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Sample records for alcohol treatment service

  1. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  2. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  3. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  4. Acamprosate in the treatment of alcoholism: a budget impact analysis for the National Health Service in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Giacomo Bruno21Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2S.A.V.E. – Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, Milan, ItalyObjective: Alcohol dependence is a common condition associated with high direct and indirect health care costs. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the economic consequences of acamprosate used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of alcoholism, defining a budget impact analysis (BIA from the point of view of the Italian National Health Service (NHS.Methods: We developed a model of disease evolution related to alcoholism using data from the PRAMA study. The hypothetical population included in the decision model was obtained from data from the Ministry of Health. We compared the following treatment strategies: no treatment, standard care (psychotherapy, sodium oxybate (sodium salt-4-hydroxybutyric acid, and acamprosate. The time horizon of the model was 10 years. The costs were evaluated from the NHS perspective.Results: We simulated the path for 69,348 patients treated at the outpatient clinics of the Addiction Services (SerT, and 38,911 patients discharged from hospital. Patients in the acamprosate group had lower alcohol-related events, with a reduction of the total cost. The BIA shows that the increase in the use of acamprosate was associated with a progressive decrease of total costs, calculated as the sum of the diagnosis-related groups (DRG, rehabilitation, and drug costs. The increasing use of acamprosate instead of standard care and sodium oxybate would generate cost savings up to over €6 million over 10 years of simulation.Conclusion: The estimates in the model are based on hypothetical situations; the assumptions of the model as well as their specific impact on treatment effect estimations and clinical implications should be validated in real life. Public health care authorities would benefit from mathematical models

  5. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  6. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  7. Elderly alcoholics in outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Lolk, Anette;

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, the treatment of alcoholics is provided by public outpatient alcohol clinics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elderly patients differ from younger patients with regards to sociodemographic data, drinking pattern and psychiatric comorbidity which may affect the...

  8. Treatment of Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursz, Mark; Morgan, Timothy R

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a syndrome of jaundice and liver failure that occurs in a minority of heavy consumers of alcohol. The diagnosis usually is based on a history of heavy alcohol use, findings from blood tests, and exclusion of other liver diseases by blood and imaging analyses. Liver biopsy specimens, usually collected via the transjugular route, should be analyzed to confirm a diagnosis of AH in patients with an atypical history or presentation. The optimal treatment for patients with severe AH is prednisolone, possibly in combination with N-acetyl cysteine. At present, only short-term increases in survival can be expected-no treatment has been found to increase patient survival beyond 3 months. Abstinence is essential for long-term survival. New treatment options, including liver transplantation, are being tested in trials and results eagerly are awaited. PMID:26948886

  9. Treatment Of Alcoholism In Family Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmer, David R.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment goals and treatment methods for alcoholism are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of the family physician in the management of this extremely common problem. The office treatment of alcoholism of moderate severity is discussed, starting with the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by making a treatment contract with the patient in order to help him remain sober, and to fit the patient to the optimal treatment methods on an individual basis. Office treatment methods...

  10. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  11. Antabuse treatment for excessive users of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, F

    1992-01-01

    Antabuse treatment has mostly been applied to alcohol dependent patients although the heavy users of alcohol are responsible for the major parts of alcohol related problems in our societies. The heavy users of alcohol should be identified both by the general practitioners and the hospital doctors...... in any field and the first intervention should be a health interview connected with a biological monitoring of alcohol damages and thereby many patients would be motivated for moderate drinking. If this is not the case, heavy users should be encouraged to a 6 or better a 12 months supervised treatment...... with Antabuse. This treatment has especially been effective in employees with work-related alcohol problems....

  12. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  13. Alcohol use in the service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S

    1994-06-01

    It is frequently alleged that hotel and restaurant personnel drink more than other groups in the service industry, although only indirect evidence has been presented to substantiate this allegation. This paper reports data from two surveys concerning alcohol use in different segments of the service industry. In the first study 84 students at three different colleges in the Stavanger region were interviewed concerning their alcohol habits using the screening instrument AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). The second survey concentrated on service employees in the Rogaland area. One hundred and five respondents answered the AUDIT questionnaire in this study. The results showed that hotel and restaurant affiliated individuals scored significantly higher on the AUDIT than the other respondents. The first survey indicated that students at the Norwegian College of Hotel Management obtained significantly higher AUDIT scores than other groups of students, whereas the second survey indicated that restaurant workers scored significantly higher than employees in other branches of the service industry. Implications of these results, as well as future research demands were indicated. PMID:8069174

  14. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems an...

  15. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE--NEUROBIOLOGY AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biała, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Chronic alcohol consumption, meanwhile, in order to restore equilibrium leads to neuroadaptive changes caus- ing both decreased GABAergic and increased glutamatergic activity. Also function of other neurotransmitters and modulators is modified by the presence of alcohol, including glycine, adenosine, serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, a significant impact of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system, nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the endocannabinoids system has been also established. At present, only four medications are approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Europe, that is naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram and the most recent nalmefene. Among other promising strategies the following drugs are mentioned: baclofen, topiramate, ondansetron, aripiprazole, rimonabant and varenicline. Additionally, the role of appetite-regulating hormones, neuroimmune modulators or the body's stress-response system modulators in reducing alcohol consumption is currently of great interest, however, further investigations are needed. PMID:27008795

  16. Outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders among subjects 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Bühringer, Gerhard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of 60+ years with excessive alcohol intake varies in western countries between 6-16 % among men and 2-7 % among women. Specific events related to aging (e.g. loss of job, physical and mental capacity, or spouse) may contribute to onset or continuation of alcohol use...... six months after treatment initiation. Controlled use is defined as maximum blood alcohol content not exceeding 0.05 % during the last month. Total abstinence is a secondary outcome, together with quality of life andcompliance with treatment. DISCUSSION: The study will provide new knowledge about...... into the possible interaction of service system differences and related patient characteristics in predictionof treatment outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT02084173 , March 7, 2014....

  17. Thai men’s experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsompon, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men’s experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand.Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men’s experiences in terms of the ...

  18. Progress and Compliance in Alcohol Abuse Treatment*

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Hsien-Ming; Lu, Mingshan; Ma, Ching-to Albert; Thomas G. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Improving patient compliance with physicians’ treatment or prescription recommendations is an important goal in medical practice. We examine the relationship between treatment progress and patient compliance. We hypothesize that patients balance expected benefits and costs during a treatment episode when deciding on compliance; a patient is more likely to comply if doing so results in an expected gain in health benefit. We use a unique data set of outpatient alcohol abuse treatment to identif...

  19. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  20. Art therapy in the treatment of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Halužan, Mirijana

    2012-01-01

    Summary – Treatment through art therapy process lowers stress levels, relaxes, people communicatemore freely, and this particular treatment affects the people addicted to alcohol. Having moved from the usual method of communication allows them personal creativity, freedom, and telling the truth through the images. Selection of their images is a result of internal thought processes that are difficult to express through words. Art therapy helps boost creative thinking and crea...

  1. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K

    1984-01-01

    The history of alcoholism treatment in the early twentieth century is outlined. The methods of the Emmanuel Movement and of Richard Peabody are described, biographical details of their main practitioners are given, the populations treated are described, and the predecessors and successors of the two methods are discussed. In addition, the two methods are compared with each other and with the methods of Alcoholics Anonymous and Freudian psychoanalysis. The founder of the E. Movement was a clergyman, Dr. Elwood Worcester, whose method was designed to treat a variety of neurotic disorders. He felt that all diseases, including alcoholism, had physical, mental and spiritual components. His principal techniques of relaxation therapy and suggestion (including autosuggestion) were used to reach the unconscious. Worcester felt that alcoholics could be helped by redirecting their attention away from their problems to a life of service and spirituality. Prayer, group support and self-help were important. Worcester tried to reduce patients' guilt and rejected temperance preaching. He felt that recovery must come from surrender to external forces and to the healing capacities of the unconscious. One patient of his, Courtenay Baylor, began to work with him at the E. Church. Like Worcester, Baylor believed that alcohol, and not one's life history, caused alcoholism. Baylor believed that alcoholism resulted from mental and physical "tenseness" and, like Worcester, he used relaxation therapy. He believed in giving a longer period of treatment than did Worcester and in providing more treatment for the families of alcoholics. One of Baylor's most famous patients was Peabody. Peabody had no credentials but he refined and professionalized the E. treatment method. He was a strong believer in the control of one's feelings and in increased efficiency--his patients were told to follow detailed time plans. He believed that early family history caused alcoholism. Like the E. Movement, he

  2. Proteasome inhibitor treatment in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fawzia Bardag-Gorce

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress, generated by chronic ethanol consumption, is a major cause of hepatotoxicity and liver injury. Increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals due to ethanol metabolism by CYP2E1 is principally located in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria, which does not only injure liver cells, but also other vital organs, such as the heart and the brain. Therefore, there is a need for better treatment to enhance the antioxidant response elements. To date, there is no established treatment to attenuate high levels of oxidative stress in the liver of alcoholic patients. To block this oxidative stress, proteasome inhibitor treatment has been found to significantly enhance the antioxidant response elements of hepatocytes exposed to ethanol. Recent studies have shown in an experimental model of alcoholic liver disease that proteasome inhibitor treatment at low dose has cytoprotective effects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver steatosis. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment against oxidative stress occurred because antioxidant response elements (glutathione peroxidase 2, superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, and GCLC) were upregulated when rats fed alcohol were treated with a low dose of PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade(r)). This is an important finding because proteasome inhibitor treatment up-regulated reactive oxygen species removal and glutathione recycling enzymes, while ethanol feeding alone down-regulated these antioxidant elements. For the first time, it was shown that proteasome inhibition by a highly specific and reversible inhibitor is different from the chronic ethanol feeding-induced proteasome inhibition. As previously shown by our group, chronic ethanol feeding causes a complex dysfunction in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which affects the proteasome system, as well as the ubiquitination system. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment in alcoholic liver disease

  3. BDAWG Scoping Report: Drugs and alcohol services in Belfast

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Mary Black, Assistant Director for Health and Social Wellbeing Improvement in the Public Health Agency, established the Belfast Drug and Alcohol Working Group in early 2010 to undertake a scoping exercise of drugs and alcohol services in Belfast, and to produce a report outlining their findings and making some recommendations as to how services could be better promoted, targeted, co-ordinated and ultimately improved.� This report is the culmination of a series of meetings and workshops (from ...

  4. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  5. Utilization of Alcohol Treatment Among HIV-Positive Women with Hazardous Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingdi; Harman, Jeffrey; Winterstein, Almut G; Zhong, Yue; Wheeler, Amber L; Taylor, Tonya N; Plankey, Michael; Rubtsova, Anna; Cropsey, Karen; Cohen, Mardge H; Adimora, Adaora A; Milam, Joel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Cook, Robert L

    2016-05-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption has been frequently reported among women with HIV infection and is associated with a variety of negative health consequences. Treatments to reduce alcohol use may bring in health benefits. However, little is known regarding the utilization of alcohol treatment services among HIV+ women with hazardous drinking. Using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), this study assessed utilization of any alcohol treatment in the past 6months and performed multivariable logistic regression to determine correlates of receipt of any alcohol treatment. Among 474 HIV+ women reporting recent hazardous drinking, less than one in five (19%) reported recent utilization of any alcohol treatment. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was the most commonly reported (12.9%), followed by inpatient detoxification (9.9%) and outpatient alcohol treatment program (7.0%). Half (51%) receiving any alcohol treatment reported utilization of multiple treatments. Multivariable analyses found alcohol treatment was more often utilized by those who had social support (odds ratio [OR]=1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00 to 2.83), fewer economic resources (income ≤$12,000 vs. >$12,000, OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.53 to 6.27), higher levels of drinking (16-35 drinks/week vs. 12-15 drinks/week, OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.47 to 6.21; 36+ drinks/week vs. 12-15 drinks/week, OR=4.41, 95% CI=2.03 to 9.59), and those who reported any illicit drug use (OR=2.77, 95% CI=1.44 to 5.34). More efforts are needed to enhance the utilization of alcohol treatment. Our findings highlight the unique profile of those who utilized alcohol treatment. Such information is vital to improve treatment delivery to address unmet need in this particular population. PMID:26961420

  6. Professional Counseling versus Specialized Programs for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews major recent studies supporting the effectiveness of professional counseling, Alcoholics Anonymous, and specialty programs for treating alcohol and drug problems. Describes the American Society of Addiction Medicine's guidelines for referral to substance abuse services and examples of integrated treatment approaches. (Contains 35…

  7. Individualised treatment in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl; Hermann, Derik

    2010-11-01

    Long-term relapse prevention is the biggest challenge in treating alcohol-dependent patients. It is equally based on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Psychotherapy includes motivational interviewing, community reinforcement, cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational enhancement, twelve-step facilitation, social network behaviour therapy, cue exposure, etc. For pharmacological treatment, we dispose of disulfiram, acamprosate and naltrexone. Reviews and meta-analyses reveal only modest effect sizes of these approaches probably because they are usually tested in large and heterogeneous samples where "one size does not fit all". However, attempts to form more homogeneous subgroups for which specific psychotherapies should be more effective ("matching") also failed. We suppose that this failure may have to do with the fact that these studies used only psychopathology and behavioural analyses as a basis for subtyping. Things look more promising once biologically defined endophenotypes are used as well in order to form more homogeneous subgroups. For example, naltrexone treatment seems more effective in carriers of a specific variant of the mu-opioid receptor gene. The same could be true for acamprosate if a newly found polymorphism was used to preselect potential responders. Very recently biological differences between patient groups are also being detected using functional imaging. Naltrexone is suggested to work better in a subgroup of patients with higher cue reactivity when shown appetitive alcohol pictures. MR spectroscopy of brain glutamate levels may detect potential acamprosate responders. On such a basis, an individualised approach in the treatment of alcoholism ("personalised medicine") seems to hold promise. PMID:20953618

  8. Pathogenetic aspects of alcoholic encephalopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinin S.G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is considered to be the most common exogenous toxins, causing encephalopathy. The defeat of almost all parts of the nervous system should be assigned to the special features of ethanol. Neurophysiological mechanisms of development of substance dependence are based in the stem and limbic structures of the brain that are involved in ensuring the regulation of emotional state, mood, motivation sphere, psychophysical tone of human behavior in general and its adaptation to the environment. Stress or disruption of the normal functioning of these structures can lead to the formation of abstinence syndrome, affective disorders in remission and craving for alcohol. Dopaminergic and opioid (endorphin system play an important role in the genesis of various mental and motor disorders. In some way alcohol dependence can be regarded as an endorfinodefitsitnoe disease with a pathogenetic point of view. Activating of opioidereal system by trans-cranial electrical stimulation promotes the restoration of disturbed emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions, reduces craving for alcohol and in that way increases the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment

  9. Interpersonal violence exposure and alcohol treatment utilization among medical inpatients with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Emily F.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Pedley, Alison; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Palfai, Tibor; Liebschutz, Jane; Saitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal violence exposure and utilization of alcohol treatment after medical hospitalizations among adults with alcohol dependence. We analyzed data collected from a prospective cohort of 238 adults with alcohol dependence who were inpatients in a large, urban hospital. Participants who reported interpersonal violence victimization had 1.6 times the odds (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI 0.92–2.91) of receiving alcohol treatment du...

  10. Alcohol misuse in Greece: a 15-year experience from a specialized outpatient service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, V; Mellos, L; Paparrigopoulos, T; Liappas, J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in Greece is traditionally diffused among its population. According to general population surveys, three out of four Greeks aged 12-64 referred to alcohol consumption during the last year and 10% reported at least one episode of alcohol abuse during the last month. Furthermore, the large majority of young people aged 13-18 reported lifetime use of alcohol and 14.8% of them reported more than three episodes of alcohol abuse during the last month. Apparently, cultural factors have influenced the pattern of alcohol consumption and the ensuing alcohol-related problems during the last two decades. The "Athena" Service is an outpatient therapeutic unit for the management of substance misusers and their families. It is a specialized abstinence-oriented service that does not administer substance substitutes; mental health professionals of the service work as a multidisciplinary team. Motivational approaches, individual cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy and family interventions of a systemic orientation are the principal therapeutic techniques applied. Adjunctive medication is prescribed whenever mild to moderate concomitant psychopathology is detected. Support measures such as provisional use of medication, use of antagonistic agents or brief hospitalization can be provided if deemed necessary. No strict time limits are applied regarding treatment duration and discharge from the program. During the period 1998-2013, a total of 1511 individuals with alcohol-related problems addressed the service. The changing pattern of substance misuse over the last fifteen years can be summarized as follows: (a) there is a gradually increasing number of women misusing substances; (b) there is an increasing proportion of young adults reporting multi-substance use with concurrent psychiatric disorders; (c) there is an increasing proportion of young adults regularly using/misusing substances; (d) there is a decreasing proportion of middle-aged individuals presenting with

  11. Suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent Danes attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk Petersen, Christina; Grønbæk, Morten; Bussey Rask, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    , were more often lowly educated, and had more physical and psychiatric problems. Traumatic childhood experience related to physical or sexual abuse was found as a major predictor for suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent patients. We found no significant difference in the effect of treatment in....... Characteristics of, predictors for and outcome among suicidal patients were studied. Alcohol-dependent patients with a history of suicide attempts were found to constitute a highly selected group in alcohol abuse treatment as they often had a more severe course of alcohol dependence, were unemployed, younger...... that suicidal patients in treatment for alcohol abuse are treated effectively within the present treatment settings....

  12. Criminal Justice and Alcohol Treatment: Results from a National Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Brenda M; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug tre...

  13. Current concepts and controversies in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Rongey; Neil Kaplowitz

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of alcoholic hepatitis remains one of the most debated topics in medicine and a field of continued research. In this review, we discuss the evolution of scoring systems, including the recent development of the Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, role of liver biopsy and current treatment interventions. Studies of treatment interventions with glucocorticoids, pentoxifylline,infliximab, s-adenosyl-methionine, and colchicine are reviewed with discussion on quality. Glucocorticoids currently remain the mainstay of treatment for severe alcoholic hepatitis.

  14. Organização de serviços para o tratamento da dependência do álcool Services organization for the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Os problemas relacionados ao consumo de álcool variam ao longo de um continuum de gravidade. Tal característica requer a construção de serviços de tratamento que atendam às necessidades em cada uma destas situações. Além disso, o contexto econômico e sócio-cultural de uma comunidade reveste o paciente de particularidades que precisam ser consideradas pelo serviço de tratamento em uma dada região. Desse modo, a organização de serviços para o tratamento da dependência do álcool deve começar pela determinação da estrutura interna da instituição e seu lugar dentro da rede de atenção disponível no local. Todo o construto deve ser baseado nas necessidades da população-alvo (obtida por avaliações diagnósticas e implementado com avaliações e monitoramento constante acerca do impacto desejado. Atualmente, manuais e diretrizes disponíveis on-line auxiliam e facilitam a execução destas ações.The problems related to the consumption of alcohol vary along a gravity continuum. Such a characteristic requests the construction of treatment services that assist to the needs in each one of these situations. Besides, the economical and cultural context of a given community covers the patient of particularities that need to be considered by the service of treatment. This way, the organization of services for the treatment of the dependence of the alcohol should begin for the determination of the structure interns of the institution and its place inside of the net of available attention. The whole construction should be based on the needs of the population-objective (obtained by diagnostic evaluations and implemented with evaluations and constant monitoring of the wanted impact. Presently, manuals and guidelines available online aid and facilitate the execution of these actions.

  15. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Experimental Treatments and Strategies for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Idrus, Nirelia M.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target ...

  17. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  18. Treatment of Decompensated Alcoholic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    John Menachery; Ajay Duseja

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a spectrum ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis can have clinical presentation almost similar to those with decompensated cirrhosis. Scoring with models like Maddrey discriminant function, a model for end-stage liver disease, Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, and Lille model are helpful in prognosticating patients with ALD. One of the first therapeutic goals in ALD is to induce al...

  19. Criminal Justice and Alcohol Treatment: Results from a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug treatment and past year treatment utilization (versus neither) on past year legal involvement, demographic, and clinical information. In general, results found stronger associations between frequency of criminal justice involvement for treatment utilization compared to perceived need for treatment alone. Treatment utilization was also associated with being on probation, arrests for drug possession/sale and DUI but perceived need was not. Study results suggest opportunities for interventions to increase treatment rates or treatment need, a major correlate of treatment utilization. PMID:22954511

  20. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option......, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol...... withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: A total of...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Characteristics, Prevention, Treatment and Long Term Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Cynthia A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including causes, common characteristics, secondary characteristics, prevention, and treatment. Economic implications are noted which suggest that treatment costs are 100 times the cost of prevention programs. (DB)

  2. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    OpenAIRE

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ...

  3. Personality disorders among Danish alcoholics attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Nielsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was firstly to describe the characteristics of alcoholic outpatients (A) suffering from co-morbid personality disorder (PD) of either the cluster B (A+PDB) or cluster C (A+PDC) type. Secondly, to investigate the effect of various kinds of treatment to be able to single......+PDB were younger and had a longer history of alcohol abuse than A-PD and A+PDC. After treatment there was no significance between the patients with and without PD concerning alcohol outcome and psychosocial outcome. The significance of co-morbid PD for the prognosis of alcohol abusers may be overestimated...

  4. Treatment of Decompensated Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Menachery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD is a spectrum ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis can have clinical presentation almost similar to those with decompensated cirrhosis. Scoring with models like Maddrey discriminant function, a model for end-stage liver disease, Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, and Lille model are helpful in prognosticating patients with ALD. One of the first therapeutic goals in ALD is to induce alcohol withdrawal with psychotherapy or drugs. Most studies have shown that nutritional therapy improves liver function and histology in patients with ALD. The rationale for using glucocorticoids is to block cytotoxic and inflammatory pathways in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline, a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα suppressor, and infliximab, an anti-TNFα mouse/human chimeric antibody, has been extensively studied in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Liver transplantation remains the definitive therapy for decompensated cirrhosis/alcoholic hepatitis despite the issues of recidivism, poor compliance with postoperative care, and being a self-inflicted disease.

  5. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Alcoholism: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the history and theory of alcoholism and hypnosis and proposes a theoretical model of alcholism based on self-esteem. Suggets that hypnosis may be an effective tool in the treatment of alcoholism with cure as the goal, and calls for more consistency in theory and practice. (JAC)

  6. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan JL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the B subunit of gaba-aminobutyric acid receptor, possesses pharmacologic properties that may confer utility for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Research suggests that not only can it be useful in promoting maintenance of alcohol abstinence but also it may play a key role in decreasing alcohol cravings and anxiety often associated with alcohol dependence. To assess the benefit of baclofen for alcohol dependence, a review of the literature was conducted to identify published data investigating this off-label treatment. Four randomized controlled trials to date have been published and were included in this review. Although primary outcomes differ between studies, patients randomized to baclofen experience higher rates of abstinence from alcohol than those taking placebo in two of the trials. Secondary analyses indicate that baclofen is safe in patients with alcohol dependence, including those with moderate to severe liver cirrhosis, and may provide beneficial anxiolytic effects. Despite some positive data, the largest available randomized controlled trial failed to find any differences between baclofen and placebo. In all studies, individuals with severe medical comorbidities, seizure disorders, and psychiatric disorders were excluded from trials, which may limit external validity. In summary, there may be beneficial effects from using baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence; however, limited conclusions can be drawn from the small number of studies

  7. Predicting Post Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examining alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of post-treatment alcohol outcomes. The present study uses a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of alcohol use outcomes were examined in 278 individuals diagnosed with a current DSM-IV schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder and an alcohol use disorder (A...

  8. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  9. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paille F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available François Paille, Hervé Martini Department of Addiction Treatment, University Hospital, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Abstract: Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence, reduction, consumption, damage reduction, drug therapy, nalmefene

  10. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  11. Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wackernah RC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robin C Wackernah,1 Matthew J Minnick,1 Peter Clapp2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUD continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. Keywords: abuse, alcohol, alcoholism, craving, dependence, relapse

  12. Inpatient treatment of the psychiatric patient with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean-Bayog, M

    1987-05-01

    Patients with both alcoholism and mental illness, or the one masquerading as the other, are very common and often puzzling and discouraging to clinicians. This article reviews several aspects of these problems: epidemiologic studies show that substantial proportions of mentally ill people suffer from alcoholism, and these disorders interlock in complex ways, each exacerbating the other. Many physicians feel uncomfortable working with alcoholic people, mostly because of poor training, and this impinges on difficulties of giving excellent care to these taxing patients. Complexities and resistances to interviewing obstruct evaluation. Interviewing and history taking techniques and the reason for them are discussed. The decision whether a patient needs medical or psychiatric hospitalization, alcoholism rehabilitation, or outpatient psychiatric or alcoholism treatment is reviewed along with the management and sequencing of treatment for primary and secondary alcoholism with concomitant psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and adult attention deficit disorder. Clinical intervention and referral for the patient on a medical or surgical floor who may have alcoholism is discussed. Two special clinical problems, the differential diagnosis of postdetoxification depression and the risks of using alcohol cross-tolerant drugs, are also reviewed. PMID:2884166

  13. Treatment needs and experiences of Australian women with alcohol and other drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, W; Copeland, J

    1996-03-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven women were interviewed as part of a national survey examining the treatment needs and experiences of Australian women who had received assistance for their alcohol and other drug problems. The majority of women had previously received assistance for their substance use, and of these most had left alcohol and other drug treatment programs before completion. While the women cited a number of ways in which they were helped by such services, several areas were identified by the women as important and amenable to improvement. Among the service issues raised were access, models of service delivery, service structure and staffing, physical environment, physical and psychological safety and the handling of issues such as health status and sexual assault. PMID:8861399

  14. Responsible Sales and Service of Alcohol for the Tourism, Hospitality and Retail Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2015-01-01

    The safe service of alcohol is of vital importance to those in the food and beverage industry - failure to act responsibly can result in fines, loss of license and the potential closure of the business. Responsible sale and service of alcohol (RSA) is important for all levels of the hospitality, tourism and retail service industries to minimise the risk of alcohol-related problems associated with the use and abuse of alcohol by any person. Management and all staff who sell or supply alcohol m...

  15. The importance of psychoeducation in systemic family therapy alcoholic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper was to analyze the impact of psychoeducation in alcoholism therapy treatment on initial motivation and comprehension, change in attitudes to alcoholism, and beginning of creating a new value system. The sample consisted of 166 respondents (83 married couples that had been involved in one-year systemic group family therapy alcoholic treatment (with the man being alcoholic. A questionnaire on knowledge about alcoholism was used. The respondents were tested three times - at the beginning of the treatment, after 6 months, and after one year. The results showed that the level of education had increased through three phases of the treatment, that motivation changed from initial to substantial, that the comprehension had also changed, turning family system into a more functional model of living. Statistically significant difference in level of education between phase 1 and phase 3 of the family therapy was confirmed. In conclusion, the authors argue for the importance of psychoeducation as a method in treating alcoholism.

  16. Recent developments in the treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Kawaratani, Hideto; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Uemura, Masahito; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory condition characterized by repeated attacks of abdominal pain, and the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which causes to reduced exocrine and endocrine functions. Alcohol is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis. Although abstinence is usually considered a prerequisite for successful treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, we often encounter patients who have repeated attacks from the compensated stage through the transitional stage. In alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, continued alcohol consumption causes changes in the digestive hormones and vagal nerve function that induce the pancreatic acinar cells to oversecrete protein, increasing the protein concentration and viscosity of the pancreatic juice. This induces protein sedimentation from the pancreatic juice and formation of protein plugs within the pancreatic duct, triggering repeated attacks of acute pancreatitis. The treatment of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis includes alleviation of symptoms, particularly abdominal pain, elimination of trigger factors, prevention of recurrence and disease progression, adjuvant therapies for pancreatic exocrine and endocrine failure. Recently, the main constituent proteins in these protein plugs have been identified, enabling trials of several therapies, such as the administration of secretin formulations and endoscopic removal. Bromhexine hydrochloride, a bronchial mucolytic, has an affinity for the pancreatic acinar cells, inducing them to secrete pancreatic juice of low viscosity. In this review, we summarize the most recent thoughts about alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, and the new treatments, and in particular, we present our findings concerning the efficacy of bromhexine hydrochloride in the treatment of this disease. PMID:19630718

  17. The social network of alcohol users undergoing treatment in a mental health service Red social de adictos al alcohol bajo tratamiento en un servicio de salud mental Rede social de usuários de álcool, sob tratamento, em um serviço de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Souza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of alcohol and drug users requires an extended reflection on the influence of the family and other social network groups of these individuals. Thus, this study, results of a qualitative study, aimed at investigating the presence of drug users in the social network of individuals undergoing treatment and the possible interventions of the mental health services in the social network of four users of alcohol in the municipality of Alegrete/RS. Interviews with users and families, genograms and eco-maps were used. The results indicated the presence of drug users in the family and in the other social network groups, and that the group for chemical dependants was the main intervention in these social networks. These results demonstrate the need for directing the actions of mental health to develop healthy bonds, to expand the social network and structure of the group in order to provide benefits which favor effective psychosocial rehabilitation.El tratamiento de adictos al alcohol y drogas requiere una reflexión amplia sobre la influencia de la familia y otros grupos de la red social de estos individuos. Así, este estudio, resultado de una investigación cualitativa, objetivó averiguar la presencia de usuarios de drogas en la red social de individuos bajo tratamiento y las posibles intervenciones del servicio de salud mental en la red social de cuatro adictos al alcohol en el municipio de Alegrete/ RS. Fueron utilizadas entrevistas con adictos y familiares, genograma y ecomapa. Los resultados indicaron la presencia de adictos de drogas en la familia y demás grupos de las redes sociales y el grupo para dependientes químicos como principal intervención en estas redes sociales. Estos resultados evidencian la necesidad de dirigir las acciones de salud mental para el desarrollo de vínculos saludables, ampliación de la red social y estructuración del grupo de modo a proporcionar beneficios en pro de una efectiva rehabilitaci

  18. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Murawski, Nathen J.; Moore, Eileen M.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a number of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and neural impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This article examines basic research that has been or could be translated into practical applications for the diagnosis or treatment of FASD. Diagnosing FASD continues to be a challenge, but advances are being made at both basic science and clinical levels. These include identification of biomarkers, recognition of subtle facia...

  19. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244

  20. Implementation of a clinical pathway may improve alcohol treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Nielsen, Bent

    drinking no more than 21 standard drinks per week). Patients with harmful alcohol use or dependence as their primary problem who were seeking psychosocial treatment at one of four alcohol clinics in Denmark participated in the study. After implementation of the clinical pathway system, which incorporated a...... structured intake, a referral and independent follow-up system, checklists, audit, and feedback, there was no change in length of stay, but significantly more patients had a good clinical outcome (stopped or moderated their consumption) at the end of treatment (OR = 1.9; 1.2–3.1). The study documents the...... feasibility of using a clinical pathway framework, incorporating a local monitoring system, checklists, audit, and feedback to enhance treatment quality and improve outcomes for alcohol use disorders...

  1. Magnesium treatment in alcoholics: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poikolainen Kari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnesium (Mg deficiency is common among alcoholics. Earlier research suggests that Mg treatment may help to normalize elevated enzyme activities and some other clinically relevant parameters among alcoholics but the evidence is weak. Methods The effect of Mg was studied in a randomized, parallel group, double-blind trial. The patients were first treated for alcohol withdrawal symptoms and then received for 8 weeks either 500 mg of Mg divided into two tablets or matching placebo. Measurements were made at the beginning and in the end of the Mg treatment period. The primary outcome was serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (S-GGT activity; secondary outcomes included aspartate-aminotransferase (S-AST and alanine-aminotransferase (S-ALT activity. Results The number of randomized patients (completers was 64 (27 in the treatment and 54 (31 in the control group. In intention-to-treat-analyses and in most analyses of study completers, there were no significant differences between the Mg-treated and placebo groups in the outcome variables. When baseline serum Mg level, coffee intake, and the number of unused Mg tablets were controlled for in a multivariate regression model, after-treatment serum Mg levels were found to be higher among the Mg-treated group than in the placebo group (t-test 3.334, df = 53, p = 0.002. After controlling for age, body weight, baseline alcohol intake, subsequent change in alcohol intake and baseline S-AST, the after-treatment S-AST levels were found to be lower among the Mg-treated group than in the placebo group (t-test 2.061, df = 49, p = 0.045. Conclusion Mg treatment may speed up the S-AST decrease in compliant patients. This might decrease the risk of death from alcoholic liver disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00325299

  2. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  3. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryder, Niamh

    2009-06-11

    Abstract Background Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed todetermine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (\\'AUDIT\\'), with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie \\'AUDIT positive cases\\') and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. Results We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database). The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight \\'AUDIT positive\\' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28–41%) and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p < 0.05) and less likely to have attended a hospital clinic in the previous year (p < 0.05). Twenty-seven (14%) scored 20 or higher indicating possible alcohol dependence. Conclusion Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make

  4. Prevalence of problem alcohol use among patients attending primary care for methadone treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryder, Niamh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health outcomes among current or former heroin users and primary care is providing methadone treatment for increasing numbers of this population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of problem alcohol use among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and health service utilisation characteristics associated with problem alcohol uses. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey of patients sampled from a national database of patients attending general practice for methadone treatment. Participants were recruited by their general practitioner and data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (\\'AUDIT\\'), with a score of >7 considered abnormal (ie \\'AUDIT positive cases\\') and socio-demographic, medical and substance use characteristics. RESULTS: We interviewed 196 patients (71% of those invited, 31% of those sampled, 11% of the national database). The median age was 32 years, 55% were hepatitis C positive, 79% had used illicit drugs in the previous month and 68% were male. Sixty-eight \\'AUDIT positive\\' cases were identified (prevalence of 35%, 95% CI = 28-41%) and these were more likely to have attended a local Emergency Department in the previous year (p < 0.05) and less likely to have attended a hospital clinic in the previous year (p < 0.05). Twenty-seven (14%) scored 20 or higher indicating possible alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Problem alcohol use has a high prevalence among current or former heroin users attending primary care for methadone treatment and interventions that address this issue should be explored as a priority. Interventions that address problem alcohol use in this population should be considered as a priority, although the complex medical and psychological needs of this population may make this

  5. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Colleen A; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-04-01

    Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity. PMID:26792773

  6. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  7. Bipolar disorder and comorbid alcoholism: prevalence rate and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Salloum, Ihsan M

    2006-12-01

    Classic Kraepelian observations and contemporary epidemiological studies have noted a high prevalence rate between bipolar disorder and alcoholism. The extent to which these two illnesses are comorbid (i.e., two distinct disease processes each with an independent course of illness), genetically linked, or different phenotypic expressions of bipolar illness itself continues to be investigated. It is increasingly clear that co-occurring alcohol abuse or dependence in bipolar disorder phenomenologically changes the illness presentation with higher rates of mixed or dysphoric mania, rapid cycling, increased symptom severity, and higher levels of novelty seeking, suicidality, aggressivity, and impulsivity. It is very encouraging that interest and efforts at evaluating pharmacotherapeutic compounds has substantially increased over the past few years in this difficult-to-treat patient population. This article will review the clinical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of conventional mood stabilizers (lithium, carbamazepine, divalproex, and atypical antipsychotics) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention in patients with alcoholism and in the treatment of bipolar disorder with comorbid alcoholism. A number of add-on, adjunctive medications, such as naltrexone, acamprosate, topiramate, and the atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and clozapine, may be candidates for further testing. PMID:17156154

  8. Process Model of Grief Therapy in an Alcohol Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sherri; Privette, Gayle

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a psychoeducational, experiential group for members of an alcohol treatment program which addressed loss, personal reaction to loss, and grief as a healing process. Explores the relationship between grieving and addiction, and presents the protocol for the group experience. (Author)

  9. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  10. [Women in outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative and descriptive study aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. Data were collected from medical records of women with alcohol-related disorders who were treated at a psychiatric outpatient service We performed a reading and descriptive analysis of such data. The sample was composed of 27 medical records, the average age of women was 50 years, mostly married (59.6%), not working (70.4%) with incomplete primary education (70.4%), with an alcoholic family (81.5%) and other psychiatric diagnoses (70.3%). Losses physical, social and emotional was the most common symptoms resulting from alcohol withdrawal syndrome (66.7%), family conflicts (72%) and "sadness" (79.2%). Family violence was recorded in 11 records (40.7%). There was low education, unemployment, psychiatric comorbidities and the presence of other family members with alcohol abuse as common characteristics. We emphasize the importance of professional knowledge about the peculiarities of female alcoholism for health activities more effective. PMID:24015467

  11. Patient-Treatment Matching Improves Compliance of Alcoholics in Outpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Nielsen, Bent; Wraae, Olaf

    1998-01-01

    curves. The consequence of compliance for long-term prognosis was described by means of the Addiction Severity Index. The form of treatment in itself had no importance for compliance. However, correct matching of a patient and a treatment structure resulted in a compliance rate of 63% as opposed to 38......In chronic medical disorders, patient compliance is very poor and often less than 50%. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the proper matching of patient, treatment, and therapist would improve patient compliance in the outpatient treatment of alcoholics. We randomly placed...... 119 alcoholics who had commenced protracted outpatient treatment for alcoholism in either low or high structured treatments. These 119 patients were offered 12 months of individual treatment. Interruption of this treatment was recorded as noncompliance. The treatment courses were expressed in survival...

  12. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  13. A psychotherapeutic approach to treatment of a population at high risk for alcoholism: adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, S I

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that there are between 25 and 28 million children of alcoholic parent(s) in the United States today. These individuals are at high risk for development of intrapsychic, interpersonal, and behavioural disorder, ie, developing alcoholism (40-60 per cent), becoming involved with an alcoholic (co-alcoholism), feeling a consistent sense of personal inadequacy or an inability to develop satisfying mutually supportive relationships. Major cognitive and emotional deficits appear to exist. Adult children of alcoholics who often experience many years of less-than-fruitful therapy report better results when alcoholic family issues have been adequately addressed. Developmental, existential and systems approaches may be well utilized, as well as non-verbal modalities, in treatment of adult children of alcoholics. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment issues particular to this population will be discussed as well as methods of working with specific barriers exhibited by children of alcoholics in the therapy setting. Implications of treatment will be discussed in relation to primary alcoholism prevention, relapse prevention and the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment programme staff. PMID:2509840

  14. Alcohol and Drug Treatment: How It Works, and How It Can Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol and Drug Treatment How It Works, And How It Can Help You With the Criminal Justice ... positive change. Why get treatment? Using drugs or alcohol may have contributed to your arrest or re- ...

  15. Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Antonia; Dufour, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of conditions from steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Steatosis is a benign reversible condition, which does not need treatment. Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the end stages of any chronic liver disease and do not have etiology-specific treatments. In this chapter, we will review treatment options for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which is the progressive form of NAFLD. Basically there are 2 strategies, the first of which is to address lifestyle and the second to use medication. The first approach is the most physiologic, the least expensive, but is also the most difficult to implement. The second approach, which should help patients who failed the first approach, is at the advanced clinical research stage. PMID:27548081

  16. Client Evaluation of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder in COMBINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Megan; Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M

    2016-08-01

    Practitioners and researchers across disciplines have been interested in identifying variables that act as indicators of treatment success or failure and one straightforward approach to measuring treatment success is to assess client satisfaction with treatment. Existing measures of treatment satisfaction do not address the specific aspects relevant to alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. Researchers in the COMBINE Study developed a new measure of treatment satisfaction to assess satisfaction in AUD treatment: The Evaluation of Treatment (EOT) measure. The aims of the present study were to examine the factor structure of items from the EOT measure and to examine the association between the EOT measure and other measures of client engagement, as well as AUD treatment outcomes. We also extended the model to test for possible mediation effects of treatment evaluation on the relationship between client treatment engagement components and AUD treatment outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated a 6-factor model with a higher order treatment satisfaction factor provided an excellent fit to the data (χ2 (246)=499.44, palcohol-related problems and global severity. Findings suggest that client evaluations of treatment play a substantial role in predicting AUD treatment outcomes and should be considered in future treatment and research. PMID:27296660

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. The Lesch alcoholism typology – psychiatric and psychosocial treatment approaches

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the past three decades, researchers have been attempting to replace the obsolete concept of homogeneity of alcohol dependence, by classifying these patients into specific heterogeneous subtypes. Based on 30 years of experience and research, the Lesch Typology has proved to be very useful in clinical daily routine. The aim of the Lesch Typology is to provide targeted subtype-specific treatments to patients, thereby increasing their probability of long-term abstinence and hence improving the...

  19. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD. PMID:26990264

  20. Severe alcoholic hepatitis-current concepts, diagnosis and treatment options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won; Kim; Dong; Joon; Kim

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis(AH) is an acute hepatic manifesta-tion occurring from heavy alcohol ingestion. Alcoholic steatohepatitis(ASH) is histologically characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Despite the wide range of severity at presentation, those with severe ASH(Maddrey’s discriminant function ≥ 32) typically present with fever, jaundice, and abdominal tenderness. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for AH and, in the milder forms, is sufficient for clinical recovery. Severe ASH may progress to multi-or-gan failure including acute kidney injury and infection. Thus, infection and renal failure have a major impact on survival and should be closely monitored in patients with severe ASH. Patients with severe ASH have a re-ported short-term mortality of up to 40%-50%. Severe ASH at risk of early death should be identified by one of the available prognostic scoring systems before consid-ering specific therapies. Corticosteroids are the main-stay of treatment for severe ASH. When corticosteroids are contraindicated, pentoxifylline may be alternatively used. Responsiveness to steroids should be assessed at day 7 and stopping rules based on Lille score should come into action. Strategically, future studies for pa-tients with severe ASH should focus on suppressing inflammation based on cytokine profiles, balancing he-patocellular death and regeneration, limiting activation of the innate immune response, and maintaining gut mucosal integrity.

  1. Enhancing access to alcohol use disorder pharmacotherapy and treatment in primary care settings: ADaPT-PC

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Hildi J.; Brown, Randall; Dawes, Michael; Dieperink, Eric; Myrick, Donald Hugh; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Wagner, Todd H.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Harris, Alex H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Only 7.8 % of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) receive treatment in a given year. Most individuals with AUDs are identified in primary care (PC) settings and referred to substance use disorders (SUD) clinics; however, only a minority of those referred attend treatment services. Safe and effective pharmacological treatments for AUD exist, but they are rarely prescribed by PC providers. The objective of this study is to refine, implement, and eva...

  2. Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed.

  3. Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengyuan; Duan, Kangmin; Wang, Cuiling; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed. PMID:26839540

  4. Development and implementation of a structured intervention for alcohol use disorders for telephone helpline services

    OpenAIRE

    Best, David; Hall, Kate; Guthrie, Anna; Abbatangelo, Moses; Hunter, Barbara; Lubman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A six-session intervention for harmful alcohol use was piloted via a 24-hour alcohol and other drug (AOD) helpline, assessing feasibility of telephone-delivered treatment. The intervention, involving practice elements from Motivational Interviewing, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and node-link mapping, was evaluated using a case file audit (n D 30) and a structured telephone interview one month after the last session (n D 22). Average scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (...

  5. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette;

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Hepatitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashwani K; Kodali, Sudha; Vucovich, Lee A; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Schiano, Thomas D

    2016-07-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) occurs in about one-third of individuals reporting long-term heavy alcohol use. It is associated with high short-term mortality, economic burden, and hospital resources utilization. We performed this systematic review to (i) describe clinical characteristics and genomics associated with the risk of AH; (ii) discuss role and limitations of liver biopsy and prognostic scoring systems; (iii) summarize evidence regarding the currently available therapies including liver transplantation; and (iv) outline emerging therapies with areas of unmet need. Literature search was performed for studies published in English language (January 1971 through March 2016). The following search engines were used: PubMed, Elsevier Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library. For the treatment section, only randomized controlled studies were included for this review. A total of 138 studies (59 randomized, 22 systematic reviews or meta-analyses, 7 surveys or guidelines, 7 population-based, and 43 prospective cohorts) were cited. There are over 325,000 annual admissions with AH contributing to about 0.8% of all hospitalizations in the United States. Liver biopsy may be required in about 25 to 30% cases for uncertain clinical diagnosis. Corticosteroids with or without N-acetylcysteine remains the only available therapy for severe episodes. Data are emerging on the role of liver transplantation as salvage therapy for select patients. Abstinence remains the most important factor impacting long-term prognosis. Results from the ongoing clinical trials within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-funded consortia are awaited for more effective and safer therapies. AH is a potentially lethal condition with a significant short-term mortality. A high index of suspicion is required. There remains an unmet need for noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis, and predicting prognosis and response to therapy. PMID:27254289

  7. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  8. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  9. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcoholrelated incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported…

  10. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  11. The use of acute and preventive medical services by a general population: relationship to alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cryer, Colin; Jenkins, Linda M.; Cook, Adam; Ditchburn, James S.; Harris, Colin K.; Davis, Alison R.; Peters, Timothy J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the hypothesis that increasing alcohol consumption is accompanied by increasing use of acute, but decreasing use of preventative, medical services among the general population. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Health and life-style survey of 41,000 randomly-sampled adults in SE England who self-completed a validated questionnaire covering socio-demographics, alcohol and tobacco usage and use of acute (A&E department and general practitioner) and preventative (dental, optician, ma...

  12. Reducing dropout among traumatized alcohol patients in detoxification treatment : A pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dropout rates from detoxification treatment are high. We tested whether high trauma event load was related to a higher dropout from alcohol detoxification. Furthermore, we studied the feasibility and effects of a short psychoeducational tool to increase retention among traumatized alcohol in-patients. Retention and treatment length were compared between treatment as usual (TAU) and standard therapy plus a psychoeducational group intervention on alcohol drinking related to stress and trauma (P...

  13. Effect of ethanol post-treatment on the bubble-electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Jiang-Hui; Xu Lan; Liu Qixia

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers were prepared by bubble electrospinning. After the ethanol post-treatment, poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers showed enhanced hydrophobicity with water contact angle change from 0 to 78.9°, and the break strength of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers was dramatically improved from 8.23 MPa to 17.36 MPa. The facile strategy with improved hydrophobicity and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers will provide potential b...

  14. [Guideline-oriented treatment of alcohol-related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Hoch, E; Batra, A; Bonnet, U; Günthner, A; Reymann, G; Soyka, M; Wodarz, N; Schäfer, M

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (e.g. abuse and dependence) account for a plethora of consequences for affected individuals and for a substantial proportion of the overall burden of disease for the community. To date, existing treatment options are either poorly known by doctors or they are not fully applied and only approximately 15% of potential patients are treated with a mean latent period of 10 years between early symptoms and the first intervention. So-called S3 treatment guidelines were recently developed to close this gap. Representatives of more than 50 learned societies, families and patients were involved. A systematic literature search from 2005 to 2012 was performed and more than 120 recommendations were made. Financing came exclusively from those societies and the academic and treatment institutes involved.This article summarizes the recommendations pertinent for psychiatrists and include early detection and intervention, acute withdrawal and long-term psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Classical and new treatment goals are discussed. If the new guidelines were properly applied an increase in patients receiving treatment to 30-40% could be expected, which would improve the quality of lives of affected persons and their families and in Germany would save several thousand lives per year. PMID:26670021

  15. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements. PMID:26834037

  16. Job Training and Employment Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. A Technical Assistance Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gerald; And Others

    This report summarizes the relevant research that connects homelessness, alcohol and other drug abuse, and employment and job training services. It draws on the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the Department of Labor demonstration projects as well as other programs to provide examples of various innovative programs across…

  17. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...

  18. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; Theodorakis, Yannis; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, al...

  19. Improving Violence Intervention Outcomes by Integrating Alcohol Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    There is extensive empirical and theoretical support for a link between alcohol use and intimate partner violence. Recent innovations in the assessment of these constructs have shown a strong temporal link between alcohol use and intimate partner violence. The majority of men participating in batterer intervention programs have alcohol problems,…

  20. Level of impaired control predicts outcome of moderation-oriented treatment for alcohol problems

    OpenAIRE

    Heather, Nick; Dawe, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Aims To examine the ability of the Impaired Control Scale (ICS) to predict outcome of moderation-oriented treatment for alcohol problems and to compare this predictive ability directly with that of a widely used measure of alcohol dependence, the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Out-patient treatment centres. Participants A combined sample 154 problem drinkers taking part in two clinical trials of Moderation-oriented Cue Exposure...

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement. PMID:18173103

  3. Pathogenesis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping XIE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to explore the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and to find the best evidence for clinical practice, recent literature about the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD was analyzed, and it was found that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS is the most important factor in development of NAFLD. Based on insulin resistance (IR, generation of ROS is a central link in the course of “two hits”. Other factors, such as leptin resistance, caspase-3, Fas and its ligand, peripheral natural killer T cells, cyclooxygenase-2, metabolic nuclear receptors, hepatic deposition of iron, ferritin, haptoglobin, retinol binding protein 4, imbalance of intestinal flora, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, also contribute to the progress of NAFLD. In the treatment of NAFLD, beside the conventionally used methods such as IR improvement, antioxidation and lipid metabolism improvement, other medicines such as nuclear metabolism ligands or activators, iron-chelating agents and syndrome differentiation treatment in traditional Chinese medicine also have good efficacy.

  4. Risk profiles of treatment noncompletion for inpatients and outpatients undergoing alcohol disorder rehabilitation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuss UW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich W Preuss,1 Jörg Zimmermann,2,3 Gabriele Schultz,2 Anna Watzke,2 Peggy Schmidt,4 Bärbel Löhnert,5 Michael Soyka2,61Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany; 2Ev Krankenhaus Bethanien GmbH, Fachklinik Gristower Wiek, Johanna-Odebrecht-Stiftung, Germany; 3Karl-Jaspers-Klinik, Fachkrankenhaus für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychiatrieverbund Oldenburger Land, Germany; 4Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Germany; 5Klientenzentrierte Problemberatung, Dachau/Munich, Germany; 6Privatklinik Meiringen, Meiringen, Switzerland Background: Rehabilitation treatment noncompletion is considered a risk factor for long term relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals. The aim of this analysis of in- and outpatients in alcohol dependence rehabilitation in Germany is to identify social, mental, and somatic risk profiles for treatment noncompletion.Methods: A total of 92 individuals from an outpatient program and 303 individuals from two inpatient rehabilitation treatment units in three different locations in Germany were recruited and assessed with a structured interview and several measures of psychopathology (personality disorders, anxiety, depression, and impulsivity at treatment admission, with termination at 12 months follow-up. Participants were subdivided into treatment completers and noncompleters for any reason.Results: A total of 10.2% of inpatients and 16.1% of outpatients did not complete treatment. Compared with treatment completers, noncompleters had a significantly lower rate of continuous abstinence at 1-year follow-up, more recent alcohol consumption before admission, and a higher rate of borderline personality disorders. Among inpatients, an elevated rate of lifetime mental disorders, depression, and suicide attempts was found among treatment noncompleters; among outpatients, treatment noncompleters were more often than completers to be

  5. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin SC Uzochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Effective Treatment in Home-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboli, Tim; Darou, Wes G.

    The use of home-based treatment programs has become increasingly popular over the last few years. Such a program is offered by the Youth Services Bureau of Ottawa-Carleton through its Detached Worker Program. This program uses paraprofessionals who employ an eclectic combination of behavioral, client-centered, family and reality therapies. Two…

  7. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  8. Epidemiology and health service resource allocation policy for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Regier, D A; S. Shapiro; Kessler, L G; Taube, C A

    1984-01-01

    Data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study in Baltimore, Md., are used to illustrate the association between alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorder diagnoses with health service use. A probability sample of 3,481 adult (age 18 and over) residents of a geographically defined Baltimore City population of 175,000 was found to have a 23.4 per 100 population, 6-month prevalence of 13 specific alcohol, drug, and mental disorders. Of this population, 7.1 percent sought outpatient ...

  9. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Ya Li; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the pro...

  10. Exposure to Traumatic Events Among Treatment-Seeking, Alcohol Dependent Women and Men without PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Candace S.; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Blom, Thomas J.; Anthenelli, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined lifetime exposure to a range of traumatic events in 106 abstinent, treatment-engaged (85% residential; 15% outpatient), alcohol dependent women (n = 53) and men without current or lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder. Alcohol dependent women reported greater severity of childhood trauma, but similar lifetime exposure to traumatic events compared with men. Alcohol dependent women without cocaine abuse or dependence (n = 10) reported greater severity of childhood trauma than women...

  11. Self-Regulation, Daily Drinking, and Partner Violence in Alcohol Treatment-Seeking Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; O’JILE, JUDITH R.; Landy, Noah C.

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on research identifying deficits in behavioral self-regulation as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). It also builds on alcohol administration research identifying these deficits as moderators of the association between acute alcohol consumption and aggression in laboratory paradigms. Participants analyzed were 97 men seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence who were involved in a current or recent heterosexual relationship of at l...

  12. Suicide Attempts During Heavy Drinking Episodes Among Individuals Entering Alcohol Treatment in Warsaw, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Acute alcohol intoxication itself may act as a trigger for suicidal thoughts and attempts among individuals at risk and may influence the potential lethality of the suicide attempt. This study in alcohol-dependent patients compared the correlates of suicide attempts during a heavy drinking episode with those of suicide attempts during relative sobriety. Methods: In two outpatient and two residential alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland, 113 patients who reported a suicide attemp...

  13. 7-year trajectories of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance and associations with treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; AVALOS, Lyndsay AMMON

    2009-01-01

    Although many members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are introduced to AA during treatment, the relationship between treatment and AA attendance over time is unknown. This paper describes four latent classes of AA attendance among 586 dependent alcoholics interviewed by telephone 1, 3, 5 and 7 years after baseline, and models the relationship between treatment exposure and AA attendance in each class. There was a low AA group (averaging fewer than 5 meetings at most follow-ups), a medium AA gro...

  14. Motivation to Change Alcohol Use and Treatment Engagement in Incarcerated Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Mary; Stein, L. A. R.; Martin, Rosemarie; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Monti, Peter M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents have been reported to be less motivated to engage and remain in substance abuse treatment than adults. When they appear motivated, it is often due to external motivators such as family pressure or court mandated treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents’ motivation to change alcohol use was related to treatment engagement while incarcerated and alcohol use after release. Participants (N=114) were youth in a state correctional facility in the Northeast an...

  15. Posttreatment motivation and alcohol treatment outcome 9 months later: Findings from structural equation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Sarah; Heather, Nick; McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between posttreatment motivation to change as measured by the Readiness to Change Questionnaire Treatment Version and drinking outcomes 9 months after the conclusion of treatment for alcohol problems. Method: Data from 392 participants in the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial were used to fit structural equation models investigating relationships between motivation to change pre- and posttreatment and 5 outcomes 9 months later. The models inc...

  16. The Efficacy of Disulfiram for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte H; Pedersen, Bolette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    the primary outcome of an intake of alcohol below 30 and 20 g/d for men and women, respectively, as well as secondary outcomes such as days until relapse, alcohol intake, and numbers of drinking days. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane......Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) involving hazardous, harmful, and addictive misuse of alcohol are widespread in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to review the effect of disulfiram in the treatment of patients with AUD. The effect of disulfiram was evaluated according to...... regarding more days until relapse and/or reduction in drinking days. Conclusions: Supervised treatment with disulfiram has some effect on short-term abstinence and days until relapse as well as number of drinking days when compared with placebo, none, or other treatments for patients with alcohol dependency...

  17. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Symptom-Triggered versus Fixed-Schedule Treatment in an Outpatient Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, B.; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, N.;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether, in the treatment with chlordiazepoxide for outpatient alcohol withdrawal, there are advantages of symptom-triggered self-medication over a fixed-schedule regimen. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in outpatient clinics for people suffering from alcohol dependence...... (AD) and alcohol-related problems; 165 adult patients in an outpatient setting in a specialized alcohol treatment unit were randomized 1:1 to either a symptom-triggered self-medication or tapered dose, using chlordiazepoxide. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, amount of medication, duration of symptoms...... the 1-year follow-up. Results: We found no differences in the quantity of medication consumed, time to relapse, well being or treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: Symptom-triggered self-medication was as safe as fixed-schedule medication in treating outpatients with AD and mild to moderate symptoms of...

  18. Treatment Engagement: Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence in Treatment for PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ursula S.; Browne, Kendall C.; Norman, Sonya B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Treatment engagement rates are low for individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) across available interventions and treatment modalities. A better understanding of who does and does not engage in treatment can help improve retention, completion, and subsequent treatment outcomes. METHODS Forty female survivors of intimate partner violence with PTSD and AUD participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing twenty-five 90-minute sessions of either modified Seeking Safety or Facilitated twelve-step in a community-based outpatient clinic. This study examined differences in demographics and pre-treatment PTSD symptoms and alcohol use between participants who engaged in treatment (attended ≥ 6 sessions, n = 18) and those who dropped out (n = 22). RESULTS There were no significant differences in PTSD or AUD symptoms between treatment conditions. Women who engaged in therapy, versus those who did not, were significantly older (M = 46.2, SD = 9.14 vs. M = 38.95, SD =10.49, respectively; p = .027), and had fewer dependents (M = .17, SD = .38, range = 0–1 vs. M = .95, SD = 1.66, range = 1–7, respectively; p = .046). Greater avoidance/numbing PTSD symptoms (OR = 1.13, p = .028, 95% CI[1.02–1.25]) and more years of heavy drinking (OR = 1.04, p = 0.03, 95% CI[1.00–1.07]) were also significantly associated with treatment engagement. CONCLUSIONS This study replicates previous findings suggesting a need for additional retention strategies for younger women with dependents in comorbid PTSD and AUD treatment. This is an analysis of data collected as part of a clinical trial registered as NCT00607412, at www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:26515712

  19. Alcohol Use, Psychopathology, and Treatment Utilization in a University Mental Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigers, Danielle K. L.; Carey, Kate B.

    2010-01-01

    In the general population, alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders co-occur. Despite ample evidence of the adverse effects of alcohol use on treatment outcomes, these relationships have not been examined among college students presenting at counseling centers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of hazardous drinking…

  20. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  1. GABAB receptor ligands for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: preclinical and clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAgabio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies conducted to define the anti-alcohol pharmacological profile of the prototypic GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and its therapeutic potential for treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD. Numerous studies have reported baclofen-induced suppression of alcohol drinking (including relapse- and binge-like drinking and alcohol reinforcing, motivational, stimulating, and rewarding properties in rodents and monkeys. The majority of clinical surveys conducted to date – including case reports, retrospective chart reviews, and randomized placebo-controlled studies – suggest the ability of baclofen to suppress alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, and alcohol withdrawal symptomatology in alcohol-dependent patients. The recent identification of a positive allosteric modulatory binding site, together with the synthesis of in vivo effective ligands, represents a novel, and likely more favorable, option for pharmacological manipulations of the GABAB receptor. Accordingly, data collected to date suggest that positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor reproduce several anti-alcohol effects of baclofen and display a higher therapeutic index (with larger separation – in terms of doses – between anti-alcohol effects and sedation.

  2. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action. PMID:26751438

  3. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  4. The control of abstinence in the treatment of alcohol dependence: the use of acamprosate in relapse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Venturella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with acamprosate is a valid tool to complement psychotherapy as it does not cause addiction, abuse or withdrawal of its suspension and does not interfere with other medications that patients often alcoholics must take. To evaluate the effectiveness, our study evaluated the effects of Acamprosate compared to γ-hydroxybutyrate in clinical-physiological and social health in a way indicator of a possible therapeutic success in terms of abstinence from alcohol and social reintegration. A total of 36 patients were observed, of which 5, 4 men and 1 woman at the Drug Addiction Service (Servizio Tossicodipendenze, Ser.T Alcamo, and 31, 21 men and 10 women at the Ser.T of Palermo. As regards the craving, during the period of treatment with acamprosate, there has been a change, in the sense of reduction, of craving for alcohol: if before therapy was in 68% of cases, medium-high, it becomes after 3-4 months of therapy in low-nil in 89% of patients observed. It has been recorded that, after 3-4 months after receiving acamprosate, the clinical picture of the patient is greatly improved by referring to biological markers. In particular, the strong point seems to be the ability for the user to experience a new sense of normalcy and to remove the desire for significant periods of alcohol.

  5. Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimkiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present current hypotheses on pathogenesis of dual diagnosis as well as recommendations for its treatment. The role of disturbances in functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathogenesis of co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with anxiety and affective disorders is presented. Researchers studying dual diagnosis underline the fact that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders increases the chance to improve patients` functioning. Inappropriate treatment without complete management of all existing problems may make full recovery impossible.

  6. Individualised Treatment of Alcohol Dependent Patients with Baclofen: A Clinical Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Martin; Boesch, Lukas; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Johnson, David; Stohler, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this observational study was to investigate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of baclofen in individualised doses for the treatment of alcohol dependence in a sample of patients suffering from additional co-occurring mental disorders. Methods: Fifteen subjects requesting baclofen treatment to achieve abstinence from, or reduction of, alcohol consumption, were included in the study. Baclofen was titrated individually responding to the participants' reports ...

  7. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Janelle E.; Josephine M. Hawke; Arias, Albert J.; Yifrah Kaminer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED) symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs). Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate...

  8. Radiation utilization for service water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sure supply of the potable water of good quality becomes more necessary with the maturity of society, and the needs of good-tasting water have heightened. In the raw water for service water, the compounds of more than 2000 kinds are contained, and it has been said that among them, 18 kinds of carcinogenic substances and 56 kinds of mutative substances exist. It is very difficult to remove, decompose or neutralize the poison of these substances in large quantity of water. Radiochemical processes has the excellent properties of oxidizing and decomposing dissolved organic compounds, and it seems suitable to the raw water for service water in which the concentration of organic substances is relatively low, and the treatment in large quantity is required. From the standpoint of evaluating the possibility of radiation utilization for the treatment of service water for drinking, the authors have carried out a number of experiments, therefore, those are reported. The decomposition of the precursor of methane trihalide, the examination of the decomposed substances of humic acid, the irradiation effect to odored substances, the decomposition of contaminating substances in high-tech industry and the examination of safety by the test of mutative substances are described. (K.I.)

  9. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  10. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  11. Patient satisfaction with treatment for alcohol use disorders: comparing patients with and without severe mental health symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Stacey L; Andrews, Jane M; Gaughwin, Matthew D; Turnbull, Deborah A; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and severe mental health symptoms (SMHS) are less satisfied with standard AUD treatment when compared to patients with an AUD alone. This study compared patient satisfaction with standard AUD treatment among patients with and without SMHS and explored how standard treatment might be improved to better address the needs of these patients. Methods Eighty-nine patients receiving treatment for an AUD either at an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, inpatient detoxification, or residential/therapeutic community services were surveyed. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed using the Treatment Perception Questionnaire (range: 0–40). Patients were stratified according to their score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Forty patients scored in the extremely severe range of depression (score >14) and/or anxiety (score >10) (indicating SMHS) and 49 patients did not. An inductive content analysis was also conducted on qualitative data relating to areas of service improvement. Results Patients with SMHS were found to be equally satisfied with treatment (mean =25.10, standard deviation =8.12) as patients with an AUD alone (mean =25.43, standard deviation =6.91). Analysis revealed that being an inpatient in hospital was associated with reduced treatment satisfaction. Patients with SMHS were found to be significantly less satisfied with staffs’ understanding of the type of help they wanted in treatment, when compared to patients with AUDs alone. Five areas for service improvement were identified, including staff qualities, informed care, treatment access and continuity, issues relating to inpatient stay, and addressing patients’ mental health needs. Conclusion While findings suggest that AUD treatment services adequately meet the needs of patients with SMHS in treatment, patients with SMHS do feel that staff lack understanding of their treatment needs. Findings have

  12. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  13. The impact of alcohol on HIV prevention and treatment for South Africans in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality for HIV patients. In South Africa, with the largest ART programme globally, attention is needed not only on the further expansion of ART coverage, but also on factors which undermine its effectiveness, such as alcohol use.Objective: Given the decentralised approach of nurse-initiated and -sustained ART in the South African primary health sector, it is important to document key aspects of alcohol use to be conveyed to HIV-positive individuals and those at risk for HIV.Method: This study comprised a narrative review of relevant literature.Results: Alcohol acts through both behavioural and physiological pathways to impact on the acquisition, further transmission and then progression of HIV disease. Besides links to risky sex, alcohol undermines the immune system, raising susceptibility to contracting and then countering HIV and other infections. There are important drug interactions between alcohol and ART, or therapies for opportunistic infections and other co-morbidities. Moreover, alcohol undermines adherence to the medication which is essential for effective ART.Conclusion: Primary healthcare clinic attendees need evidence-based information on the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on HIV infection, which ensue throughout the clinical course of HIV. This spans the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for HIV infection, HIV replication in infected individuals, a person’s response to HIV infection and HIV treatment. Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses and HIV counsellors, require training in order to screen for and provide appropriate interventions for HIV-positive patients, those on treatment and treatment-naïve patients, who will benefit from reduced alcohol consumption or the cessation thereof.

  14. Alcoholic pancreatitis: New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Dahn L; Schneider, Katrina J; Arkfeld, Christopher K; Grode, Jaclyn R; Wells, Mark A; Singh, Shailender

    2016-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is a necro-inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas that is characterized by inappropriate activation of zymogens, infiltration of the pancreas by inflammatory cells, and destruction of the pancreatic exocrine cells. Acute pancreatitis can progress to a severe life-threatening disease. Currently there is no pharmacotherapy to prevent or treat acute pancreatitis. One of the more common factors associated with acute pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Although commonly associated with pancreatitis alcohol alone is unable to cause pancreatitis. Instead, it appears that alcohol and its metabolic by-products predispose the pancreas to damage from agents that normally do not cause pancreatitis, or to more severe disease from agents that normally cause mild pancreatic damage. Over the last 10 to 20 years, a tremendous amount of work has defined a number of alcohol-mediated biochemical changes in pancreatic cells. Among these changes are: Sustained levels of intracellular calcium, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impairment in autophagy, alteration in the activity of transcriptional activators, and colocalization of lysosomal and pancreatic digestive enzymes. Elucidation of these changes has led to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol predisposes acinar cells to damage. This greater understanding has revealed a number of promising targets for therapeutic intervention. It is hoped that further investigation of these targets will lead to the development of pharmacotherapy that is effective in treating and preventing the progression of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26909228

  15. A randomized controlled trial of Minnesota day clinic treatment of alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten; Nielsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the Minnesota day clinic treatment with the traditional public psychosocial treatment. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Public out-patient alcohol clinic and privately funded Minnesota day clinic in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 148 individuals with alcohol...... dependence were included in a 1-year clinical trial. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drinking pattern and the seven composite scores from the addiction severity index (ASI). FINDINGS: A total of 42 (57%) and 45 (61%) patients (P > 0.05) completed the Minnesota treatment and public treatment, respectively...

  16. Serotonin's Complex Role in Alcoholism: Implications for Treatment and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-06-01

    Current pharmacological treatments for alcohol dependence have focused on reducing alcohol consumption, but to date there are few treatments that also address the negative affective symptoms during acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal which are often exacerbated in people with comorbid anxiety and depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are sometimes prescribed to ameliorate these symptoms but can exacerbate anxiety and cravings in a select group of patients. In this critical review, we discuss recent literature describing an association between alcohol dependence, the SERT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and pharmacological response to SSRIs. Given the heterogeneity in responsiveness to serotonergic drugs across the spectrum of alcoholic subtypes, we assess the contribution of specific 5-HT circuits to discrete endophenotypes of alcohol dependence. 5-HT circuits play a distinctive role in reward, stress, and executive function which may account for the variation in response to serotonergic drugs. New optogenetic and chemogenetic methods for dissecting 5-HT circuits in alcohol dependence may provide clues leading to more effective pharmacotherapies. Although our current understanding of the role of 5-HT systems in alcohol dependence is incomplete, there is some evidence to suggest that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are effective in people with the L/L genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism while SSRIs may be more beneficial to people with the S/L or S/S genotype. Studies that assess the impact of serotonin transporter polymorphisms on 5-HT circuit function and the subsequent development of alcohol use disorders will be an important step forward in treating alcohol dependence. PMID:27161942

  17. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking. PMID:25846758

  18. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle E. Arias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs. Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate regression was used to test the associations between ED symptoms and alcohol consumption. Results: 26.4% of the participants had at least one ED symptom, with the highest number of symptoms occurring in females. The number of ED symptoms was associated with increases in the number of times that they became intoxicated in the year before entering treatment, the number of alcohol-related social problems, and the number of alcohol-related physical symptoms after taking into consideration the effects of age and gender. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of EDs is high in adolescents with AOSUDs, with the number of ED symptoms correlating with increased alcohol consumption. Further studies on the course and treatment of adolescents with AOSUDs and symptoms of EDs are warranted.

  19. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentili Claudio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT Unit – University of Pisa (Italy. We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol.

  20. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed. PMID:27375266

  1. [Treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis with a new acid-resistant pancreatin product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempelen, I; Szilárd, M

    1995-09-17

    The authors summarised pathophysiology and therapy possibility of the chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. They introduce a new product of pancreatin use for treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this prospective study was to asses the efficacy of this new drug in the treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The treatment was carried out by new pancreatin product containing 10,000 FIP U lipase, 9000 FIP U amylase, and 500 FIP E protease. During the study 30 patients--suffering from alcoholic pancreatitis--were treated. They received, two tablets three times daily in a period of two weeks. The following parameters were observed and compared before and after the period of treatment: complaints of the patients, the characteristics of the stool (daily weight, frequency, fat contents, consistency) the change of the body weight and degree of abdominal pain. These parameters were compared using a score-system, before and after the period of treatment. The authors could analyse the data of 21 patients. It was proved that there was a significant decrease in frequency, daily weight and fat contents of the stool and in abdominal pain. There was not significant change in the body weight. The authors concluded that this new product is a good pancreatin preparation which is useful and suitable for effective treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, if the patient keeps abstinence. PMID:7566938

  2. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  3. Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Klimkiewicz; Jakub Klimkiewicz; Andrzej Jakubczyk; Ilona Kieres-Salomoński; Marcin Wojnar

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present ...

  4. Monitoring Utilization of a Large Scale Addiction Treatment System: The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Khobzi Rotondi; Brian Rush

    2012-01-01

    Client-based information systems can yield data to address issues of system accountability and planning, and contribute information related to changing patterns of substance use in treatment and, indirectly, general populations. The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIS) monitors the number/types of clients treated in approximately 170 publicly-funded addiction treatment agencies in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to estimate the caseload of addiction treatment agencies,...

  5. Alcoholic pancreatitis: New insights into the pathogenesisand treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a necro-inflammatory disease of theexocrine pancreas that is characterized by inappropriateactivation of zymogens, infiltration of the pancreas byinflammatory cells, and destruction of the pancreaticexocrine cells. Acute pancreatitis can progress to asevere life-threatening disease. Currently there is nopharmacotherapy to prevent or treat acute pancreatitis.One of the more common factors associated withacute pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Although commonlyassociated with pancreatitis alcohol alone is unableto cause pancreatitis. Instead, it appears that alcoholand its metabolic by-products predispose the pancreasto damage from agents that normally do not causepancreatitis, or to more severe disease from agentsthat normally cause mild pancreatic damage. Over thelast 10 to 20 years, a tremendous amount of work hasdefined a number of alcohol-mediated biochemicalchanges in pancreatic cells. Among these changesare Sustained levels of intracellular calcium, activationof the mitochondrial permeability transition pore,endoplasmic reticulum stress, impairment in autophagy,alteration in the activity of transcriptional activators,and colocalization of lysosomal and pancreatic digestiveenzymes. Elucidation of these changes has led to adeeper understanding of the mechanisms by whichethanol predisposes acinar cells to damage. This greaterunderstanding has revealed a number of promisingtargets for therapeutic intervention. It is hoped thatfurther investigation of these targets will lead to thedevelopment of pharmacotherapy that is effective in treatingand preventing the progression of acute pancreatitis.

  6. Treatment Outcome in Male Gambling Disorder Patients Associated with Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Hakänsson, Anders; Tárrega, Salomé; Valdepérez, Ana; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Moragas, Laura; Baño, Marta; Sauvaget, Anne; Romeu, Maria; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The primary objective of this study was to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and short-term response to treatment (post intervention) in male patients with gambling disorder enrolled in a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program. Methods: The sample consisted of 111 male individuals with a diagnosis of Gambling Disorder, with a mean age of 45 years (SD = 12.2). All participants were evaluated by a comprehensive assessment battery and assigned to CBT groups of 10–14 patients attending 16 weekly outpatient sessions lasting 90 min each. Results: The highest mean pre- and post-therapy differences were recorded for the alcohol risk/dependence group on the obsessive/compulsive and anxiety dimensions of the SCL-90-R. As regards the presence of relapses and dropouts over the course of the CBT sessions, the results show a significant association with moderate effect size: patients with risk consumption or alcohol dependence were more likely to present poor treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Alcohol abuse was frequent in GD, especially in patients with low family income and high accumulated debts. High levels of somatization and high overall psychopathology (measured by the SCL-90-R) were associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse. Alcohol abuse was also associated with poor response to treatment. PMID:27065113

  7. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  8. Medicaid-Covered Alcohol and Drug Treatment Use among People with Intellectual Disabilities: Evidence of Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth

    2010-01-01

    For some, community inclusion facilitates access to alcohol and drugs and, therefore, the potential for developing substance abuse disorders. However, little is known about substance abuse treatment use among people with intellectual disabilities. Using standardized performance measures, substance abuse treatment utilization was examined for…

  9. Domestic violence and alcohol use: Security measures of compulsory treatment and a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is one among a number of factors in the etiology of violent crime which includes domestic violence. Domestic violence usually designates: violence between partners (spouses and violence towards children and elderly parents. The aim of this article is to highlight the impact of alcohol abuse (intoxication and alcohol dependence on domestic violence, but also to emphasize the multifactoriality of this relation, the economic damage that society suffers and the society´s very role with regard to the alcohol-crime relation. Presented are also different research projects and statistical data regarding the prevalence of this phenomena, together with three case studies that involved violent behavior towards the spouse, children and parents. The offenders received an order of compulsory treatment of alcoholism in a psychiatric institution and have been treated and observed for two years (psychotherapy and support clubs. The literature and the experiences of psychotherapeutic practice lead to a conclusion that prevention of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is indeed one of the factors that play a significant role in reducing the rate of violent crime, especially of domestic violence.

  10. Social work assessment of underage alcohol consumption: Non-specialised social services comparison between Sweden and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi Paolo; Placido Matteo Di

    2015-01-01

    AIM - This research contributes to highlighting social work assessment of family situations with underage alcohol consumption and abuse. The comparative study invites reflection on the main features influencing an initial approach to adolescent problematic alcohol consumption outside specialised addiction services. DESIGN - The study is based on a cross-national comparison. A questionnaire including a vignette story of a young girl (“Nadja”) and her family was submitted to thirty-five social ...

  11. [Treatment of alcoholism. Study of the efficacy of 4 therapeutic orientations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez, H A

    1981-05-01

    The present survey studies, in a group of 145 alcoholics from the National Institute on Alcoholism in Costa Rica, the effectiveness of four therapeutic orientations in alcoholism: behavioral, psychosocial, occupational and multiple. The survey was carried out in a harmless population of alcoholics, and it aims to work out and to test treatment designs suitable to the uncovered level or prevention respecting to alcoholism, the secondary one. Each one of the groups receiving the diverse treatments stayed as in-patient under similar conditions. The treatment had a two-week duration; once finished, the patient was discharged and continued with a one-year follow-up. The outcomes are the following: 1. Treatment. The occupational and behavior-oriented treatments present a five months abstinence period as an estimate average effectiveness. The psychosocial-oriented treatments reach a seven months abstinence period. Its major effectiveness is due to the specific action this orientation develops on the patients having the worst prognosis. The integration, in a treatment, of orientations corresponding to different theoretical frames can determine reciprocal inhibition phenomena among orientations and lower the general effectiveness level. 2. Diagnosis. The personalities defined as depressive and paranoiac according to their prevailing basic anxiety, and the presence or absence of a conjugal tie holds an estimate link with the abstinence the patient showed when he was discharged from treatment. The prognosis value of this characteristic disappears when it is then direct object of a therapeutic orientation (psychosocial) given that this characteristics are sensitive to changes by action in a specific treatment. PMID:7348074

  12. Safety and Tolerability of Pharmacological Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: Comprehensive Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Julia M A; Chambers, Sophia E; Shiles, Celia J; Baldwin, David S

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but pharmacological treatments for them are underused, despite evidence of efficacy. Acamprosate, naltrexone, nalmefene and disulfiram are all approved in one or more region for the treatment of AUD. Baclofen currently has a temporary indication in France. Safety considerations for using psychopharmacological treatments in this patient group include the impact of concurrent alcohol consumption at high levels; multiple physical comorbidities that may interfere with pharmacological effects, distribution and metabolism; and concomitant medication for the treatment of comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions. The five drugs, including an extended-release injectable suspension of naltrexone, have different safety profiles that need to be balanced with the treatment objective (initiation or continuation of abstinence, or reduction of drinking), individual patient preferences and comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment will be based on the unique risk-benefit profile in each case. PMID:27023898

  13. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  14. Comparison of Alcohol Abusers Who Seek Traditional Treatment Versus Those Who Use An Online Program

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Suena W.; Lieberman, Daniel Z.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders do not receive treatment. Access to treatment for substance abuse disorders is limited, and practical strategies are needed to expand opportunities for individuals to receive effective interventions. A recently developed online program was designed to increase users’ motivation for change and offer treatment options. Utilization of the unique strengths of the Internet allowed a hidden, currently untreated population to be reached.

  15. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  16. Examining intensity and types of interagency collaboration between child welfare and drug and alcohol service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S

    2015-08-01

    The co-occurrence of child maltreatment and caregiver substance use disorders (SUDs) is a pervasive problem, with an estimated two thirds of child welfare (CW) systems cases involving SUDs. Interagency collaboration between CW and drug and alcohol service (DAS) providers shows promise in improving connections to and delivery of SUD services for CW-involved families. However, interagency collaboration between CW and DAS providers continues to be difficult to achieve and little is known about organizational characteristics and contexts that influence collaboration between these two entities. Using data from the second cohort of families from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examined national trends in interagency collaboration between CW and DAS providers and organizational factors that influence the nature and intensity of interagency collaboration. Results indicated that collaboration intensity was greater for CW agencies that reported increased caseloads and those located in more populated counties. However, collaboration intensity decreased for CW agencies located in counties with higher child poverty. Study findings have implications for policy leaders and directors of CW agencies throughout the United States, especially because collaborating with DAS providers may increase CW agencies' organizational capacity and relieve job stress related to high caseloads. Development of strategies that spur engagement in more intense and multiple types of collaboration between CW agencies and DAS providers has the potential to relieve service burden on CW staffs and expedite service delivery to CW-involved families dealing with SUDs. PMID:26188423

  17. Treatment course and outcomes following drug and alcohol-related traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowperthwaite Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug use is known to be a major factor affecting the incidence of traumatic injury. However, the ways in which immediate pre-injury substance use affects patients' clinical care and outcomes remains unclear. The goal of the present study is to determine the associations between pre-injury use of alcohol or drugs and patient injury severity, hospital course, and clinical outcome. Materials and methods This study used more than 200,000 records from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB, which is the largest trauma registry in the United States. Incidents in the NTDB were placed into one of four classes: alcohol related, drug related, alcohol-and-drug related, and substance negative. Logistic regression models were used to determine comorbid conditions or treatment complications that were significantly associated with pre-injury substance use. Hospital charges were associated with the presence or absence of drugs and alcohol, and patient outcomes were assessed using discharge disposition as delimited by the NTDB. Results The rates of complications arising during treatment were 8.3, 10.9, 9.9 and 8.6 per one hundred incidents in the alcohol related, drug related, alcohol-and-drug related, and substance-negative classes, respectively. Regression models suggested that pre-injury alcohol use is associated with a 15% higher risk of infection, whereas pre-injury drug use is associated with a 30% higher risk of infection. Pre-injury substance use did not appear to significantly impact clinical outcomes following treatment for traumatic injury, however. Conclusion This study suggests that pre-injury drug use is associated with a significantly higher complication rate. In particular, infection during hospitalization is a significant risk for both alcohol and drug related trauma visits, and drug-related trauma incidents are associated with increased risk for additional circulatory complications. Although drug and alcohol related

  18. Predictors of Continuous Alcohol Abstinence in a Portuguese Treatment Sample – A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Matos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Alcoholic  dependence  is  an addictive disorder with high levels of mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic approaches include medical,  psychological  and  social support.Objectives:  Compare  a  population  of  alcoholics who have achieved one year of total abstinence from alcohol with individuals that relapse within the same period and identify  individual  and  treatment-related factors that can predict success.Methods:  Multivariate  logistic  regression analysis  was  used  to identify  treatment  re-lated predictors of continuous abstinence in adults who meet ICD-10 criteria for alcoholic dependence during the first year of treatment in Alcoholic Center of Hospital de Braga.Results:  590  patients  met  the  selection criteria.  Treatment  success rate  (total  ab-stinence  was  32,3%.  Individual  charac-teristics  such as  gender,  age,  civil  state  or level  of  instruction  were  not  directly related  to  1st  year  outcomes.  Independent predictors  of  continuous abstinence  were no  prior  inpatient  treatment  (OR 0.549, 95%CI=0.322-0.936,  inpatient  treatment (OR 3.765, 95%CI=2.061-6.879 and abstinence at beginning of treatment (OR 4.947, 95%CI=2.223-11.008.Conclusions:  The  results  show  that  using different approaches for the initial treatment of alcoholic dependence can result in higher periods  of total  abstinence.  These  findings may be useful to help physicians to improve alcoholic dependence treatment outcomes.

  19. Clinical practices in the pharmacological treatment of comorbid psychopathology in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B; Wood, D Scott; Cornelius, Jack R; Bukstein, Oscar G; Martin, Christopher S

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the use of psychiatric medications in 277 adolescents in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Subjects were recruited from addictions treatment sites, psychiatric programs, and juvenile justice settings. Characteristics studied included the use of and indications for specific medications, changes in clinical practices from 1991 through 2000, and continuation of psychopharmacological treatment over a 1-year followup period. Among adolescents taking psychiatric medications at baseline (n = 51), indicated DSM-IV mental disorders were typically present, use of antidepressants was most common (n = 41), benzodiazepine prescription was rare, and about one third reported continuing pharmacological treatment at one-year followup. In those with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorders (n = 110), antidepressant medication use increased significantly from 18% to 55% over the decade studied. The treatment setting did not significantly influence antidepressant prescribing practices. The common and increasing use of psychiatric medications in this population emphasizes the urgent need for empirically based clinical guidelines. PMID:14693259

  20. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups. PMID:25819701

  1. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  2. Initiation and retention in couples outpatient treatment for parents with drug and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Abby L; Kelley, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    The focus of the current study was to identity mental health, relationship factors, substance use related problems, and individual factors as predictors of couples-based substance abuse treatment initiation and attendance. Heterosexual couples with children that met study criteria were invited to attend 12 sessions of outpatient behavioral couples therapy. Men were more likely to initiate treatment if they had a higher income, had greater relationship satisfaction, were initiating treatment for alcohol use disorder only, were younger when they first suspected a problem, and had higher depression but lower hostility or phobic anxiety. Men attended more treatment sessions if they reported less intimate partner victimization, if they sought treatment for both alcohol and drug use disorder, if they were older when they first suspected a substance use problem, and if they were more obsessive-compulsive, more phobic anxious, less hostile, and experienced less somatization and less paranoid ideation. For women, treatment initiation was associated with less cohesion in their relationships, more somatization, and being older when they first suspected an alcohol or drug use problem. Trends were observed between women's treatment retention and being older, experiencing more somatization, and suspecting drug-related problems when they were younger; however, no predictors reached statistical significance for women. Results suggest that different factors may be associated with men and women's willingness to initiate and attend conjoint treatment for substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064819

  3. The role of alcohol in deaths presenting to the coroner's service in Cork City and County.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bellis, M

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in post-mortem blood samples sent for toxicological analysis in Cork City and County in 2003 and 2004. Post mortem reports of these deaths were reviewed for the presence or absence of alcohol at the time of autopsy, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of death, age and sex of the decedents. Of samples sent for blood alcohol analysis (BAA), 38.4% were positive for alcohol. Significant differences were found between the proportions of alcohol positive cases by cause of death. Alcohol positive cases were significantly younger (44.3 +\\/- 17.8 years) than alcohol negative cases (51.9 +\\/- 19.4 years) and fifty two percent of drivers were positive for alcohol at the time of death. Awareness of the harmful and potentially fatal effects of alcohol should continue to be raised within the community, so as to prevent future fatalities.

  4. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction or...), you must avail yourself of appropriate treatment for your drug addiction or alcoholism at...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  6. Treatment-refractory substance use disorder: Focus on alcohol, opioids, and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Substance use disorders are common, but only a small minority of patients receive adequate treatment. Although psychosocial therapies are effective, relapse is common. This review focusses on novel pharmacological and other treatments for patients with alcohol, opioid, or cocaine use disorders who do not respond to conventional treatments. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and the opioid antagonist naltrexone have been approved for the treatment of alcoholism. A novel, "as needed" approach is the use of the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene to reduce alcohol consumption. Other novel pharmacological approaches include the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, anticonvulsants such as topiramate and gabapentin, the partial nicotine receptor agonist varenicline, and other drugs. For opioid dependence, opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine is the first-line treatment option. Other options include oral or depot naltrexone, morphine sulfate, depot or implant formulations, and heroin (diacetylmorphine) in treatment-refractory patients. To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for cocaine addiction; however, 3 potential pharmacological treatments are being studied, disulfiram, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Pharmacogenetic approaches may help to optimize treatment response in otherwise treatment-refractory patients and to identify which patients are more likely to respond to treatment, and neuromodulation techniques such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation also may play a role in the treatment of substance use disorders. Although no magic bullet is in sight for treatment-refractory patients, some novel medications and brain stimulation techniques have the potential to enrich treatment options at least for some patients. PMID:26577297

  7. [The effectiveness of psychosocial treatment approaches for alcohol dependence--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlender, M; Köhler, J; Soyka, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatment approaches which are used in the context of inpatient alcoholism treatment are frequently neither theoretically justified nor empirically examined. In view of the enormous method variety the necessity exists for the development of treatment guidelines in order to offer indicators of promising treatment achievement for practitioners and pension funds. In a first step, it must be examined which treatments are effective, which are ineffective and which are possibly even counter-productive. This article aims to give a comprehensive review of randomized-controlled studies/meta-analysis on the efficacy of different treatment approaches. This article reporting the literature review is part of a larger programme to develop clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitation which is supported in form, content and finance by the German Pension Institute for Salaried Employees (Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA). Summing up, treatment is effective compared to no treatment. Cognitive behavioural therapy included in a multimodal treatment program is effective. There are a number of treatment protocols for which controlled research has consistently found positive results like social skills training, community reinforcement approaches, behaviour contracting, motivation-enhancing treatment, and family/marital therapy. There is also a number of commonly used treatment approaches that brought neither a positive result or were counter productive like relapse prevention, non-behavioural marital therapy, and insight psychotherapy, confrontational counseling, education, relaxation training, and milieu therapy. Support for matching to a specific treatment is weak, but interventions against alcohol problems should be differentiated according to the severity of the alcohol problem. Since treatment evaluation is mainly accomplished in the US and supplying structures with respect to the US and Germany are substantially different, a generalized transmission of US

  8. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  9. The role of promotion in alcoholism treatment marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Self, D R; Owens, C A; Kline, T A

    1988-01-01

    This article is an overview of the promotion function as a part of the ATM's marketing mix. It approaches various promotion decision areas from a managerial perspective, focusing upon some key components of promotion planning. Rather than provide specific operational or implementation details (how to write a brochure) it is more conceptual in nature and offers a framework for promotion planners. The article addresses promotion management, promotion objectives, analysis for promotion planning, the promotion mix, and addresses the benefits and limitations of some specific promotion tools available to the ATM manager. It treats ATMs as a service and reveals specific implications for promotion strategy dictated by services. The article also reports promotion tools employed by Alabama ATMs citing data from the Alabama study. PMID:10292953

  10. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience app...

  11. Assessment and treatment of insomnia in adult patients with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia in patients with alcohol dependence has increasingly become a target of treatment due to its prevalence, persistence, and associations with relapse and suicidal thoughts, as well as randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy with behavior therapies and non-addictive medications. This article focuses on assessing and treating insomnia that persists despite 4 or more weeks of sobriety in alcohol-dependent adults. Selecting among the various options for treatment follows a comprehensive assessment of insomnia and its multifactorial causes. In addition to chronic, heavy alcohol consumption and its effects on sleep regulatory systems, contributing factors include premorbid insomnia; co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and other sleep disorders; use of other substances and medications; stress; environmental factors; and inadequate sleep hygiene. The assessment makes use of history, rating scales, and sleep diaries as well as physical, mental status, and laboratory examinations to rule out these factors. Polysomnography is indicated when another sleep disorder is suspected, such as sleep apnea or periodic limb movement disorder, or when insomnia is resistant to treatment. Sobriety remains a necessary, first-line treatment for insomnia, and most patients will have some improvement. If insomnia-specific treatment is needed, then brief behavioral therapies are the treatment of choice, because they have shown long-lasting benefit without worsening of drinking outcomes. Medications work faster, but they generally work only as long as they are taken. Melatonin agonists; sedating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics; and benzodiazepine receptor agonists each have their benefits and risks, which must be weighed and monitored to optimize outcomes. Some relapse prevention medications may also have sleep-promoting activity. Although it is assumed that treatment for insomnia will help prevent relapse, this has not been firmly established. Therefore

  12. A Literature Review of Cost-Benefit Analyses for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Mohapatra; Jayadeep Patra; Amy Duhig; Jürgen Rehm; Svetlana Popova

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review of cost-benefit studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments of alcohol dependence (AD). A literature search was performed in multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search identified seven psychotherapy studies from the USA and two pharmacotherapy studies from Europe. In the psychotherapy studies, major benefits are typically seen within the first six months of treatment. The benefit-cost ratio ranged from 1.89 ...

  13. The Inventory of Gambling Situations in problem and pathological gamblers seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Blanco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Identifying situations in which individuals gamble may be important for developing or improving treatments, but few instruments exist for examining high-risk gambling situations. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), an instrument that assesses situations that may lead to gambling episodes. Individuals seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment who were identified as problem or pathological gamblers (N = 283) completed the IGS, and principal co...

  14. [SEMERGEN positioning for the treatment of alcohol disorders in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesú, José Ángel; Gual, Antoni; Casquero, Rafael; Bobes, Julio; Ortega, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The present manuscript is based on the recommendations of a panel of health care professionals, including several experts in primary health care, psychiatry and addictions. The participants are recognized specialists in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. The panel met in Barcelona on 2015 April 22 with the aims of evaluating the current management of alcohol use disorder in primary health care and developing a strategy to address this problem, basing on the evidence and the recommendations of the scientific societies and national and international organizations. PMID:26710714

  15. Trends in comprehensive service availability in outpatient drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Durkin, Elizabeth M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and psychosocial services are essential to quality addiction treatment, but their availability declined in the 1980s. To determine whether this downward trend in the availability of comprehensive services continued in the 1990s, we analyzed data from a national panel study of outpatient substance abuse treatment units in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Response rates were greater than 85%. Regarding the availability of comprehensive services, including physical examinations, routi...

  16. Predictors of Continuous Alcohol Abstinence in a Portuguese Treatment Sample – A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Matos; Jorge Gonçalves; Pedro Morgado

    2014-01-01

    Background:  Alcoholic  dependence  is  an addictive disorder with high levels of mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic approaches include medical,  psychological  and  social support.Objectives:  Compare  a  population  of  alcoholics who have achieved one year of total abstinence from alcohol with individuals that relapse within the same period and identify  individual  and  treatment-related factors that can predict success.Methods:  Multivariate  logistic  regression analysis  was  used  t...

  17. Add on dexmedetomidine in the treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal in a patient of emergency laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Madan Shende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to American statistics 90% of people drink alcohol at some time in life. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse among hospitalized in patients is 20 % and 10- 33 % in patients admitted to the ICU. Approximately 18% of these patients will develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS whose symptoms can include physical and psychological manifestations that range from mild to life threatening. Although AWS has been reported in literature in post-operative periods and in intensive care unit, there is less information on treatment and preparing of a patient with AWS, coming for emergency surgical procedure. The surgical stress and deranged liver functions possess an additional challenge to the anesthesiologist. Here we are reporting the successful management of a case of delirium tremens by using Dexmedetomidine in pre, intra and post-operative period in a patient with hollow viscous perforation for emergency laparotomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2446-2449

  18. Questioning the Value of Realism: Young Adults' Processing of Messages in Alcohol-Related Public Service Announcements and Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andsager, Julie L.; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    Finds that: (1) perceived realism and themes that students could identify with are important factors in increasing the salience and persuasiveness of alcohol-related public service announcements (PSAs) among undergraduate students; (2) realistic but logic-based PSAs were not as effective as unrealistic but enjoyable ads; and (3) low production…

  19. A History of Drug and Alcohol Block Grant Funding and Its Effects on Pennsylvania's Prevention Services System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the impact of the U.S. government's block grant fiscal policy on the funding policies and program services in drug and alcohol abuse prevention. Uses a case history of Pennsylvania's experience with block grant funding mandates to document the administrative and programmatic considerations affecting policy implementation at the state…

  20. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  1. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian; Wang, Minghao; Bilberg, Arne; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    High relapse rate is one of the most prominent problems in addiction treatment. Alcohol Resilience Treatment (ART), an alcohol addiction therapy, is based on Cue Exposure Treatment, which has shown promising results in preliminary studies. ART aims at optimizing the core area of relapse prevention, and intends to improve patients' capability to withstand craving of alcohol. This method emphasizes the interplay of resilience and resourcefulness. It contains 6 sessions with different topics according to the stage of treatment circuit, and each session consists of 6 steps. Due to the purity and structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper. PMID:23366304

  2. Hitting rock bottom? Resource loss as a predictor of alcoholism treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczyńska, Ewa; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Chodkiewicz, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Background Efforts to better understand the phenomenon of the 'bottom', the beginning of the process of turning away from alcohol, are important for both theoretical and practical goals. The conservation of resources theory by Hobfoll may represent a suitable framework to base these attempts around. Aim The aim of the study was to examine the role of resource loss in completing alcoholism treatment on the basis of Hobfoll's conservation of resources theory. Methods The study included 86 patients undergoing inpatient alcoholism treatment. An assessment of resource loss and gain during the previous year, as well as of the decisional balance regarding the pros and cons of drinking alcohol, took place at the beginning of therapy. Results The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression confirmed that resource loss was the only significant predictor of therapy completion, after adjustment for decisional balance, demographics and basic clinical data. Additionally, gender moderated the relationship between resource gain and therapy completion: while an increase in gain was related to a decreased chance of completing therapy in men, the opposite effect was noted in women. Conclusions Resource loss has more influence than decisional balance in predicting therapy completion, which can be translated into clinically valid recommendations based on gender differences. PMID:26813301

  3. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification. PMID

  4. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  5. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abu...

  6. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  7. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  8. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  10. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  11. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  12. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  13. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  15. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  17. Comorbid Psychopathology and Alcohol Use Patterns among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Moussas; Irene Fanouraki; Argiro Pachi; Arezina Asomatou; Olga Drylli; Georgios Paschalakis; Athanasios Tselebis; Konstantinos Giotakis; Dionisios Bratis; Georgios Dermatis; Meni Malliori

    2015-01-01

    130 patients from a methadone maintenance treatment program agreed to complete Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90R) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) self-report scales. Scores higher than the proposed cut-score on SCL-90R scale were observed on depression, obsessions-compulsions, paranoid ideation, anxiety, anger-hostility, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism subscales. In sum, 42.9% of our sample exhibited depressive symptomatology, 34.9% obsessi...

  18. Treatment in hospital for alcohol-dependent patients decreases attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaudias V

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Valentin Flaudias,1,2 Georges Brousse,1,2 Ingrid De Chazeron,1,2 François Planche,2 Julien Brun,2 Pierre-Michel Llorca1,2 1Clermont Université, EA 7280 NPsy-Sydo, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 2Pôle Psychiatrie B, CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background and objectives: Previous studies in alcohol-dependent patients have shown an attentional bias (AB under related substance cues, which can lead to relapse. This AB can be evaluated by the alcohol Stroop test (AST. The AST is a modified Stroop task in which participants have to name the color of an alcohol-related word or a neutral word. AB is the response-time difference between these two types of words. The goal of the current study was to examine modification of AB during specialized hospitalization for alcohol dependence, with the suppression of a training bias that could be present in within-subject design. Methods: Individuals with alcohol-dependence disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and admitted for withdrawal in the addiction unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (test group, n = 42 and persons with no alcohol or psychiatric disorder (control group, n = 16, recruited among colleagues and friends of the staff, performed the AST. A subgroup of the test group performed the AST in admission (admission group, n = 19, and another subgroup undertook the test immediately before discharge (discharge group, n = 23. Results: Results showed an AB only for patients seen at admission (F[1,55] = 3.283, P = 0.075. Moreover, we observed that the AB in the admission group (mean = 34 ms, standard deviation [SD] = 70.06 was greater than the AB in the control group (mean = 23 ms, SD = 93.42, itself greater than the AB in the discharge group (mean = −12 ms, SD = 93.55 (t[55] = −1.71; P = 0.09. Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, the present study provides evidence for changes in the AB during alcohol-addiction treatment

  19. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  20. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  1. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  2. Experimental study of osthole on treatment of hyperlipidemic and alcoholic fatty liver in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Song; Mei-Lin Xie; Lu-Jia Zhu; Ke-Ping Zhang; Jie Xue; Zhen-Lun Gu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of osthole on fatty liver,and investigate the possible mechanism.METHODS: A quail model with hyperlipidemic fatty liver and rat model with alcoholic fatty liver were set up by feeding high fat diet and alcohol, respectively. These experimental animals were then treated with osthole 5-20 mg/kg for 6 wk, respectively. Whereafter, the lipid in serum and hepatic tissue, and coefficient of hepatic weight were measured.RESULTS: After treatment with osthole the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lower density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), coefficient of hepatic weight, and the hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG were significantly decreased. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver was improved.In alcohol-induced fatty liver rats, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was decreased. In high fat-induced fatty liver quails, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver was significantly improved. The histological evaluation of liver specimens demonstrated that the osthole dramatically decreased lipid accumulation.CONCLUSION: These results suggested that osthole had therapeutic effects on both alcohol and high fatinduced fatty liver. The mechanism might be associated with its antioxidation.

  3. Potential medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: An evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litten, Raye Z; Wilford, Bonnie B; Falk, Daniel E; Ryan, Megan L; Fertig, Joanne B

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), as currently defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5), is a heterogeneous disorder stemming from a complex interaction of neurobiological, genetic, and environmental factors. As a result of this heterogeneity, there is no one treatment for AUD that will work for everyone. During the past 2 decades, efforts have been made to develop a menu of medications to give patients and clinicians more choices when seeking a therapy that is both effective and which has limited side effects. To date, 3 medications have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat alcohol dependence: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. In addition to these approved medications, researchers have identified new therapeutic targets and, as a result, a number of alternative medications are now being evaluated for treatment of AUD in human studies. Although not approved by the FDA for the treatment of AUD, in some cases, these alternative medications are being used off-label by clinicians for this purpose. These potential medications are reviewed here. They include nalmefene, varenicline, gabapentin, topiramate, zonisamide, baclofen, ondansetron, levetiracetam, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The effectiveness of these medications has been mixed-some show good efficacy with side effects that are mild to moderate in intensity; others have mixed or promising results but are awaiting findings from ongoing studies; and still others show poor efficacy, despite promising preliminary results. Medications development remains a high priority. Key initiatives for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) include supporting the discovery and development of more effective and safer medications, advancing the field of personalized medicine, and forging public and private partnerships to investigate new and more effective compounds. PMID:26928397

  4. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use fa...

  5. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START – a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Rama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP or Treatment as Usual (TAU. The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910.

  6. Comorbid Psychopathology and Alcohol Use Patterns among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Moussas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 130 patients from a methadone maintenance treatment program agreed to complete Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90R and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT self-report scales. Scores higher than the proposed cut-score on SCL-90R scale were observed on depression, obsessions-compulsions, paranoid ideation, anxiety, anger-hostility, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism subscales. In sum, 42.9% of our sample exhibited depressive symptomatology, 34.9% obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 29.1% somatization, 27.2% anxiety symptoms, 22.2% paranoid ideation, 19% phobic anxiety, 15.1% psychoticism, and 15.1% hostility and 11.9% presented with symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity. Mean score on AUDIT scale was 6.9±7.9. 63.0% of our participants scored below cut-off and were classified as having a low level of alcohol-related problems; 24.4% scored in the range of 8–15 which is an indication of alcohol abuse whereas 12.6% scored 16 and above indicative of serious abuse/addiction. Scores on AUDIT scale were positively correlated with length of time on methadone treatment, but not with length of time on drug use or age of our participants. Positive correlations were observed among AUDIT and SCL-90R scores, namely, with global severity index score, positive symptom distress index, positive symptom total, and all primary symptom dimensions subscales except phobic anxiety.

  7. Development of Child-Teen Obesity Treatment Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166

  8. Hearing Loss in Children: Treatment and Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Policy Makers Treatment and Intervention Services Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir No single treatment or intervention is the answer for every child or family. Good intervention plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups ...

  9. Social work assessment of underage alcohol consumption: Non-specialised social services comparison between Sweden and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidi Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This research contributes to highlighting social work assessment of family situations with underage alcohol consumption and abuse. The comparative study invites reflection on the main features influencing an initial approach to adolescent problematic alcohol consumption outside specialised addiction services. DESIGN - The study is based on a cross-national comparison. A questionnaire including a vignette story of a young girl (“Nadja” and her family was submitted to thirty-five social workers employed in public social services in Stockholm, Malmö (Sweden, and Genoa (Italy. The participants were then invited to focus groups to discuss the main features that had emerged in the assessments. RESULTS - Results show significant variations between Italian and Swedish social workers’ assessments. Italian social workers are in general more concerned and interventionist than are their Swedish colleagues. Swedish social workers tend to intervene less, assuming that Nadja’s consumption is “normal” teenage behaviour, while the Italian social workers, less accustomed to considering such behaviour as common, are more worried and prone to intervene immediately, in particular when Nadja is found drunk in the city centre. CONCLUSION - The assessment proposed by public social workers appears to be informed by cultural understandings of alcohol consumption which permeate and reveal predominant tendencies in the two groups of professionals. Moreover, in Italy the social service mandate appears to be fragmented among different service units, whereas Swedish social workers operate within a broad welfare system that allocates specific resources for adolescent alcohol consumers. Further elements influencing the assessment are found in the legislative framework and consequently in the different practices and perspectives of intervention social workers assume in Sweden and Italy.

  10. Alcohol and Health. Fifth Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report is divided into an overview of alcohol and health, and eight chapters which deal with various aspects of alcohol use and abuse. The epidemiology of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is discussed. Data are presented on self-reported consumption of alcohol among youths and adults; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; alcohol-related…

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. The Westgate Service and Related Referral, Assessment, and Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alice L

    2015-12-01

    The formerly named "Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder" (DSPD) units are no longer standalone services within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. These sites now provide personality disorder treatment services in the high-security prison estate as part of the new national Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) Pathway Strategy. The OPD Pathway intends to take responsibility for the assessment, treatment, and management of offenders who are likely to have a personality disorder and who present a high risk of re-offending (men and women) and serious harm to others (men). Further PD treatment and progression services are being commissioned in lower security prisons and in the community as part of the new PD Strategy. While the suitability criteria for the two male high-security PD treatment sites are the same, the individual units have their own assessment and treatment methods. This article aims to communicate the referral, assessment, and treatment methods employed within the prison-based Westgate Personality Disorder Treatment Service, HMP Frankland. PMID:24927739

  13. Molecular Mechanisms and New Treatment Strategies for Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Takaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, in which most patients exhibit non-progressive, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL attributable to simple steatosis. Multiple hits, including genetic differences, fat accumulation, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota changes, account for the progression of NASH. NAFLD is strongly associated with obesity, which induces adipokine secretion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and oxidative stress at the cellular level, which in turn induces hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Among these factors, gut microbiota are acknowledged as having an important role in initiating this multifactorial disease. Oxidative stress is considered to be a key contributor in the progression from NAFL to NASH. Macrophage infiltration is apparent in NAFL and NASH, while T-cell infiltration is apparent in NASH. Although several clinical trials have shown that antioxidative therapy with vitamin E can effectively control hepatitis pathology in the short term, the long-term effects remain obscure and have often proved to be ineffective in many other diseases. Several long-term antioxidant protocols have failed to reduce mortality. New treatment modalities that incorporate current understanding of NAFLD molecular pathogenesis must be considered.

  14. Barriers to successful treatment of alcohol addiction as perceived by healthcare professionals in Thailand – a Delphi study about obstacles and improvement suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many Thai people experiencing alcohol addiction do not seek help, and those who do often have inadequate access to treatment. There are few research studies focusing on alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand.Objective: The purpose of the current study was to identify barriers to the treatment of alcohol addiction and to collect experts’ suggestions for improving treatment in Thailand. The Delphi technique was used to achieve consensual agreement among an expert panel within the f...

  15. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms. PMID:26259087

  16. Metabolic Alterations of the Zebrafish Brain after Acute Alcohol Treatment by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with acute alcohol treatment in zebrafish by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS. The brain metabolism of zebrafish was investigated after acute alcohol treatment (one-hour long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol with whole brain extraction. The results of this study showed that glutamate (Glu was significantly decreased, scyllo-inositol (sIns showed a small apparent increase only in the highest acute treatment dose group, and myoinositol (mIns showed a significant decrease. [Glu]/[tCr] and [mIns]/[tCr] levels were significantly reduced regardless of the alcohol dose, and [sIns]/[tCr] was increased in the highest alcohol treatment dose group. The present NMR study revealed that specific metabolites, such as Glu and mIns, were substantially decreased in case of acute alcohol exposed zebrafish brain.

  17. The enhanced alcohol sensing response of multiwalled carbon nanotube networks induced by alkyl diamine treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benlikaya, R.; Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Olejník, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 201, October (2014), s. 122-130. ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0104 Grant ostatní: UTB Zlín(CZ) IGA/FT/2013/018; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * multiwalled carbon nanotube networks * vapor sensing * linear alcohols * alkyl diamine treatment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2014

  18. Disulfiram efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn D Skinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its success with compliant or supervised patients, disulfiram has been a controversial medication in the treatment of alcoholism. Often, study designs did not recognize a pivotal factor in disulfiram research, the importance of an open-label design. Our objectives are: (1 to analyze the efficacy and safety of disulfiram in RCTs in supporting abstinence and (2 to compare blind versus open-label studies, hypothesizing that blinded studies would show no difference between disulfiram and control groups because the threat would be evenly spread across all groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register for RCTs on disulfiram use with alcoholics in comparison to any alcoholic control group. The primary outcome was defined by the authors of each trial. Additional analyses included: blind vs. open-label, with or without supervision, cocaine study or not, and type of control. Overall, the 22 included studies showed a higher success rate of disulfiram compared to controls Hedges'g = .58 (95%CI = .35-.82. When comparing blind and open-label RCTs, only open-label trials showed a significant superiority over controls g = .70 (95%CI = .46-.93. RCTs with blind designs showed no efficacy of disulfiram compared to controls. Disulfiram was also more effective than the control condition when compared to naltrexone g = .77, 95%CI = .52-1.02, to acamprosate g = .76, 95%CI = .04-1.48, and to the no disulfiram groups g = .43, 95%CI = .17-.69. LIMITS INCLUDE: (1 a population of 89% male subjects and (2 a high but unavoidable heterogeneity of the studies with a substantial I-square in most subgroups of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Blinded studies were incapable of distinguishing a difference between treatment groups and thus are incompatible with disulfiram research. Based on results with open-label studies, disulfiram is a safe and efficacious treatment compared to other abstinence supportive

  19. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed. PMID:23582065

  20. Closing the Need–Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and outcome-targeted services on substance abuse treatment outcomes by using data collected from 1992 through 1997 for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation St...

  1. Treatment profiles in the public dental service of Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Guro

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Public Dental Service in Norway has changed during the last decades. Dental hygienists have increased in numbers, but how this has influenced the organization of the patient treatment at the clinics is not well known. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the organization of the work-day in the Public Dental Service in Northern Norway in terms of who is being treated and what treatment is being performed. The aim was also to explore how the patients are distribute...

  2. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men end...

  3. Estimates of Alcohol Use and Clinical Treatment Needs Among Homosexually Active Men and Women in the U.S. Population

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D; Keenan, Colleen; Schober, Christine; Mays, Vickie M.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about dysfunctional alcohol use among lesbians and gay men are longstanding. The authors examined alcohol use patterns and treatment utilization among adults interviewed in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Sexually active respondents were classified into 2 groups: those with at least 1 same-gender sexual partner (n = 194) in the year prior to interview and those with only opposite-gender sexual partners (n = 9,714). The authors compared these 2 groups separately by g...

  4. The effect of co-morbid depression and anxiety on the course and outcome of alcohol outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Stenager, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies examining the effect of alcohol treatment among patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and co-morbid depression and/or anxiety are few and show inconsistent, but mainly negative drinking outcomes. Aims: To describe the prevalence of anxiety and depression among Danish....... No difference was found between patients with and without co-morbidity. Conclusion: In contrast to the majority of prior studies, this study provides evidence that depression and anxiety do not have an effect on alcohol treatment. However, because of the naturalistic setting, a number of limitations should...... patients seeking treatment for an AUD, and to investigate the infl uence of psychiatric co-morbidity on the course and effect of treatment. Method: A consecutive sample of 363 outpatients with an AUD diagnosis according to the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research was assessed by the means...

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fengwei; Chi, Feifei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Chen, Yongquan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 was screened for high antioxidative activity from 55 lactobacilli. The present study attempted to explore the protective properties of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 in alcoholic liver injury. A mouse model was induced by orally feeding alcohol when simultaneously treated with L. rhamnosus CCFM1107, the drug Hu-Gan- Pian (HGP), L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), and L. plantarum CCFM1112 for 3 months. Biochemical analysis was performed for both serum and liver homogenate. Detailed intestinal flora and histological analyses were also carried out. Our results indicated that the administration of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 significantly inhibited the increase in the levels of serum aminotransferase and endotoxin, as well as the levels of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) in the serum and in the liver. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased. The enteric dysbiosis caused by alcohol was restored by increasing the numbers of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and decreasing the numbers of both enterococci and enterobacter. Histological analysis confirmed the protective effect of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107. Compared with the other lactobacilli and to the drug Hu-Gan-Pian, there is a high chance that L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 provides protective effects on alcoholic liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and restoring the intestinal flora. PMID:26626356

  6. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  7. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  8. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Alcoholic Extract of Berberis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalianfard A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of Berberis vulgaris extract on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL on Balb/c mice, a study was undertaken over a 12 months period. Forty Balb/c mice were divided into 2 main groups A and B. Each main group in turn was divided into 5 sub groups of 4 mice and each sub group were inoculated subcutaneously by 0.1ml liquid phase culture containing promastigotes of Leishmania major. After 2-3 weeks, nodules and ulcers appeared on 37 of 40 inoculated mice. Ethanol extract of the stem and leaves as well as roots of Berberis vulgaris in different concentrations, were used topically on CL lesions of 4 sub groups A and B, respectively. Ethanol alone was used on the lesions of control mice. The surface area of lesions were measured before and 1-2 weeks after treatment. Direct Geimsa stained smear prepared 20 days after treatment. The results showed that after 2 weeks, a statistically significant decrease of ulcer size of treated mice observed, while in the control group the lesion growth continued. The examinations showed that using higher concentration of the extract caused more decrease in surface area of CL lesions on day 15 and negative direct smear on day 20. Alcoholic extract of B.vulgaris root was more effective than leaves and stem extract. Alcoholic extract of B vulgaris might be further used in animal model.

  9. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostics and also chemical analysis. The arc is formed between two electrodes made of graphite. We first present results on plasma-steam reforming of alcohols and bio-oils mixed in water. The outlet gas compositions are given from various alcohols and-bio-oils obtained at different experimental conditions. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a direct plasma treatment of wood (beech) at laboratory scale. One of the electrodes is surrounded by wood. The final part of the paper is a general discussion about efficiencies and comparisons of plasma treatments presented. The results obtained are discussed by considering the steam reforming reactions and the water gas shift reaction.

  10. Treatment of Alcohol Dependence With Drug Antagonists of the Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Higley, Amanda E.; Koob, George F.; Mason, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by neuroadaptations that may result in the emergence of negative affective states and stress responses upon discontinuation of alcohol use. Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcohol-dependent people are more sensitive to relapse provoking cues such as alcohol, negative affect, and stress. Moreover, stress relief during protracted abstinence is thought to be a major motivation for excessive alcohol consumption. The relation...

  11. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  12. Iron (III) oxyhydroxide in isopropyl alcohol preparation, characterization and solvothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron (III) nitrate hydrolysis was carried out in isopropyl alcohol solution by an aqueous amonia gas stream resulting in iron (III) oxyhydroxide sol. It has been investigated in this work the solvothermal treatment of this colloidal system at 1200C and 24 hours. Iron (III) oxyhydroxide freshly obtained and solvothermally treated. Samples were dryed by lyophilization. Products obtained were characterized by the following techniques: spectrophotometric iron analysis by 1,10-orthophenantroline complexation method, powder X-ray diffraction, vibrational infrared spectra and differential thermal analysis. After solvothermal treatment resulting product was crystallized into hematite, while freshly iron (III) oxyhydroxide was non crystalline. Both of them are very active powder, showing high water adsorption

  13. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian;

    2012-01-01

    , and intends to improve patients' capability to withstand craving of alcohol. This method emphasizes the interplay of resilience and resourcefulness. It contains 6 sessions with different topics according to the stage of treatment circuit, and each session consists of 6 steps. Due to the purity and...... structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper...... presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper....

  14. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  15. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  16. Treatment seeking for alcohol and drug use disorders by immigrants to the Netherlands : Retrospective, population-based, cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, Jean-Paul; Wierdsma, Andre; Mulder, Niels; Burger, Huibert

    2007-01-01

    Background We compared risks of first contact with services for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug use disorder (DUD) between the largest immigrant groups to the Netherlands and Dutch nationals. We tested the hypothesis that the ethnic pattern for DUD is similar to the previously demonstrated pat

  17. Corticosteroids or non-corticosteroids:a fresh perspective on alcoholic hepatitis treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FeiWang; Bing-YuanWang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a necrotizing inflammatory process caused by alcoholic liver injury. It carries a significant short-term mortality. The management of AH is challenging. Although corticosteroids have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, their efficacy for the treatment of AH remains debatable. DATA  SOURCES: A literature search was performed of MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Wiley InterScience usingthekey words"alcoholichepatitis","alcoholicliverdisease", and "corticosteroids". The available data reported in the relevant literaturewereanalyzed. RESULTS: More than 17 controlled trials and at least 13 meta-analyses have reported the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of AH in the past 40 years. Many were poorly designed and used different inclusion/exclusion criteria, making it difficult to reach a consensus. In this review, we summarized all the controversial data in the past decade and analyzed the potential causes for the varying therapeutic effects of corticosteroids in AH. The focus of the controversy has changed from "whether steroids are beneficial or harmful for AH patients" to "how to accurately identify responders to steroids early and rationalize corticosteroid treatment". An early response to glucocorticoids, as determined by calculating the Lille score after 7 days of treatment, has been shown to be a clinically useful indicator. Moreover, down-regulation of steroid sensitivity, risk of infection, and a rational therapeutic strategy of corticosteroids in AH patients are all crucial for therapeutic effect. CONCLUSIONS: An early and accurate determination of steroid sensitivity is important. Besides, we need to overcome the down-regulation of steroid sensitivity, reduce the infection risk and rationalize the therapeutic strategy of corticosteroids. A fresh perspective is needed on the use of corticosteroids in AH patients.

  18. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  19. No effect of long-term oral testosterone treatment on liver morphology in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde; Eriksen, J; Wantzin, P; Knudsen, B B

    1987-01-01

    The effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg tid) on liver morphology was examined in a double-blind, placebo controlled study including men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 126). Liver biopsies obtained before randomization showed micronodular cirrhosis in 119 patients (94%), alcoholic hepatit...... not establish any indication or any contraindication in terms of hepatic histopathology with the possible exception of hepatic venous thrombosis for the use of oral testosterone treatment in men with alcoholic cirrhosis.......The effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg tid) on liver morphology was examined in a double-blind, placebo controlled study including men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 126). Liver biopsies obtained before randomization showed micronodular cirrhosis in 119 patients (94%), alcoholic hepatitis...... in 64 (51%), and fatty liver in 104 (83%). These and other morphological findings did not differ significantly in the patients randomized to testosterone (n = 76) and to placebo (n = 50) (skewed randomization 3:2). Follow-up liver specimens (biopsies or autopsies) obtained after a median treatment...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of home visits in the outpatient treatment of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Edilaine; Campos, Geraldo M; Figlie, Neliana B; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of conventional outpatient treatment for alcoholic patients (CT) with this same conventional treatment plus home visits (HV), a new proposal for intervention within the Brazilian outpatient treatment system. A cost-effectiveness evaluation alongside a 12-week randomized clinical trial was performed. We identified the resources utilized by each intervention, as well as the cost according to National Health System (SUS), Brazilian Medical Association (AMB) tables of fees, and others based on 2005 data. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated as the main outcome measure - abstinent cases at the end of treatment. There were 51.8% abstinent cases for HV and 43.1% for CT, a clinically relevant finding. Other outcome measures, such as quality of life, also showed significant improvements that favored HV. The baseline scenario presented an ICER of USD 1,852. Sensitivity analysis showed an ICER of USD 689 (scenario favoring HV) and USD 2,334 (scenario favoring CT). The HV treatment was found to be cost-effective according to the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. PMID:20029212

  1. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  2. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  3. Psychosocial and clinical predictors of retention in outpatient alcoholism treatment Preditores psicossociais e clínicos de retenção ao tratamento para alcoolismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Corrêa Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One of the factors associated with low rates of compliance in the treatment for alcoholism seems to be the intensity of craving for alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between alcohol craving and biopsychosocial addiction model-related variables and to verify whether these variables could predict treatment retention. METHODS: The sample consisted of 257 male alcoholics who were enrolled in two different pharmacological trials conducted at the Universidade de São Paulo in Brazil. Based on four factors measured at baseline - biological (age, race, and family alcoholism, psychiatric (depression symptoms, social (financial and marital status, and addiction (craving intensity, severity of alcohol dependence, smoking status, drinking history, preferential beverage, daily intake of alcohol before treatment - direct logistic regression was performed to analyze these factors' influence on treatment retention after controlling for medication groups and AA attendance. RESULTS: Increasing age, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous groups, and beer preference among drinkers were independently associated with higher treatment retention. Conversely, higher scores for depression increased dropout rates. CONCLUSION: Health services should identify the treatment practices and therapists that improve retention. Information about patients' characteristics linked to dropouts should be studied to render treatment programs more responsive and attractive, combining pharmacological agents with more intensive and diversified psychosocial interventions.OBJETIVO: Um dos fatores associados com baixas taxas de adesão ao tratamento para alcoolismo parece ser a intensidade da fissura pelo álcool. Este estudo objetiva avaliar a associação entre a fissura pelo álcool e variáveis relacionadas ao modelo biopsicossocial de dependência, bem como verificar se estas variáveis prevêem retenção ao tratamento. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por

  4. Short Message Service (SMS) Technology in Alcohol Research-A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Robert, B.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the feasibility, advantages and limitations of the combined use of Internet and SMS technology to assess alcohol use, and to test whether an SMS sent in the evening (i.e. prior to a possible drinking event) changed the respondents' assessment, made on the f

  5. Gender differences in early maladaptive schemas in a treatment-seeking sample of alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Long-Term Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcomes: A Telephone Follow-Up at Five Years

    OpenAIRE

    Satre, Derek; Kohn, Carolyn; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and 5-year substance abuse treatment outcomes. Of 749 individuals who began private outpatient treatment, 598 (80%) were re-interviewed by telephone at 5 years. At 5-year follow-up, 53% reported smoking cigarettes in the prior 30 days. Smokers were less likely to be abstinent from alcohol and drugs in the prior 30 days (48.3% vs. 64.0%); had higher Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores in employment, alcohol, drug, psy...

  7. A systematic review of the effectiveness of naltrexone in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, Hendrik G; de Waart, Ranne; van der Windt, Danielle A W M; van den Brink, Wim; de Jong, Cor A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2006-07-01

    This systematic review summarises evidence of the effectiveness of naltrexone (NTX) and the added value of psychosocial treatment in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence. Studies were selected through a literature search conducted in March 2004. Seven opioid and seventeen alcohol studies were identified. When possible, meta-(regression) analyses were performed. There is lack of evidence about the effectiveness of NTX in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. There is evidence for the effectiveness and applicability of NTX in the management of alcohol dependence. The opioid studies combined NTX with a variety of psychosocial interventions, which plagued the evaluation of their value. Concomitant psychosocial interventions used in the alcohol studies were mainly cognitive behavioural, which seems to be more effective than NTX combined with supportive therapy. Available data do not allow firm conclusions regarding the added effect of psychosocial interventions. However, the data suggest that a combination of naltrexone with cognitive behavioural relapse prevention therapy is beneficial in alcohol dependent patients. PMID:16361086

  8. Serotonin Transporter Genomic Biomarker for Quantitative Assessment of Ondansetron Treatment Response in Alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Chamindi; Johnson, Bankole A.

    2012-01-01

    Paucity of sensitive biomarkers to quantify transient changes in alcohol consumption level remains a critical barrier for the development of efficacious therapeutic agents to treat alcoholism. Recently, in an 11-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of 283 alcohol-dependent individuals, we demonstrated that ondansetron was efficacious at reducing the severity of drinking (measured as drinks per drinking day; DDD) in alcoholics carrying the LL compared with the LS/SS genotyp...

  9. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  10. No effect of oral testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Wantzin, P; Eriksen, J

    1988-01-01

    . Sexual dysfunction was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with lower serum concentrations of testosterone, non-protein-bound testosterone, and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone. The significant associations between sexual dysfunction and non-protein-bound and non-sex hormone......The prevalence and course of sexual dysfunction was evaluated in 221 alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment on liver disease. At entry, 67% (95% confidence limits, 61%-74%) complained of sexual dysfunction......-binding globulin-bound testosterone concentrations disappeared, however, when age, ethanol consumption, and severity of liver disease were included as covariates in the analysis. During follow-up (median 30 mo, range 1-48 mo) sexual dysfunction improved significantly (p less than 0.05) at 6, 12, and 24 mo...

  11. Closing the Need-Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and…

  12. Propofol for Treatment of Refractory Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Amy L; Hamilton, Eric P; Kloss, H Grace; Hammond, Drayton A

    2016-04-01

    The authors evaluated all available evidence on the use of propofol as an adjuvant for the treatment of resistant alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in comparison to other therapies. A comprehensive PubMed search (1966-December 2015) was conducted using the search terms propofol, alcohol withdrawal, and drug therapy. Articles were cross-referenced for other citations. Clinical studies, case series, and case reports published in the English language assessing the use of propofol in adult patients for treatment of AWS were reviewed for inclusion. Propofol is a sedative-hypnotic that exerts its actions through agonism of GABAA receptors at a different binding site than benzodiazepines and reduces glutamatergic activity through N-methyl-d-aspartase (NMDA) receptor blockade. Dosages from 5 to 100 μg/kg/minute reduced AWS symptoms with frequent development of hypotension and requirement for mechanical ventilation. Patients on propofol often experienced longer durations of mechanical ventilation and length of stay, which may be attributed to more-resistant cases of AWS. When propofol was compared with dexmedetomidine as adjuncts in AWS, both agents showed similar benzodiazepine- and haloperidol-sparing effects. Dexmedetomidine was associated with more numerical rates of bradycardia, while propofol was associated with more numerical instances of hypotension. Dexmedetomidine was used more frequently in nonintubated patients. The available data assessing the utility of propofol for AWS exhibited significant heterogeneity. Propofol may be useful in a specific population of patients with AWS, limited to those who are not clinically responding to first-line therapy with benzodiazepines. Specifically, propofol should be considered in patients who are refractory to or not candidates for other adjuvant therapies, patients already requiring mechanical ventilation, or those with seizure activity or refractory delirium tremens. In severe, refractory AWS, adjuvant therapy with

  13. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets. PMID:16752110

  14. Is peripheral alcohol injection of value in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia? An analysis of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S A; Khan, M N; Shah, S F; Ghafoor, A; Khattak, A

    2011-04-01

    This retrospective study assessed the effectiveness and complications of peripheral alcohol injections in the management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). 100 patients were analyzed who received 250 peripheral alcohol injections from June 2004 to January 2010. The duration of effect of alcohol blocks, the effect of repeated administration, and complications associated with alcohol injections were examined. The distal injection technique was applied. The branch of the nerve was identified and confirmed. After carefully anesthetizing the nerve with local anesthesia, 1-1.5 ml of absolute alcohol was injected depending on the nerve involved. Pain relief lasted for a mean of 14.13 ± 8.66 months. There was a fall in the duration of effect with subsequent injections. No serious complications were reported. Only 3% patients presented with non-neuralgic pain, swelling, burning sensation, trismus, dysesthesia, soreness, infection and the expected loss of sensation along the branch involved in TN. The combination of efficacy and reduced morbidity makes this procedure preferable for the treatment of TN. Alcohol injections are useful in those who are refractory to drug therapy, the elderly, medically compromised patients, unwilling to undergo neurosurgical procedures and in whom surgery is delayed for any reason. PMID:21168309

  15. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermode Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs, and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed

  16. [Normative definition of staff requirement for a guideline-adherent inpatient qualified detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, F; Koopmann, A; Godemann, F; Wolff, J; Batra, A; Mann, K

    2016-03-01

    The central element of the "qualified withdrawal treatment" of alcohol dependence is - in addition to physical withdrawal treatment - psychotherapy. The treatment of the underlying addictive disorder that is displayed by intoxication, harmful behaviour and withdrawal symptoms is only possible with a combination of somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment elements. The successfully established multimodal therapy of the "qualified alcohol withdrawal treatment", postulated in the current S3-Treatment Guidelines, requires a multi-disciplinary treatment team with psychotherapeutic competence. The aim of the present work is to calculate the normative staff requirement of a guideline-based 21-day qualified withdrawal treatment and to compare the result with the staffing regulations of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. The present data support the hypothesis that even in the case of a hundred per cent implementation of these data, adequate therapy of alcohol-related disorders, according to the guidelines, is not feasible. This has to be considered when further developing the finance compensation system based on the described superseded elements of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. PMID:26842899

  17. Diagnostic Orphans for Alcohol Use Disorders in a Treatment-Seeking Psychiatric Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Miranda, Robert; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    Individuals who endorse one or two of the DSM-IV criterion items for alcohol dependence but do not meet criteria for either alcohol abuse or dependence have been referred to in the literature as “diagnostic orphans.” The goal of the present study is to compare diagnostic orphans for alcohol use disorders (AUD) to patients with lifetime DSM-IV alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and those with no-AUD symptoms on a series of demographic, diagnostic, and clinical measures. Participants were treat...

  18. Coupled electron beam radiation and MBR treatment of textile wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jun; Chen, Lujun; Wang, Jianlong; Zhang, Yongming

    2016-07-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) can be combined with biological treatments for recalcitrant organic pollutant decomposition. However, there has been no thorough investigation on the coupling of AOPs and membrane bioreactors (MBR) to treat polymer organic pollutants. This study proposes a new AOP that couples electron beam (EB) radiation and MBR treatment. This method was applied to treat real textile effluents containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). During the stable operation stage, 31 ± 7% (n = 28) COD was removed by the EB-MBR process. COD removal was enhanced to 45% at the end of the research period without process optimization. In addition, both the membrane flux and activated sludge system exhibited good stability. Only a 2% membrane flux decreased was observed after a 46 d operation period. PVA radiolysis and biofacies analysis mechanisms are also discussed. By contrast, PVA degradation using only the MBR treatment was ineffective in this study. This ineffectiveness was caused by membrane interception and floccule formation by PVA and activated sludge. PMID:27107385

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden.It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor.Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD,a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches.In this review,major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described.n-3 PUFAs,besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension,hyperlipidemia,endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e.,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α,PPARγ,sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein],impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity.In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production,n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and of oxygen reactive species.Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies,both animal models and human intervention trials,showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements.Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans,well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration,with histological endpoints,are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA,as well as other therapies,for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil,flaxseeds,olive oil) which are typical foods

  20. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  1. Access to treatment for those with alcohol, crack or other drug dependency problems--a case study in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Bastos, Francisco I; Inglez-Dias, Aline; Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa

    2016-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric policies has meant more emphasis on the protection of the individual's rights, tougher regulations and disincentives regarding involuntary patient admissions, and the creation of a community network to support individuals needing help. The differing socioeconomic status of those requiring treatment coupled with guidelines issued by the Health Ministry has meant that more support and care is now being directed towards individuals and families. The rise in public awareness of the problems in these areas has aided in the changes that have taken place. Due to a lack of community public services, this has led to the proliferation of different types of services all with differing standards of care and has fueled the public debate surrounding involuntary patient admissions. Our analysis in relation to treatment for those with alcohol, crack and other drugs problems in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, states that there are gaps related to access for all-day public services and a lack of psychiatrists in multi-disciplinary teams. There are many new and untried serviced offered by the private sector, religious bodies and public shelters which have arisen in the wake of the rise in people that need help. We took note of the development and progress of these new projects as well as the policy recommendations from the Government. PMID:26816165

  2. Collaborative Services: Children Experiencing Neglect and the Side Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Adkinson, Diana L.; Stuart, Shannon K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide critical knowledge regarding children who are served by the child welfare system and how these children's specialized needs affect speech-language services. Specifically, the structure of social services system models is presented, with an emphasis on the cultural and systemic interactions between…

  3. Alcohol dependence and treatment utilization in Europe – a representative cross-sectional study in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Manthey, Jakob; Probst, Charlotte; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Della Vedova, Roberto; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) in Europe is prevalent and causes considerable health burden. Recognition by general practitioners (GPs) and provision of or referral to treatment may contribute to reduce this burden. This paper studied AD prevalence in varying European primary care settings and examined who received treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional multi-centre study in six European countries, 358 general practitioners assessed 13,003 primary care patients between January 2013 and J...

  4. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Martín-Domínguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of alterations that go from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 and obesity are the principle factors associated to NAFLD. A 20-30 % prevalence in general population has been described. The survival of this type of patient is lower than the general population's, showing a higher incidence of hepatic and cardiovascular complications. The aetiopathogenesis is still unclear, but we know the intervention of different factors that produce fatty-acid accumulation in hepatic parenchyma, causing oxidative stress, oxygen-free radicals and the synthesis of an inflammatory cascade, that determine the progression of this disease from steatosis up to advanced fibrosis. The diagnostic gold-standard is still the liver biopsy, even though the development of newer non-invasive techniques, like serological and imaging (radiology, have opened a new field for research that allows bloodless testing of these patients and better study of the natural history of this disease. Nowadays, there is still no specific treatment for NAFLD. The development of healthy life habits and moderate exercise continue to be the pillars of treatment. Different pharmacological approaches have been studied and applied, such as the control of insulin resistance, lowering cholesterol levels, antioxidants, and other alternatives in experimental trials.

  5. Patient satisfaction with treatment for alcohol use disorders: comparing patients with and without severe mental health symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, Stacey; Andrews, Jane; Gaughwin,Matthew; Turnbull, Deborah; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina

    2016-01-01

    Stacey L McCallum,1 Jane M Andrews,2,3 Matthew D Gaughwin,3,4 Deborah A Turnbull,1 Antonina A Mikocka-Walus5 1School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 3School of Public Health, University of Adelaide, 4Drug and Alcohol Consultation Liaison Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 5Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, UK Background: Previous st...

  6. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD with sodium oxybate (SMO or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA, exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as “street drug”; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD.

  7. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fabio; Vignoli, Teo; Tarli, Claudia; Domenicali, Marco; Zoli, Giorgio; Bernardi, Mauro; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) with sodium oxybate (SMO) or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as "street drug"; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD. PMID:26959045

  8. Domestic violence and alcohol use: Security measures of compulsory treatment and a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one among a number of factors in the etiology of violent crime which includes domestic violence. Domestic violence usually designates: violence between partners (spouses) and violence towards children and elderly parents. The aim of this article is to highlight the impact of alcohol abuse (intoxication) and alcohol dependence on domestic violence, but also to emphasize the multifactoriality of this relation, the economic damage that s...

  9. Prospective Changes in Alcohol Use Among Hazardous Drinkers in the Absence of Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dearing, Ronda L.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Connors, Gerard J.; Walitzer, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the natural course of hazardous alcohol consumption could inform the development of brief interventions to encourage self-change. In the current study, hazardous drinkers (based on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score) were recruited using advertisements to participate in a 2-year multi-wave prospective study. Participants (N = 206) provided self-reports every six months during the study, including reports of daily alcohol consumption. The current ...

  10. Treatment of alcohol use disorder patients affected by liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma awaiting liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni; Leone, Silvia; Borro, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is one of the top three priority areas for public health worldwide. Alcohol is the second leading cause of liver disease, and 45-60% of cirrhosis deaths are alcohol related. In the United States it represents 30% of liver transplants and in Europe 50%. Twenty to 40% of cases of steatosis evolve into steatohepatitis, and l8-20% directly into liver cirrhosis; 20-40% of cases of steatohepatitis evolve into cirrhosis and 4-5% into hepatocellular carcinoma. This cascade of events takes 5 to 40 years. The temporal variability is related to the genetic pattern of the subject and the presence of associated risk factors. Thirty to 40% of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) suffer from HCV, and 70% of HCV patients have a history of risky / harmful alcohol consumption. A severe clinical condition is certainly the overlap of acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) with a framework of HCV-related chronic hepatitis: acute chronic liver failure (ACLF). In the case of decompensated cirrhosis, severe AAH or ACLF non responder to medical therapy the indication, in selected patients, is certainly liver transplantation (LT). ALD treatment is important, but not very effective if abstention is not reached. In case of liver disease related or correlated to LT such as decompensated cirrhosis, severe AAH or ACLF the possibility of anticraving therapy is restricted to metadoxine and baclofen. In all alcohol use disorder patients with ALD psycho-social therapy and attendance at SHG groups it is mandatory, even in post-transplant period. PMID:27148681

  11. Experience in the treatment of some complications of portal hypertension in alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Željka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Portal hypertension (PH is hemodynamical abnormality associated with the most serious complications of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC: ascites, varices and variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of portal hypertension, especially of upper gastrointestinal bleedings in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. Methods. A total of 237 patients with ALC were observed in a 3-year period. Results. A total of 161 patients (68% were hospitalized because of PH elements: 86 (36.3% had upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 75 (31.7% were decompensated. Only 76 (32% of the patients had icterus. General mortality was 85 (36%. According to the source of bleeding, 61 (71% patients bled from varices, and 25 (29% from other sources with existing varices but non-incriminated for bleeding in 16 (64% of those patients. Active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding were found in 63 (73% cases. Endoscopic treatment of variceal bleeding along with octreotide applied in 20 (32.78% patients, just octreotide in 32 (52.46%, and octreotid plus balloon tamponade in 9 (14.75%. According to Child-Pugh classification, 25 (29% of the bleeding patients were in class A, score 5.4; 43 (50% in class B, score 7.8; and 18 (21% in class C, score 10.9. Average hemoglobin level was 93 g/L, hematocrit 0.27, AST 71.52 U/L (normal to 37 U/L, ALT 37.74 U/L (normal to 40 U/L. Until this bleeding episode, 41 (47% of the patients already bled. In the decompensated patients 3 (4% were in Child Pugh class A, score 6; 42 (56% in class B, score 8.3; and 30 (40% in class C, score 10.6. Until this decompensation episode, 7 (9.3% patients already bled. Conclusion. Patients with ALC need early detection of varices, primary and secondary profilaxis of variceal bleeding and adequate therapy of ascites. When bleeding occurs, patients need urgent upper endoscopy and intensive treatment.

  12. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-12-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas. PMID:23493841

  13. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  14. Intervention for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Treatment Approaches and Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some…

  15. Stress Moderates the Effect of Childhood Trauma and Adversity on Recent Drinking in Treatment-seeking Alcohol-dependent Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Sarah F.; Businelle, Michael S.; Suris, Alina; Walker, Robrina; Rao, Uma; North, Carol S.; Xiao, Hong; Adinoff, Bryon

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to clarify the relationship between childhood trauma and adversity with later alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of adult psychosocial stress. Method Seventy-seven recently abstinent alcohol-dependent men attending residential treatment programs were assessed. Childhood trauma/adversity was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), drinks per drinking day (DDD) with the TimeLine Follow Back, and chronic psychosocial stress with the UCLA Stress Interview. Drinking and stress were retrospectively assessed for six months prior to the present treatment episode. Direct associations between childhood trauma/adversity and alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of recent psychosocial stress were assessed. All measures were considered as continuous variables. Results Pretreatment drinking severity (DDD) was associated with CTQ Total score (p = .009) and the Emotional Abuse (p < .001) and Physical Abuse (p < .01) subscales. UCLA Total Stress significantly moderated the effects of CTQ Total score on drinking severity (p = .04). Whereas higher CTQ scores were significantly associated with a greater amount of pretreatment drinking in participants with high UCLA stress scores (p = .01), CTQ scores were not associated with the amount of drinking in those with low UCLA stress scores (p = .63). Conclusions Childhood trauma predicts drinking severity in alcohol-dependent men and this effect is stronger in participants with ongoing stress in adult life. These findings suggest that early childhood trauma/adversity may sensitize stress-response systems. PMID:24635549

  16. Alcoholic Pancreatitis: Pathogenesis, Incidence and Treatment with Special Reference to the Associated Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Morselli-Labate

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic pancreatitis continues to stir up controversy. One of the most debated points is whether from onset it is a chronic disease or whether it progresses to a chronic form after repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. Histological studies on patients with alcoholic pancreatitis have shown that the disease is chronic from onset and that alcoholic acute pancreatitis occurs in a pancreas already damaged by chronic lesions. Genetic factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic disease. The incidence of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis seems to have decreased in the last twenty years. Finally, recent therapeutic studies which have shown medical or surgical approaches capable of reducing the pain episodes in chronic pancreatitis patients will be described.

  17. A Pilot Study of Pioglitazone for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Al-Gharabally

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Insulin resistance appears to be a major factor involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. In this pilot study, we examined the effect of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent, on patients with NAFLD and NASH.Methods: The medical records of patients referred to our clinic over a 48-month period were reviewed, and individuals with a clinical diagnosis of NAFLD or NASH, who were overweight (BMI|"|25 with chronic elevated liver enzymes were included in this study. The patients were either treated with pioglitazone or advised to start a weight-reduction diet and exercise, in a non-blinded random method based on the treating physicians' discretion. Results: Thirty-four patients' charts were retrospectively analyzed. Nineteen patients were treated with pioglitazone and 15 patients were advised to start a weight reduction diet and exercise. There were significant improvements in mean ALT and AST in the pioglitazone group at the end of treatment when compared to pretreatment values and to the diet/exercise group. There were no significant changes in the lipid profiles, body mass index or fasting glucose levels between baseline and at the end of the therapy in either group. There were no adverse side effects, including hypoglycemia, in patients treated with pioglitazone. Conclusions: Preliminary results using pioglitazone in patients with NAFLD or NASH are promising. However, larger prospective studies are further needed to validate the results of our study and to examine histological response.

  18. Multiple Hits, Including Oxidative Stress, as Pathogenesis and Treatment Target in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple parallel hits, including genetic differences, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota, account for the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Multiple hits induce adipokine secretion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and oxidative stress at the cellular level that subsequently induce hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, among which oxidative stress is considered a key contributor to progression from simple fatty liver to NASH. Although several clinical trials have shown that anti-oxidative therapy can effectively control hepatitis activities in the short term, the long-term effect remains obscure. Several trials of long-term anti-oxidant protocols aimed at treating cerebrovascular diseases or cancer development have failed to produce a benefit. This might be explained by the non-selective anti-oxidative properties of these drugs. Molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that reduces only cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS and several diseases associated with oxidative stress are sensitive to hydrogen. The progress of NASH to hepatocellular carcinoma can be controlled using hydrogen-rich water. Thus, targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress might be a good candidate for NASH treatment. Long term clinical intervention is needed to control this complex lifestyle-related disease.

  19. Inmate attitudes toward treatment: mental health service utilization and treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lucas B; Morgan, Robert D

    2011-08-01

    This study examined inmate attitudes toward treatment, mental health treatment utilization, and treatment effects that maximize treatment effectiveness. Participants consisted of 278 incarcerated male adult offenders from the Kansas Department of Corrections. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that inmate attitudes toward treatment were predictive of the number of mental health treatment sessions (dosage) inmates received. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated positive help-seeking attitudes were associated with institutional behavior (decreased number and severity of disciplinary infractions) and scores on a measure assessing risk for future criminal behavior; however, the amount of mental health treatment an inmate received (treatment dosage) was associated with problematic institutional behavior (i.e., increased severity and number of disciplinary infractions). These results indicated that treatment dosage and behavioral outcomes were impacted by inmate attitudes toward treatment. As a result, correctional psychologists may be better able to predict which inmates will receive the most benefit from services. Implications of these findings for practitioners and policy makers are discussed. PMID:20499269

  20. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Field, Catherine Anne

    2013-01-01

    Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients\\' experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care.

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone in the treatment of concurrent alcohol use disorder and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, Tony; Brands, Bruna; Selby, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of naltrexone as a treatment for concurrent alcohol abuse or dependence and pathological gambling was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two, mostly male, subjects were recruited from the community and received 11 weeks of medication during which cognitive-behavioral counseling was also provided. No significant group differences were found on any alcohol or gambling variable (ie, frequency, quantity, expenditures) at post-treatment or at the one year follow-up. However, a strong time effect was found suggesting that treatment, in general, was effective. The use of naltrexone to treat concurrent alcohol use and gambling problems was not supported. PMID:19340640

  2. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  3. Social service offices as a point of entry into substance abuse treatment for poor South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Burnhams Nadine; Dada Siphokazi; Myers Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In South Africa, district social service offices are often the first point of entry into the substance abuse treatment system. Despite this, little is known about the profile of people presenting with substance-related problems at these service points. This has a negative impact on treatment service planning. This paper begins to redress this gap through describing patterns of substance use and service needs among people using general social services in the Western Cape an...

  4. Relative Importance of Emotional Dysregulation, Hostility, and Impulsiveness in Predicting Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by Men in Alcohol Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Schumacher, Julie A.; McLeish, Alison C.; Samper, Rita E.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study employs dominance analysis to assess the relative importance of three constructs—hostility, impulsiveness, and emotional dysregulation (difficulties managing one’s emotions when experiencing negative emotion or distress)—in explaining psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration by men seeking alcohol treatment. A sample of 121 predominantly White, heterosexual men (average age 33.28, range = 18 - 62) enrolled in residential substance abus...

  5. Effects of stress, acute alcohol treatment, or both on pre-pulse inhibition in high- and low-alcohol preferring mice

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Matthew S.; Chester, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating frequently used to assess information processing in both humans and rodents. Both alcohol and stress exposure can modulate PPI, making it possible to assess how stress and alcohol interact to influence information processing. Humans with an increased genetic risk for alcoholism are more reactive to stressful situations compared to those without a family history, and alcohol may have stress-dampening ...

  6. A Review of Computer-based Alcohol Problem Services Designed for the General Public

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on computer-based drinking assessment and intervention programs evaluated using members of the general public. The primary aims were to summarize the demand, usage, and effectiveness of these services. A systematic search of the literature identified seven on-line drinking assessments and eight computerized interventions that were evaluated using members of the general public. Internet assessment users tend to be in their early thirties, are more often ma...

  7. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START) – a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaraj Rama; Thomas Mahiban; Kavanagh David; d’Abbs Peter; Mayo Luke; Thomson Valerie; Griffin Carolyn; Nagel Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Meth...

  8. Bariatric Surgery and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current and Potential Future Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Akira; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Koki; Umemura, Akira; Baba, Shigeaki; Obuchi, Toru; WAKABAYASHI, GO

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The diagnosis of NASH is challenging as most affected patients are symptom-free and the role of routine screening is not clearly established. Most patients with severe obesity who undergo bariatric surgery have NAFLD, which is associated insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and obesity-related dyslipidemia. The effec...

  9. Republished: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a practical approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, J K; Anstee, Q M; McPherson, S

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to a third of the population in many developed countries. Between 10% and 30% of patients with NAFLD have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that can progress to cirrhosis. There are metabolic risk factors common to both NAFLD and cardiovascular disease, so patients with NASH have an increased risk of liver-related and cardiovascular death. Management of patients with NAFLD depends largely on the stage of disease, emphasising the importan...

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a practical approach to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, J K; Anstee, Q M; McPherson, S

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to a third of the population in many developed countries. Between 10% and 30% of patients with NAFLD have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that can progress to cirrhosis. There are metabolic risk factors common to both NAFLD and cardiovascular disease, so patients with NASH have an increased risk of liver-related and cardiovascular death. Management of patients with NAFLD depends largely on the stage of disease, emphasising the importan...

  11. States and Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: Funding and Guidelines for Infection-Related Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kritz, Steven; Brown, Lawrence S.; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Novo, Patricia; Rotrosen, John

    2008-01-01

    Community-based substance abuse treatment programs provide HIV, hepatitis C virus, and sexually transmitted infection services. To explore how state funding and guidelines affect practice, we surveyed state agency administrators and substance abuse treatment program administrators and clinicians regarding 8 infection-related services. Although state funding for infection-related services is widely available, substance abuse treatment programs do not always access it. Substance abuse treatment...

  12. Differences in Characteristics and Treatment Received among Depressed Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients with and without Co-Occuring Alcohol Misuse: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Pirkola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at examining the differences between depressed psychiatric adolescent outpatients with and without cooccurring alcohol misuse in psychosocial background, clinical characteristics, and treatment received during one-year followup. Furthermore, we investigated factors related to nonattendance at treatment. Materials and Methods. Consecutive 156 adolescent (13–19 years psychiatric outpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder at baseline were interviewed using structured measures at baseline and at 12 months. Alcohol misuse was defined as having an AUDIT score of 8 or more points. The outpatients received “treatment as usual” of clinically defined duration. Results. Among depressive outpatients, poor parental support, parental alcohol use and decreased attendance at treatment associated with alcohol misuse. The severity of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT-score was the strongest factor independently predicting nonattendance at treatment in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Alcohol misuse indicates family problems, has a deleterious effect on treatment attendance, and should be taken into account when managing treatment for depressive adolescent outpatients.

  13. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  14. 38 CFR 4.29 - Ratings for service-connected disabilities requiring hospital treatment or observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 4.29 Ratings for service-connected disabilities requiring hospital treatment or observation. A total... when it is established that a service-connected disability has required hospital treatment in a... hospital admission was for disability not connected with service, if during such hospitalization,...

  15. Possible new ways in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder and comorbid alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Azorin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Michel Azorin1, Charles L Bowden2, Ricardo P Garay3, Giulio Perugi4, Eduard Vieta5, Allan H Young61Department of Psychiatry, CHU Sainte Marguerite, Marseilles, France; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3CNRS-UMR 8162, Université Paris-Sud, and Hôpital Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis-Robinson, France; 4Vincent P Dole Dual Diagnosis Team, Santa Chiara and University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Italy; 5Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBER -SAM, Barcelona, Spain; 6Institute of Mental Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaAbstract: About half of all bipolar patients have an alcohol abuse problem at some point of their lifetime. However, only one randomized, controlled trial of pharmacotherapy (valproate in this patient population was published as of 2006. Therefore, we reviewed clinical trials in this indication of the last four years (using mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and other drugs. Priority was given to randomized trials, comparing drugs with placebo or active comparator. Published studies were found through systematic database search (PubMed, Scirus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct. In these last four years, the only randomized, clinically relevant study in bipolar patients with comorbid alcoholism is that of Brown and colleagues (2008 showing that quetiapine therapy decreased depressive symptoms in the early weeks of use, without modifying alcohol use. Several other open-label trials have been generally positive and support the efficacy and tolerability of agents from different classes in this patient population. Valproate efficacy to reduce excessive alcohol consumption in bipolar patients was confirmed and new controlled studies revealed its therapeutic benefit to prevent relapse in newly abstinent alcoholics and to improve alcohol hallucinosis. Topiramate

  16. MicroRNA profiles following metformin treatment in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Akiko; Morishita, Asahiro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Tani, Joji; Sakamoto, Teppei; Tatsuta, Miwa; Toyota, Yuka; Fujita, Koji; Kato, Kiyohito; Maeda, Emiko; Nomura, Takako; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Himoto, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shintaro; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Niki, Toshiro; Ono, Masafumi; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and is considered to be a causative factor of cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate messenger RNA (mRNA). Recently, it was demonstrated that the aberrant expression of certain miRNAs plays a pivotal role in liver disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in miRNA profiles associated with metformin treatment in a NASH model. Eight-week-old male mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet alone or with 0.08% metformin for 15 weeks. Metformin significantly downregulated the level of plasma transaminases and attenuated hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis. The expression of miRNA-376a, miRNA‑127, miRNA-34a, miRNA-300 and miRNA-342-3p was enhanced among the 71 upregulated miRNAs, and the expression of miRNA-122, miRNA-194, miRNA-101b and miRNA-705 was decreased among 60 downregulated miRNAs in the liver of MCD-fed mice when compared with control mice. Of note, miRNA profiles were altered following treatment with metformin in MCD-fed mice. miRNA-376a, miRNA‑127, miRNA-34a, miRNA-300 and miRNA-342-3p were downregulated, but miRNA-122, miRNA-194, miRNA‑101b and miRNA-705 were significantly upregulated in MCD-fed mice treated with metformin. miRNA profiles were altered in MCD-fed mice and metformin attenuated this effect on miRNA expression. Therefore, miRNA profiles are a potential tool that may be utilized to clarify the mechanism behind the metformin-induced improvement of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis. Furthermore, identification of targetable miRNAs may be used as a novel therapy in human NASH. PMID:25672270

  17. Identification and brief treatment of alcohol problems with medical patients: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Bendtsen, Preben; Borges, Guilherme; Colby, Suzanne M; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Johansson, Kjell

    2003-02-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA meeting in San Francisco, California. The chair was Peter Monti and co-chair was Nancy Barnett. The aim of the symposium was to bring together researchers from the United States, Sweden, and Mexico to present current findings on the development and implementation of screening and intervention research in Emergency Departments (ED). Cheryl Cherpitel presented findings on the performance of the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS4), a 4-item instrument used for screening for alcohol dependence and harmful drinking in the ED. Dr. Cherpitel also presented for her collaborator, Guilherme Borges, their research on the performance of a number of screening measures including the RAPS among Mexicans and Mexican-Americans with alcohol-related disorders in the ED. Preben Bendtsen described the implementation of an alcohol screening and intervention procedure delivered by ordinary ED staff in Sweden. Nancy Barnett presented data on characteristics related to readiness to change alcohol use in a sample of young adults who were treated in an ED for injury or intoxication. PMID:12605075

  18. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  19. Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) for estimating costs of outpatient treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Broome, Kirk M; Beaston-Blaakman, Aaron; Knight, Danica K; Horgan, Constance M; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-02-01

    A Microsoft Excel-based workbook designed for research analysts to use in a national study was retooled for treatment program directors and financial officers to allocate, analyze, and estimate outpatient treatment costs in the U.S. This instrument can also be used as a planning and management tool to optimize resources and forecast the impact of future changes in staffing, client flow, program design, and other resources. The Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) automatically provides feedback and generates summaries and charts using comparative data from a national sample of non-methadone outpatient providers. TCAT is being used by program staff to capture and allocate both economic and accounting costs, and outpatient service costs are reported for a sample of 70 programs. Costs for an episode of treatment in regular, intensive, and mixed types of outpatient treatment were $882, $1310, and $1381 respectively (based on 20% trimmed means and 2006 dollars). An hour of counseling cost $64 in regular, $85 intensive, and $86 mixed. Group counseling hourly costs per client were $8, $11, and $10 respectively for regular, intensive, and mixed. Future directions include use of a web-based interview version, much like some of the commercially available tax preparation software tools, and extensions for use in other modalities of treatment. PMID:19004576

  20. 1997 through 2010 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) (formerly titled Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS)) is designed to collect information from all...

  1. The Role of Drinking Alcohol, Coffee, Tea Habits, Fear of Gaining Weight and Treatment Methods in Smoking Cessation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Fidancı1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits, fear of gaining weight and treatment methods in smoking cessation success. Methods: In our study, we applied a questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to 128 participants consulting Family Medicine Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic of Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Among participants, 67 of them were people quitted smoking while the other 61 did not. With questionnaire, we investigated factors possibly affecting smoking cessation success like drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits and also marital status and occupations of participants. By adding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to questionnaire we defined the dependence status of participants. Results: Study comprised of 128 participants, 50 of them being female and 78 being male. Mean age of participants was 34.01 (±12.24 in patients quitted smoking and 32.82 (±13.45 in patients still smoking. Tea and alcohol drinking habits were found to be higher in smoking group and difference was statistically significant (p<0,05. When examining smoking cessation success according to occupational groups, civil servants and unemployed people were more successful than other occupational groups, but there was no statistically significant difference. People having coffee drinking habits quitted smoking in a significantly higher rate (p<0,05. Among given treatments, although statistically insignificant, the most effective one was varenicline. Conclusion: According to our results, smoking cessation success is lower among people having tea and alcohol drinking habits. In smokers, we should investigate the relationship with additional substance usage and aim to decrease these additional substance usage habits for increasing smoking cessation success.

  2. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step. PMID:27451191

  3. The Experiences of Service Users in Family Focused Institutional Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, Dietmar; Dhakal, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Dhakal, Sara & Fritsche, Dietmar The Experiences of Service Users in Family Focused Institutional Addiction Treatment. 36 pages, 4 appendices. Language: English. Helsinki, Autumn 2013. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the experiences of service users in family-focused institutional addiction treatment. The research data was collected in a family focuse...

  4. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  5. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  6. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  7. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service, and an...... outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  8. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-08-31

    The principal objectives of this study are to identify an appropriate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidative mineralization technique, perform compatibility and evaporation fate tests for neat and mineralized PVA, and determine potential for PVA chemical interferences which may affect ion exchange utilization for radioactive wastewater processing in the nuclear industry.

  9. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR... by the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials incorporated by reference are available...

  10. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  11. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The...: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  12. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  13. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  14. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The..., Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  15. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  16. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  17. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  20. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  1. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  2. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  3. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  4. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  5. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  7. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  8. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  9. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The.... Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes...

  10. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  11. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  12. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30 p.m... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  13. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  14. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m. to... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  15. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  16. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  17. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  18. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  19. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  20. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  1. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  2. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  3. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  4. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Scientific Review Officer, National Inst on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  5. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  6. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  7. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  8. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  9. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  10. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  11. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  12. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  13. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  14. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  15. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  17. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  18. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  20. Physical exercise as a supplement to outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders – design and preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Bilberg, Randi Marie; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    Background and aim Alcohol use disorder is a widespread problem in Denmark and has severe impacts on health and quality of life of each individual. The clinical treatment of alcohol use disorder involves evidence-based knowledge on medical treatment, physical training, and psychological management....... The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of physical exercise on alcohol intake, cardio-respiratory fitness and socio-psychological outcomes. Methods and design The study is a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (A) Standard treatment alone, (B) Standard treatment and physical...... exercise in groups, or (C) Standard treatment and physical exercise on an individual basis. The patients will fill a questionnaire and they will be tested at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Results At the end of March 2014 we expect to analyse the first baseline data and follow up data. Here, we will...

  1. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  2. Formation of inorganic nanofibers by heat-treatment of poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers (precursors were formed by electrospinning employing water as a solvent for the spinning solution. The precursors were converted into oxide (ZrO2, carbide (ZrC or nitride (ZrN nanofibers by heating them in air, Ar or N2 atmospheres. Monoclinic ZrO2 nanofibers with high-specific surface area were obtained by heat-treatment of the precursors in air. ZrC and ZrN nanofibers could be obtained below theoretical temperatures calculated from thermodynamics data.

  3. Two-year prognosis after residential treatment for patients with alcohol dependence: three chief guidelines for sobriety in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tetsuji; Negoro, Hideki; Saka, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the three chief traditional guidelines for sobriety (3CGS) are regular medical checkups, participation in self-help groups, and pharmacotherapy with antidipsotropics. However, the official record of the origins of 3CGS is not clear. The aim of this current study was to assess 3CGS by an examination of the prognosis of patients with alcohol dependence 2 years after their discharge from a residential treatment program. Subjects and methods The association between subjects’ abstinence from alcohol and their regular medical checkups, participation in self-help groups, and treatment with antidipsotropics were prospectively examined. Two years after discharge, the relationship between the 3CGS compliance and abstinence rates was investigated as the primary outcome. In addition, the following were examined as secondary outcomes: the time taken till the first drink after discharge, whether the participants were readmitted to residential treatment, the number of days to readmission, the number of heavy drinking days, and recovery. Results A total of 98 patients participated. The perfect and partial abstinence rates for patients who followed all the principles of 3CGS were significantly higher than those for patients who followed no guidelines (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The perfect abstinence rates for patients who had continued attending checkup sessions (P<0.001) and who were taking antidipsotropics (P<0.05) were significantly higher than those for patients who did not follow these components of 3CGS. However, the perfect abstinence rates were not higher for patients who had continued to participate in self-help groups. In addition, the perfect abstinence rate was statistically associated with regular medical checkups (adjusted odds ratio =5.33, 95% confidence interval =1.35–21.0) and participation in self-help groups (adjusted odds ratio =3.79, 95% confidence interval =1.17–12.3). Conclusion This study, reports the effectiveness of 3CGS

  4. The Use of Very High-Doses of Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol-Dependence: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, which is to say, more than 300 mg/day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very hi...

  5. The use of very high-doses of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol-dependence: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud ede Beaurepaire

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, that is to say, more than 300mg per day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very high doses baclofen were justified in almost all the cases. Side effects are analyzed.

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  7. The Relationship of Alexithymia to Emotional Dysregulation Within an Alcohol Dependent Treatment Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; BRADIZZA, CLARA M.; Gudleski, Gregory D.; Coffey, Scott F.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bailey, Sydney T.; Bole, Christopher W.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties regulating emotions have implications for the development, maintenance, and recovery from alcohol problems. One construct thought to impede the regulation of emotion is alexithymia. Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying, differentiating and expressing feelings, a limited imagination and fantasy life, and an externally-oriented thinking style (e.g., prefer talking about daily activities rather than feelings). Given that poor emotion regulation skills have been f...

  8. Pharmacological features of naltrexone and its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence [Zastosowanie naltreksonu w terapii uzależnienia od alkoholu – aspekty farmakologiczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies performed over the last decades have indicated that combined therapy, involving pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is an optimal approach to alcohol dependence. Both pharmaco- and psychotherapy should be personalised with a careful balance between patient’s needs and his/her clinical characteristics. The aim of the present article is to review the basic pharmacological features of naltrexone and its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  9. Efficacy of an alcohol-focused intervention for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV treatment outcomes – a randomised controlled trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Charles DH; Morojele, Neo K.; Myers, Bronwyn J.; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Manda, Samuel OM; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Ramjee, Gita; Hahn, Judith A.; Rehm, Jürgen; Shuper, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little research has examined whether alcohol reduction interventions improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV treatment outcomes. This study assesses the efficacy of an intervention for reducing alcohol use among HIV patients on ART who are hazardous/harmful drinkers. Specific aims include adapting a blended Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Problem Solving Therapy (PST) intervention for use with HIV patients; evaluating the efficacy of the intervention for reducing ...

  10. 9 CFR 72.18 - Movement interstate; specification by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services of treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement interstate; specification by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services of treatment required when dipping facilities..., Veterinary Services of treatment required when dipping facilities unavailable. (a) Tick-infested...

  11. Tratamento farmacológico da dependência do álcool The pharmacologic treatment of the alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Castro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available As intervenções farmacológicas podem ter um papel crucial na redução do craving, consumo de álcool e manutenção da abstinência. Este artigo revisa a farmacoterapia para a dependência de álcool com ênfase na naltrexona, dissulfiram e acamprosato. O antagonista opióide naltrexona diminui taxas de recaída, reduz dias de consumo e prolonga períodos de abstinência. Acamprosato restaura a atividade normal dos sistemas glutamato e GABA. Dissulfiram tem demonstrado ser mais efetivo para pacientes que acreditam em sua eficácia e permaneçam aderentes ao tratamento. Ondansetron tem-se mostrado promissor na dependência de álcool de início precoce, mas necessita estudos mais extensivos. Topiramato (até 300 mg/dia foi mais eficaz do que placebo no tratamento da dependência de álcool.The pharmacological intervention can play a crucial role in the reduction of craving and drinking and the maintenance of abstinence. This article reviews pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence with an emphasis on the naltrexone, dissulfiram and acamprosate. The opioid antagonist naltrexone lowers relapse rate, reduces drinking days and prolongs periods of abstinence. Acamprosate restores the normal activity of glutamate and GABA systems. Disulfiram has been shown to be most effective for patients who believe in its efficacy and remain compliant with the treatment. Ondansetron, has shown promise in the early-onset alcohol dependence but needs more extensive study. Topiramate (up to 300 mg per day was more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  13. LU Bingjiu's Experience on Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease%卢秉久治疗酒精性肝病经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相芳萍; 卢秉久

    2016-01-01

    酒精性肝病是由于长期过量饮酒而引起的进行性肝脏损伤疾病,卢秉久教授治疗该病经验丰富,认为酒精性肝病可分为酒痞、酒癖、酒臌三期,分别与西医学酒精性脂肪肝、酒精性肝炎或纤维化、酒精性肝硬化相对应.卢教授在临床治疗中注重分期辨证论治,酒痞期治以健脾利湿、解酒消毒;酒癖期治以利湿消积、化瘀解毒;酒臌期治以扶正祛邪、健脾祛湿.临证中善用楮实子与枳椇子,并强调戒酒对治疗该病的重要作用.%Alcoholic liver disease is a progressive liver disease due to the long-term damage caused by ex-cessive alcohol consumption. Professor LU Bingjiu has rich experience in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Professor Lu divides alcoholic liver disease into three stages,wine ruffian,alcohol addiction,alcohol swollen,similar to alcoholic fatty liver,alcoholic hepatitis or fibrosis and alcoholic cirrhosis of western medicine. Professor Lu pays attention to stage differentiation in clinical treatment. In the wine ruffian period, patients are treated with invigorating the spleen to eliminate dampness,resolving alcoholic toxin;in the alco-hol addiction period patients are treated with removing dampness and accumulation,resolving stasis and detoxication;in the alcohol swollen period patients are treated with strengthening healthy qi,eliminating pathogens,invigorating the spleen and dispelling dampness. Professor LU prefers using Chushizi and Zhijuzi, and stresses the importance of temperance on the treatment for such disease.

  14. Improvement of grafted watermelon transplant survival as a result of size and starch increases over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty alcohol treatments can be used to eliminate the meristem of cucurbit (Family Cucurbitaceae) rootstocks which prevents regrowth when grafting, but the effects of the treatment on the rootstock have not been documented. Two rootstock types, ‘Emphasis’ bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and ‘Car...

  15. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo;

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  16. The experience in the service of Street Clinic in the view of professionals: Contributions to the care for users of alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cássia Aranda de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Assistance to users of alcohol and other drugs in Brazil has undergone several transformations owing to historical, social, and political phenomena. In 2009, the Ministry of Health created the ‘Street Clinic’ in order to reduce harm to the homeless and the population vulnerable to use of alcohol or other drugs. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the experience at a ‘Street Clinic’ from the perspective of the professionals who compose the service team in a municipality located in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernanbuco state. This is a qualitative study with data collected through semi-structured interviews with five professionals and submitted to qualitative analysis. The content of the interviews explained the dynamic character of the reality experienced by professionals and the time of implementation and consolidation of this service in the city, characterizing the objectives, clientele, user demand, and systematization of actions and difficulties in delivering the service. It was possible to identify similarities between the experiences of the research participants and what is recommended by the Ministry of Health, as well as similarities with other services described in the literature. Furthermore, the data revealed the day to day challenges experienced by the professionals expressed mainly in the difficulties reported in the interviews. The study provided a good basis for the implementation of other Street Clinic teams and the training of professionals, including occupational therapists, to work in this field.

  17. Under digital fluoroscopic guidance multiple-point injection with absolute alcohol and pinyangmycin for the treatment of superficial venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of multiple-point injection with absolute alcohol and pinyangmycin under digital fluoroscopic guidance for superficial venous malformations. Methods: By using a disposal venous transfusion needle the superficial venous malformation was punctured and then contrast media lohexol was injected in to visualize the tumor body, which was followed by the injection of ethanol and pinyangmycin when the needle was confirmed in the correct position. The procedure was successfully performed in 31 patients. The clinical results were observed and analyzed. Results: After one treatment complete cure was achieved in 21 cases and marked effect was obtained in 8 cases, with a total effectiveness of 93.5%. Conclusion: Multiple-point injection with ethanol and pinyangmycin under digital fluoroscopic guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial venous malformations, especially for the lesions that are deeply located and ill-defined. (authors)

  18. Drinking Alone? The Effect of an Alcohol Treatment Program on Relationship Stability for Convicted Drunk Drivers in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald

    2016-01-01

    This article tests whether an alcohol treatment program for drunk drivers in Denmark increased the stability of their relationships with spouses or cohabiting partners. The treatment program, implemented in 1990, allowed a group of offenders to avoid prison and participate in a rehabilitation program. I use it here as a natural experiment, exploiting a rich administrative dataset to show that the program marginally increases offenders’ relationship stability. I also test whether increased relationship stability observed among the treated offenders results from their pardon from prison or from their participation in the rehabilitation program. Results suggest that the rehabilitation program drives the effect. These findings contribute to the literature on what alternative sanctions could be offered to offenders to improve their long-term social outcomes.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  20. [The total-quality-management-analysis of the continuation and discontinuation of alcohol family treatment: a grassroots approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K; Tatsuki, S

    2001-06-01

    A family support/treatment program was provided to thirty-three cases where a drinking family member (identified patient) had shown alcohol related problems but not yet admitted the problem. After a period of between thirteen and twenty-one months of family treatment, fourteen (42.4%) identified patients started their own treatment. The only statistically significant factor that was related to the patients' treatment program participation was the continuation of family members' involvement in a family treatment program. Among the thirty-three cases, a little less than one half (48.5%) continued the family program. In order to increase the patients' participation, it is crucial to encourage family members to continue their family support/treatment program. In order to identify factors that contribute treatment continuation as well as dropouts, workshops were held with those who dropped out and those who continued the family treatment program. The Total-Quality-Management (TQM) affinity and arrow diagram techniques were employed to classify the participants' statements and to find cause-effect relationships among the identified factors, respectively. Five family treatment discontinuation factors were identified: 1) a lack of information about family support program, 2) resistance against a "family change" orientation in family treatment program, 3) family member burnout, 4) a misfit between family needs for immediate problem solutions and what family program offers, and 5) a temporal improvement of patients' drinking problems. While widely varied factors were found to contribute discontinuation, only a very few factors were identified to facilitate the treatment continuation. It was concluded that treatment discontinuation, rather than continuation, was the norm among the families of problem drinkers. Based on the above findings, three kaizen plans were proposed. First, in order to make sure that family members obtain necessary information about the family support/treatment

  1. MicroRNA profiles following metformin treatment in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    KATSURA, AKIKO; MORISHITA, ASAHIRO; Iwama, Hisakazu; Tani, Joji; SAKAMOTO, TEPPEI; TATSUTA, MIWA; TOYOTA, YUKA; Fujita, Koji; KATO, KIYOHITO; MAEDA, EMIKO; Nomura, Takako; MIYOSHI, HISAAKI; YONEYAMA, HIROHITO; HIMOTO, TAKASHI; FUJIWARA, SHINTARO

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and is considered to be a causative factor of cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate messenger RNA (mRNA). Recently, it was demonstrated that the aberrant expression of certain miRNAs plays a pivotal role in liver disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in miRNA profiles associated with metformin...

  2. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation:potential treatment for co-occurring alcohol, traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy AHerrold; Sandra LKletzel; Brett CHarton; R.Andrew Chambers; Neil Jordan; Teresa Louise-Bender Pape

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and posttraumatic stress dis-order (PTSD) commonly co-occur (AUD + mTBI + PTSD). These conditions have overlapping symptoms which are, in part, relfective of overlapping neuropathology. These conditions become problematic because their co-occurrence can exacerbate symptoms. Therefore, treatments must be developed that are inclusive to all three conditions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimu-lation (rTMS) is non-invasive and may be an ideal treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI +PTSD. There is accumulating evidence on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, mTBI, and PTSD each alone. However, there are no published studies to date on rTMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review article advances the knowledge base for rTMS as a treatment for AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review provides background information about these co-occurring conditions as well as rTMS. The existing literature on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, TBI, and PTSD each alone is reviewed. Finally, neurobiological ifndings in support of a theoretical model are discussed to inform TMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. The peer-reviewed literature was identiifed by targeted literature searches using PubMed and supplemented by cross-referencing the bibliographies of relevant review arti-cles. The existing evidence on rTMS as a treatment for these conditions in isolation, coupled with the overlapping neuropathology and symptomology of these conditions, suggests that rTMS may be well suited for the treatment of these conditions together.

  4. Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder – predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, we compared in alcohol-dependent patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor escitalopram to a compound that acts on different transporter system and may reduce craving, the glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. Methods Eighty alcohol-dependent patients comorbid with major depressive disorder in municipal alcohol clinics were randomized 1:1 to receive memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg in a double-blind manner. During the 26-week study period patients continued their routine treatment at the clinics. Abstinence was not required but encouraged. The patients attended visits weekly during the first month, and then at 3 and at 6 months. Outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS and Drinking Diary. Results The completion rate was high in both groups, especially among the patients who had been abstinent at the beginning of the study. However, among those patients who were not abstinent at baseline, 47% in both groups discontinued the study. Numbers of abstinent days were high in both groups throughout the study. Alcohol consumption measured by the AUDIT QF (quantity-frequency score was significantly reduced in both groups, as was the craving for alcohol measured by the OCDS. Early age at first alcohol intoxication predicted poor treatment outcomes in patients treated with escitalopram, and the same was seen with the early onset of the first depressive episode. The same predictive effects were not found in patients treated with memantine. Conclusion Our results indicate that both memantine and escitalopram are useful adjunct medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence co-morbid with major

  5. High efficiency solution processed fluorescent yellow organic light-emitting diode through fluorinated alcohol treatment at the emissive layer/cathode interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare solvent treatments using fluorinated alcohol (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro- 1-pentanol) and ethanol in improving the efficiency of a polymer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) by spin coating the solvent on top of the emissive layer. The presence of fluorinated alcohol is confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron current is found to be significantly enhanced following solvent treatment while the hole current remains the same. The solvent treatment by fluorinated alcohol on top of a ‘super-yellow’ poly-(p-phenylenevinylene) (SY-PPV) based OLED results in efficiency as high as 19.2 lm W−1 (20.9 cd A−1) at a brightness of 1000 cd m−2. The improvement of device efficiency through the use of fluorinated alcohol treatment can be attributed to its large dipole, which lowers the electron injection barrier. This work also suggests that fluorinated alcohol might be a better trap passivator for electrons than ethanol. (paper)

  6. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  7. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  8. Outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders among subjects 60+ years: design of a randomized clinical trial conducted in three countries (Elderly Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Bühringer, Gerhard; Behrendt, Silke; Bilberg, Randi; BRAUN, BARBARA; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Lizarraga, Christine; Moyers, Theresa B.; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2015-01-01

    Background The proportion of 60+ years with excessive alcohol intake varies in western countries between 6–16 % among men and 2–7 % among women. Specific events related to aging (e.g. loss of job, physical and mental capacity, or spouse) may contribute to onset or continuation of alcohol use disorders (AUD). We present the rationale and design of a multisite, multinational AUD treatment study for subjects aged 60+ years. Methods/Design 1,000 subjects seeking treatment for AUD according to DSM...

  9. Improving quality of malaria treatment services: assessing inequities in consumers' perceptions and providers' behaviour in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obikeze Eric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about quality of malaria treatment services of different healthcare providers is needed to know how to improve the treatment of malaria since inappropriate service provision leads to increased burden of malaria. Hence, the study determined the technical and perceived quality of malaria treatment services of different types of providers in three urban and three rural areas in southeast Nigeria. Methods Questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected healthcare providers about the technical quality of their malaria treatment services. Exit polls were used to obtain information about perceived quality from consumers. A socio-economic status (SES index and comparison of data between urban and rural areas was used to examine socio-economic status and geographic differences in quality of services. Results The lowest technical quality of services was found from patent medicine dealers. Conversely, public and private hospitals as well as primary healthcare centres had the highest quality of services. Householders were least satisfied with quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops and were mostly satisfied with services rendered by public and private hospitals. The urbanites were more satisfied with the overall quality of services than the rural dwellers. Conclusion These findings provide areas for interventions to equitably improve the quality of malaria treatment services, especially for patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops, that are two of the most common providers of malaria treatment especially with the current change of first line drugs from the relatively inexpensive drugs to the expensive artemisinin-based combination therapy, so as to decrease inappropriate drug prescribing, use, costs and resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  10. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  11. [Drowsiness--greater traffic hazard than alcohol. Causes, risks and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, P O; Akerstedt, T

    2001-06-20

    Stress and shortage of sleep may cause daytime somnolence and impaired vigilance at the wheel, especially among those suffering from sleep disturbances. According to the international consensus meeting in Stockholm in May of 2000 on "The sleepy driver and pilot--causes, risks and countermeasures", drowsy driving is an underestimated risk factor in official statistics, and as many as 15-30 percent of today's traffic accidents are related to drowsiness; thus it is an even greater risk factor than alcohol. Drowsy drivers suffer from inattention, impaired concentration and may even fall asleep at the wheel. Accidents during dozing result in three times as many fatalities as other accidents. There are a number of reasons for habitual drowsiness at the wheel aside from sleep deprivation, including rhonchopathy, shift work and jet lag, mental depression, insomnia, narcolepsy, endocrinological diseases, periodic limb movement disorder, medication, pain-disordered sleep, and heart disease. Among the most active drivers, i.e. middle aged men, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been found to be the most common reason for habitually drowsy driving. OSAS causes a 2-3 fold increased risk of traffic accidents, and it impairs simulated driving. Palatoplasty as well as nasal CPAP have been shown to improve vigilance and driving performance to an extent that the increase in risk is eliminated. Drivers suffering from habitual drowsiness and micro-sleep attacks forcing them to take repeated rests are at special risk. Even if they are as dangerous as drivers with unlawful blood alcohol levels they cannot be caught in a police checkpoint. However they often seek medial advice, and properly treated they may often return safely to traffic. If not, there could be a need to report them to the authorities so as to limit or prohibit their driving. PMID:11462875

  12. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  13. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  14. "I've Had a Pretty Tough Life but That's Not Why I Do This": Narratives of Autonomy and Control among Alcohol and Drug Service-Engaged Early Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sarah J.; Bruun, Andrew; Mallett, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The provision of alcohol and other drug (AOD) programmes in Australia targeting a broad age range of young people may inadvertently obscure the particular service needs of early teenagers. In this study, we describe four main accounts of substance use identified through interviews with 20 AOD service-engaged participants in Victoria, aged from 13…

  15. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Jeffrey; Allensworth-Davies Donald; Cheng Debbie M; Larson Mary Jo; Reif Sharon; Saitz Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance de...

  16. Treatments and Services Provided to Children Diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Singh, Amandeep; Bernardi, Julio; Wall, Christopher A; Swintak, Cosima C; Schak, Kathryn M; Jensen, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the types and quantity of mental health services and medication usage for youth diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) within an integrated healthcare system, medical records were reviewed from 2000 to 2011. Eighty-five youth diagnosed with BD were identified and healthcare services (medication and psychotherapy follow-up appointments, emergency room (ER) visits, admissions, phone contacts) and visit-related details (medication usage) were abstracted for 2 years after initial BD diagnosis. Despite complex medication regimens (91.7 and 81.2 % received mood stabilizers and antipsychotic agents, respectively), medication appointments were infrequent, averaging 1 visit every 2 months. Only 36 (42 %) of 85 youth were noted to receive psychotherapy services following BD diagnosis, also averaging 1 visit every 2 months. Most (58.8 %) patients needed one or more hospitalizations during the follow-up period; nearly half (48.2 %) had psychiatric ER visits. The relative lack of psychotherapy and infrequent follow-up visits suggests need for improvement to optimize healthcare delivery. PMID:26323583

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Training Manual To Aid in Vocational Rehabilitation and Other Non-Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Robin A.; Schacht, Robert M.; Tanner-Halverson, Patricia; McGowan, Mark

    This training manual provides vocational rehabilitation and school counselors with background information and practical tools related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), with particular reference to the needs of Native Americans. The most recent reliable data (1990) for American Indians and Alaska Natives show a rate of FAS over 10 times the national…

  18. [Benefits in reducing alcohol consumption: how nalmefene can help].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendimerad, P; Blecha, L

    2014-12-01

    the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Decreasing stigmatisation of alcohol use disorder through public service announcements, in addition to more flexible physician attitudes concerning personal alcohol intake objectives may be key in getting increased numbers of patients into treatment programmes. In one study in Great Britain, 50% of patients in treatment for alcohol use disorder would prefer an initial objective of reduced consumption. A recent addition to the pharmacotherapy arsenal is nalmefene, which has been recently released as a medication to aid in reducing alcohol consumption. It is a strong μ and δ opioid receptor antagonist and a partial κ opioid receptor agonist. Opioid receptor antagonism is associated with reduced reward in relation to alcohol use, thus helping patients in reducing their consumption. Patients are instructed to take one nalmefene tablet two hours prior to each drinking occasion. Nalmefene therapy is to be accompanied by a specific psychosocial programme called BRENDA. BRENDA consists of a biopsychosocial evaluation, restitution of the evaluation to the patient, an empathetic approach that responds to patient needs, offering direct advice and adjusting goals and treatment programmes as the patient makes progress. Nalmefene has been associated with decreased heavy drinking days in two clinical trials. Overall, the treatment is well tolerated; adverse effects are fairly mild and short-lived. In conclusion, an approach that integrates reduced alcohol consumption makes sense from both a public and personal standpoint. Medications such as nalmefene have shown efficacy in association with a biopsychosocial approach to help patients attain their personal objectives with respect to alcohol use. PMID:25454365

  19. Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: current approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is reaching epidemic proportions in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with NAFLD are at increased risk of more aggressive liver disease (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]) and at a higher risk of death from cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular disease. Dysfunctional adipose tissue and insulin resistance play an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH, creating the conditions for hepatocyte lipotoxicity. Mitochondrial defects are at the core of the paradigm linking chronic excess substrate supply, insulin resistance and NASH. Recent work indicates that patients with NASH have more severe insulin resistance and lipotoxicity compared with matched obese controls with only isolated steatosis. This review focuses on available agents and future drugs under development for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH in type 2 diabetes. Reversal of lipotoxicity with pioglitazone is associated with significant histological improvement, which occurs within 6 months and persists with continued treatment (or for at least 3 years) in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, holding potential to modify the natural history of the disease. These results also suggest that pioglitazone may become the standard of care for this population. Benefit has also been reported in non-diabetic patients. Recent promising results with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists have opened another new treatment avenue for NASH. Many agents in Phase 2-3 of development are being tested, aiming to restore glucose/lipid metabolism, ameliorate adipose tissue and liver inflammation, or to inhibit liver fibrosis. By targeting a diversity of relevant pathways, combination therapy in NASH will likely provide greater success in the future. In summary, increased clinical awareness and improved screening strategies (as currently done for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy) are needed, to translate recent treatment progress into early treatment

  20. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  1. Evaluating Long-Term Outcomes of Treatments for Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Arthur M. Ed.; McKay, James R. Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this special issue are reviews that focus on issues related to the evaluation of addiction treatment outcomes over longer term followup periods (2 years or more). The primary conclusion that can be drawn is that research evaluations of substance abuse treatment should reflect, to a greater degree, the chronic nature of addiction. (SLD)

  2. Health Services for HIV/AIDS, HCV, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lawrence S.; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John

    2007-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross--sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse depar...

  3. Need-service matching in substance abuse treatment: Racial/ethnic differences

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Guerrero, Erick; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of ancillary health and social services matched to client needs in substance abuse treatment for African Americans, Latinos and Whites. The study uses data collected from 1992 to 1997 for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a prospective cohort study of substance abuse treatment programs and their clients. The analytic sample consists of 3142 clients (1812 African Americans, 486 Latinos, 844 Whites) from 59 treatment facilities. Results show tha...

  4. The evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush Brian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research and program evaluation have not played a major role in shaping the development of treatment services and systems in most countries. This has led to disparities in the development, management and monitoring of national treatment systems. In the evaluation of treatment for substance use disorders, the evaluation practitioner will usually be working at one of five levels: single case, treatment activity, treatment service, treatment agency or treatment system. One of the major barriers to undertaking internal program evaluation is the belief that it is a complicated research process best left to those with specific research training. Program managers and staff can plan and initiate an evaluation process for their program if they have access to research expertise when needed for certain parts of the process. There are seven main components of an evaluation process that can be planned and implemented: need assessment; evaluation planning, process evaluation, cost analysis, client satisfaction evaluation, outcome evaluation and economic evaluation. However, evaluation is more than the techniques and technology required to implement these types of activities. It also involves the routine questioning of current practice even if the feedback may be less positive than anticipated. A healthy culture for evaluation is one in which feedback loops are woven into the fabric of the treatment service or system. There are many barriers to evaluation in substance abuse services but these barriers can be overcome with careful planning and commitment to the delivery of evidence-based services.

  5. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  6. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21,...

  7. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  8. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  9. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  10. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...). Contact Person: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol...

  11. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  13. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special... shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  14. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  15. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, MD...

  16. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  17. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  18. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, Md...

  19. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Bethesda, MD...

  20. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  1. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  2. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  3. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health,...

  4. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  5. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes of...

  6. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. Carolyn...

  7. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  8. Serum biomarker release patterns following alcohol septal ablation for treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley JD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Joseph D Foley,1 Craig S Miller,2 J Darrell Sneed,1 Jeffrey L Ebersole,2 Richard J Kryscio,3 John T McDevitt,4 Charles L Campbell5 1Gill Heart Institute and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Oral Health Practice, College of Dentistry, 3Department of Statistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 4Departments of Bioengineering and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA; 5Division of Cardiololgy, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Erlanger Health Systems, TN, USA Abstract: Alcohol septal ablation (ASA is employed to relieve the pressure gradient associated with symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB band, brain natriuretic protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, myoglobin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble CD40 ligand, interleukin-6, adiponectin, interleukin-1ß, myeloperoxidase, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were determined at baseline and at 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting for ASA. Comparisons were made with 107 healthy control subjects. Sixteen hours following ASA, serum levels rose over 800-fold for cardiac troponin I, 70-fold for creatine kinase MB band, and 11-fold for myoglobin (P<0.001. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 both rose slowly and became significantly elevated at 16 and 48 hours, respectively. Matrix metalloprotease-9 rapidly increased two-fold at 8 hours, but returned to baseline thereafter. Other biomarkers evaluated either trended downward or showed little change from baseline. Among the ASA patients, baseline serum concentration of all biomarkers, except for matrix metalloproteinase-9, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and myeloperoxidase, were elevated in the ASA group compared with the controls. These findings suggest that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a proinflammatory and prothrombotic state. The

  9. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    OpenAIRE

    Lemak Christy; Wells Rebecca; D'Aunno Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizati...

  10. Patients’ Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaço-Costa, José Leonardo Barbosa; Martins, Renata Castro; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients’ perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results) and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals). The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist. PMID:27128932

  11. Patients' Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaço-Costa, José Leonardo Barbosa; Martins, Renata Castro; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients' perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results) and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals). The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist. PMID:27128932

  12. Patients’ Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Barbosa Melgaço-Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients’ perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals. The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist.

  13. Program- and service-level costs of seven screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray JW

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy W Bray,1 Erin Mallonee,2 William Dowd,2 Arnie Aldridge,2 Alexander J Cowell,2 Janice Vendetti31Department of Economics, Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, School of Medicine, UCONN Health, Farmington, CT, USAAbstract: This paper examines the costs of delivering screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT services within the first seven demonstration programs funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Service-level costs were estimated and compared across implementation model (contracted specialist, inhouse specialist, inhouse generalist and service delivery setting (emergency department, hospital inpatient, outpatient. Program-level costs were estimated and compared across grantee recipient programs. Service-level data were collected through timed observations of SBIRT service delivery. Program-level data were collected during key informant interviews using structured cost interview guides. At the service level, support activities that occur before or after engaging the patient comprise a considerable portion of the cost of delivering SBIRT services, especially short duration services. At the program level, average costs decreased as more patients were screened. Comparing across program and service levels, the average annual operating costs calculated at the program level often exceeded the cost of actual service delivery. Provider time spent in support of service provision may comprise a large share of the costs in some cases because of potentially substantial fixed and quasifixed costs associated with program operation. The cost structure of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment is complex and discontinuous of patient flow, causing annual operating costs to exceed the costs of actual service

  14. Alcohol dependency prevention and early intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, P E

    1988-01-01

    Current data on efforts to prevent alcoholism indicate that we are better able to prevent some of the consequences of alcohol misuse, such as alcohol-related car crashes and fetal alcohol syndrome, than chronic alcohol dependence itself. A review of data on outcomes of treatment for long-term alcohol dependence indicates that 9 of 10 alcohol dependent persons receive no treatment for the disorder in any given year. When treatment is provided for long-term alcohol dependent persons, it has onl...

  15. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4–63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  16. Who Seeks Care Where? Utilization of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment in Two National Samples of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Mark J.; Booth, Brenda M.; Han, Xiaotong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Only a fraction of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) receive any AUD treatment during a given year. If a substantial proportion of individuals with unmet need for AUD treatment are receiving mental health treatment, accessibility of AUD treatment could potentially be improved by implementing strategies to ensure that individuals receiving mental health care are referred to the AUD sector or by increasing rates of AUD treatment in individuals receiving mental health treatment. Method: We assessed patterns and predictors of mental health treatment and AUD treatment among individuals with 12-month AUDs, using secondary data analyses from two national surveys, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; n = 4,545 individuals with AUDs) and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 3,327 individuals with AUDs). Results: In both NSDUH and NESARC, 8% of individuals with AUDs reported past-year AUD treatment. Among individuals with AUDs, mental health treatment was more common than AUD treatment, with 20% of NSDUH respondents and 11% of NESARC respondents reporting receiving mental health treatment. Greater mental health morbidity increased the odds of mental health treatment, and AUD severity increased the odds of AUD treatment. Mental health morbidity also increased the odds of AUD treatment, mainly by increasing the odds of receiving the category of both AUD and mental health treatment. Conclusions: Because individuals with AUDs are more likely to receive mental health treatment than AUD treatment, a key opportunity to improve the overall accessibility of treatment for AUDs may be to focus on improving AUD treatment among individuals receiving mental health treatment. PMID:22630802

  17. Thiamine in the treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy in patients with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latt, N; Dore, G

    2014-09-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute, reversible neuropsychiatric emergency due to thiamine deficiency. Urgent and adequate thiamine replacement is necessary to avoid death or progression to Korsakoff syndrome with largely irreversible brain damage. Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome refers to a condition where features of Wernicke encephalopathy are mixed with those of Korsakoff syndrome. Although thiamine is the cornerstone of treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy, there are no universally accepted guidelines with regard to its optimal dose, mode of administration, frequency of administration or duration of treatment. Currently, different dose recommendations are being made. We present recommendations for the assessment and treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy based on literature review and our clinical experience. PMID:25201422

  18. Adaptation of Alcohol and Drug Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to a Department of Intercollegiate Athletics: The COMPASS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agley, Jon; Walker, Barbara B.; Gassman, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and implement an intervention for problem alcohol and substance use among student athletes at a large Midwestern department of intercollegiate athletics in the USA, by use of screening, a brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) and motivational interviewing (MI). This paper outlines the development of the protocol,…

  19. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  20. Treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid alcohol abuse with buspirone in a patient with antidepressant-induced platelet dysfunction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Mir; Hassan, Tariq; Munshi, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient's underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient's anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor's care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis. PMID:24416612

  1. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan JL; Leung JG; Gagliardi JP; Rivelli SK; Muzyk AJ

    2013-01-01

    Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the ...

  2. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Mazhar; Tariq Hassan; Tariq Munshi

    2013-01-01

    The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s...

  3. Report on Outreach Efforts and Analysis of Approach: A Pilot Project on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome for American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.

    The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Project of the Indian Health Service was designed to identify existing cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among the American Indian tribes (Navajo, Apache, Ute and 19 Pueblo Tribes) in the Southwest, establish a referral system to identify these children for treatment, estimate the prevalence of the problem, and work…

  4. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  5. Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were…

  6. The Effects of Treatment Needs and Prior Social Services Use on Juvenile Court Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S.; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Maschi, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Every year, juvenile court judges commit large numbers of delinquent youths to institutional placements. Prior research indicates that both legal and extra-legal factors influence this decision-making process. Less frequently examined is the role of treatment needs and prior social services use. This study examined the influence of treatment needs…

  7. Identification of surgeon–individual treatment profiles to support the provision of an optimum treatment service for cataract patients

    OpenAIRE

    Neumuth, Thomas; Wiedemann, Renate; Foja, Christian; MEIER, Petra; Schlomberg, Juliane; Neumuth, Dayana; Wiedemann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    One objective of ophthalmological departments is the optimization of patient treatment services. A strategy for optimization is the identification of individual potential for advanced training of surgeons based on their daily working results. The objective of this feasibility study was the presentation and evaluation of a strategy for the computation of surgeon–individual treatment profiles (SiTPs). We observed experienced surgeons during their standard daily performance of cataract procedure...

  8. Drug treatment services for adult offenders: the state of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S; Perdoni, Matthew L; Harrison, Lana D

    2007-04-01

    We conducted a national survey of prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies to estimate the prevalence of entry into and accessibility of correctional programs and drug treatment services for adult offenders. Substance abuse education and awareness is the most prevalent form of service provided, being offered in 74% of prisons, 61% of jails, and 53% of community correctional agencies; at the same time, remedial education is the most frequently available correctional program in prisons (89%) and jails (59.5%), whereas sex offender therapy (57.2%) and intensive supervision (41.9%) dominate in community correctional programs. Most substance abuse services provided to offenders are offered through correctional programs such as intensive supervision, day reporting, vocational education, and work release, among others. Although agencies report a high frequency of providing substance abuse services, the prevalence rates are misleading because less than a quarter of the offenders in prisons and jails and less than 10% of those in community correctional agencies have daily access to these services through correctional agencies; in addition, these are predominantly drug treatment services that offer few clinical services. Given that drug-involved offenders are likely to have dependence rates that are four times greater than those among the general public, the drug treatment services and correctional programs available to offenders do not appear to be appropriate for the needs of this population. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey provides a better understanding of the distribution of services and programs across prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies and allows researchers and policymakers to understand some of the gaps in services and programs that may negatively affect recidivism reduction efforts. PMID:17383549

  9. Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othieno Caleb J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants’ understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these

  10. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our society, through carefully targeted therapies, such as traditional counseling as well as medicines that can help fight alcohol addiction. Ideally in the future, health professionals would be ...

  11. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  12. The clustering of psychopathology among adults seeking treatment for alcohol and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Veldhuizen, Scott; Rush, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Beyond the high prevalence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, little is known about more complex patterns of psychopathology and multimorbidity, particularly in treatment populations. We sought to identify a parsimonious set of latent classes to describe the structure of mental disorder comorbidity among adults entering outpatient addiction treatment, and explore differences in the structure and prevalence of classes across sociodemographic characteristics. Participants (N=544) completed the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire at treatment admission. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of clients with specific patterns of co-occurring mental disorders. The best-fitting solution identified 3 classes, characterized by no comorbidity (i.e., substance use disorders only), co-occurring major depression, and multimorbidity or a high degree of psychopathology. Older age was associated with lower probability of being in the class with co-occurring major depression, women were more likely than men to be in the multimorbid class, and being married or partnered was associated with a lower probability of being in either of the comorbid classes. These results are consistent with general population research on the patterning of psychiatric disorders, implying that while clients in addiction treatment may have extraordinarily high levels of psychopathology, the patterns of symptoms and the groups most affected are not markedly different than in other settings. By capturing the complexity of interrelationships among the many factors that are known to influence prognosis and outcomes, latent class analysis offers a useful way to examine and represent case-mix in clinical populations. PMID:25124260

  13. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid-dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decara, Juan M; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE TREATMENT WITH PERINDOPRIL OR CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLIC OR IDIOPATHIC DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhirov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinical and hemodynamic efficacy of monotherapy with ACE inhibitor perindopril or beta-blocker carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP of various etiology.Material and methods. Patients (n=69 with DCMP of different etiology were included into the open randomized study. Idiopathic DCMP (IDCMP was diagnosed in 26 patients and alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACMP - in 43 patients. Patients of IDCMP and ACMP groups were randomized for treatment with perindopril (groups 1 and 3, respectively or carvedilol (groups 2 and 4, respectively. Follow-up was 6 months. End-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volume, stroke volume index, ejection fraction (EF and exercise capacity were determined at baseline and in 2 and 6 months of treatment. Safety of the treatments was also assessed.Results. Group 1: the average CHF class (NYHA decreased by 20.7% (p<0.01, EF increased by 18.2% (p<0.05. Group 2: the average CHF class decreased by 29.6% (p<0.01, EF increased by 18.2% (p<0.05. Group 3: the average CHF class decreased by 14.3% (p<0.01, EF increased by 19.6% (p<0.05. Group 4: the average CHF class decreased by 41.4% (p<0.001, EF increased by 32.8% (p<0.001.Conclusion. Monotherapy with carvedilol in patients with ACMP was more effective than this with perindopril. Long-term monotherapy with perindopril or carvedilol in patients with DCMP was well tolerated and safety.

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE TREATMENT WITH PERINDOPRIL OR CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLIC OR IDIOPATHIC DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinical and hemodynamic efficacy of monotherapy with ACE inhibitor perindopril or beta-blocker carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP of various etiology.Material and methods. Patients (n=69 with DCMP of different etiology were included into the open randomized study. Idiopathic DCMP (IDCMP was diagnosed in 26 patients and alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACMP - in 43 patients. Patients of IDCMP and ACMP groups were randomized for treatment with perindopril (groups 1 and 3, respectively or carvedilol (groups 2 and 4, respectively. Follow-up was 6 months. End-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volume, stroke volume index, ejection fraction (EF and exercise capacity were determined at baseline and in 2 and 6 months of treatment. Safety of the treatments was also assessed.Results. Group 1: the average CHF class (NYHA decreased by 20.7% (p<0.01, EF increased by 18.2% (p<0.05. Group 2: the average CHF class decreased by 29.6% (p<0.01, EF increased by 18.2% (p<0.05. Group 3: the average CHF class decreased by 14.3% (p<0.01, EF increased by 19.6% (p<0.05. Group 4: the average CHF class decreased by 41.4% (p<0.001, EF increased by 32.8% (p<0.001.Conclusion. Monotherapy with carvedilol in patients with ACMP was more effective than this with perindopril. Long-term monotherapy with perindopril or carvedilol in patients with DCMP was well tolerated and safety.

  16. Effect of acute treatment with a water-alcohol extract of Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onusic G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of acute oral treatment with a water-alcohol extract of the inflorescence of Erythrina mulungu (EM, Leguminosae-Papilionaceae (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg on rats submitted to different anxiety models: the elevated T-maze (for inhibitory avoidance and escape measurements, the light/dark transition, and the cat odor test. These models were selected for their presumed capacity to demonstrate specific subtypes of anxiety disorders as recognized in clinical practice. Treatment with 200 mg/kg EM impaired avoidance latencies (avoidance 1 - 200 mg/kg EM: 18 ± 7 s, control group: 40 ± 9 s; avoidance 2 - 200 mg/kg EM: 15 ± 4 s, control group: 110.33 ± 38 s in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (avoidance 1: 3 ± 0.79 s; avoidance 2: 3 ± 0.76 s, without altering escape. Additionally, the same treatments increased the number of transitions (200 mg/kg EM: 6.33 ± 0.90, diazepam: 10 ± 1.54, control group: 2.78 ± 0.60 between the two compartments and the time spent in the lighted compartment in the light/dark transition model (200 mg/kg EM: 39 ± 7 s; diazepam: 61 ± 9 s; control group: 14 ± 4 s. The dose of 400 mg/kg EM also increased this last measurement (38 ± 8 s. These results were not due to motor alterations since no significant effects were detected in the number of crossings or rearings in the arena. Furthermore, neither EM nor diazepam altered the behavioral responses of rats to a cloth impregnated with cat odor. These observations suggest that EM exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors, particularly those that have been shown to be sensitive to low doses of benzodiazepines.

  17. A Smartphone Application of Alcohol Resilience Treatment for Behavioral Self-Control Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian;

    2012-01-01

    structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper...... presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper....

  18. Covert Sensitization Treatment in the Elimination of Alcohol-Related Crime in Incarcerated Young Offenders: A Study of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Chris; Dodd, Cherry

    1990-01-01

    Used covert sensitization and alcohol education/counseling to eliminate drinking behavior in two motivated offenders in their early twenties who had previously been classified as "alcoholic." In over 24 months for 1 subject, and 9 months for the other, only 1 conviction for 1 of the subjects occurred, which turned out to be minor and nonalcohol…

  19. Impact of post-treatment on the characteristics of electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol)/chitosan nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, H.; Samsudin, A. M.; Faz, M. W.; Rani, M. P. H.

    2016-04-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have many advantages such as high porosity, easy to be fabricated in various size and high ratio of surface area to volume. This paper presents the preparation of electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers and more specifically focuses on the effect of post-treatment on the permeability and morphology of electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofibers. The mixtures of various concentrations of PVA (6,7,8 wt%)and 2 wt%.chitosan solution (with the ratio of 3:1)were used in electrospun with a constant rate of 0.7 ml/hour. The post-treatment was conducted by immersing in a ethanol or glutaraldehyde solution to performed crosslink structure. The electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that the viscosity of the mixture solution is directly proportional to its concentration. Increasing the viscosity increased the diameter of fiber but also made the larger beads formation. FTIR measurement exhibited the existence of relevant functional groups of both PVA and chitosan in the composites.The crosslinked structure was found for the electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers treated with glutaraldehyde solution.

  20. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  1. Verification of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J as a Treatment-Customization, Prediction, and Comparison Tool for Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Higuchi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals. The ASI is a frequently used clinical and research instrument that measures severities in seven functional domains in people with substance abuse disorders. Methods: A total of 370 male inpatients with a history of alcohol dependence participated in the study. Forty-nine participants were excluded in the final analysis due to lack of reliability (i.e., patient misrepresentation or inability to understand. We used the ASI-J and a series of indexes that determined patient states during and post-treatment. Results: The correlations between ASI Composite Scores (CSs, which were calculated through a weighted formula and indicated the severity of each problem area, were significant but low in eight relations and not significant in 13 relations, indicating substantial independence of the problem areas. Significant differences were found in Family/Social CSs between abstinent and relapsed alcohol-dependent individuals. The questions of undesirable attitude were significantly related to the CSs of Employment, Drug use, Family/Social, and Psychiatric sections. Significant differences were observed in patient demographics, CS, and ASI Severity Rating (SR and interviewer’s subjective scoring between alcohol-dependent individuals and drug abusers. CSs in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals were generally similar to corresponding CSs in individuals from other countries, with the exception of The Netherlands. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the ASI-J is useful for understanding individual profiles of problems for each patient and planning customized treatment. The ASI-J served as a predictive tool for relapse and compliance to treatment afterward and was shown to be useful as a comparison tool in clarifying similarities and differences between substance abuser groups.

  2. Drug treatment services for adult offenders: The state of the state

    OpenAIRE

    Taxman, Faye S.; Perdoni, Matthew L.; Harrison, Lana D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies to estimate the prevalence of entry into and accessibility of correctional programs and drug treatment services for adult offenders. Substance abuse education and awareness is the most prevalent form of service provided, being offered in 74% of prisons, 61% of jails, and 53% of community correctional agencies; at the same time, remedial education is the most frequently available correctional program in priso...

  3. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  4. Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act of 1970--Extension. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session. January 19 and 26, 1976. Serial No. 94-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

    This document reports the hearings on bills H.R. 11317 and H.R. 11472, bills to extend for three fiscal years the programs of assistance under the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970. The programs include grants to the states, special grants for the implementation of the Uniform…

  5. Systematic review on the treatment of pentoxifylline in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an anti-TNF agent that targets inflammatory process directly, Pentoxifylline has been investigated for treatment of NASH in individual studies and pilot trials for years. We summarized the available information and generating hypotheses for future research. Data Sources Google, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical data bases for studies restricted to pentoxifylline treatment in humans with NAFLD in all languages until June 2010. Six studies (2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials; 4 prospective cohort studies extracted from 11604 references. Results Pentoxifylline-treated patients showed a significant decrease AST (n = 37, P = 0.01 and ALT (n = 50, P = 0.03, but no significant effect on IL-6 (n = 36, P = 0.33 and TNF-α (n = 68, P = 0.26 compared with Placebo or UDCA-controlled groups. Improvement in one or more histological variables was reported in two trails, only 1 study showed a reduction in of one or two points in fibrosis stage. Limitations The trails did not consistently report all of the outcomes of interest. Sample sizes (117 patients totally were small and only 2 out of 6 studies had a randomized, controlled design. Conclusion Pentoxifylline reduce AST and ALT levels and may improve liver histological scores in patients with NALFD/NASH, but did not appear to affect cytokines. Large, prospective, and well-designed randomized, controlled studies are needed to address this issue. Novel therapeutic targets for activation of inflammatory signaling pathways by fat also merit investigation.

  6. Perspectives of HIV agencies on improving HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nidhi; Zachary, Iris

    2016-10-01

    HIV healthcare services in the USA are made available through a complex funding and delivery system. We present perspectives of HIV agencies on improvements that could lead to an ideal system of HIV prevention, treatment and care. We conducted semi-structured interviews with representatives from 21 HIV agencies offering diverse services in Baltimore, MD. Thematic analysis revealed six key themes: (1) Focusing on HIV prevention, (2) Establishing common entry-points for services, (3) Improving information availability, (4) Streamlining funding streams, (5) Removing competitiveness and (6) Building trust. We recommend that in addition to addressing operational issues regarding service delivery and patient care, initiatives to improve HIV service systems should address underlying social issues such as building trust. PMID:26875546

  7. ADATSA Treatment Outcomes: Employment and Cost Avoidance: An Eighteen Month Follow-Up Study of Indigent Persons Served by Washington State's Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act. Report No. 4-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Dario; And Others

    This report provides a cost-benefit analysis of a program that provides publicly-funded treatment and support for persons who are addicted to alcohol or other drugs and who are judged to be indigent, unemployable, and incapacitated due to their addiction. The study focused on two client outcomes: (1) determine employment outcomes during an 18…

  8. The Cascade of Care for an Australian Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Wade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community.A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake.Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99% reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48% injected in the last month. Of 201 (72% patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47% were current injectors and 25 (45% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70% genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54% genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30-5.00, p = 0.006.Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia-benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available.

  9. Should You Talk to Someone About a Drug, Alcohol, or Mental Health Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to Someone About a Drug, Alcohol, or Mental Health Problem? Substance use and mental health problems are treatable, and help is available. U.S. ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment www. ...

  10. Physical activity as a treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review the effectiveness of exercise as atherapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)and potential benefits in treating insulin resistance andatherosclerosis.METHODS: Medline (EBSCOhost) and PubMed weresearched for English-language randomized controlledtrials and prospective cohort studies in human adultsaged ≥ 18 which investigated the various effects ofexercise alone, a combination of exercise and diet, orexercise and diet coupled with behavioral modificationon NAFLD from 2010 to Feburary 2015.RESULTS: Eighteen of 2298 available studies werechosen for critical review, which included 6925 patients.Nine (50%) studies were randomized controlled trials.Five (27.8%) studies utilized biopsy to examine theeffects of physical activity on hepatic histology. The mostcommonly employed imaging modality to determinechange in hepatic steatosis was hydrogen-magneticresonance spectroscopy. Only two studies examined theeffects of low impact physical activity for patients withsignificant mobility limitations and one compared theefficacy of aerobic and resistance exercise. No studiesexamined the exact duration of exercise required forhepatic and metabolic improvement in NAFLD.CONCLUSION: While exercise improved hepaticsteatosis and underlying metabolic abnormalities inNAFLD, more studies are needed to define the mostbeneficial form and duration of exercise treatment.

  11. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  12. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...

  13. Influence of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge treatment on desizing and scouring of poly (vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment on desizing and scouring of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on cotton fabric was studied with respect to the treatment duration of 1, 2, 4 and 6 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen concentration increased for the plasma treated PVA film. Solubility measurement revealed that plasma treatment increased PVA solubility in hot washing but less effective in cold washing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 6 min treatment followed by hot washing. Wickability analysis indicated that the capillary heights of plasma treated fabrics increased significantly as the plasma treatment duration increased. The results of the yarn tensile strength test showed that the plasma treatment did not have a negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  14. Influence of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge treatment on desizing and scouring of poly (vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shujing [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education (China); Sun Jie; Yao Lan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The effect of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment on desizing and scouring of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on cotton fabric was studied with respect to the treatment duration of 1, 2, 4 and 6 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen concentration increased for the plasma treated PVA film. Solubility measurement revealed that plasma treatment increased PVA solubility in hot washing but less effective in cold washing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 6 min treatment followed by hot washing. Wickability analysis indicated that the capillary heights of plasma treated fabrics increased significantly as the plasma treatment duration increased. The results of the yarn tensile strength test showed that the plasma treatment did not have a negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  15. Comparative assessment of efficacy of different methods of treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus in alcoholic and biliary forms of chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunitsyna М.А.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study was devoted to the analysis of efficacy of different methods of treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus (DM in alcoholic and biliary forms of chronic pancreatitis (CP. Material and methods. We have observed 86 patients with CP and first diagnosed DM. The assessment of carbohydrate metabolism compensation via HbA1 с level was done using analyzer IMX «Abbot» (USA. Results. At the 1st step of DM treatment we recommended the lifestyle modification and usage of creon 30-60.000 units daily. At the 2d step of treatment if necessary we added glyclazide. Conclusion. We have detected that irrespective of duration of alcoholic form of CP in case of subsequent DM development the lifestyle modification together with replacement ferment therapy in 90% of cases were non-effective. In the result of the research it was established, in case of 3 and more relapses per year in alcoholic form of CPthe probability of achievement of target HbA1 с level in complex with lifestyle changes and replacement ferment therapy was twice low, in connection with that fact the indication of oral anti-diabetic agents became necessary.

  16. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid–dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Decara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg−1 for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2. The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty

  17. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid–dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decara, Juan M.; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L.; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg−1) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver

  18. An Integrated Model for Identifying Linkages Between the Management of Fuel Treatments, Fire and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, R. R.; Anderson, S.; Moritz, M.; Plantinga, A.; Tague, C.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation fuel treatments (e.g. thinning, prescribed burning) are a frequent tool for managing fire-prone landscapes. However, predicting how fuel treatments may affect future wildfire risk and associated ecosystem services, such as forest water availability and streamflow, remains a challenge. This challenge is in part due to the large range of conditions under which fuel treatments may be implemented, as response is likely to vary with species type, rates of vegetation regrowth, meteorological conditions and physiographic properties of the treated site. It is also due to insufficient understanding of how social factors such as political pressure, public demands and economic constraints affect fuel management decisions. To examine the feedbacks between ecological and social dimensions of fuel treatments, we present an integrated model that links a biophysical model that simulates vegetation and hydrology (RHESSys), a fire spread model (WMFire) and an empirical fuel treatment model that accounts for agency decision-making. We use this model to investigate how management decisions affect landscape fuel loads, which in turn affect fire severity and ecosystem services, which feedback to management decisions on fuel treatments. We hypothesize that this latter effect will be driven by salience theory, which predicts that fuel treatments are more likely to occur following major wildfire events. The integrated model provides a flexible framework for answering novel questions about fuel treatments that span social and ecological domains, areas that have previously been treated separately.

  19. Agreement between Self-Report and Archival Public Service Utilization Data among Chronically Homeless Individuals with Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Collins, Susan E.; Tanzer, Kenneth; Burlingham, Bonnie; Hoang, Sara E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Public service utilization data are often used as key outcomes in studies on homelessness. Although self-report data on these outcomes are accessible and cost-effective, various factors may affect retrospective recall in homeless populations. It is therefore necessary to establish validity of self-report to ensure the integrity of studies…

  20. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemak Christy

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1 environmental, (2 unit-level, and (3 unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care

  1. Promotion of high-quality treatment and uninterrupted service of radiation therapy linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of operation of radiotherapy complex at Donetsk Antitumor Center showed that a number of calibration and dosimetry tests were an inevitable part of high-quality radiation treatment and timely prevention of inconsiderable disorders in the work of linear accelerators, therefore the engineering service of this equipment should consist of various specialists.

  2. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  3. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...-2067, srinivar@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271,...

  4. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, September 12, 2011, 3:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m., September 13, 2011, 9 a.m. to 1...

  5. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council...

  6. DETERMINATION OF GENOTYPE COMBINATIONS THAT CAN PREDICT THE OUTCOME OF THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE USING THE 5-HT3 ANTAGONIST ONDANSETRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bankole A.; Seneviratne, Chamindi; Wang, Xin-Qun; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Li, Ming D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previously, we reported that the 5′-HTTLPR-LL and rs1042173-TT (SLC6A4-LL/TT) genotypes in the serotonin transporter gene predicted a significant reduction in the severity of alcohol consumption among alcoholics receiving the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. In this study, we explored additional markers of ondansetron treatment response in alcoholics by examining polymorphisms in the HTR3A and HTR3B genes, which regulate directly the function and binding of 5-HT3 receptors to ondansetron. Method We genotyped 1 rare and 18 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HTR3A and HTR3B in the same sample that we had genotyped for SLC6A4-LL/TT in the previous randomized, double-blind, 11-week clinical trial. Participants were 283 European Americans who received oral ondansetron (4 μg/kg twice daily) or placebo along with weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. Associations of individual and combined genotypes with treatment response on drinking outcomes were analyzed. Results Individuals carrying one or more of genotypes rs1150226-AG and rs1176713-GG in HTR3A and rs17614942-AC in HTR3B showed a significant overall mean difference between ondansetron and placebo in drinks per drinking day (−2.50; effect size (ES)=0.867), percentage of heavy drinking days (−20.58%; ES=0.780), and percentage of days abstinent (18.18%; ES=0.683). Combining these HTR3A/HTR3B and SLC6A4-LL/TT genotypes increased the target cohort from approaching 20% (identified in our previous study) to 34%. Conclusions We present initial evidence suggesting that a combined 5-marker genotype panel can be used to predict the outcome of treatment of alcohol dependence with ondansetron. Additional, larger pharmacogenetic studies would help to validate our results. PMID:23897038

  7. Avaliação dos Tipos 1 e 2 de alcoolismo de Cloninger em homens participantes de um programa de tratamento ambulatorial Evaluation of Cloninger's Type I and Type II alcoholism in male alcoholics in an outpatient treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A classificação Tipo 1/Tipo 2 de Cloninger é uma das mais estudadas tipologias de alcoolismo. OBJETIVOS: Testar a aplicabilidade dessa tipologia, caracterizar os subtipos identificados e avaliar seu comportamento ante um programa terapêutico. MÉTODOS: Partindo das variáveis descritas por Cloninger et al., 16 características de 308 homens alcoolistas tratados ambulatorialmente foram submetidas à análise de cluster para identificação de dois subgrupos (clusters. Posteriormente, efetivaram-se cruzamentos de dados para testar possível associação dos clusters identificados com variáveis demográficas e clínicas. RESULTADOS: Pacientes do cluster 1 foram caracterizados por início mais tardio dos problemas relacionados ao álcool, menos problemas sociais e maior sentimento de culpa em relação a seu consumo. O cluster 2 incluiu pacientes com história familiar de alcoolismo mais evidente, características anti-sociais mais presentes, mais uso disfuncional de outras substâncias psicoativas e piores níveis de adesão ao tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciaram a diferenciada associação dos clusters a variáveis de tratamento e prognóstico; em sua maior parte foram coerentes com a classificação Tipo 1/Tipo 2 e reforçam a tese de que o simples diagnóstico de dependência ao álcool não é suficiente para atender às necessidades terapêuticas de subgrupos específicos de pacientes.BACKGROUND: Cloninger's Type 1/Type 2 classification is one of the most frequently studied alcoholism typologies. OBJECTIVES: To test the applicability of this typology, to characterize the identified subtypes and to evaluate their behavior in a therapeutic program. METHODS: Starting from variables described by Cloninger et al., 16 characteristics of 308 alcoholic men attending an outpatient treatment program were submitted to Cluster analysis for identification of two subgroups (clusters. Cross-tabulations were then performed to

  8. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  9. Alcohol detoxification in Ysbyty Gwynedd: Two small sips or one big gulp? Two-step screening more reliable for identification of alcohol dependency syndrome at risk of delirium tremens for routine care

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Muhammad; Subbe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with pathways for hospitalised patients with alcohol dependency syndrome is often poor. A pathway for recognition and treatment of alcohol dependency was redesigned as part of a 12 month service improvement project in the acute medical unit using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. A needs assessment was undertaken: Audit data from 2013 showed over-prescription of chlordiazepoxide for detoxification treatment (DT) leading to prolonged hospital admissions with an average length of s...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of leprosy reactions in integrated services--the patients' perspective in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F Raffe

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Leprosy care has been integrated with peripheral health services, away from vertical programmes. This includes the diagnosis and management of leprosy reactions, which cause significant morbidity. We surveyed patients with leprosy reactions at two leprosy hospitals in Nepal to assess their experience of leprosy reaction management following integration to identify any gaps in service delivery. METHODS: Direct and referral patients with leprosy reactions were interviewed in two of Nepal's leprosy hospitals. We also collected quantitative and qualitative data from clinical examination and case-note review to document the patient pathway. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were interviewed. On development of reaction symptoms 39% presented directly to specialist services, 23% to a private doctor, 17% to a district hospital, 10% to a traditional healer, 7% to a health post and 4% elsewhere. Those who presented directly to specialist services were 6.6 times more likely to start appropriate treatment than those presenting elsewhere (95% CI: 3.01 to 14.45. The average delay between symptom onset to commencing corticosteroids was 2.9 months (range 0-24 months. Obstacles to early presentation and treatment included diagnostic challenge, patients' lack of knowledge and the patients' view of health as a low priority. 40% received corticosteroids for longer than 12 weeks and 72% required an inpatient stay. Treatment follow-up was conducted at locations ranging from health posts to specialist hospitals. Inconsistency in the availability of corticosteroids peripherally was identified and 41% of patients treated for leprosy and a reaction on an outpatient basis attended multiple sites for follow-up treatment. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that specialist services are necessary and continue to provide significant critical support within an integrated health system approach towards the diagnosis and management of leprosy reactions.

  11. Observation on Effect of Treatment of Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Traditional Medical Therapy of Liver-Clearing, Dampness-Removing and Collaterals-Dredging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗军; 陈泽雄; 劳绍贤; 黄必军

    2002-01-01

    @@ Spirits of wine is one of the pathogenetic factors of liver damage which is merely secondary to hepatitis virus. The incidence of fatty liver in Chinese adults is 5%-9% now. It is reported that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and lipid peroxidation play an important role in development of alcoholic fatty liver and liver damage(1-3). The authors have observed the therapeutic effect in 30 patients of alcoholic fatty liver treated with Chinese herbal drugs for Liver-clearing, Dampness-removing and Collaterals-dredging (abbre. as CHD) from Aug. 1999 to June 2001 and explored the relationship between the effects of treatment and some indices, including IL-8, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD).

  12. Stigma- and non-stigma-related treatment barriers to mental healthcare reported by service users and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Lisa; Jeffery, Debra; Schauman, Oliver; Williams, Paul; Farrelly, Simone; Bonnington, Oliver; Gabbidon, Jheanell; Lassman, Francesca; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham; Clement, Sarah

    2015-08-30

    Delayed treatment seeking for people experiencing symptoms of mental illness is common despite available mental healthcare. Poor outcomes are associated with untreated mental illness and caregivers may eventually need to seek help on the service user's behalf. More attention has recently focused on the role of stigma in delayed treatment seeking. This study aimed to establish the frequency of stigma- and non-stigma-related treatment barriers reported by 202 service users and 80 caregivers; to compare treatment barriers reported by service users and caregivers; and to investigate demographic predictors of reporting stigma-related treatment barriers. The profile of treatment barriers differed between service users and caregivers. Service users were more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers than caregivers across all stigma-related items. Service users who were female, had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or with GCSEs (UK qualifications usually obtained at age 16) were significantly more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers. Caregivers who were female or of Black ethnicities were significantly more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers. Multifaceted approaches are needed to reduce barriers to treatment seeking for both service users and caregivers, with anti-stigma interventions being of particular importance for the former group. PMID:26115840

  13. Provision of onsite HIV Services in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    The provision of HIV education and testing in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs is an important public health strategy for reducing HIV incidence. For many at-risk individuals, SUD treatment represents the primary point of access for testing and receiving HIV-related services. This study uses two waves of nationally representative data of 265 privately-funded SUD treatment programs in the U.S. to examine organizational and patient characteristics associated with offering a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track, onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, and onsite HIV testing. Our longitudinal analysis indicated that the majority of treatment programs reported providing education and prevention services, but there was a small, yet significant, decline in the number of programs providing these services. Programs placed more of an emphasis on providing information on the transmission of HIV rather than on acquiring risk-reduction skills. There was a notable and significant increase (from 26.0% to 31.7%) in programs that offered onsite HIV testing, including rapid HIV testing, and an increase in the percentage of patients who received testing in the programs. Larger programs were more likely to offer a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track and to offer onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, while accredited programs and programs with a medical infrastructure were more likely to provide HIV testing. The percentage of injection drug users was positively linked to the availability of specialized HIV/AIDS tracks and HIV/AIDS support groups, and the percentage of female clients was associated with the availability of onsite support groups. The odds of offering HIV/AIDS support groups were also greater in programs that had a dedicated LGBT track. The findings suggest that access to hospitals and medical care services is an effective way to facilitate adoption of HIV services and that programs are providing a needed service among a group of patients who have a heightened risk of HIV

  14. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  15. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  16. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  17. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  18. Examining fast and slow effects for alcohol and negative emotion in problem and social drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Simon; Sharma, Dinkar; Slater, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias (AB) for alcohol-related stimuli has been consistently demonstrated in social and problem drinkers. The aims of this study were to: investigate whether AB for alcoholrelated stimuli could be described as a slow effect as well as a fast effect; how these effects relate to drinking behaviour; and the influence of the experimental procedure on priming effects. Two experiments were designed. In experiment 1, problem drinkers in treatment at a community alcohol service (N¼62) and ...

  19. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  20. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647