 60 ml of fluid in the drainage bag. One year after treatment the cyst has practically disappeared. We believe that treatment of splenic cyst with percutaneous puncture, ethanolization, and drainage is a valid option and it does not rule out surgery if the conservative treatment fails
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.
Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…
Frone, Michael R.
This study developed and tested a moderated-mediation model of work stress and alcohol use, based on the biphasic (stimulant and sedative) effects of alcohol and the self-medication and stress-vulnerability models of alcohol use. The model proposes that exposure to work stressors can increase both negative affect and work fatigue, and that these two sources of strain can subsequently motivate the use of alcohol. However, the relations of negative affect and work fatigue to a...
de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; Dalen, Wim E.
Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents’ drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for
Bruijn, A. de; Tanghe, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Beccaria, F.; Bujalski, M.; Celata, C.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Slodownik, L.; Wothge, J.; Dalen, W. van
Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.
Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…
Erevik, Eilin Kristine
Alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance worldwide. It is considered to increase social cohesion, and to play a part both in the development and expression of identity. Alcohol is, however, also associated with a range of adverse effects for the individual, and involves a great financial and social burden for society. Social media has currently become very popular commodity for social bonding, identity formation and expression, and social influence. This thesis consists of thr...
Rodrigue, James R; Hanto, Douglas W; Curry, Michael P
Alcohol relapse after liver transplant heightens concern about recurrent disease, nonadherence to the immunosuppression regimen, and death. To develop a scoring system to stratify risk of alcohol relapse after liver transplant. Retrospective medical record review. All adult liver transplants performed from May 2002 to February 2011 at a single center in the United States. The incidence of return to any alcohol consumption after liver transplant. Thirty-four percent (40/118) of patients with a history of alcohol abuse/dependency relapsed to use of any alcohol after liver transplant. Nine of 25 hypothesized risk factors were predictive of alcohol relapse after liver transplant: absence of hepatocellular carcinoma, tobacco dependence, continued alcohol use after liver disease diagnosis, low motivation for alcohol treatment, poor stress management skills, no rehabilitation relationship, limited social support, lack of nonmedical behavioral consequences, and continued engagement in social activities with alcohol present. Each independent predictor was assigned an Alcohol Relapse Risk Assessment (ARRA) risk value of 1 point, and patients were classified into 1 of 4 groups by ARRA score: ARRA I = 0, ARRA II = 1 to 3, ARRA III = 4 to 6, and ARRA IV = 7 to 9. Patients in the 2 higher ARRA classifications had significantly higher rates of alcohol relapse and were more likely to return to pretransplant levels of drinking. Alcohol relapse rates are moderately high after liver transplant. The ARRA is a valid and practical tool for identifying pretransplant patients with alcohol abuse or dependency at elevated risk of any alcohol use after liver transplant.
Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N
Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. © 2013.
Collison, Daniel; Banbury, Samantha; Lusher, Joanne
It has been found that self-esteem is related to alcohol consumption, with the majority of research finding that low self-esteem is associated with high levels of alcohol use and high self-esteem is associated with low levels of alcohol use. The present study examined this relationship among 100 university students aged 18-25 years. Further,…
In the Netherlands there are no recent data on alcohol consumption or drug use at work. As far as there are data, they are quite old (2003) and from one single study. The data that is more recently collected reflect habitual alcohol consumption and drug use. Recent data suggest that alcohol
Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann
Examines a model of alcohol use based on the theory of planned behavior, and expectancy theory on the influence of parents and peers with older adolescents and young adults. Results suggest that, during adolescence, decisions to consume alcohol are rational, based on the consideration of the positive consequences of alcohol use; however, the…
Perepletchikova, Francheska; Krystal, John H.; Kaufman, Joan
Background: Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods: A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state…
Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn
Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.
Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.
Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…
Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.
Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334
Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree
Background In South Africa, alcohol use poses a public health burden. Hazardous alcohol use often co-occurs with psychological distress (e.g., depression and post-traumatic stress). However, the majority of the research establishing the relationship between alcohol use and psychological distress has been cross-sectional, so the nature of co-occurring changes in psychological distress and alcohol use over time is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudina...
Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit
To examine alcohol use and related problems among a rural subset of the Indian population. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used as part of Health and Demographic Surveillance of 36,611 individuals aged ≥18 years. From this survey data on 3671 current alcohol users were analysed using bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression. Over 19% of males and 2.4% of females were current alcohol users. Mean ethanol consumption on a typical drinking day among males was estimated to be higher (96.3 gm) than females (56.5 gm). Mean AUDIT score was 11 among current alcohol users. AUDIT showed in the ordered logit regression estimated alcohol use-related problems to be low among women, Scheduled Tribes and unmarried people, whereas alcohol use-related problems registered high among Muslims. This rural population appears to be in need of an effective intervention program, perhaps targeting men and the household, aimed at reducing the level of alcohol use and related problems. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H
Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p brands consumed (p brand preferences and consumption.
de Visser, Richard O; Robinson, Emily; Bond, Rod
Research suggests that temporary abstinence from alcohol may convey physiological benefits and enhance well-being. The aim of this study was to address a lack of information about: (a) correlates of successful completion of a planned period of abstinence, and (b) how success or failure in planned abstinence affects subsequent alcohol consumption. 857 British adults (249 men, 608 women) participating in the "Dry January" alcohol abstinence challenge completed a baseline questionnaire, a 1-month follow-up questionnaire, and a 6-month follow-up questionnaire. Key variables assessed at baseline included measures of alcohol consumption and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE). In bivariate analysis, success during Dry January was predicted by measures of more moderate alcohol consumption and greater social DRSE at baseline. Multivariate analyses revealed that success during Dry January was best predicted by a lower frequency of drunkenness in the month prior to Dry January. Structural equation modeling revealed that participation in Dry January was related to reductions in alcohol consumption and increases in DRSE among all respondents at 6-month follow-up, regardless of success, but indicated that these changes were more likely among people who successfully completed the challenge. The findings suggest that participation in abstinence challenges such as Dry January may be associated with changes toward healthier drinking and greater DRSE, and is unlikely to result in undesirable "rebound effects": very few people reported increased alcohol consumption following a period of voluntary abstinence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Merianos, Ashley L; Rosen, Brittany L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Barry, Adam E; Smith, Matthew Lee
We performed a secondary analysis of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data ( N = 937), examining associations between lifetime alcohol and marijuana use with intrapersonal (i.e., risk perceptions) and interpersonal (e.g., peer approval and behavior) factors. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses contend students reporting lifetime alcohol use-compared to students who had never used alcohol or marijuana-perceived lower alcohol risk ( p academic performance decreased the risk of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use ( p = .043). Findings are beneficial to school nurses with students experiencing effects associated with substance use.
Cederbaum, Julie A; Guerrero, Erick G; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Vincent, Carol A
Parental role modeling has a major influence on adolescent alcohol use. Our study examined maternal factors associated with daughters' alcohol use among inner-city racial minority adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers. A nonprobability sample of 176 mothers (37% with HIV) and their adolescent daughters completed self-administered surveys. Between- and within-group analyses were conducted using hierarchical multivariate logistic regressions. Findings showed that in the full sample, difficulty talking with daughters about alcohol was positively associated with alcohol use among daughters, whereas maternal report of importance of religion was negatively associated with alcohol use among daughters. Within-group analysis of participants by maternal HIV status revealed that maternal beliefs that drinking alcohol in front of their daughters was normative were associated with higher odds of adolescent alcohol use in households with HIV-infected mothers. These preliminary findings highlight the potential increased vulnerability of racial minority adolescent girls living in households with HIV-infected mothers. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.
Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241
Ahern, J; Balzer, L; Galea, S
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Background: Alcohol outlet density and norms shape alcohol consumption. However, due to analytic challenges we do not know: (a) if alcohol outlet density and norms also shape alcohol use disorder, and (b) whether they act in combination to shape disorder. Methods: We applied a new targeted minimum loss-based estimator for rare outcomes (rTMLE) to a general population sample from New York City (N= 4000) to examine the separate and combined relations of neighborhood...
Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed
Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…
Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L
Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reich, Richard R; Goldman, Mark S; Noll, Jane A
Two key aspects of alcohol expectancy theory--(a) that memories about alcohol effects are stored as relatively cohesive templates of information and (b) that these templates are automatically activated in alcohol-related contexts--were tested using the Deese-Roediger- McDermott false memory paradigm. Alcohol expectancy adjectives were studied, and false memory for expectancy target words was tested in neutral and alcohol contexts. Results indicated that in the alcohol context heavier drinkers showed more false memory for alcohol expectancy words than they did in a neutral context. Differences were not found for lighter drinkers. These results were consistent with alcohol expectancy theory, which was then compared with various forms of association theory in explaining these results and larger issues in the addiction field. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A
Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little research focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Heavy alcohol use as well as alcohol dependence (AD) have been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the relative contribution of alcohol use and AD is unclear. Baseline data were derived from 2947 persons of
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it
Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A
In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in Tshwane, South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument). Additionally, patients' views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted. About half of the male drinkers' and three quarters of the female drinkers' Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour's duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an alcohol-focused adherence counseling program that employs motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy-type approaches. The association between alcohol use and ART nonadherence points to a need for alcohol-focused ART adherence
McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer
The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…
Steinberg, Lindsay; Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Zack, Martin; Busto, Usoa E; Zawertailo, Laurie A
Relapse is a serious challenge in problem gambling (PG), as it is in substance addiction. Stress and cues are implicated in relapse in both conditions. However, experimental research on motivational effects of stress in PG subjects is scant. This study examined subjective-motivational, cognitive and physiological effects of stress and alcohol cues in subjects with PG, alcohol use disorder (AD), co-occurring PG and AD (CO), and healthy controls (HC). Fifty-two (12/clinical group; 16 HC) physically healthy men received stress in the form of 10-min uncontrollable noise (U-Noise vs. controllable noise; C-Noise) and cues (355 ml non-alcoholic 'placebo' beer; P-Beer vs. soft drink) under Separate or Combined conditions on two test sessions. Visual analogue scales assessed subjective effects. Emotional Stroop and Go/No-Go 'Shift' tasks assessed inhibitory control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) indexed physiological reactivity. U-Noise and C-Noise increased desire for alcohol in all groups. U-Noise selectively inhibited desire to gamble in PG subjects. Both U-Noise and C-Noise inhibited desire to gamble in CO subjects. Neither manipulation reliably altered cognitive performance. Compared to Neutral words, Alcohol words impaired Stroop color-naming in all groups except PG, which displayed relatively faster color-naming of Alcohol words (facilitation). U-Noise increased SBP relative to C-Noise in AD and HC groups. U-Noise plus P-Beer and U-Noise per se decreased SBP in PG and CO groups, respectively. Noise stress has opposite motivational and physiological effects in men with problem gambling vs. alcohol use disorder. A homeostatic process may explain the impact of stress in problem gamblers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Just-Østergaard, Emilie; Mortensen, Erik L.; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine
, household income, cohabitation status and psychiatric comorbidity. Findings: Serious family conflicts in childhood [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00, 1.83] and serious economic problems in adult life (HR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.64, 3.01) were associated significantly with increased......Aims: To estimate associations of individual major life events as well as accumulated major life events in childhood, adult private life and adult work life with risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design: Prospective cohort study with baseline examination in 1991–93 and linkage to national...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university
Voas, Robert B
Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future.
Mesman, Glenn R
Although there is evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and alcohol use in college students, results are inconclusive primarily because studies have failed to control for related variables. Thus, this study was designed to systematically compare the relative contributions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a sample of college students while controlling for effects of antisocial behaviors. A total of 192 undergraduate college students from a rural Midwestern university received class credit for participating in the study. They completed measures of alcohol use, ADHD symptoms, and antisocial behavior. Hierarchical regressions revealed inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, was related to alcohol-related problems even when controlling for antisocial behavior. However, neither inattention nor hyperactivity/impulsivity was related to alcohol use regardless of whether current antisocial behavior was controlled. Inattention may be an important factor related to alcohol-related problems in college students. © 2013 SAGE Publications.
Zhang, Melvyn W. B.; Tran, Bach Xuan; Le, Huong Thi; Long, Nguyen Hoang; Le, Huong Thi; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Tho, Tran Dinh; Le, Bao Nguyen; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Ngo, Chau; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Latkin, Carl A.; Ho, Roger CM
Objectives The average alcohol consumption per capita among Vietnamese adults has consistently increased. Although alcohol-related disorders have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research shedding light on this issue among Internet users. The study aimed to examine the severity of alcohol-related disorders and other associated factors that might predispose individuals towards alcohol usage in a sample of youths recruited online. Methods An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,080 Vietnamese youths. A standardized questionnaire was used. Respondent-driven sampling was applied to recruit participants. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were utilized to identify the associated factors. Results About 59.5% of the males and 12.7% of the total youths declared that they were actively using alcohol. From the total sample, a cumulative total of 32.3% of the participants were drinking alcohol, with 21.8% and 25.0% of the participants being classified as drinking hazardously and binge drinkers, respectively. The majority of the participants (60.7%) were in the pre-contemplative stage. Conclusions A high prevalence of hazardous drinking was recognized among online Vietnamese youths. In addition, we found relationships between alcohol use disorder and other addictive disorders, such as tobacco smoking and water-pipe usage. Our results highlighted that the majority of the individuals are not receptive to the idea of changing their alcohol habits, and this would imply that there ought to be more government effort towards the implementation of effective alcohol control policies. PMID:28523209
Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar
The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.
Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E
The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.
Klein, William; Geaghan, Thomas; MacDonald, Tara
Objective: The authors' goal was to show how risk perceptions regarding unplanned sexual activity following alcohol use are prospectively related to subsequent alcohol consumption. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 380) completed questionnaires at 2 time points during their freshman year. Methods: In the middle of the academic year (T1),…
Smith, Peter C; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard
People who consume unhealthy amounts of alcohol are more likely to use illicit drugs. We tested the ability of a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use to simultaneously detect drug use. Adult English speaking patients (n=286) were enrolled from a primary care waiting room. They were asked the screening question for unhealthy alcohol use "How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?", where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of one or more is considered positive. A standard diagnostic interview was used to determine current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence). Oral fluid testing was also used to detect recent use of common drugs of abuse. The single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was 67.6% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-82.0%) and 64.7% specific (95% CI, 58.4-70.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was similarly insensitive for drug use detected by oral fluid testing and/or self-report. Although a patient with a drug use disorder has twice the odds of screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use compared to one without a drug use disorder, suggesting patients who screen positive for alcohol should be asked about drug use, a single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was not sensitive or specific for the detection of other drug use or drug use disorders in a sample of primary care patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G
Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11–17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75–4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70–3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030
Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.
Moan, Inger Synnøve; Norström, Thor; Storvoll, Elisabet E
The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how an increase in the frequency of heavy drinking episodes affects the incidence of drunk driving and (b) to examine whether the effect of alcohol use on drunk driving is contingent on impulsivity. Two waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study were applied (N = 2,603; response rate: 67%), when the respondents were on average 17 (1994) and 28 (2005) years of age. Measurements consisted of self-reported heavy episodic drinking, drunk driving, and impulsivity. The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between heavy episodic drinking and drunk driving. This means that changes in the frequency of drunk driving were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. In this way, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. The results showed that every additional episode of heavy drinking was associated with a 2.6% increase in the frequency of drunk driving. The increase for males was significantly higher than among females. The analyses supported the hypothesis that impulsivity modifies the association between alcohol use and drunk driving. The association between drinking and drunk driving is significantly stronger among those with a high score on impulsivity compared with those who have a low score.
Kim, Jun-Hong; Kim, Kwang Sik
Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions have been the top of policy agenda for more than three decades in Korea. Despite implementation of various traffic safety measures, some drivers' alcohol use and abuse has resulted in a high number of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities every year. This paper presents the association of theoretical factors with behavior of riding with an alcohol-impaired driver (RAID) among all age groups in the Korean adult sample. The theoretical factors of the drivers are personality factor, socio-psychological factor, and alcohol-related behavioral risk factor. We utilized national survey data from 1007 respondents consisting of 703 males and 304 females aged 20-66 collected by Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) to test our theorized model. Our results indicated that there were three major predictors of RAID involvement: sensation seeking propensity, perceived peer pressure, and frequent harmful drinking. Overall, prediction of RAID behavior by gender was mediated entirely through these predictors. The issue of males' higher risk of RAID involvements was addressed for effective communication strategies such as campaigns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vest, Andrea E.; Simpkins, Sandra D.
Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and teammates…
Le Thi Kim Thoa
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex. Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people. Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam. The study involved a cross-sectional, community survey using a standardised interview. This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years. Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam. The findings presented here were part of a larger health risk behaviour survey. Levels of alcohol use were low. Overall, 16.5% of participants were experienced drinkers, and only 4% of them were current drinkers. Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females. Alcohol and its effects on young people are clearly a growing public health issue in Vietnam. Because of this, more detailed behavioral research should be conducted into the relationship between alcohol consumption and other risky behaviours amongst young people. It is also
Sheppard, Meg E.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Higginbotham, John C.; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer L.
Background: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of alcohol use based on personal values and several constructs from the Integrated Behavioral Model (i.e., attitudes, injunctive norms and descriptive norms) among undergraduate college students. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used with a convenience sample of college…
Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James
As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.
Joan Y. Holgate
Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.
Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.
Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660
Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez
Full Text Available Objectives This article aimed to compare alcohol consumption between the populations of Queensland in Australia and Alberta in Canada. Furthermore, the associations between greater alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics were explored in each population. Methods Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the associations between alcohol risk and socio-demographic characteristics. Results A higher rate of hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than in Albertans. In both Albertans and Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was associated with being between 18 and 24 years of age. Higher income, having no religion, living alone, and being born in Canada were also associated with alcohol risk in Albertans; while in Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was also associated with common-law marital status. In addition, hazardous alcohol use was lower among respondents with a non-Catholic or Protestant religious affiliation. Conclusions Younger age was associated with greater hazardous alcohol use in both populations. In addition, different socio-demographic factors were associated with hazardous alcohol use in each of the populations studied. Our results allowed us to identify the socio-demographic profiles associated with hazardous alcohol use in Alberta and Queensland. These profiles constitute valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable preventive strategies targeting hazardous alcohol use. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of analyzing the socio-demographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in population-specific contexts.
Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Dennis, Alexis C; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J
Due to high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in South Africa, reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore knowledge and attitudes about maternal alcohol consumption among women who reported alcohol use during pregnancy. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were pregnant or within 1 year postpartum and self-reported alcohol use during pregnancy. In-depth interviews explored personal experiences with drinking during pregnancy, community norms and attitudes towards maternal drinking, and knowledge about FASD. Transcripts were analyzed using a content analytic approach, including narrative memos and data display matrices. Interviews revealed competing attitudes. Women received anti-drinking messages from several sources, but these sources were not highly valued and the messages often contradicted social norms. Women were largely unfamiliar with FASD, and their knowledge of impacts of fetal alcohol exposure was often inaccurate. Participants' personal experiences influenced their attitudes about the effects of alcohol during pregnancy, which led to internalization of misinformation. The data revealed a moral conflict that confronted women in this setting, leaving women feeling judged, ambivalent, or defensive about their behaviors, and ultimately creating uncertainty about their alcohol use behaviors. Data revealed the need to deliver accurate information about the harms of fetal alcohol exposure through sources perceived as trusted and reliable. Individual-level interventions to help women reconcile competing attitudes and identify motivations for reducing alcohol use during pregnancy would be beneficial.
Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J
The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
of 3000 obstetric -gynecologic pa- tients: the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire Obstetrics -Gynecology Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(3):759...Shepherd J, Irish M, Scully C, Leslie I. Alcohol con- sumption among victims of violence and among com- parable UK populations. Br J Addict. 1989;84(9
The aim of the current study was to study the relationship between parents' willingness to provide various alcoholic beverages and the binge-drinking behaviour of their adolescent children. Parental willingness was reported by the child of the parent. Cross-sectional data on Swedish adolescents aged
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... and alcohol misuse program. An anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program shall include the following: (a) A statement describing the employer's policy on prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse in the...
This paper explores the role of changing images of drinking and alcoholic beverage use in rap music from its beginnings in the United States in the late 1970s to the late 1990s. A sample of 341 rap music song lyrics released from 1979 to 1997 were selected using Billboard and Gavin rating charts. Song lyrics were coded for music genres, alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, intoxication, attitudes towards alcohol and consequences of drinking. From 1979 to 1997, songs with references to alcohol increased fivefold (from 8 to 44%); those exhibiting positive attitudes rose from 43% to 73%; and brand name mentions increased from 46% to 71%. There were also significant increases in songs mentioning champagne and liquor (mainly expensive brand names) when comparing songs released after 1994 with those from previous years. In addition, there were significant increases in references to alcohol to signify glamour and wealth, and using alcohol with drugs and for recreational purposes. The findings also showed that alcohol use in rap music was much more likely to result in positive than negative consequences. Many of these findings are consistent with the idea that rap music has been profoundly affected by commercial forces and the marketing of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is possible that the increase in references to alcoholic beverages in rap music, particularly spirits, is a reflection of a broader advertising culture which increasingly associates African Americans with alcohol use.
Yee, Hway Ann; Loh, Huai Seng; Ng, Chong Guan
To determine the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder and associated correlates amongst bipolar patients in a university hospital in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 121 bipolar disorder patients were included. Their alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (plus version) and the Addiction Severity Index-Lite-Clinical Factors version. The number of lifetime hospitalizations and the survival days (the number of days between the last discharge and the most current readmission) were calculated. The prevalence of alcohol-use disorder amongst bipolar patients was 18.2%. Indian ethnicity was the only demographic factor that was statistically associated with alcohol-use disorder (p rate of suicidal attempt (p Malaysia. Since alcohol-use disorder, as well as the potential interactions with the course of the disorder, is highly prevalent amongst bipolar patients, alcohol use should be addressed in these patients.
Kaiser, Alison J; Davis, Heather A; Milich, Richard; Smith, Gregory T; Charnigo, Richard
To explore the bidirectional relations between alcohol use and three impulsive personality traits, to advance understanding of risk processes. 525 college students (mean age = 18.95 years) recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up annually for three years. Personality and past/current substance use were assessed. T2 sensation seeking mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 alcohol use, and T2 alcohol use mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 sensation seeking. In addition, T2 alcohol problems mediated the predictive relationship between T1 alcohol use and T3 negative urgency. Findings support a bidirectional relationship between sensation seeking and alcohol use, and drinking anticipates drinking problems, which predict increases in negative urgency. For some individuals, there appears to be an ongoing process of increased risk in the form of increases in both drinking and high-risk personality traits.
multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense alcohol use whereas negative life events in the family and high family affluence were increasing youngsters' intense alcohol use. Differences between regions of Europe were present for all family factors except affluence. Namely, in Northern Europe the impact of family structure and social control on intense alcohol use was stronger than that in other regions (e.g., Western Europe, Mediterranean, and Postsocialist countries. Also, in Northern Europe where the proportion of adolescents who have not experienced negative life events is the highest, the impact of negative life events on intense alcohol use was stronger; that is, negative life events increased the alcohol use. We conclude that family plays a significant role in adolescents' risky alcohol use.
Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim
Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Goldstein, A O; Sobel, R A; Newman, G R
Tobacco and alcohol use among youth are major public health problems, but the extent to which children are routinely exposed to tobacco and alcohol products in children's films is unknown. To identify the prevalence and characteristics associated with tobacco and alcohol use portrayed in G-rated, animated feature films. Design All G-rated, animated feature films released between 1937 and 1997 by 5 major production companies (Walt Disney Co, MGM/United Artists, Warner Brothers Studios, Universal Studios, and 20th Century Fox) that were available on videotape were reviewed for episodes of tobacco and alcohol use. Presence of tobacco and alcohol use in each film, type of tobacco or alcohol used, duration of use, type of character using substance (bad, neutral, or good), and any associated effects. Of 50 films reviewed, 34 (68%) displayed at least 1 episode of tobacco or alcohol use. Twenty-eight (56%) portrayed 1 or more incidences of tobacco use, including all 7 films released in 1996 and 1997. Twenty-five films (50%) included alcohol use. Smoking was portrayed on screen by 76 characters for more than 45 minutes in duration; alcohol use was portrayed by 63 characters for 27 minutes. Good characters use tobacco and alcohol as frequently as bad characters. Cigars and wine are shown in these films more often than other tobacco or alcohol substances. More than two thirds of animated children's films feature tobacco or alcohol use in story plots without clear verbal messages of any negative long-term health effects associated with use of either substance.
Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Of 1757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bradshaw, Spencer D; Shumway, Sterling T; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Morris, Neli; Hayes, Nicholas D
Alcohol use disorders adversely affect individual and societal health. These disorders are a chronic brain disease, and protective factors against relapse should be studied. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is evident in alcohol use disorders, and research that explores recovery of the PFC in alcohol use disorders is needed, specifically in regard to how psychological and behavioral factors can augment medicalized treatments and protect against relapse. For example, hope or a belief that recovery is possible is an important cognitive construct-thought to precede behavioral action-that has been associated with relapse. In this study, associations between healthy coping skills and hope (psychological/behavioral factors) and PFC regional activation in response to alcohol cue exposure were examined. It was also examined whether such associations were unique to alcohol cues. Forty-two participants, 32 males and nine females in recovery from an alcohol use disorder (AUD), were administered a subjective hope and coping in recovery measure. They also viewed alcohol, positive, negative, and neutral cues during functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) PFC assessment. Levels of healthy coping skills positively correlated with activation in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to alcohol cues. This finding was unique to alcohol cues. The association between coping skills and activation of the right DMPFC in response to alcohol cues may reflect greater action restraint and top-down PFC control processing that may protect against relapse.
Wade, Darryl; Varker, Tracey; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) is a brief alcohol screening test and a candidate for inclusion in recommended screening and brief intervention protocols for acute injury patients. The objective of the current study was to examine the performance of the AUDIT-C to risk stratify injury patients with regard to their probability of having an alcohol use disorder. Participants (n = 1,004) were from a multisite Australian acute injury study. Stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR) analysis was used to examine the performance of previously recommended AUDIT-C risk zones based on a dichotomous cut-point (0 to 3, 4 to 12) and risk zones derived from SSLR analysis to estimate the probability of a current alcohol use disorder. Almost a quarter (23%) of patients met criteria for a current alcohol use disorder. SSLR analysis identified multiple AUDIT-C risk zones (0 to 3, 4 to 5, 6, 7 to 8, 9 to 12) with a wide range of posttest probabilities of alcohol use disorder, from 5 to 68%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) score was 0.82 for the derived AUDIT-C zones and 0.70 for the recommended AUDIT-C zones. A comparison between AUROCs revealed that overall the derived zones performed significantly better than the recommended zones in being able to discriminate between patients with and without alcohol use disorder. The findings of SSLR analysis can be used to improve estimates of the probability of alcohol use disorder in acute injury patients based on AUDIT-C scores. In turn, this information can inform clinical interventions and the development of screening and intervention protocols in a range of settings. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Giesen, Esther S; Deimel, Hubertus; Bloch, Wilhelm
The therapeutic impact of exercise interventions in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia has already been proven through several reviews whereas substance use disorders such as alcohol use disorders (AUD) have so far less frequently been a matter of investigation. Although several publications have summarized studies focusing on physical activities in substance use disorders, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of exercise interventions in AUD. A total of 14 studies using the Medline Database, CCMed, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were identified and met the inclusion criteria. In order to evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (2011). Due to methodological flaws the overall evidence of the studies is rated level "3" but primarily findings confirm that exercise interventions as a complementary treatment component in AUD are feasible and safe. No adverse events were reported. This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on certain domains of physical functioning including VO2max, basal heart rate, physical activity level and strength. Inconsistent effects with a slight trend towards a positive effect on anxiety, mood management, craving, and drinking behavior have been shown and need to be verified. Results must be interpreted cautiously due to the numerous methodological flaws and the heterogeneity of the interventions and measures. However, according to preclinical studies several mechanisms of action are conceivable, especially as to alcohol-related outcomes and additionally seem to be promising. RCTs with high methodological quality are urgently needed in future research to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations for the treatment of AUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sultana, Jakeya; Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Kawsar; Dinovitser, Alex; Ng, Brian W-H; Abbott, Derek
Ethanol is widely used in chemical industrial processes as well as in the food and beverage industry. Therefore, methods of detecting alcohol must be accurate, precise, and reliable. In this content, a novel Zeonex-based photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been modeled and analyzed for ethanol detection in terahertz frequency range. A finite-element-method-based simulation of the PCF sensor shows a high relative sensitivity of 68.87% with negligible confinement loss of 7.79×10 -12 cm -1 at 1 THz frequency and x -polarization mode. Moreover, the core power fraction, birefringence, effective material loss, dispersion, and numerical aperture are also determined in the terahertz frequency range. Owing to the simple fiber structure, existing fabrication methods are feasible. With the outstanding waveguiding properties, the proposed sensor can potentially be used in ethanol detection, as well as polarization-preserving applications of terahertz waves.
Bujarski, Spencer; Jentsch, J David; Roche, Daniel J O; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Miotto, Karen; Ray, Lara A
The Allostatic Model proposes that Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with a transition in the motivational structure of alcohol drinking: from positive reinforcement in early-stage drinking to negative reinforcement in late-stage dependence. However, direct empirical support for this preclinical model from human experiments is limited. This study tests predictions derived from the Allostatic Model in humans. Specifically, this study tested whether alcohol use severity (1) independently predicts subjective responses to alcohol (SR; comprised of stimulation/hedonia, negative affect, sedation and craving domains), and alcohol self-administration and 2) moderates associations between domains of SR and alcohol self-administration. Heavy drinking participants ranging in severity of alcohol use and problems (N = 67) completed an intravenous alcohol administration paradigm combining an alcohol challenge (target BrAC = 60 mg%), with progressive ratio self-administration. Alcohol use severity was associated with greater baseline negative affect, sedation, and craving but did not predict changes in any SR domain during the alcohol challenge. Alcohol use severity also predicted greater self-administration. Craving during the alcohol challenge strongly predicted self-administration and sedation predicted lower self-administration. Neither stimulation, nor negative affect predicted self-administration. This study represents a novel approach to translating preclinical neuroscientific theories to the human laboratory. As expected, craving predicted self-administration and sedation was protective. Contrary to the predictions of the Allostatic Model, however, these results were inconsistent with a transition from positively to negatively reinforced alcohol consumption in severe AUD. Future studies that assess negative reinforcement in the context of an acute stressor are warranted.
Vail-Smith, Karen; Chaney, Beth H; Martin, Ryan J; Don Chaney, J
In March 2015, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau approved the sale of Palcohol, the first powdered alcohol product to be marketed and sold in the U.S. Powdered alcohol is freeze-dried, and one individual-serving size packet added to 6 ounces of liquid is equivalent to a standard drink. This study assessed awareness of powered alcohol and likelihood to use and/or misuse powdered alcohol among college students. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of 1,841 undergraduate students. Only 16.4% of respondents had heard of powdered alcohol. After being provided a brief description of powdered alcohol, 23% indicated that they would use the product if available, and of those, 62.1% also indicated likelihood of misusing the product (eg, snorting it, mixing it with alcohol). Caucasian students (OR = 1.5) and hazardous drinkers (based on AUDIT-C scores; OR = 4.7) were significantly more likely to indicate likelihood of use. Hazardous drinkers were also six times more likely to indicate likelihood to misuse the product. These findings can inform upstream prevention efforts in states debating bans on powdered alcohol. In states where powdered alcohol will soon be available, alcohol education initiatives should be updated to include information on the potential risks of use and be targeted to those populations most likely to misuse. This is the first peer-reviewed study to assess the awareness of and likelihood to use and/or misuse powdered alcohol, a potentially emerging form of alcohol. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Janssen, M.M.; van Bon, M.J.H.; van Oers, J.A.M.; de Boer, E.
Background There is much evidence that parents have an influence on the alcohol use of their children. However, in general the relationship is rather weak. A reason for this small association may be due to the fact that adolescents are a heterogeneous group and that, consequently, the association
de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large
Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.
Research on the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use has generally shown small effects possibly due to failure to include important individual differences relevant to the experience of work-family conflict and alcohol use, notably age. This study examined whether the relationships between aspects of work-family conflict and alcohol use variables differed by age. Participants were 543 individuals (51.2% women) from a community sample of working adults in the greater Chicag...
Heinz, Adrienne J; Pennington, David L; Cohen, Nicole; Schmeling, Brandi; Lasher, Brooke A; Schrodek, Emily; Batki, Steven L
Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and trauma exposure and is, in turn, associated with worse clinical outcomes. Accordingly, disruptions in cognitive functioning may be conceptualized as a trans-disease phenomenon representing a potential high-yield target for intervention. Less is known though about how different cognitive functions covary with alcohol use, craving, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity among trauma-exposed individuals with AUD. Sixty-eight male and female trauma-exposed military veterans with AUD, entering treatment trials to reduce alcohol use, completed measures assessing alcohol use and craving, post-traumatic stress symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. In multivariate models, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptom severity, poorer learning and memory was associated with higher alcohol consumption and higher risk taking/impulsivity was associated with stronger preoccupations with alcohol and compulsions to drink. Alcohol consumption and craving, but not performance on cognitive tests, were positively associated with post-traumatic stress symptom severity. Findings suggest that interventions to strengthen cognitive functioning might be used as a preparatory step to augment treatments for AUD. Clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of cognitive functioning, in addition to post-traumatic stress symptom severity, in treatment planning and delivery for this vulnerable and high-risk population. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Nutt, D J; Rehm, J; van den Brink, W; Gorwood, P; Buchsbaum, M S
Harmful use of alcohol is one of the top five risks for burden of disease globally and in Europe; in 2012, 3.3 million net deaths (approximately 6% of all global deaths) were attributable to this risk factor. It is also linked to the development of a wide spectrum of alcohol use disorders, ranging from mild manifestations to a severe disease known as alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence is a progressive, chronic, and relapsing brain disease resulting from the prolonged effects of alcohol on the brain. Alcohol dependence imposes a significant societal burden, with indirect societal costs reaching up to 0.64% of European countries׳ annual gross domestic product. With these facts in mind, it is important to recognize and manage alcohol dependence. Although the biological mechanisms behind the development of alcohol dependence are not fully known, factors that have been shown to influence its development include genetic predisposition, psychological problems, and social interactions. Alcohol use has also been linked to the development of hypertension, liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, multiple types of cancer, and psychiatric comorbidities such as depression and anxiety disorders. With such severe effects on both individuals and society, it is important to recognize the characteristic signs and symptoms of alcohol dependence and explore new ways to better manage patients with this brain disease. Effective treatment approaches for alcohol dependence include biological, behavioral, and social components addressing the multiple aspects of this disease. Comprehensive, educational platforms in which to explore the many facets of this disease such as the Progress in Mind: Focus on Alcohol Use Disorders Resource Centre, will provide clinicians with the tools necessary for recognizing patients with alcohol dependence and managing their disease along with related comorbidities. Online Access: http://progressinmind.elsevierresource.com. Copyright © 2015. Published by
Schulte, Joann; Kleinschmidt, Kurt C; Domanski, Kristina; Smith, Eric Anthony; Haynes, Ashley; Roth, Brett
Published reports have suggested that the concurrent use of alcohol or drugs occurs among some snakebite victims, but no national assessment of such data exists. We used data from US poison control centers collected during telephone calls in calendar years 2000-2013 to compare snake envenomations with concomitant use of drugs, alcohol, or both to snakebites lacking such use. A total of 608 snakebites with 659 instances of concomitant alcohol/drug use were reported, which represent approximately 1% of 92,751 snakebites reported to US poison control centers. An annual mean of 48 snakebites with concomitant use of alcohol/drugs was reported, compared with a mean of 6625 snakebites per year with no concomitant use of alcohol/drugs. Most cases involved men, peaked during the summer months, and involved copperheads or rattlesnakes, which mirrored overall trends. Snakebite victims who also used alcohol/drugs were more likely than victims with only a snakebite reported to be bitten by rattlesnakes, to be admitted to the hospital, and die. Alcohol was the most common reported concomitant substance, but other substances were reported. Snakebites with concomitant use of alcohol/drugs are uncommon, accounting for approximately 1% of the snakebite envenomations reported annually to US poison control centers; however, snakebite victims also reporting alcohol/drug use are more likely to be bitten by rattlesnakes, be admitted to a healthcare facility, and die.
...) Under the influence of or impaired by alcohol; (ii) Having .04 or more alcohol concentration in the breath or blood; or (iii) Under the influence of or impaired by any controlled substance. (3) No employee... distribution is through documented over the counter sales (Schedule V only). (c) Railroad rules. Nothing in...
Wilner, Molly; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan
Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Facebook age presentation, Facebook alcohol displays, and alcohol related risk factors among college students. Methods: Students from two universities in the United States enrolled and accepted a researcher's Facebook friend request. Participant's Facebook profiles were evaluated…
Gooding, Shirley A.; Schell, Robert E.
In some communities, alcohol becomes a part of socialization early in life. In one such community, softball for women has become a popular pastime. Twenty-seven of 48 teams in the community were sponsored by local taverns, bars, or restaurants where alcohol was served. Teams sponsored by taverns were encouraged to meet at the taverns before or…
Wicki, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Gmel, G.
Background: High volumes of alcohol consumption and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) among university students have been shown to be associated with considerable harm to both those who consume alcohol and their fellow students. The vast majority of these studies are based on US and Canadian
Results: In adolescents with unplanned pregnancies, the prevalence of active smoking was 21.2% and of alcohol consumption, 41.5%. The percentage of smoking at home was 57.4% and alcohol consumption, 77.5%. Approximately, 80.3% of adolescents with unplanned pregnancies had friends who smoked and 90.6% ...
... on Cancer Monograph Working Group. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages . Lancet Oncol 2007;8:292–293 Smith-Warner SA, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: A pooled analysis of cohort studies . JAMA 1998;279(7):535–540. Thun MJ, ...
Cleveland, Michael J; Turrisi, Rob; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Marzell, Miesha
We examined how mothers' protective parenting and alcohol use influenced changes in offspring's heavy drinking among a sample of African American youth. The conceptual model also tested indirect effects of mothers' behaviors, through changes in the youths' social images (i.e., prototypes) of heavy drinkers, derived from the prototype willingness (PW) model. Participants were 686 emerging adults (55% female) from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS), an ongoing prospective study of African American families. Three waves of FACHS data were used as follows: T3 during 10th grade (M age = 16.3 years), T4 shortly after high school (M age = 19.4 years), and T5 3 years later (M age = 22.1 years). Mothers' self-reports of protective parenting and alcohol use were assessed at T4. Two separate path models tested the study hypotheses. The first model specified direct and indirect effects of mothers' protective parenting and alcohol use. The second model added interaction terms between the protective parenting behaviors and mothers' alcohol use. The analyses were first conducted using the full sample and then repeated separately for female and male participants. Maternal alcohol use had a positive and direct effect on offspring's alcohol use. Mothers' endorsement of alcohol-related rules inhibited normative increases in the favorability of the offspring's social image of heavy drinkers (prototype) while her warmth was positively related to these increases. Maternal alcohol use amplified the positive association between mothers' warmth and the daughters' increased drinking. For sons, maternal alcohol use increased the positive association between alcohol-related rules and increased prototype favorability. Results indicated clear gender differences in how mothers' behaviors influence her offspring's alcohol use during the transition to emerging adulthood. Interventions that target culturally specific risk and protective factors within the family environment are
Simioni, Nicolas; Rolland, Benjamin; Cottencin, Olivier
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are characterized by low treatment coverage. Emergency departments (EDs) have great potential to increase alcohol treatment coverage. While ED-based brief interventions (BIs) are rarely effective for reducing alcohol use and related consequences in people with AUDs, utilization of formal alcohol treatment has been demonstrated to be useful. Thus we conducted a systematic review to determine efficacious interventions for increasing subsequent alcohol treatment from EDs. A systematic search of the literature up to 31 December 2013 was undertaken in three electronic databases: PubMed, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were included. A meta-analysis was judged inappropriate because of substantial discrepancies in term of interventions' characteristics across studies. From the 2182 identified records, 7 studies (4RCTs, 2 CCTs, 1NRCT) met inclusion criteria. Onsite brief advice (BA) was found efficacious in comparison to no active control condition, but no evidence of efficacy was found when compared to active control conditions. Referral to post-discharge BIs was not found efficacious either used alone or in addition to onsite BA. There is evidence, albeit limited, suggesting that more intensive interventions, such as referral to extended post-discharge interventions and onsite extended BI, might be useful. Based on the available evidence, onsite BA with leaflets appears to be the minimum level of intervention since it enables to actively intervene while fitting in the time concerns experienced in EDs. Further research is needed to confirm these findings given the limited quantity and quality of existing data and to determine whether more intensive interventions could actually be useful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Renata Gomes Sanches Verardino
Full Text Available Background: Within the context of drugs, alcoholism is one of the major problems in public health. Objective: To identify the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages by users of a Family Health Unit in São Paulo state during reception. Method: Exploratory cross-sectionalstudy of quantitative methodology with the use of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT in 100 adult users of a Primary Health Care network. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Of the total sample, (74% were women, (85% made use of alcoholic beverages at low risk, and (19% were young adults; binge drinking was reported by a minority of the interviewees. The Catholics in the sample (42% reported never using alcohol excessively, followed by the Evangelicals with 22%. Conclusions: Health professionals need to have knowledge of the alcohol consumption pattern of the residents from the territory of their unit, so that they can develop prevention and health promotion programs.
Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S
Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.
Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Saraswathi, Ramiah
A comparative study on the sensing characteristics of nanostructured zinc ferrite to three primary alcohols viz. methanol, ethanol and propanol has been carried out. The zinc ferrite has been prepared by a combustion method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM. Impedance studies in the alcohol concentration range varying from 100 to 1000 ppm show definite variations in response to both the nature of the alcohol and its concentration. The nanostructured zinc ferrite shows the highest sensor response to methanol and least to propanol. Equivalent circuit modelling and calibration have been made for all the three alcohol sensors. The material shows a better selectivity to the alcohols compared to formaldehyde, ammonia and acetone vapours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brett, Emma I; Leffingwell, Thad R; Leavens, Eleanor L
The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a model of PBS as a mediator of the effect of mindfulness on alcohol-related consequences. Additionally, mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and consequences was examined. College students (N=239) at a large South Central university completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and consequences, use of PBS, and trait mindfulness. Results indicated that both higher levels of mindfulness and using more PBS predicted decreased alcohol-related consequences and consumption, with PBS mediating both relationships (pmindfulness were more likely to use PBS, with individuals using more PBS experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences and consuming fewer drinks per week. Mindfulness moderated the relationship between PBS and consequences, with a significantly stronger negative relationship for those with lower levels of mindfulness. Individuals who are higher in trait mindfulness are more likely to use PBS, which leads to a decrease in the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, for individuals lower in mindfulness, low PBS use may lead to increased experience of alcohol consequences. Interventions that incorporate PBS may be most beneficial for students who are low in mindfulness and unlikely to engage in drinking control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, So-Youn; Anastas, Jeane; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Nguyen, Duy
Acculturation and acculturative stress are examined as predictors of alcohol use among Asian immigrants, using the 2004 National Latino and Asian Americans Survey (NLAAS). Separate regression analyses were conducted for Chinese (n = 600), Filipino (n = 508), and Vietnamese (n = 520) immigrants. Alcohol use varied for the three groups. English proficiency was associated with drinking for all groups. Family conflict was associated with drinking for Chinese immigrants. General acculturative stress and discrimination were associated with drinking for Vietnamese immigrants. Results underscore acculturation and acculturative stress as being contributors to alcohol consumption, and the importance of considering the heterogeneity of Asian immigrants in research on their alcohol use. The study's limitations are noted.
Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
To investigate the influence of parenting styles (overprotection, emotional warmth, and rejection) in early adolescence on regular alcohol use in late adolescence. We analyzed data from the first three waves (mean ages: 11.09, 13.56, and 16.27 years, respectively) of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2,230 adolescents, conducted between 2001 and 2007. Adolescents reported on parental overprotection, emotional warmth, and rejection (T1). Regular alcohol use was defined as six and seven glasses or more a week for girls and boys, respectively. We further assessed family socioeconomic status, parental divorce, parental alcohol use, educational level of the adolescent, and alcohol use at baseline. Parental overprotection had the strongest relationship to regular alcohol use: adolescents who perceived more parental overprotection were at increased risk of developing regular alcohol use, even after adjustment for several confounders. Rejection was not related to adolescents' alcohol use and, after adjustment for the other variables, neither was emotional warmth. Overprotective parenting is a determinant of future regular adolescent alcohol use and therefore health professionals should pay particular attention to those adolescents who have overprotective parents. The role of adolescent characteristics in the relationship between overprotection and alcohol use deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321
Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Burk, Linnea R.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Essex, Marilyn J.
Objective: Past research has associated childhood characteristics and experiences with alcohol use at single time points in adolescence. Other work has focused on drinking trajectories across adolescence but with risk factors typically no earlier than middle or high school. Similarly, although the connection between underage drinking and affiliation with deviant friends is well established, early risk factors for their covariation across adolescence are uncertain. The present study examines the influence of early individual and contextual factors on (a) trajectories across high school of per-occasion alcohol use and (b) the covariation of alcohol use and deviant friends over time. Method: In a longitudinal community sample (n = 374; 51% female), temperamental disinhibition, authoritarian and authoritative parenting, and parental alcohol use were assessed during childhood, and adolescents reported on alcohol use and affiliation with deviant friends in the spring of Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. Results: Early parental alcohol use predicted the intercept of adolescent drinking. Subsequent patterns of adolescent alcohol use were predicted by sex and interactions of sex and childhood disinhibition with early authoritarian parenting. Additionally, childhood disinhibition interacted with parental alcohol use to moderate the covariation of drinking and deviant friends. Conclusions: These findings highlight early individual and contextual risk factors for alcohol use across high school, extending previous work and underscoring the importance of developmental approaches and longitudinal techniques for understanding patterns of growth in underage drinking. PMID:23948534
Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Ruttle, Paula L; Burk, Linnea R; Costanzo, Philip R; Strauman, Timothy J; Essex, Marilyn J
Past research has associated childhood characteristics and experiences with alcohol use at single time points in adolescence. Other work has focused on drinking trajectories across adolescence but with risk factors typically no earlier than middle or high school. Similarly, although the connection between underage drinking and affiliation with deviant friends is well established, early risk factors for their covariation across adolescence are uncertain. The present study examines the influence of early individual and contextual factors on (a) trajectories across high school of per-occasion alcohol use and (b) the covariation of alcohol use and deviant friends over time. In a longitudinal community sample (n = 374; 51% female), temperamental disinhibition, authoritarian and authoritative parenting, and parental alcohol use were assessed during childhood, and adolescents reported on alcohol use and affiliation with deviant friends in the spring of Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. Early parental alcohol use predicted the intercept of adolescent drinking. Subsequent patterns of adolescent alcohol use were predicted by sex and interactions of sex and childhood disinhibition with early authoritarian parenting. Additionally, childhood disinhibition interacted with parental alcohol use to moderate the covariation of drinking and deviant friends. These findings highlight early individual and contextual risk factors for alcohol use across high school, extending previous work and underscoring the importance of developmental approaches and longitudinal techniques for understanding patterns of growth in underage drinking.
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P
Underage drinking among Asian American adolescent girls is not well understood. Based on family interaction theory, the study examined the interrelationships among acculturation variables, family relationships, girls' depressed mood, peer alcohol use, and girls' alcohol use in a sample of 130 Asian American mother-daughter dyads. The mediating role of family relationships, girls' depressed mood, and peer alcohol use on girls' drinking was also assessed. The study advances knowledge related to alcohol use among early Asian American adolescent girls, highlights the effect of immigrant generation status and family relationships, and has implications for culturally specific underage drinking prevention programs.
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika; Heeren, Timothy; Amodeo, Maryann
This study examined the effect of the co-occurrence of multiple categories of maltreatment on adolescent alcohol use. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 14,078). Among those reporting any maltreatment, over one-third had experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that all types or combinations of types of maltreatment except physical-abuse-only were strongly associated with adolescent alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race, and parental alcoholism. These results add to accumulating evidence that child maltreatment has a deleterious impact on adolescent alcohol use.
Gutierrez, Kevin M; Cooper, Theodore V
The use of social networking sites (SNS) has become a central aspect of youth culture allowing individuals to explore and assert their identities. A commonly portrayed online identity is an "alcohol identity," and past research suggests such identities may contribute to one's risk of using alcohol. The present study builds on past research by examining the relationship between alcohol, marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoid use (e.g., Spice, K2) and time spent on SNS in a sample of college students. Six hundred ninety nine undergraduates (62.4% female; Mage=21.0, SD=8.56) were recruited from a university on the U.S./Mexico border for an online study. Participants completed measures assessing demographics, substance use history, and amount of time spent on SNS. Participants reported spending 46h per month on SNS. Seventy-one percent, 14%, and 3% of the sample reported past month use of alcohol, marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that hours spent on SNS in the past month were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol (psynthetic cannabinoid use (pmarijuana use in the past month (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that assessment of time spent on SNS is warranted in studies investigating drug use among college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...
... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...
Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree
In South Africa, alcohol use poses a public health burden. Hazardous alcohol use often co-occurs with psychological distress (e.g., depression and post-traumatic stress). However, the majority of the research establishing the relationship between alcohol use and psychological distress has been cross-sectional, so the nature of co-occurring changes in psychological distress and alcohol use over time is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between psychological distress and alcohol use among South African women who attend alcohol serving venues. Four waves of data were collected over the course of a year from 560 women in a Cape Town township who attended drinking venues. At each assessment wave, participants reported depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. Multilevel growth models were used to: 1) assess the patterns of alcohol use; 2) examine how depressive symptoms uniquely, post-traumatic stress symptoms uniquely, and depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms together were associated with alcohol use; and 3) characterize the within person and between person associations of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms with alcohol use. Women reported high levels of alcohol use throughout the study period, which declined slightly over time. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were highly correlated with depressive symptoms. Modeled separately, both within person and between person depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms were uniquely associated with alcohol use. When modeled together, significant between person effects indicated that women who typically have more post-traumatic stress symptoms, when controlling for depressive symptoms, are at risk for increased alcohol use; however, women with more depressive symptoms, controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, do not have differential risk for alcohol use. Significant within person effects indicated an
Bray, Jeremy W; Hinde, Jesse M; Aldridge, Arnie P
Despite a widely held belief that alcohol use should negatively impact wages, much of the literature on the topic suggests a positive relationship between nonproblematic alcohol use and wages. Studies on the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment have also failed to find a consistent, negative effect of alcohol use on years of education. Thus, the connections between alcohol use, human capital, and wages remain a topic of debate in the literature. In this study, we use the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a theoretical model of wage determination that links alcohol use to wages via human capital. We find that nonbinge drinking is associated with lower wage returns to education whereas binge drinking is associated with increased wage returns to both education and work experience. We interpret these counterintuitive results as evidence that alcohol use affects wages through both the allocative and productive efficiency of human capital formation and that these effects operate in offsetting directions. We suggest that alcohol control policies should be more nuanced to target alcohol consumption in the contexts within which it causes harm. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fermentation Syndrome in the Psychiatric Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Alcohol Use Disorder Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7. 0 Introduction Gut Fermentation Syndrome, also known as auto- brewery syndrome, is a phenomenon not well...patient stated abstinence from alcohol use and that Gut Fermentation Syndrome was the cause of continually elevated blood alcohol levels. We will
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.
A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…
Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia
Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098
Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Patrick K.; Randall, Carrie L.
Patients with social anxiety disorder who are seen in clinical practice commonly have additional psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol use disorders. The first line treatment for social anxiety disorder is selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. However, the efficacy of SSRIs has been determined with studies that excluded alcoholics. Forty two subjects with social anxiety and a co-occurring alcohol use disorder participated in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo...
Abbott, P J
Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.
To assess the value of using indicators of alcohol-related harm to estimate changes in unrecorded per capita consumption of alcohol. Unrecorded consumption was estimated from the discrepancy between the observed changes in a number of alcohol-related harm indicators and the changes that would be expected from changes in recorded consumption. The results were compared with estimates of unrecorded consumption from survey data. Four indicators of alcohol-related harm were used: alcohol-related mortality, assaults, drunken driving, and suicide. Estimates of unrecorded consumption from survey data for five different years were used as benchmarks. The best performing indicators were alcohol-related mortality, suicide and assaults, in that order. Combining these indicators yielded a prediction error averaging 12% in comparison with the benchmarks. The method seems worthy of further applications, but it should be regarded as a supplement rather than as a substitute for other approaches.
Hermansson, Ulric; Helander, Anders; Brandt, Lena; Huss, Anders; Rönnberg, Sten
Previous studies have shown that elevated, risky levels of alcohol consumption may lead to higher rates of sickness absence. However, no studies have examined the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) or serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in relation to sickness absence in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sick-days, 12 months before screening, and the AUDIT and CDT (CDTect kit). Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase also was used for comparison. The study was carried out over 36 months in a large workplace and formed part of an ongoing controlled study. In conjunction with a routine health examination, employees were offered the opportunity to undergo an alcohol screening. Absence data were obtained from the company payroll system, and sickness absence was analyzed by using a three-ordinal level cumulative logistic model on the number of sick-days. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 989 subjects who participated in the study, 193 (19.5%) screened positive in relation to either the AUDIT (>or=8 points) or CDT (women), or both. Employees who screened positive with the AUDIT had a significantly higher proportion of sick-days (p = 0.047) compared with those who screened negative (OR = 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9). Neither long, continuous periods of sickness absence nor absence on Mondays or Fridays gave a clear indication of individuals who screened positive on the AUDIT or CDT test. Our data indicate that individuals with moderately elevated or risky levels of alcohol consumption show an increase in sick-days. Accordingly, workplaces have a good reason for using a more systematic approach to alcohol screening in routine workplace health examinations.
Full Text Available In our culture, consuming of alcohol drinks is generally tolerated. The alcohol drinks is easily available and even represent a particular pattern of behavior. Young populations are at risk for alcohol abuse while most of them are beginning to experiment with alcohol in early adolescence and early creates a habit of drinking. To determine the frequency of alcohol consumption and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students of the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica and their association with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of students of Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica, in the period from 26th to 30th November 2012. As the survey instrument was used Questionnaire about behavior and health. From the statistical methods were used chi-square and Man-Whitney test, with a significance level of 0.05. In the week preceding the survey alcohol had consumed significantly higher part of students of economics (55.2% than medical students (29.9%. More often alcohol consumed males, older students and students of higher years of study. Most of the students declared that tried alcohol for the first time at home in the presence of their parents (37.6%, alcohol consumption is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live (76.1% and where they study (81.6%, and that they would not be embarrassed when in the company of fellow ordered a drink that is not alcoholic (87%.Nearly one of three medical students and half of students of economics in Kosovska Mitrovica had tried alcohol in the previous week, while the majority concluded that the consumption of alcohol is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live and study.
Full Text Available Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in adult samples (for a meta-analysis see Rooke, Hine, & Thorsteinsson, 2008. The purpose of this study was to test these processes as they relate to emerging alcohol use in adolescents. Specifically, the interactive effects of several measures of impulsive and reflective processes and working memory capacity are examined as predictors of changes in alcohol use among adolescents. It was expected that measures of reflective processes would better predict changes in alcohol use than measures of impulsive processes. Moreover, it was anticipated that working memory capacity would moderate the relation between alcohol-specific impulsive and reflective processes and changes in adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The sample consisted of 427 adolescents (47.7% male between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 13.96, SD = .78 who reported drinking alcohol at least once. Four measures of impulsive processes were included. Attentional bias for alcohol was assessed with a Visual Probe Test; approach bias toward alcohol was assessed with a Stimulus Response Compatibility Test (SRC; and memory associations with alcohol were assessed with an Implicit Association Test (IAT and a Word Association Test (WAT. Two measures of reflective measures were included: positive and negative expectancies. Working memory capacity was measured using a Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT.Results: Results showed that positive expectancies predicted changes in alcohol use, but this effect was qualified by an interaction with IAT scores. Moreover, SRC scores predicted changes in alcohol use only when negative expectancies were low. Attentional bias and word association scores did not predict changes in
Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, Jose A; Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Johns, Michelle; Zimmerman, Marc A
Young adults are increasingly interacting with their peer groups online through social networking sites. These online interactions may reinforce or escalate alcohol and other drug (AOD) use as a result of more frequent and continuous exposure to AOD promotive norms; however, the influence of young adults' virtual networks on AOD use remains untested. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the presence of AOD use content in online social networking, perceived norms (online norms regarding AOD use and anticipated regret with AOD use postings), and alcohol and marijuana use in a sample of 18- to 24-year-olds. Using an adapted web version of respondent-driven sampling (webRDS), we recruited a sample of 18- to 24-year-olds (N = 3,448) in the United States. Using multivariate regression, we explored the relationship between past-30-day alcohol and marijuana use, online norms regarding AOD use, peer substance use, and online and offline peer support. Alcohol use was associated with more alcohol content online. Anticipated regret and online peer support were associated with less alcohol use. Anticipated regret was negatively associated with marijuana use. Peer AOD use was positively associated with both alcohol and marijuana use. Peers play an important role in young adult alcohol and marijuana use, whether online or in person. Our findings highlight the importance of promoting online network-based AOD prevention programs for young adults in the United States.
Thembisile M. Chauke
Full Text Available Background: Drinking behaviour by adolescents is a significant public health challenge nationally and internationally. Alcohol use has serious challenges that continue to deprive adolescents of their normal child growth and development. Drinking is associated with dangers that include fighting, crime, unintentional accidents, unprotected sex, violence and others. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate drinking patterns, and factors contributing to drinking, amongst secondary school learners in South Africa. Method: The sample included 177 male (46.6% and 206 female (53.4% respondents in the age range from 15–23 years, selected by stratified random sampling. Results: The results indicated that 35.5% of male and 29.7% of female respondents used alcohol. Both male and female respondents consumed six or more alcohol units (binge drinking within 30 days; on one occasion the consumption was 17.5% and 15.9% respectively. It was found that alcohol consumption increases with age, 32.2% of 15–17 year-olds and 53.2% of 18–20 year-olds consumed different types of alcohol. It was deduced that 28.9% respondents reported that one of the adults at home drank alcohol regularly, and 9.3% reported that both their parents drank alcohol daily. It was found that 27.6% of the respondents agreed that friends made them conform to drinking. The tenth and eleventh grade reported 15.2% of male and 13.9% of female respondents were aware that alcohol can be addictive. Conclusion: This study found that age, gender, parental alcohol use and peer pressure were found to be the major contributing factors to alcohol use amongst learners Prevention campaigns such as introducing the harmful effects of alcohol use amongst learners are of utmost importance in reducing alcohol use amongst learners in South Africa.
Chauke, Thembisile M; van der Heever, Hendry; Hoque, Muhammad E
Drinking behaviour by adolescents is a significant public health challenge nationally and internationally. Alcohol use has serious challenges that continue to deprive adolescents of their normal child growth and development. Drinking is associated with dangers that include fighting, crime, unintentional accidents, unprotected sex, violence and others. The aim of the study is to investigate drinking patterns, and factors contributing to drinking, amongst secondary school learners in South Africa. The sample included 177 male (46.6%) and 206 female (53.4%) respondents in the age range from 15–23 years, selected by stratified random sampling. The results indicated that 35.5% of male and 29.7% of female respondents used alcohol. Both male and female respondents consumed six or more alcohol units (binge drinking) within 30 days; on one occasion the consumption was 17.5% and 15.9% respectively. It was found that alcohol consumption increases with age, 32.2% of 15–17 year-olds and 53.2% of 18–20 year-olds consumed different types of alcohol. It was deduced that 28.9% respondents reported that one of the adults at home drank alcohol regularly, and 9.3% reported that both their parents drank alcohol daily. It was found that 27.6% of the respondents agreed that friends made them conform to drinking. The tenth and eleventh grade reported 15.2% of male and 13.9% of female respondents were aware that alcohol can be addictive. This study found that age, gender, parental alcohol use and peer pressure were found to be the major contributing factors to alcohol use amongst learners Prevention campaigns such as introducing the harmful effects of alcohol use amongst learners are of utmost importance in reducing alcohol use amongst learners in South Africa.
Yacoubian, George S., Jr.
The drug-using behaviors of 14,520 college students were examined with data collected through the 1997 College Alcohol Study. Prevalence estimates of ecstasy use were generated and associations between ecstasy use, demographic characteristics, and alcohol and other drug use were explored. Implications for these findings are discussed. (Contains 24…
Examined the social control used by families of young apprentices in Turkey in relation to deviant behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use. Data for 397 apprentices show that those who use alcohol are most frequently exposed to stringent controls and oral and physical violence, and those who use drugs frequently were exposed to battering by their…
Objective: To better understand conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among male hospital out-patients, the purposes of this study were: (1) to assess the prevalence of conjoint use and (2) to determine the factors associated with the conjoint alcohol use and tobacco use. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, consecutive male ...
Chan, Patrick; Yomen, Katie; Turcios, Jennifer; Richman, Mark
Patients suffering from major depressive disorder are more likely to suffer from alcohol use disorder. The data is inconclusive for the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from both illnesses in regards to improving sobriety and reducing alcohol-related healthcare expenses such as hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to determine if a new prescription of an antidepressant upon inpatient discharge is associated with a reduction in the number of future acute alcohol-related hospital readmissions to the same institution in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and alcohol-use disorder. A retrospective, medical record review study was conducted at a publicly-supported hospital in Sylmar, CA. A query was performed for adult patients admitted between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013 who had ICD-9 codes for both alcohol-use disorder and depression. Index admission was the first hospitalization in which the patient was currently consuming alcohol and had depression as identified by physician documentation as a problem. Acute alcohol-related admissions were those for alcohol intoxication or withdrawal (indicating current alcohol use). Patients were excluded if they were receiving an antidepressant on index admission, depressive disorder with a prescription for an antidepressant is not associated with a reduction in future readmissions, nor significantly increase the number of days to readmission. The study does not support the concept of antidepressants in reducing acute alcohol-related readmissions.
Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Spoth, Richard; Lannin, Daniel G
This study tested the relationship between popularity and early adolescent alcohol use and examined whether popularity moderated the influence of several risk processes. Longitudinal data provided by 1,196 youth (590 girls) were analyzed to assess main and interactive effects of popularity, friends' alcohol use attitudes, own alcohol use attitude, risk taking, and aggressive-disruptive behavior on changes in alcohol use during seventh grade. When we controlled for demographic variables and baseline alcohol use, popularity and the other predictors of interest exhibited linear main effects on alcohol use, with popularity and the attitude variables also demonstrating curvilinear relationships. Further analysis indicated that popularity moderated the effect of aggressive-disruptive behavior, the latter being associated with greater alcohol use among more popular adolescents. Additional moderation results revealed that friends' favorable attitudes toward alcohol use also potentiated aggressive-disruptive behavior's relationship with alcohol use and that male youth were more likely than female youth to use alcohol, but only among low risk takers. Popular youth may attempt to maintain status through early alcohol use, and their social competencies may facilitate risk processes associated with aggressive-disruptive behavior. Findings suggest the utility of providing universal prevention at developmentally crucial times to address substance use overall, and particularly to decrease early use among popular youth, which may serve to slow the growth of substance use in the larger cohort. Although aggressive-disruptive youth who are popular seem to be at particular risk, they may resist traditional interventions, indicating the potential value of less obvious intervention strategies.
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....
Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Malbergier, André; do Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Yang, Jasmine J; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra
Although there are a large number of studies focused on binge drinking and traffic risk behaviors (TRB), little is known regarding low levels of alcohol consumption and its association to TRB. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association of low to moderate alcohol intake pattern and TRB in college students in Brazil. 7037 students from a National representative sample were selected under rigorous inclusion criteria. All study participants voluntarily fulfilled a structured, anonymous, and self-questionnaire regarding alcohol and drug use, social-demographic data, and TRB. Alcohol was assessed according to the average number of alcoholic units consumed on standard occasions over the past 12 months. The associations between alcohol intake and TRB were summarized with odds ratio and their confidence interval obtained from logistic regression. Compared with abstainers students who consumed only one alcohol unit had the risk of being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver increased by almost four times, students who reported using five or more units were increased by almost five times the risk of being involved in a car crash. Compared with students who consumed one alcohol unit, the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol increased four times in students using three alcohol units. Age group, use of illicit drugs, employment status, gender, and marital status significantly influenced occurrence of TRB among college students. Our study highlights the potential detrimental effects of low and moderate pattern of alcohol consumption and its relation to riding with an intoxicated driver and other TRB. These data suggest that targeted interventions should be implemented in order to prevent negative consequences due to alcohol use in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Gerard; Daly, Michelle; Proude, Elizabeth M; Kermode, Steven; Davis, Michelle; Barling, Jan; Haber, Paul S
Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is limited research on the correlation between tobacco and risky levels of alcohol use and the possible complications associated with a hospital admission. The underestimation of problem drinking, in particular, has obvious repercussions for the management of patients in hospital. If alcohol-related problems go undetected or unrecorded, treatment may be inadequate or inappropriate. The aims of the project were to assess the prevalence of high-risk alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic in-patients and to examine any relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and the number and type of complications, management and length of stay. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive orthopaedic admissions to the Orthopaedic Ward at Lismore Base Hospital were screened using the Drinkcheck questionnaire, which is based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), but which also screens for tobacco use. Nursing staff on the ward completed a Complications Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ). The risk status of the subjects was compared to the number and type of complications, to assess any effects of alcohol and tobacco on post-surgical complications. Significant correlations were found between tobacco use, hazardous and harmful alcohol use and numerous medical complications and behavioural problems. Behavioural problems associated with risky alcohol use included verbal abuse, agitation and sleep disturbances, particularly in men; problems associated with tobacco use included agitation and non-compliance. Orthopaedic patients who smoke and/or drink heavily prior to surgery may have more non-medical complications than non-smokers and light or non-drinkers. All surgery patients should thus be screened for alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol withdrawal, which may cause other symptoms such as behavioural problems, non-compliance and verbal abuse post-surgery.
Jørgensen, Charlotte H; Pedersen, Bolette; Tønnesen, Hanne
Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) involving hazardous, harmful, and addictive misuse of alcohol are widespread in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to review the effect of disulfiram in the treatment of patients with AUD. The effect of disulfiram was evaluated according...... to the primary outcome of an intake of alcohol below 30 and 20 g/d for men and women, respectively, as well as secondary outcomes such as days until relapse, alcohol intake, and numbers of drinking days. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central...
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Pernille; Andersen, Tina Veje
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the cancer morbidity in a large cohort of patients with alcohol use disorders in the general Danish population. METHODS: We included 15,258 men and 3552 women free of cancer when attending the Copenhagen Outpatient Clinic for Alcoholics in the period from......, but not of breast cancer and colorectal cancer, in patients with alcohol use disorders....... incidence of colon, rectal or urinary bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study confirms the well-established association between high alcohol intake and cancer of the upper digestive tract and liver. In addition, the results indicate a significantly elevated occurrence of renal cancer...
Schulte, Marya T.; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A.
While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol traj...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier results concerning alcohol consumption of bereaved persons are contradictory. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between bereavement and alcohol consumption accounting for time and gender differences on a nationally representative sample from Hungary ("Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel Survey", N = 4457 Methods Drinking characteristics of mourning persons (alcohol consumption, dependence symptoms, and harmful consequences of alcohol use in the first three years of grief were examined among persons between 18-75 years using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Results Men bereaved for one year scored higher on two dimensions of AUDIT (dependence symptoms and harmful alcohol use, while men bereaved for two years scored higher on all three dimensions of AUDIT compared to the non-bereaved. The rate of men clinically at-risk concerning alcohol consumption among the non-bereaved is 12.9%, and among men bereaved for one year is 18.4% (a non-significant difference, while 29.8% (p Conclusion Among bereaved men, the risk of alcohol related problems tends to be higher, which can be shown both among men bereaved for one year as well as men bereaved for two years. Considering the higher morbidity and mortality rates of bereaved men, alcohol consumption might play a mediator role. These facts draw attention to the importance of prevention, early recognition, and effective therapy of hazardous drinking in bereaved men.
Fierz, Katharina; Steiger, Jürg; Denhaerynck, Kris; Dobbels, Fabienne; Bock, Andreas; De Geest, Sabina
Severe alcohol use is recognized as a major public health concern, even though light to moderate alcohol use might have beneficial effects on health. Alcohol use has been studied to some extent in solid organ transplant populations, yet evidence is lacking on alcohol use and its correlates in the renal transplant population. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in renal transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of the Supporting Medication Adherence in Renal Transplantation (SMART) study. Alcohol use was assessed by patient's self-report. At risk and binge drinkers were classified using World Health Organization criteria. The following correlates of alcohol use were explored: adherence with immunosuppression (Siegal questionnaire; electronic monitoring), smoking, coping style (UCL), depressive symptomatology (BDI) and busyness/routine in life style (ACQ Busyness Scale). Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included in this analysis, 58.1% male, with a mean age of 54 yr (range 20-84) and a median of seven (interquartile ranges [IQR] 8) yr post-transplantation. A total of 52.8% of study participants reported to drink alcohol at least once a week. Two hundred and eighty of 284 subjects (98.5%) were drinking at low risk, four at moderate risk (1.5%). None of the participants were drinking severely. Correlates of alcohol use were male gender and being professionally active. Alcohol use is less prevalent in renal transplant recipients than in the general population. Severe alcohol use does not seem to represent a serious problem in renal transplant patients.
Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.
Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…
Background: Concerns have been raised about the increasing use of alcohol among the people living with HIV/AID in Nigeria. A better understanding of the source and prevention of alcohol use in these people may serve as a useful strategy for reducing the burden associated with HIV/AIDS. Aims: This study assesses the ...
West, Joshua H.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Kelley, Norma J.; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L.; Schmitz, Katherine E.; Kolody, Bohdan; Chambers, Christina D.; Friedman, Lawrence S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.
Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San…
In southern Africa, the use of alcohol is increasingly seen as creating a context of risk for HIV transmission. This qualitative study investigates the links between alcohol use and higher-risk sexual behaviours in a remote southern Namibian mining-town community. Using data from six focus groups and 16 in-depth interviews ...
Samuolis, Jessica; Lazowski, Andrew; Kessler, Janice
Objectives: This paper explores the extent to which curriculum infusion (CI) impacted undergraduate students' alcohol use, perceived peer alcohol use, use of protective behavioural strategies, academic performance and course engagement. Design: Two faculty members infused content on norms and protective behavioural strategies into selected…
O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
Presents information on the extent of alcohol use and other drug use among college students. Alcohol rates are very high among college students, with use higher among males than females. White students are highest in heavy drinking, black students are lowest and Hispanics are intermediate. Results indicate colleges should do more to reduce heavy…
Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J
Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.
Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT
Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.
Scalzo, Simon J; Bowden, Stephen C; Ambrose, Margaret L; Whelan, Greg; Cook, Mark J
Although Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a common condition, diagnosis remains difficult. WKS not associated with alcohol is rare and thought to present differently to alcohol-related WKS. We conducted a systematic review of WKS not related to alcohol to enhance understanding of WKS not related to alcohol and WKS in general. A systematic review was conducted of case reports, published in English, of Wernicke's encephalopathy and WKS in patients without a history of alcohol-use disorder. Main data sources: MEDLINE, Index Medicus. Eligible cases totaled 623. Publication dates ranged from 1867 to 2014. Comparisons of clinical presentation were made with published data on samples comprising, almost exclusively, alcohol-related WKS. A wide array of illnesses precipitated WKS. When diagnosis of WKS was performed postmortem, non-alcohol-related cases presented a similar number of signs of the classic triad as alcohol-related cases (p=0.662, Cohen's w=0.12) but more signs when diagnosed antemortem (pKorsakoff syndrome or ongoing memory impairment was reported in 25% of non-alcohol-related WKS, although cognitive status was not explicitly reported in many cases. When duration of memory impairment was reported, 56% had clinically obvious memory impairment lasting beyond the period of acute presentation. Non-alcohol-related WKS was more often associated with female gender, younger age, shorter duration of precipitating illness and better survival rate compared to alcohol-related WKS. Thiamine deficiency in the absence of an alcohol-use disorder can cause the full clinical spectrum of WKS, including chronic cognitive impairment and Korsakoff syndrome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne
To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Garvey, Katharine C; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E; Wisk, Lauren E; Weitzman, Elissa R
In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.
Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.
Objective: To determine the association between living in a non-intact family household and the presence of smokers and ... Smoking and alcohol consumption at home are not ..... tended pregnancy rates in the United States, Perspectives.
Mar 1, 2011 ... interest because commercial road transport is the major means of .... This finding has important implication in alcohol control as these types of ... has been announced by the Federal Road Safety Corps. ( FRSC) of Nigeria (8).
... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...
evidence-based alcohol policy and legislation by applying cost calculation ..... Latin America with high crime levels, such as Colombia, Brazil or ..... environmental, transport, and health policies: A global meta-analysis of stated preference ...
Mohan, A M Vinu; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Mishra, Rupesh K; Wang, Joseph
The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan layer, along with an outer Nafion layer. The resulting microneedle-based enzyme electrode displays an interference-free ethanol detection in artificial interstitial fluid without compromising its sensitivity, stability and response time. The skin penetration ability and the efficaciousness of the biosensor performance towards subcutaneous alcohol monitoring was substantiated by the ex vivo mice skin model analysis. Our results reveal that the new microneedle sensor holds considerable promise for continuous non-invasive alcohol monitoring in real-life situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Shrestha, Shikhar; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Rayburn, William F; Stephen, Julia M
Prenatal care programs for women with opioid use disorder (OUD) often focus treatment/counseling plans around illicit substances, while concurrent use of alcohol might present an equal or greater risk to the fetus. This study evaluated self-reported prevalence of alcohol use in patients participating in a comprehensive prenatal care program for women with substance use disorder (SUD; n = 295), of which 95% are treated for OUD, and pregnant women being served through general obstetrical clinics at the University of New Mexico (n = 365). During the screening phase of a prospective study, patients were asked to report alcohol use in the periconceptional period, and between the last menstrual period and pregnancy recognition. The screening interview was conducted at 22.3 (median = 22; Q1 = 16; Q3 = 29) gestational weeks. Among patients screened at the SUD clinic, 28.8% and 24.1% reported at least one binge drinking episode in the periconceptional period and in early pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of binge drinking was similar in the general obstetrics population (24.7% and 24.4%, respectively). Among those who reported drinking in early pregnancy, median number of binge drinking episodes was higher among patients screened at the SUD clinic (median = 3; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 10) compared to the general obstetrics group (median = 1; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 3; p < 0.001). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of prenatal alcohol use in early pregnancy in both groups, while patients with SUD/OUD consume more alcohol. These findings underscore the need for targeted screening and intervention for alcohol use in all pregnant women, especially those with SUD/OUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out with new TB and TB retreatment patients systematically selected from two hospitals and had screened positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Sisaket Province in Thailand. Alcohol use disorders were measured with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Results: Of the 295 TB patients who were screened with AUDIT-C, 72 (24.4% tested positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use. At 6 months, 72 TB patients had completed the follow- up. At the 6-month follow-up, hazardous or harmful drinking was reduced by 84.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using generalised estimation equation modelling found that alcohol use significantly reduced over time, whereas there was no change in current tobacco use. Conclusion: The prevalence of alcohol use disorders significantly reduced over a period of 6 months.
Hamdi, Nayla R; Krueger, Robert F; South, Susan C
Much is unknown about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol use, including the means by which SES may influence risk for alcohol use. Using a sample of 672 twin pairs (aged 25 to 74) derived from the MacArthur Foundation Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, this study examined whether SES, measured by household income and educational attainment, moderates genetic and environmental influences on 3 indices of alcohol use: amount used, frequency of use, and problem use. We found significant moderation for amount of alcohol used. Specifically, genetic effects were greater in low-SES conditions, shared environmental effects (i.e., environmental effects that enhance the similarity of twins from the same families) tended to increase in high-SES conditions, and nonshared environmental effects (i.e., environmental effects that distinguish twins) tended to decrease with SES. This pattern of results was found for both income and education, and it largely replicated at a second wave of assessment spaced 9 years after the first. There was virtually no evidence of moderation for either frequency of alcohol use or alcohol problems. Our findings indicate that genetic and environmental influences on drinking amount vary as a function of the broader SES context, whereas the etiologies of other drinking phenomena are less affected by this context. Efforts to find the causes underlying the amount of alcohol used are likely to be more successful if such contextual information is taken into account. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Isabel Marian Hartmann Quadros
Full Text Available Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF systems have been critically implied in the transition towards problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence. CRF signaling, mostly via CRF1 receptors, seems to be particularly important in conditions of excessive alcohol taking and seeking, including during early and protracted withdrawal, relapse, as well as during withdrawal-induced anxiety and escalated aggression promoted by alcohol. Modulation of CRF1 function seems to exert a less prominent role over low to moderate alcohol intake, or to species-typical behaviors. While CRF mechanisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have some contribution to the neurobiology of alcohol abuse and dependence, a pivotal role for extra-hypothalamic CRF pathways, particularly in the extended amygdala, is well characterized. More recent studies further suggest a direct modulation of brain reward function by CRF signaling in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex, among other structures. This review will further discuss a putative role for other components of the CRF system that contribute for the overall balance of CRF function in reward and stress pathways, including CRF2 receptors, CRF binding protein and Urocortins, a family of CRF-related peptides.
Westberg, Kate; Stavros, Constantino; Smith, Aaron C T; Munro, Geoff; Argus, Kevin
To examine how alcohol brands use sport in their communication activities on social media. Despite extensive research exploring alcohol advertising and sponsorship through sport, minimal attention has been given to digital platforms. This study undertakes a qualitative content analysis to examine the social media activity of alcohol brands sponsoring the three largest spectator sports in Australia: Australian rules football, rugby league and cricket. Four sport-related social media strategies are identified through which alcohol brands solicit interaction with consumers, often involving co-creation of content and social activation. These strategies act as 'calls to action' and through the association of sport and alcohol encourage consumers to engage in competition, collaboration, celebration and consumption. These strategies are further strengthened by communications which draw upon themes of identity and camaraderie to resonate with the consumer. Sport-linked social media strategies utilised by alcohol brands extend beyond just promoting their product. They seek higher levels of engagement with the consumer to amplify and augment the connection between alcohol and the sport spectator experience. The discussion highlights the powerful combination of sport and social media as a mechanism by which these brands seek to interact with consumers and encourage them to both create and promote content to their social networks. These strategies allow alcohol brands to extend their marketing efforts in a manner which can elude alcohol codes and prove difficult for regulators to identify and control. [Westberg K, Stavros C, Smith ACT, Munro G, Argus K. An examination of how alcohol brands use sport to engage consumers on social media. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:28-35]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Mohan, AMV; Windmiller, JR; Mishra, RK; Wang, J
The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan laye...
Robertson, E D; Fournet, G P; Zelhart, P F; Estes, R E
The present study reports a factor analysis of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory using 103 alcoholic men. Kirton in 1976 and we in an unpublished work in 1986 noted identical factor structures when responses from nonalcoholic populations to the inventory were factor analyzed. Recent reviews regarding personality characteristics of alcoholics suggest characteristics similar to the adaption-innovation concepts of Kirton. This factor analysis for an alcoholic sample supports the validity of the inventory as a measure of problem-solving style of alcoholics.
Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X
Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation
Hodge, David R.; Andereck, Kathleen; Montoya, Harry
The costs associated with the use of addictive substances and practices underscore the need for research on protective factors that inhibit use. In this study, the protective influences of various spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and gambling frequency and expenditures are examined. Among the predominantly…
S.C. de Vries (Sjoerd); A.I. Wierdsma (André)
textabstractBackground/Aims: We used time-variant measures of continuity of care to study fluctuations in long-term treatment use by patients with alcohol-related disorders. Methods: Data on service use were extracted from the Psychiatric Case Register for the Rotterdam Region, The Netherlands.
Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy
Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.
Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Parry, Charles D H; Babor, Thomas F
Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa. In this review, we argue that to have a positive impact on the health of African populations, action addressing specific features of alcohol policy in the continent is needed, namely focusing on particularities linked to alcohol availability, like unrecorded and illicit production, outlet licensing, the expansion of formal production, marketing initiatives and taxation policies.
Smucker Barnwell, Sara; Earleywine, Mitch; Gordis, Elana B
The link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence remains poorly understood. Some people use cannabis regularly without signs of dependence; others show dependence despite using less. This study examined alcohol consumption as a moderator of this association. A sample of 476 people (primarily Caucasian men) who used cannabis at least once per week reported their alcohol consumption, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence symptoms in an Internet survey. Regressions revealed significant interactions between measures of cannabis use and alcohol consumption when predicting cannabis dependence. Cannabis use covaried with cannabis dependence, particularly in people who consumed alcohol frequently or in large amounts per week. Despite limitations, these data suggest that alcohol may decrease the safety of cannabis consumption. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Staiger, Petra K; Richardson, Ben; Long, Caroline M; Carr, Victoria; Marlatt, G Alan
Despite recognition of the harms related to alcohol misuse and its potential to interfere substantially with sustained recovery from drug dependency, research evaluating drug treatment outcomes has not addressed the issue comprehensively. It has been overlooked possibly because treatment research has been framed according to the primary drug of choice, rather than investigating the interactions between different combinations of drugs and/or alcohol use. This paper reports on a systematic review investigating whether concurrent alcohol use could impede recovery from illicit drug use in two potential ways: first, alcohol could become a substitute addiction and/or secondly, alcohol misuse post-treatment may place an individual at risk for relapse to their primary drug problem. A systematic search of four relevant databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed, quantitative drug treatment outcome studies that reported alcohol use pre-, post-treatment and follow-up. The search revealed 567 papers, of which 13 were assessed as fulfilling the key inclusion criteria.The review indicated inconsistent and therefore inconclusive support for the substitution hypothesis. However, the data revealed consistent support for the hypothesis that alcohol use increases relapse to drug use. (i) The potential negative impact of alcohol misuse on drug treatment outcomes remains under-researched and overlooked; (ii) alcohol consumption post-drug treatment may increase the likelihood that an individual will relapse to their primary drug; (ii) existing evidence regarding the substitution hypothesis is inconclusive, although there was an indication that a subgroup of participants will be vulnerable to alcohol becoming the primary addiction instead of drugs. We argue that future drug treatment outcome studies need to include detailed analysis of the influence of alcohol use pre- and post-drug treatment. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Smith, Gillian W; Shevlin, Mark; Murphy, Jamie; Houston, James E
To identify population-based clinical and demographic correlates of alcohol use dimensions. Using data from a population-based sample of Great Britain (n = 7849), structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to identify associations between demographic and clinical variables and two competing dimensional models of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A two-factor SEM fit best. In this model, Factor 1, alcohol consumption, was associated with male sex, younger age, lower educational attainment, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and suicide attempts. Factor 2, alcohol-related problems, was associated with the demographic variables (to a lesser extent) and to a wider range of clinical variables, including depressive episode, GAD, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. The one-factor SEM was associated with demographic and all assessed clinical correlates; however, this model did not fit the data well. Two main conclusions justify the two-factor approach to alcohol use classification. First, the model fit was considerably superior and, second, the dimensions of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems vary considerably in their associations with measures of demographic and clinical risk. A one-factor representation of alcohol use, for instance, would fail to recognize that measures of affective/anxiety disorders are more consistently related to alcohol-related problems than to alcohol consumption. It is suggested therefore that to fully understand the complexity of alcohol use behaviour and its associated risk, future research should acknowledge the basic underlying dimensional structure of the construct.
Full Text Available When we compare the categories about alcohol, and substance-related disorders in DSM-IV and DSM-5, the new category, named addictive disorders is the most striking change. Only gambling disorder have been identified currently in this category. This may be the most remarkable change among the changes in the DSM-5. Because the expansion of the existing diagnostic criteria may cause the assessment of and lsquo;normal behavior' as a disorder. Additionally, withdrawal of caffeine and cannabis are defined in the DSM-5. Disorders collected under the title of substance-related disorders in the DSM-IV were collected under the name of substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5. Specific criterias for substance abuse and substance addiction have been combined into the name of "substance use disorders". In substance abuse, "experienced legal problems" criteria was removed and "a strong desire or urge or craving for substance use" criteria has been introduced. Henceforth, substance abuse is defined as a mild form of substance use disorders in the DSM-5. A change in the prevalence of substance use disorders should be investigated by the new researches.
This paper attempts to cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from Ethiopia in Israel and to suggest recommendation for future activities. In addition, as a background, it attempts to describe the Ethiopian immigration to Israel and its problems, as well as some background characteristics of alcohol use in ...
Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie
The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…