WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol tests

  1. Breath alcohol test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breath alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in the blood by testing exhaled air. The test is performed by blowing ... breath machine 15 minutes after alcohol consumption. The test determines how much alcohol it takes to raise the blood-alcohol level ...

  2. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  3. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides for... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31...

  4. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their respective...

  6. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655...

  7. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  8. Blood-alcohol proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...

  9. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  10. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types of... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225...

  11. Drug and alcohol testing in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondiak, E.J. [ECS Safety Services Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding substance abuse in the workplace, many employers are implementing Drug and Alcohol Testing programs. Various Provincial Human Rights Commissions and the Canadian Human Rights Commission have published position papers on some of the controversial testing policies. The Commissions generally do not support any testing except for reasonable cause and/or post accident testing. Other forms of testing may be acceptable in cases where a genuine occupational requirement can be established. Bill C-45 imposes a legal duty on both employees and employers to take reasonable measure to protect employees and enhance public safety. It was suggested that the industry could take guidance from recent court cases in Alberta, Quebec and British Columbia which have supported Drug and Alcohol Testing.

  12. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  14. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...-0688; Notice No. 12-04] RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal... tour operations to combine the drug and alcohol testing required for each operation into one testing... programs while maintaining the level of safety intended by the current drug and alcohol testing regulations...

  15. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that complies... testing for drugs and alcohol on the individuals identified in § 26.4(f), random testing must— (1) Be...

  16. Drug and alcohol testing results 2000 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2000 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United State during 2000. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana (...

  17. Drug and alcohol testing results 1999 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1999 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1999. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...

  18. Drug and alcohol testing results 1998 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1998 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1998. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...

  19. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    .... FAA-2008-0937; Amendment No. 120-0A, 135-117A] RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing Program... Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations published on May 14...; added wording to the sections describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests; directed readers...

  20. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    .... No. 120-1] RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., and post-accident drug and alcohol testing. Parts of this rule, for example those sections dealing... air tours. Part 121 and part 135 each contain requirements for drug and alcohol testing. Until 2007...

  1. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility not...

  2. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each...

  3. Drug and alcohol testing results 2009 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is the 15th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2009, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  4. Drug and alcohol testing results 2007 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  5. Drug and alcohol testing results 2006 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This is the 12th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2006, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol t...

  6. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  7. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... 2105-AE03 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug..., Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202... Part 40 Administrative practice and procedures, Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug...

  8. Drug and alcohol testing results : 1997 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1997 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1997. The report covers testing results for the following drug type...

  9. Drug and alcohol testing results 2002 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This the 7th annual report of the results of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. The report summarizes the new reporting requirements introduced for calendar year 2001, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol testing program, the resul...

  10. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... anti-drug and alcohol misuse program in compliance with this part. (b) If the Administrator determines... and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect recent amendments to the law. The final... prior proposal because it merely incorporates recent statutory changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing...

  11. Evidence of Validity for the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Suzanne H.; Yanico, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    The convergent validity of an abbreviated version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was tested and supported. Extends a previous validity study by examining the CAST relationship to a measure that specifically addresses triangulation, individuation, intimacy, and personal authority between children of alcoholics and children of…

  12. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-11213, Notice No. 14] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011... random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  13. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-11213, Notice No. 13] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing... percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0... effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  14. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at an...

  15. Drug and alcohol testing results 1996 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1996. The report covers testing results for the following drug types: marijuana (THC), cocaine, phencyclidine (P...

  16. Results from the 2013 drug and alcohol testing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2013 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) that test positive fo...

  17. Results from the 2008 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2008 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses who test positive for controlled sub...

  18. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014... December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, W38...-493-6313); or Sam Noe, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Specialist, (telephone 615-719- 2951). Issued in...

  19. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing...: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25, Federal... Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955). Issued in...

  20. Passive alcohol sensors tested in 3 states for youth alcohol enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Passive alcohol sensors were tested in three states to determine their effectiveness in enforcing zero tolerance or low BAC laws for under 21 age drivers. The passive alcohol sensor was designed to sample the air immediately around the suspect for si...

  1. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  2. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... kept by part 40 of this title, each railroad must maintain alcohol misuse prevention program records in... prevention program (if required to submit the report under § 219.801(a)). (c) Each railroad must maintain the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901...

  3. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  4. Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SPECIAL REPORT RDMR-AE-15-02 TEST RECORD OF FLIGHT TESTS USING ALCOHOL -TO-JET/JP-8 BLENDED FUEL Franklin D Cox and George...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol -to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel 5...be certified for use in these air vehicles. 14. SUBJECT TERMS UH-60, CH-47, alternative fuel , Alcohol -to-Jet, ATJ blend, flight test, longevity

  5. The Effect of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Vapors on Evidential Breath Alcohol Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawsine, Ellen; Lutmer, Brian

    2017-11-16

    This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code. These status codes were caused by ethanol vapors either in the room air or their inhalation by the subject, thereby causing a mouth alcohol effect. Replicate subject samples did not yield any consecutive positive numeric results. As ABHS application can cause a transitory mouth alcohol effect via inhalation of ABHS vapors, EBT operators should forego the use of ABHS in the 15 min preceding subject testing. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation test... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol...

  7. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  8. Simple diagnostic tests to detect toxic alcohol intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurologic disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, whereas the latter is caused by accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly decrease their rates of morbidity and mortality. Currently, detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid-based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive, and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications.

  9. Evaluation of innovative state and community alcohol projects : breath alcohol testing program effectiveness, impact and transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) programs in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico are evaluated in regard to effectiveness, impact, and transferability of the special DWI enforcement squads and their use of BAT Mobiles. Squad activity effectiveness is me...

  10. Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This is the 14th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing : Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2008, the requirements of the overall : drug and alcoh...

  11. Drug and alcohol testing results 2001 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This is the sixth annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. The report summarizes the new reporting requirements introduced for calendar year 2001, the requirements of the overall dru...

  12. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.253 What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT conducting an alcohol... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol...

  13. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. Each operator shall require a covered employee to submit to a post-accident alcohol... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199...

  14. 49 CFR 40.231 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.231 What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests? (a... section are the only devices you may use to conduct alcohol confirmation tests under this part. Note that... use in confirmation testing in the DOT alcohol testing program. (b) To conduct a confirmation test...

  15. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  16. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013...., Washington, DC 20590, (telephone 202-493- 1342); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist... from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has...

  17. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace is probably about .30. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES94 Drug Abuse , Alcohol...8217Rev 2 89’ toyAS’I 0 13 zoo Integrity and Substance A-buseý Va-idity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and %Lcohol Abuse Frank L. Schmidt...nflegri’ty and S, c ,s EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Drug and alcohol abuse is a major problem in the workplace . In this report,

  18. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time...

  19. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271 Section 40.271 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing...

  20. 49 CFR 40.255 - What happens next after the alcohol confirmation test result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.255 What happens next after the alcohol confirmation test result? (a) After the EBT has printed the result of an alcohol confirmation test, you must, as the BAT, take the following additional steps: (1) Sign...

  1. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  2. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  3. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs” (65 FR 41944; August 9, 2001) to collect specimens... that the licensee's or other entity's staff possesses the necessary training and skills for the tasks... or drug metabolites in Federal workplace drug testing programs and the licensee or other entity...

  4. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.93 Preparing... shall— (1) Ask the donor whether he or she, in the past 15 minutes, has had anything to eat or drink...

  5. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  6. 49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse to submit to a post-accident alcohol or controlled substances test required under § 382.303, a random alcohol or controlled substances test required under § 382.305, a reasonable suspicion alcohol or...

  7. 27 CFR 19.750 - Records of alcohol content and fill tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and fill tests. 19.750 Section 19.750 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Processing Account § 19.750 Records of alcohol content and fill tests. (a) Proprietors shall record the results of all tests of alcohol content and quantity (fill) conducted. (b) The record shall be maintained...

  8. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  9. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... 2105-AE01 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of...: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  10. Reliability Generalization of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Alan L.; Caruso, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the reliability of scores from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. Sounders and others, 1993) in a reliability generalization study based on 17 empirical journal articles. Results show AUDIT scores to be generally reliable for basic assessment. (SLD)

  11. Laboratory testing of a saliva-alcohol test device by Enzymatics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the accuracy of a new saliva-alcohol test device (Enzymatics, Inc. "Q.E.D.-A150") at nine different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) under three temperature conditions. However, it did not assess the saliva collection procedure...

  12. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same EBT...

  13. 14 CFR 61.16 - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to... INSTRUCTORS General § 61.16 Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. A refusal to submit to a test to indicate the percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when requested by a law...

  14. 49 CFR 40.225 - What form is used for an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What form is used for an alcohol test? 40.225... Testing § 40.225 What form is used for an alcohol test? (a) The DOT Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) must be used for every DOT alcohol test. The ATF must be a three-part carbonless manifold form. The ATF is...

  15. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol... Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the initial... the donor that a confirmatory test for alcohol is required. ...

  16. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol... Specimens for Testing § 26.103 Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. (a) A confirmed positive test result for alcohol must be declared under any of the following conditions: (1) When the...

  17. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under the...

  18. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.13 How do DOT drug and... non-DOT drug and alcohol testing programs. This prohibition includes the use of the DOT forms with...

  19. Perceived Physical Availability of Alcohol at Work and Workplace Alcohol Use and Impairment: Testing a Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and two dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  20. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? 40.267 Section 40.267 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.267 What problems...

  1. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the...

  2. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 199 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0335] Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing AGENCY... operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol tests of..., operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either contributed to the...

  3. 75 FR 5722 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Senior Policy Advisor (S- 1), Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE..., Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Safety...

  4. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and drugs...

  5. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  6. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not comply...

  7. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  8. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1) Drug...

  9. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    .... PHMSA-2009-0408] Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple... Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS), is modifying the Drug & Alcohol... begin collecting annual drug and alcohol testing data for contractor employees with Management...

  10. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office... technical amendments to its drug and alcohol testing procedures to authorize employers to begin using the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance...

  11. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD67 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... employers in the Department's drug and alcohol testing program to disclose to State commercial driver licensing (CDL) authorities the drug and alcohol violations of employees who hold CDLs and operate...

  12. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD64 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey.... PART 40--PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS 0 Accordingly, the...

  13. 75 FR 49850 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone... methodology upon which DOT can rely in making its drug and alcohol testing regulations; we follow the HHS...

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  17. Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and prevalence of alcohol use among Iranian psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Shams, Jamal; Faghihimohamadi, Mohamadmahdi; Zahiroddin, Hanieh; Hallgren, Mats; Kallmen, Hakan

    2018-01-30

    Iran is a developing and Islamic country where the consumption of alcoholic beverages is banned. However, psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders are often co-occurring. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and examined the psychometric properties of the test among psychiatric outpatients in Teheran, Iran. AUDIT was completed by 846 consecutive (sequential) patients. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of alcohol use, reliability and construct validity. 12% of men and 1% of women were hazardous alcohol consumers. Internal reliability of the Iranian version of AUDIT was excellent. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the construct validity and the fit of previous factor structures (1, 2 and 3 factors) to data were not good and seemingly contradicted results from the explorative principal axis factoring, which showed that a 1-factor solution explained 77% of the co-variances. We could not reproduce the suggested factor structure of AUDIT, probably due to the skewed distribution of alcohol consumption. Only 19% of men and 3% of women scored above 0 on AUDIT. This could be explained by the fact that alcohol is illegal in Iran. In conclusion the AUDIT exhibited good internal reliability when used as a single scale. The prevalence estimates according to AUDIT were somewhat higher among psychiatric patients compared to what was reported by WHO regarding the general population.

  18. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and urine). Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol...

  19. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath... Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The collector shall perform the initial breath test as soon as practical after the donor indicates that he or...

  20. The ad-libitum alcohol 'taste test': secondary analyses of potential confounds and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Button, Emily; Rose, Abigail K; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Di Lemma, Lisa; Field, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Motivation to drink alcohol can be measured in the laboratory using an ad-libitum 'taste test', in which participants rate the taste of alcoholic drinks whilst their intake is covertly monitored. Little is known about the construct validity of this paradigm. The objective of this study was to investigate variables that may compromise the validity of this paradigm and its construct validity. We re-analysed data from 12 studies from our laboratory that incorporated an ad-libitum taste test. We considered time of day and participants' awareness of the purpose of the taste test as potential confounding variables. We examined whether gender, typical alcohol consumption, subjective craving, scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and perceived pleasantness of the drinks predicted ad-libitum consumption (construct validity). We included 762 participants (462 female). Participant awareness and time of day were not related to ad-libitum alcohol consumption. Males drank significantly more alcohol than females (p alcohol consumption (p = 0.04), craving (p alcohol consumption. The construct validity of the taste test was supported by relationships between ad-libitum consumption and typical alcohol consumption, craving and pleasantness ratings of the drinks. The ad-libitum taste test is a valid method for the assessment of alcohol intake in the laboratory.

  1. Experimental exposure to alcohol as a model for the evaluation of neurobehavioural tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooisma, J.; Twisk, D.A.M.; Platalla, S.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The performance characteristics of 4 computerized psychological tests were studied using alcohol as a model compound. Subjects received alcohol (0.5 ml/kg) or placebo in a cross-over design and performance was assessed using the Simple Reaction Time test, the Switching Attention test, the Hand/Eye

  2. Ecological Relevance of Memory Tests and the Prediction of Relapse in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; And Others

    Recent research suggests that alcoholic inpatients' performance on neuropsychological tests is predictive of their drinking status following discharge from alcohol rehabilitation programs, although no single test itself has been predictive of relapse. This study seeks to develop a ecologically relevant memory test that would predict relapse and…

  3. Test-retest reliability of the underlying latent factor structure of alcohol subjective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Joseph A; Childs, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol subjective experiences are multi-dimensional and demonstrate wide inter-individual variability. Recent efforts have sought to establish a clearer understanding of subjective alcohol responses by identifying core constructs derived from multiple measurement instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal stability of this approach to conceptualizing alcohol subjective experiences across successive alcohol administrations in the same individuals. Healthy moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 104) completed six experimental sessions each, three with alcohol (0.8 g/kg), and three with a non-alcoholic control beverage. Participants reported subjective mood and drug effects using standardized questionnaires before and at repeated times after beverage consumption. We explored the underlying latent structure of subjective responses for all alcohol administrations using exploratory factor analysis and then tested measurement invariance over the three successive administrations using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analyses on responses to alcohol across all administrations yielded four factors representing "Positive mood," "Sedation," "Stimulation/Euphoria," and "Drug effects and Urges." A confirmatory factor analysis on the separate administrations indicated acceptable configural and metric invariance and moderate scalar invariance. In this study, we demonstrate temporal stability of the underlying constructs of subjective alcohol responses derived from factor analysis. These findings strengthen the utility of this approach to conceptualizing subjective alcohol responses especially for use in prospective and longitudinal alcohol challenge studies relating subjective response to alcohol use disorder risk.

  4. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  5. 14 CFR 63.12a - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. 63.12a Section 63.12a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 63.12a Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. A refusal to submit to a test...

  6. Testing a model of caffeinated alcohol-specific expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Stamates, Amy L

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to further understand the association between caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use and alcohol-related risks. In particular, we focused on the role of two identified expectancies specific to CAB use: intoxication enhancement and avoidance of negative consequences. Although outcome expectancies are consistent predictors of substance use, limited research has examined expectancies related to CAB use and their association with alcohol-related behaviors, such as protecting themselves from alcohol-related harms. Consequently, the present study examined CAB-specific expectancies and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as mediators of CAB use and negative consequences. Participants were 322 (219 women) college drinkers who completed self-report measures of typical CAB and alcohol use, CAB-specific expectancies, PBS use, and alcohol-related harms. Structural equation modeling revealed, after controlling for typical non-CAB heavy alcohol use, a significant indirect effect of CAB use to alcohol-related problems through avoidance of negative consequences CAB expectancies and PBS use. However, intoxication enhancement expectancies did not mediate this association. Our findings indicate that heavier CAB use was associated with stronger expectations that drinking CABs can help avoid negative consequences. These beliefs were related to using fewer PBS when drinking and a greater likelihood of experiencing problems. Given that these expectancies may be underlying mechanisms of CAB use, their inclusion in existing alcohol interventions may be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No, other types of alcohol tests (e,g., blood and urine) are not authorized for testing done under this part...

  8. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a... drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a... performing a safety-sensitive function. (3) If an employee refuses to submit to a drug or alcohol test...

  9. Results from the 2014 drug and alcohol testing survey : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2014 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  10. Results from the 2015 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2015 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  11. Results from the 2016 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey : Analysis Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2016 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  12. Results of the first semi-annual qualification testing of devices to measure breath alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Eight evidential breath testers were performance tested according to the Standard for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol Federal Register, Vol 38, No. 212, November 5, 1973. In addition, a prototype breath tester not commercially available was tested....

  13. Results from the 2012 drug and alcohol testing survey : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2012 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) who test positive for...

  14. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  15. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and... Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? (a) As an employee, you are considered to have refused to take an alcohol test if you: (1) Fail to appear for any...

  16. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a BAT or STT, or employer, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur, unless...

  17. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  18. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  19. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  20. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...

  1. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results or...

  2. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  3. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  4. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If you...

  6. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a) This...

  7. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... other entity relies on drug and alcohol tests that were conducted before the individual applied for...

  8. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a) This...

  9. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a) This...

  10. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements? (a...

  11. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  12. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  14. Explaining reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption: a test of an extended social identity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; McCafferty, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    To test the role of group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol consumption to a group identity in shaping reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption. The study had a 2 (behaviour: identity-defining/alcohol vs. non-identity defining/caffeine) × 2 (norm: low vs. heavy consumption) between-subjects factorial design. Group identification and personal attitudes towards alcohol/caffeine consumption were included as measured predictors. Participants were 83 undergraduate students (44 female, 38 male, one unspecified) at a University in Scotland. Predictor and outcome variables included questionnaire measures of group (student) identification, personal attitudes to alcohol/caffeine consumption, the perceived importance of alcohol/caffeine consumption to group identity, and behavioral intentions to consume alcohol/caffeine. Personal attitude and group identification moderated the impact of norm information on consumption intentions, but only for alcohol consumption, and not caffeine consumption. For alcohol, norm information did affect intended consumption (ps ≤ .034), with the crucial exception of high identifiers who had favourable personal attitudes towards alcohol consumption. Instead, these individuals resist norm information (ps = .458 and .174), showing no decrease in intentions in the face of norm information that emphasised relatively 'low' levels of consumption. The impact of norm information on alcohol consumption intentions depends on group-based factors such as group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol to a group identity. When both of these factors are high, and an individual also personally favours the behaviour, the potential for norm-based interventions to fail is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of characteristics of a reliable and practical breath alcohol screening test. Part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate several commercially available breath-alcohol screening test devices of the length-of-stain type, under standardized laboratory conditions, with respect to their ability satisfactorily to detect an...

  16. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C) for patients with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Jung; Chu, Hsin; Huang, Chang-Chih; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the MAST-C were examined in this study. The MAST-C had an internal consistency of 0.83 and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. It had a good content validity index of 0.92. Factor analysis identified four factors and the optimal cutoff point for the MAST-C was a score of 6/7, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.83, a positive predictive value of 0.92, and a negative predictive value of 0.83. The MAST-C provides a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for clinically diagnosing alcoholism and clinical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-0155] RIN 2130-AC24 Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For program and technical issues, contact Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug..., as part of its accident investigation program, FRA has conducted post-accident alcohol and drug tests...

  18. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain legal...

  19. An applied test of the social learning theory of deviance to college alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory.

  20. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  1. Thermal Stability Test of Sugar Alcohols as Phase Change Materials for Medium Temperature Energy Storage Application

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Aran; Neumann, Hannah; Niedermaier, Sophia; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Palomo, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Sugar alcohols are potential phase change materials candidates as they present high phase change enthalpy values, are non-toxic and low cost products. Three promising sugar-alcohols were selected: D-mannitol, myo-inositol and dulcitol under high melting enthalpy and temperature criterion. Thermal cycling tests were performed to study its cycling stability which can be determining when selecting the suitable phase change material. D-mannitol and dulcitol present poor thermal stability...

  2. Using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Test as a measure of implicit attitudes towards alcohol : Relationship with drinking behavior and alcohol problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; van de Braak, Marten; Huijding, Jorg

    In apparent contrast to the alleged importance of positive alcohol expectancies in alcohol (ab)use, a series of studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; [Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit

  3. Using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Test as a measure of implicit attitudes towards alcohol: Relationship with drinking behavior and alcohol problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, P.J. de; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Braak, M. van de; Huijding, J.

    2007-01-01

    In apparent contrast to the alleged importance of positive alcohol expectancies in alcohol (ab)use, a series of studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; [Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit

  4. 77 FR 26471 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...). Consumption of food products (e.g., poppy seeds) must not be considered a legitimate medical explanation for... 2105-AE14 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine... Department is amending certain provisions of its drug testing procedures for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), a...

  5. The effect of alcohol and fatigue on an FAA readiness-to-perform test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Readiness to perform (RTP) testing is considered by some to be a broad-based alternative or supplement to biochemical testing for drugs and alcohol. Since it is also thought to detect impairment due to other sources (e.g., fatigue, illness, depressio...

  6. Schools as Good Parent: Symbolism versus Substance in Drug and Alcohol Testing of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the decision to implement a drug and alcohol testing program, analyzing how such programs fit within the traditional functions of criminal and administrative law, pinpoints some messages conveyed by testing programs, and discusses factual premises that should underlay such programs. Reviews recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings and gauges…

  7. Testing for drug and alcohol аbuse at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kavrakovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace represents a great risk to employee’s health and safety. More than 50% of the employees worldwide are related to easily accessible drug abuse, while 70% of the employees are related to alcohol abuse in the workplace. Tests for detecting drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace should be part of a new regulation, compulsory for all employees in the Republic of Macedonia. Implementing this sort of testing program should at the same time be a step towards devising particular solutions that shall bring about greater safety in the working environment. A key element in the implementation is to devise and establish an adequate policy that shall determine the risk factors within a working establishment which shall clearly express its position regarding drug and alcohol abuse during working hours. Along with the risk factors, the policy may also include the program for testing both, employees and the ones who are about to be employed, for drug and alcohol abuse. In order to implement this sort of test, it must be in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (Official gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No 92/07, 2007 and a legal framework has to be defined, that shall regulate and solve numerous aspects of this issue, in order to fully implement the program for drug free working environment pursuant to the Declaration and the decrees of the United Nations General Assembly in 1998.

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  9. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  10. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  11. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  12. Testing the Relations Among Family Disorganization, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frances L; Pandika, Danielle; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Matthew; King, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Delay discounting is a potential etiological factor in adolescents' alcohol use, making it important to understand its antecedents. Family disorganization might contribute to delay discounting, but few studies have tested this relation. Moreover, because delay discounting is heritable, the effects of family disorganization on delay discounting might be moderated by adolescents' genetic risk for delay discounting. Thus, the current study examined the role of family disorganization, in interaction with genetic risk, in predicting adolescents' delay discounting and subsequent alcohol use. Adolescents participated in 4 waves of data collection. Adolescents self-reported their family disorganization at T1, completed a delay discounting questionnaire at T3, and self-reported their alcohol use both at T2 (covariate) and T4 (outcome). Using results from an independent sample, we created a polygenic risk score consisting of dopaminergic genes to index genetic risk for delay discounting. Greater family disorganization predicted adolescents' greater delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk for delay discounting. Adolescents with high and mean levels of genetic risk for delay discounting showed elevated delay discounting regardless of their family's disorganization. Greater delay discounting prospectively predicted adolescents' greater alcohol use. Finally, the effects of family disorganization on adolescents' alcohol use were mediated through delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk. Results suggest multiple pathways to delay discounting. Although there are genetically influenced pathways to delay discounting, family disorganization might represent an environmental pathway to delay discounting (and subsequent alcohol use) for a subset of adolescents at low genetic risk. These findings reinforce the utility of family interventions for reducing adolescents' delay discounting and alcohol use, at least for a

  13. Breath alcohol test precision: an in vivo vs. in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, R G

    1989-12-01

    Random error is associated with breath alcohol measurements, as with all analytical methods. The total random uncertainty of a group of n measurements is typically determined by computing the standard deviation and requiring it to be less than some appropriate level (i.e., +/- 0.0042 g/210 l). The total random uncertainty has two primary sources; the instrumental method and the sample source. These are typically inseparable values. In breath alcohol testing the two primary sample sources are simulators and human breath. The present study evaluates ten groups of simulator samples consisting of ten measurements each on BAC Verifier Datamaster instruments. The data also includes ten breath alcohol measurements from each of 21 individuals following alcohol consumption. The range of standard deviations for the simulator samples was 0.0003-0.0022 g/210 l. The range of standard deviations for the human breath samples was 0.0015-0.0089 g/210 l. Two statistics that test for homogeneity for variances were applied. The simulator samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.5000 and an Fmax test of 48.9. The human breath samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.1519 and an Fmax test of 27.3. All were significant at P less than 0.001. The statistical tests demonstrated that the intragroup variability among the human subjects was comparable to the intragroup variability among the simulator samples. The data also demonstrates that the sample source (simulator or human) is probably the largest contributor to total random uncertainty. Therefore, when duplicate breath alcohol testing from individuals shows variability in the second decimal place the cause is differences in breath samples provided and not instrumental imprecision.

  14. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104. ...

  15. The Hitch case--saving ampoules for a defendant from a chemical test for alcoholic intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    The author provides a review of the Hitch Case, as decided by the California Supreme Court in 1974, and its subsequent impact in the field of chemical tests for alcoholic intoxication. The report reviews the scientific basis for the Hitch decision an...

  16. I drink therefore I am: validating alcohol-related implicit association tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Westgate, E.; Greenwald, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared with

  17. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 [Docket DOT-OST-2008-0088] RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue of Thursday, February 25, 2010, make the...

  18. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations...) * * * (2) * * * (i) Positive, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for the drug(s) or drug metabolite(s). (ii) Positive-dilute, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for...

  19. A Test of the Salience Asymmetry Interpretation of the Alcohol-IAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    K. Rothermund and D. Wentura (2004) showed how Figure-Ground (FG) asymmetries produce effects on the Implicit Association Task (IAT), independent of associations. Here, the FG account was tested for the robust finding that drinkers show a negative alcohol-IAT effect while being positive on explicit

  20. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 3: Employee Alcohol- and Drug-Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Susan R.; Libbin, Anne E.

    1988-01-01

    The third in a series of four articles, this discusses the legal implications of the use of medical tests to prevent drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace and to reduce absenteeism, tardiness, reduced productivity, and accidents that result from employee substance abuse. Cites recent cases. (JOW)

  1. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-02-01

    Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009-2015 and categorised as 'passive', low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more 'intense' policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in 'passive' areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4-6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Acute and chronic effects of alcohol on trail making test performance among underage drinkers in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Anne M; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Johansen, Gerard E; Spear, Linda P

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol's effects on executive functioning are well documented. Research in this area has provided much information on both the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on processes such as working memory and mental flexibility. However, most research on the acute effects of alcohol is conducted with individuals older than 21 years of age. Using field recruitment methods can provide unique empirical data on the acute effects of alcohol on an underage population. The current study examined the independent effects of acute alcohol intoxication (measured by breath alcohol content) and chronic alcohol use (measured by years drinking) on a test of visuomotor performance and mental flexibility (Trail Making Test) among 91 drinkers ages 18-20 years recruited from a field setting. Results show that breath alcohol predicts performance on Trails B, but not on Trails A, and that years drinking, above and beyond acute intoxication, predicts poorer performance on both Trails A and B. These data suggest that, independent of the acute effects of alcohol, chronic alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on executive functioning processes among underage drinkers. Our discussion focuses on the importance of these data in describing the effect of alcohol on adolescents and the potential for engaging in risky behavior while intoxicated.

  3. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  4. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025 and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000. Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  6. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced ...

  7. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT: reliability and validity of the Greek version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratis Dimitris

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with alcohol abuse are recognised by the World Health Organization as a major health issue, which according to most recent estimations is responsible for 1.4% of the total world burden of morbidity and has been proven to increase mortality risk by 50%. Because of the size and severity of the problem, early detection is very important. This requires easy to use and specific tools. One of these is the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Aim This study aims to standardise the questionnaire in a Greek population. Methods AUDIT was translated and back-translated from its original language by two English-speaking psychiatrists. The tool contains 10 questions. A score ≥ 11 is an indication of serious abuse/dependence. In the study, 218 subjects took part: 128 were males and 90 females. The average age was 40.71 years (± 11.34. From the 218 individuals, 109 (75 male, 34 female fulfilled the criteria for alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, and presented requesting admission; 109 subjects (53 male, 56 female were healthy controls. Results Internal reliability (Cronbach α was 0.80 for the controls and 0.80 for the alcohol-dependent individuals. Controls had significantly lower average scores (t test P 8 was 0.98 and its specificity was 0.94 for the same score. For the alcohol-dependent sample 3% scored as false negatives and from the control group 1.8% scored false positives. In the alcohol-dependent sample there was no difference between males and females in their average scores (t test P > 0.05. Conclusion The Greek version of AUDIT has increased internal reliability and validity. It detects 97% of the alcohol-dependent individuals and has a high sensitivity and specificity. AUDIT is easy to use, quick and reliable and can be very useful in detection alcohol problems in sensitive populations.

  8. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  9. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the Secretary... cancel an alcohol test? (a) As an STT, BAT, employer, or a service agent administering the testing... employer, these errors, even though not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test result, may subject you to...

  10. Protocol for assessing alcohol withdrawal syndrome by nursing professionals in emergency services: a pilot test

    OpenAIRE

    Luis,Margarita Antonia Villar; Lunetta,Ana Carolina Fuza; Ferreira,Paulo Sérgio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work speaks of a pilot test administered in four public services with emergency care (one at a hospital and three at community clinics) in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, to test an assessment protocol for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. Involved were auxiliaries, technicians and soon-to-be-nurses. The object was to evaluate the protocol´s potential as a guide to nursing care, and to test whether it was adequate in terms of comprehension and applicability. METHODS: A prot...

  11. Total alcoholic acidity and pH tests as quality parameters in stored soybean grains

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Maicon Marinho Vieira; Caneppele, Maria Aparecida Braga; Bianchini, Maria das Graças Assis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the technology available to agriculture, qualitative and quantitative losses occurring during post-harvest are still not controlled, and stored grains may undergo changes in their composition, due to storage conditions. This study aimed at determining the sensitivity of the alcoholic acidity and pH tests in soybean (GB 874RR cultivar) grains with different quality standards obtained during storage. A completely randomized design, in a 3 x 6 x 5 (3 storage conditions x 6 stora...

  12. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  13. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in university students: AUDIT and AUDIT-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carretero, Miguel Ángel; Novalbos Ruiz, José Pedro; Martínez Delgado, José Manuel; O'Ferrall González, Cristina

    2016-03-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and AUDIT-C) in order to detect problems related to the consumption of alcohol in the university population. The sample consisted of 1309 students.A Weekly Alcohol Consumption Diary was used as a gold standard; Cronbach's Alpha, the Kappa index, Spearman's correlation coefficient and exploratory factor analysis were applied for diagnostic reliability and validity, with ROC curves used to establish the different cut-off points. Binge Drinking (BD) episodes were found in 3.9% of men and 4.0% of women with otherwise low-risk drinking patterns. AUDIT identified 20.1% as high-risk drinkers and 6.4% as drinkers with physical-psychological problems and probable alcohol dependence.Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 demonstrates good internal consistency. The best cut-off points for high-risk drinking students were 8 for males and 6 for females. As for problem drinkers and probable ADS, 13 was the best cut-off point for both sexes. In relation to AUDIT-C, 5 and 4 were the best cut-off points for males and females with high-risk patterns, respectively. The criterion validity of AUDIT and AUDIT-C to detect binge drinking episodes was found to have a moderate K value. The results obtained show that AUDIT has good psychometric properties to detect early alcohol abuse disorders in university students; however, it is recommended that the cut-off point be reduced to 8 in men. AUDIT-C improves its predictive value by raising the cut-off point by one unit. Items 2 and 3 should be reviewed to increase its predictive value for BD.

  14. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the...

  15. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.243 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...

  16. Validación de la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sánchez-López

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El sesgo atencional para el alcohol se ha mostrado útil para identificar a personas con consumo patológico así como a personas dependientes con altas probabilidades de recaída. El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol diseñado para evaluar el sesgo atencional en pacientes dependientes del alcohol. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 173 participantes divididos en dos grupos: Un grupo de pacientes (n = 88 cumpliendo criterios de dependencia alcohólica y un grupo control (n = 85 con riesgo bajo de consumo de alcohol, que realizaron el Test de palabras y colores de Stroop (Stroop clásico, el Test de Stroop neutro y el Test de Stroop de Alcohol. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las interferencias para el Stroop Clásico y el Stroop de Alcohol. Los pacientes con dependencia, en comparación a los participantes control, mostraron mayores interferencias para estímulos de contenido alcohólico que para estímulos de contenido neutro. Este efecto fue explicado por un sesgo atencional para información relacionada con el alcohol en pacientes con dependencia. Se calcularon curvas COR, observándose áreas bajo la curva estadísticamente significativas para las interferencias del Stroop clásico y del Stroop de alcohol. Este trabajo sirvió para validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol para evaluar sesgos atencionales hacia el alcohol en personas con problemas de consumo y dependencia alcohólica.

  17. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  18. Development and field test of a responsible alcohol service program. Volume 3, Final results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    A Program of Responsible Alcohol Service was developed to enable servers and managers in establishments selling alcoholic beverages to exercise responsibility in their service of alcohol in order to prevent injury to and by intoxicated patrons. The P...

  19. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  20. Field test of high molecular weight alcohol flushing for subsurface nonaqueous phase liquid remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W.; Lee, Cindy M.; Brame, Scott E.; Roeder, Eberhard; Coates, John T.; Wright, Charles; Wood, A. Lynn; Enfield, Carl G.

    1999-07-01

    A pilot scale field test of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal using high molecular weight alcohols was conducted at Operable Unit 1, Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Petroleum hydrocarbons and spent solvents were disposed of in chemical disposal pits at this site, and these materials are now present in the subsurface in the form of a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). This LNAPL is a complex mixture of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, and other compounds. The field experiment was performed in a 5 m by 3 m confined test cell, formed by driving interlocking sheet pile walls through the contaminated zone into an underlying clay. The test involved the injection and extraction of about four pore volumes (1 pore volume=7000 L) of a mixture of 80% tert-butanol and 15% n-hexanol. The contaminants were removed by a combination of NAPL mobilization and enhanced dissolution, and the results of postflood soil coring indicate better than 90% removal of the more soluble contaminants (trichloroethane, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzene, naphthalene) and 70-80% removal of less soluble compounds (decane and undecane). The results of preflood and postflood NAPL partitioning tracer tests show nearly 80% removal of the total NAPL content from the test cell. The field data suggest that a somewhat higher level of removal could be achieved with a longer alcohol injection.

  1. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2017-09-06

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The constitutionality of random drug and alcohol testing of students in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Irene; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent drug and alcohol use is a major public health problem. Multiple studies indicate that substance use is a risk factor for physical and mental disorders in adolescents. Secondary schools and the communities they serve have been facing a long-standing problem of substance abuse. American adolescents have become quite accustomed to drug prevention being a part of their curriculum. However, some policy decisions made by school administrators have been legally challenged. In 1989, Vernonia School District serving a small community in Oregon, instituted a random drug testing policy of its athletes. In 1991, the parents of a seventh grader refused to give their consent for random drug testing. The seventh grader was denied participation in the sport and sued the School District arguing that the school policy violated the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and Article I, Section 9 of the Oregon Constitution. In 1995, on appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, the School District won the case. The Vernonia School District versus Acton case became a landmark case, but random drug and alcohol testing in secondary schools has been a subject of multiple court cases. The authors discuss three of them. Both Federal and State Courts have recognized that a secondary school environment in itself represents "a special need," for which suspicionless searches are sometimes necessary to maintain order, safety, and discipline. Drug and alcohol testing programs in secondary schools may still be challenged on its legality. Therefore, examining court sanctioned programs and their long-term efficacy statistics is recommended.

  3. 49 CFR 40.25 - Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol testing record of employees it is intending to use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.25 Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol testing...

  4. The acute effects of alcohol on cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by the head-up tilt test in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viski, Sandor; Orosz, Miklos; Czuriga-Kovacs, Katalin Reka; Magyar, Maria Tunde; Csiba, Laszlo; Olah, Laszlo

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol is a known triggering factor for orthostatic dysfunction, increasing the risk of neurally-mediated syncope. Since orthostatic tolerance may be affected by both systemic and cerebral hemodynamic changes, our aim was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on cerebral vasoreactivity measured during the head-up tilt (HUT) test in 20 healthy subjects. Mean arterial blood pressure (mBP), heart rate, and flow parameters in both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were continuously recorded in the supine and during a 10-minute HUT positions before and after alcohol intake. The HUT test resulted in a more prominent decline of adjusted mBP at the level of MCAs (mBPMCA) and a significantly larger decrease of MCA mean flow velocities (MFVMCA) in the post-alcohol period than before alcohol intake. During the HUT phase, the relative decrease in MFVMCA was significantly smaller than the reduction in mBPMCA before drinking alcohol, while these changes were similar after alcohol ingestion. The cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi) decreased during the HUT phase in the control period, however, it increased after alcohol intake. The similar decrease in mBPMCA and MFVMCA during orthostatic stress after alcohol ingestion together with the increased CVRi indicated the impairment of the compensatory vasodilation of cerebral resistance vessels, i.e. impaired cerebral autoregulation. These findings suggest that alcohol may contribute to impaired orthostatic tolerance not only by a hypotensive response but also by the alteration of cerebral blood flow regulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A comparison of blood alcohol levels as determined by breath and blood tests taken in actual field operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    During its 1972 session, the General Assembly of Virginia enacted Senate Bill 104, which authorizes the breath test, as well as the blood test used previously, as a proper chemical test to determine the alcoholic content of the blood. Any person arre...

  6. Blood alcohol test results of motor vehicle deaths as an evaluation method for the Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP) was started following the June 1971 approval of the proposal and working plan submitted to the Department of Transportation by the Highway Safety Division of Virginia. A total of $2,123,000 was allocat...

  7. [Reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Yang, G P; Li, Z; Li, X N; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, F Y; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among medical students in China and to provide correct way of application on the recommended scales. Methods: An E-questionnaire was developed and sent to medical students in five different colleges. Students were all active volunteers to accept the testings. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were calculated to evaluate the reliability of AUDIT while content, contract, discriminant and convergent validity were performed to measure the validity of the scales. Results: The overall Cronbach's α of AUDIT was 0.782 and the split-half reliability was 0.711. Data showed that the domain Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were 0.796 and 0.794 for hazardous alcohol use, 0.561 and 0.623 for dependence symptoms, and 0.647 and 0.640 for harmful alcohol use. Results also showed that the content validity index on the levels of items I-CVI) were from 0.83 to 1.00, the content validity index of scale level (S-CVI/UA) was 0.90, content validity index of average scale level (S-CVI/Ave) was 0.99 and the content validity ratios (CVR) were from 0.80 to 1.00. The simplified version of AUDIT supported a presupposed three-factor structure which could explain 61.175% of the total variance revealed through exploratory factor analysis. AUDIT semed to have good convergent and discriminant validity, with the success rate of calibration experiment as 100%. Conclusion: AUDIT showed good reliability and validity among medical students in China thus worth for promotion on its use.

  8. Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Mindfulness, Psychosocial Stress, and Alcohol Use among African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Cano, Miguel A; Heppner, Whitney L; Stewart, Diana W; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2015-04-01

    Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers ( N = 399, 51% female, M age = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers.

  9. Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Mindfulness, Psychosocial Stress, and Alcohol Use among African American Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel A.; Heppner, Whitney L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers (N = 399, 51% female, Mage = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers. PMID:25848408

  10. An experimental test of assessment reactivity within a web-based brief alcohol intervention study for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzino, Tera L; Rose, Gail L; Helzer, John E

    2016-01-01

    Web-based brief alcohol intervention (WBI) programs have efficacy in a wide range of college students and have been widely disseminated to universities to address heavy alcohol use. In the majority of efficacy studies, web-based research assessments were conducted before the intervention. Web-based research assessments may elicit reactivity, which could inflate estimates of WBI efficacy. The current study tested whether web-based research assessments conducted in combination with a WBI had additive effects on alcohol use outcomes, compared to a WBI only. Undergraduate students (n=856) from universities in the United States and Canada participated in this online study. Eligible individuals were randomized to complete 1) research assessments+WBI or 2) WBI-only. Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and protective behaviors were assessed at one-month follow up. Multiple regression using 20 multiply imputed datasets indicated that there were no significant differences at follow up in alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, or protective behaviors used when controlling for variables with theoretical and statistical relevance. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a significant decrease in peak estimated blood alcohol concentration in both groups, but no differential effects by randomized group. There were no significant moderating effects from gender, hazardous alcohol use, or motivation to change drinking. Web-based research assessments combined with a web-based alcohol intervention did not inflate estimates of intervention efficacy when measured within-subjects. Our findings suggest universities may be observing intervention effects similar to those cited in efficacy studies, although effectiveness trials are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  14. Evaluation of the analytical performance of a fuel cell breath alcohol testing instrument: a seven-year comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    Between 2003 and 2009, 54,255 breath test sequences were performed on 129 AlcoSensor IV-XL evidential instruments in Orange County, CA. The overall mean breath alcohol concentration and standard deviation from these tests was 0.141 ± 0.051 g/210 L. Of these test sequences, 38,580 successfully resulted in two valid breath alcohol results, with 97.5% of these results agreeing within ±0.020 g/210 L of each other and 86.3% within ±0.010 g/210 L. The mean absolute difference between duplicate tests was 0.006 g/210 L with a median of 0.004 g/210 L. Of the 2.5% of duplicate test results that did not agree within ±0.020 g/210 L, 95% of these had a breath alcohol concentration of 0.10 g/210 L or greater and 77% had an alcohol concentration of 0.15 g/210 L or greater. The data indicate that the AlcoSensor IV-XL can measure a breath sample for alcohol concentration with adequate precision even amid the effects of biological variations. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  16. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determine whether your company must obtain an Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations... Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations Specification, or whether you need to register with the FAA... operate under parts 121 and/or 135 (i) Have an Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations...

  17. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-06-07

    to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. demonstrar as relações entre vulnerabilidade, autotranscendência e bem-estar na população adulta jovem e o efeito de cada uma destas variáveis na adoção de condutas de baixo risco de consumo. estudo quantitativo, transversal do tipo correlacional que utilizou a análise estatística de Equações Estruturais para comprovar a relação entre as variáveis. evidenciou-se uma relação inversa entre a vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool e a transcendência espiritual (β-0.123, p 0.025) e uma relação direta positiva entre a transcendência espiritual e o bem-estar psicossocial (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusões: as relações das variáveis transcendência espiritual, vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool e bem-estar psicossocial, fundamentadas na Teoria de Reed, são confirmadas no grupo populacional de jovens adultos universitários, concluindo que é possível alcançar o bem-estar psicossocial quando se incrementa a transcendência espiritual, enquanto a vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool se reduz. demostrar las relaciones entre

  18. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  19. Alcohol flushing and positive ethanol patch test in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuji; Morita, Sumio; Harada, Eisaku; Shono, Makoto; Morikawa, Yoshinobu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yasue, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm or coronary spastic angina (CSA) is prevalent in Japan. However, the precise mechanisms underlying coronary spasm are unclear. Alcohol intolerance is prevalent among East Asians, and we previously reported that coronary spasm could be induced by alcohol intake in CSA patients. We herein examined whether CSA is associated with alcohol intolerance in Japanese subjects. The study subjects consisted of 80 CSA patients (57 men/ 23 women, mean age 62 ± 12) and 52 non-CSA patients (25 men/27 women, mean age 63 ± 10). The ethanol patch test (EPT) and questionnaire which evaluates flushing after ethanol intake, along with an examination of clinical features and laboratory chemistry data for CHD risk factors were done. Gender (male) and smoking were higher (p=0.007, and p=0.019, respectively) and plasma HDL cholesterol level was lower (p=0.035) in the CSA patients than in the non-CSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, EPT, smoking, and plasma HDL cholesterol level as independent variables revealed that positive EPT and smoking were significant predictors of CSA (p=0.011 and p=0.016, respectively). Positive EPT and alcohol flushing following alcohol intake, as well as smoking and plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, were significantly associated with CSA in Japanese patients. Therefore, alcohol ingestion as well as smoking is a significant risk factor for CSA in Japanese.

  20. Potential sources of non-petroleum based alcohols for vehicular fleet testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The quantity of alcohol required to supply all of the US Department of Energy's vehicular fleet test fuel needs during the period fiscal year 1980 through 1982 could reach on the order of 1.5 and 1.6 million gallons per year of 200 proof ethanol and fuel-grade methanol, respectively. During the time frame of fiscal year 1982 through 1987, vehicular fleet testing fuel needs could approach 8 and 10 million gallons per year of ethanol and methanol, respectively. In terms of supply, all of the ethanol fleet test fuel requirements can be satisfied by domestic fermentation ethanol from non-petroleum/non-natural gas resources. Initially, the major ethanol fermentation firms are potentially capable of supplying the necessary quantity of ethanol. As the test project progresses and fleet size expands, the outlook for ethanol supply from the major firms as well as from other private sources, both existing and planned, is very promising. This supply outlook could be altered significantly if an expanding Gasohol market demands a major portion of the available ethanol production. It is in the Federal Government's best interest to arrange for ethanol supply agreements as soon as possible so that fleet test volume requirements can be assured. The supply situation for methanol from non-petroleum/non-natural gas resources is not very promising. It appears that methanol produced from coal or biomass will not be available before 1985 at the earliest, assuming that a decision to construct a sizeable plant is made immediately. As such, fuel grade methanol for use in the reliability fleet test project will most likely have to be obtained from the existing petroleum/natural gas-based methanol market. This market is currently operating at a level below maximum capacity and several older mothballed plants can be reactivated if the economic situation warrants.

  1. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Livingston, Michael; David, Stephanie; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-05-01

    Reducing access to alcohol is an important and cost-effective strategy for decreasing alcohol consumption and associated harm. Yet this is a less common approach to alcohol control in Australia. The aim of this research was to ascertain which alcohol outlet density spatial measures were related to long-term health outcomes, and the extent to which this differs for those living in more or less disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Existing Australian state-level spatial alcohol policies were reviewed. No appropriate spatial policies were identified; therefore, the literature was used to identify potential alcohol-related spatial measures. Spatial measures of alcohol outlet density were generated in a geographical information system and linked with health survey data drawn from 3141 adults living in metropolitan Melbourne. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between alcohol outlet density measures, self-rated health and area-level disadvantage. Twelve spatial measures of alcohol outlet density were generated. Alcohol outlet density and self-rated health associations varied by area-level disadvantage. For those living in more disadvantaged areas, not having off-licenses available within 800 m, or on-licenses available within 400 m were protective of self-rated health. Local alcohol outlet density may have a more detrimental effect on self-rated health for those living in more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, compared with those living in more advantaged areas. There is a need for spatial alcohol policies to help reduce alcohol-related harm. This research proposes a set of spatial measures to generate a more consistent understanding of alcohol availability in Australia. [Badland H, Mavoa S, Livingston M, David S, Giles-Corti B. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:298-306]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol

  2. Alcohol fueled farm tractors compete favorably, with diesel in Brazil tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, E.O.; Brandini, A.

    1984-08-01

    Heavy duty alcohol powered engines are suitable to tractors. In Brazil diesel and alcohol tractors of the same configuration, weight, and engine size running side by side, indicated superior field performance of the alcohol tractor and a time saving of about 5-10% for the same work schedule. Lifetime and maintenance factors, chemical energy to mechanical work conversion efficiencies, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, starting procedure and other considerations are discussed.

  3. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  4. [Autopsy and blood testing for alcohol and drugs/medicine after traffic fatalities is not routinely conducted].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Schumacher, Bente; Freeman, Michael

    2010-09-27

    In some road traffic crashes with fatal outcome, the police investigations lead to charges against and prosecution of a person. The police can request a medico-legal autopsy as well as a toxicological examination, but the extent to which this is done, and the role here of in the legal setting is unknown. Information concerning traffic crashes with fatal outcome in the period 2000-2004 in Aarhus Police District was retrieved and compared. The information included comprised crash specific and legal information, as well as medical data concerning autopsy, examination for alcohol, drugs and/or medicine. In all, 81 traffic crashes had a fatal outcome for 92 persons, of whom 17 (18%) were autopsied, 55 (60%) were tested for alcohol, and five (5%) were examined for drugs/medicine. Twenty-six were charged with negligent homicide, of which 18 were convicted. Autopsy was performed in four of these cases, 19 were tested for alcohol and one was tested for drugs/medicine. This study shows that the police requests few medico-legal autopsies following road traffic fatalities, and that testing for alcohol as well as drugs/medicine is not conducted routinely. As a consequence, important information may not come to the knowledge of the police in cases of negligent homicide. We recommend that postmortem examination be conducted routinely in traffic-related homicide cases to secure the best possible conditions for a legal evaluation.

  5. Effects of congener and noncongener alcoholic beverages on a clinical ataxia test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    It is clear that the ingestion of alcohol can disturb postural measures and it is possible that the effects of alcohol may be manifested at significant stages subsequent to acute intoxication; i.e., during so-called 'hangover' periods. This study was...

  6. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  7. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug...

  8. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, Kristian; Bodtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    A few studies have indicated a positive association between consumption of alcohol and allergic sensitization in age and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations.......A few studies have indicated a positive association between consumption of alcohol and allergic sensitization in age and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations....

  9. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester AJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arie J Wester,1 Judith C van Herten,2 Jos IM Egger,2–4 Roy PC Kessels1,2,5 1Korsakoff Clinic, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 4Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Purpose: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test's diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005. The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02, but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion: The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment

  10. Total alcoholic acidity and pH tests as quality parameters in stored soybean grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Marinho Vieira Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technology available to agriculture, qualitative and quantitative losses occurring during post-harvest are still not controlled, and stored grains may undergo changes in their composition, due to storage conditions. This study aimed at determining the sensitivity of the alcoholic acidity and pH tests in soybean (GB 874RR cultivar grains with different quality standards obtained during storage. A completely randomized design, in a 3 x 6 x 5 (3 storage conditions x 6 storage times x 5 methods factorial scheme, was used. A correlation was observed among pH, total acidity content (r = 0.888 and grain quality parameters. Deterioration was identified based on the total acidity content, showing a high correlation with fungal incidence (r = 0.864, ether extract (r = -0.781 and electrical conductivity (r = 0.923. The use of phenolphthalein as indicator is more sensitive than pH 8.8. Among the pH determination methods, AOAC was the most suitable for assessing the quality loss during storage.

  11. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  12. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Larry D; Richardson, Kathryn J; Purssell, Roy A; Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Brubacher, Jeffery R; Lepik, Katherine J; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2008-04-28

    The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1) to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2) to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the identification of patients requiring dialysis. In

  13. Alcohol consumption among first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents in 23 countries : Testing the importance of origin and receiving country alcohol prevalence rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsties, Lisa S; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Bendtsen, Pernille; Molcho, Michal; Buijs, Thomas; Vieno, Alessio; Elgar, Frank J.; Stevens, Gonneke W J M

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This internationally comparative study examines differences in alcohol consumption between first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents. We also investigate to what extent origin and receiving country alcohol per capita consumption (APCC) rates and proportions

  14. Not to catch but to deter : simple, less intrusive drug and alcohol tests can improve workplace safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2009-04-15

    Canadian employees who test positive for drug use have access to a wide range of substance counselling and rehabilitation options. As a result of Canadian human right legislation, drug dependence is considered a disability, and Canadian employers are required to accommodate the employee and retain their position when they are deemed fit for work. While Alberta is considered an employee-friendly province, the oil and gas industry has significant hazards that require a lucid and attentive workforce. As a result, Alberta courts approved pre-employment drug testing in a recent court case. The decision involved an employee who tested positive for traces of marijuana. After being fired, the employee filed a complaint. Although the Queen's Bench decided in favour of the employee, the Alberta Court of Appeal stated that the company's pre-employment drug testing policy did not discriminate against the employee on the basis of a disability. Drug use amongst construction workers and employees in the energy industry has now reached upwards of 24 per cent. While urine testing is a commonly used drug testing method, oral fluid testing is now being more widely adopted in industry. Oral fluids can be used to detect recent drug and alcohol use rather than historical use and can be conducted in the presence of a test administrator. It was concluded that the aim of drug and alcohol testing is to deter substance abuse on the job. 3 figs.

  15. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mwaba, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. Women (N = 1333) residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens) completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  16. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection.To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women.Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV.Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex.For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  17. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  18. Factor structure and invariance test of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT): Comparison and further validation in a U.S. and Philippines college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuliao, Antover P; Landoy, Bernice Vania N; McChargue, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test's factor structure varies depending on population and culture. Because of this inconsistency, this article examined the factor structure of the test and conducted a factorial invariance test between a U.S. and a Philippines college sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a three-factor solution outperforms the one- and two-factor solution in both samples. Factorial invariance analyses further supports the confirmatory findings by showing that factor loadings were generally invariant across groups; however, item intercepts show non-invariance. Country differences between factors show that Filipino consumption factor mean scores were significantly lower than their U.S. counterparts.

  19. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  20. The RESCueH Programme: Testing New Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Alcohol Use Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possibl...

  1. Testing the effects of e-mailed personalized feedback on risky alcohol use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Zachary E; Henslee, Amber M; Correia, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Although research utilizing the Internet to intervene with college student drinkers is growing, this study is the first to investigate the use of a theoretically-based and empirically supported personalized feedback form delivered via a single e-mail to college students. Students (n=191) completed measures of their alcohol use, related consequences, and peer perceptions at baseline and 6weeks after the intervention. Students were randomly assigned to receive either e-mailed personalized feedback or e-mailed generic feedback. Students who received e-mailed personalized feedback reported consuming significantly fewer drinks in a given week, as well as a fewer number of days being drunk in the previous 30days. They also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of days they perceived their peers to have drunk alcohol and in the amount of alcohol they perceived their peers to consume per drinking occasion. e-Mailed personalized feedback appears to help students become more aware of normative drinking behavior and reduce the quantity of alcohol they consume. Furthermore, e-mailed personalized feedback may be a cost-effective manner in which to intervene with college student drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and field test of a responsible alcohol service program. Volume 2, Server education program materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    This report describes a program of server education designed to foster the responsible service of alcohol in bars, restaurants, and other on-sale establishments. The program is administered in two phases. The first phase, three hours in length, is in...

  3. Development of a test method for distillation of diesel-biodiesel-alcohols mixtures at reduced pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, R.; Iosub, I.; Clenci, A.; Zaharia, C.; Iorga-Simăn, V.

    2017-10-01

    Increased environmental awareness and depletion of fossil petroleum resources are driving the automotive industry to seek out and use alternative fuels. For instance, the biofuel is a major renewable energy source to supplement declining fossil fuel resources. The addition of alcohols like methanol and ethanol is practical in biodiesel blends due to its miscibility with the pure biodiesel. Alcohols also improve physico-chemical properties of biodiesel blends, which lead to improved combustion efficiency. Proper volatility of fuels is critical to the operation of internal combustion engines with respect to both performance and emissions. Volatility may be characterised by various measurements, the most common of which are vapour pressure, distillation and the vapour/liquid ratio. The presence of ethanol or other oxygenates may affect these properties and, as a result, performance and emissions, as well. However, in the case of diesel-biodiesel-alcohols mixtures, the variance of component volatility makes difficult the analysis of the overall volatility. Thus, the paper presents an experimental method of distilling diesel-biodiesel-alcohols mixtures by adjusting the boiler pressure of an i-Fischer Dist equipment.

  4. Methods for transfer a saliva based alcohol content test to a dermal patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, III, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Detection and quantitation of ethanol which is highly sensitive, specific, and efficient has been a commercial target for sometime. Clearly analytical methods are useful such as gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. However, those methods are best used in the laboratory and a less useful for detection and quantitation of ethanol in the field. Enzymes have been employed for the detection and quantitation of EtOH. Enzymes are proteins that perform a particular task in a bio-catalytic way. Most of the chemistry that these enzymes do are frequently exquisitely specific in that only one alcohol reacts and only one product is produced. One enzyme molecule can catalyze the reaction of numerous substrate molecules which in itself is an amplification of the recognition signal. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol oxidase (AO) are two possible enzymatic targets for EtOH sensor development.1 The ADH oxidizes the alcohol using a co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This co-factor needs to be within close proximity of the ADH. AO also oxidizes the ethanol using molecular oxygen giving rise to the production of the aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide.

  5. Validity of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korean Revised Version for Screening Alcohol Use Disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Wei; Kim, Jong Sung; Jung, Jin Gyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Jang, Hak Sun

    2016-11-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) has been widely used to identify alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study evaluated the validity of the AUDIT-Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR) for screening AUD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. This research was conducted with 443 subjects who visited the Chungnam National University Hospital for a comprehensive medical examination. All subjects completed the demographic questionnaire and AUDIT-KR without assistance. Subjects were divided into two groups according to DSM-5 criteria: an AUD group, which included patients that fit the criteria for AUD (120 males and 21 females), and a non-AUD group, which included 146 males and 156 females that did not meet AUD criteria. The appropriate cut-off values, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the AUDIT-KR were evaluated. The mean±standard deviation AUDIT-KR scores were 10.32±7.48 points in males and 3.23±4.42 points in females. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval, CI) of the AUDIT-KR for identifying AUD was 0.884 (0.840-0.920) in males and 0.962 (0.923-0.985) in females. The optimal cut-off value of the AUDIT-KR was 10 points for males (sensitivity, 81.90%; specificity, 81.33%; positive predictive value, 77.2%; negative predictive value, 85.3%) and 5 points for females (sensitivity, 100.00%; specificity, 88.54%; positive predictive value, 52.6%; negative predictive value, 100.0%). The AUDIT-KR has high reliability and validity for identifying AUD according to DSM-5 criteria.

  6. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  7. Study design to develop and pilot-test a web intervention for partners of military service members with alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Gore, Kristie; Trail, Thomas; Howard, Stefanie Stern

    2014-09-02

    Alcohol misuse among military service members from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan is over two times higher compared to misuse in the civilian population. Unfortunately, in addition to experiencing personal consequences from alcohol misuse, partners and family members of alcohol-misusing service members also suffer in negative ways from their loved one's drinking. These family members represent important catalysts for helping their loved ones identify problem drinking and overcoming the barriers to seeking care. This paper describes the protocol to a pilot study evaluating a 4-session, web-based intervention (WBI) for concerned partners (CPs) of service members with alcohol misuse. The WBI will be adapted from the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) intervention. In the first phase, we will develop and beta-test the WBI with 15-20 CPs. In the second phase, we will randomize CPs to WBI (n = 50) or to delayed-WBI (n = 50) and evaluate the impact of the WBI on CPs' perceptions of service member help-seeking and drinking, as well as the CP's well-being and relationship satisfaction 3 months after the intervention. In the third phase, we will recruit 15-20 service members whose partners have completed the study. We will interview the service members to learn how the CP-focused WBI affected them and to assess whether they would be receptive to a follow-on WBI module to help them. This project has the potential to benefit a large population of military service members who may be disproportionately affected by recent conflicts and whose drinking misuse would otherwise go undetected and untreated. It also develops a new prevention model that does not rely on service members or partners attending a hospital or clinical facility to access care. NCT02073825.

  8. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Pozo, Antonio M; Anera, Rosario G; Soler, Margarita

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment.

  9. Relations of negative and positive work experiences to employee alcohol use: testing the intervening role of negative and positive work rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested a model linking work experiences to employee alcohol use. The model extended past research in 3 ways. First, it incorporated both negative and positive work experiences. Second, it incorporated a previously unexplored cognitive intervening process involving negative and positive work rumination. Third, it incorporated several important dimensions of alcohol use (heavy use, workday use, and after-work use). Data were collected from a national probability sample of 2,831 U.S. workers. Structural equation modeling revealed that the conceptual model provided an excellent fit to the data. Negative work experiences were positively related to negative work rumination, which was positively related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after work alcohol use. Positive work experiences were positively related to positive work rumination, which was negatively related to heavy alcohol use and after work alcohol use, but was unrelated to workday alcohol use. The study also provided initial support for the psychometric properties and construct validity of the newly developed Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  11. Olfactory impairment is correlated with confabulation in alcoholism: towards a multimodal testing of orbitofrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maurage

    Full Text Available Olfactory abilities are now a flourishing field in psychiatry research. As the orbitofrontal cortex appears to be simultaneously implicated in odour processing and executive impairments, it has been proposed that olfaction could constitute a cognitive marker of psychiatric states. While this assumption appears promising, very few studies have been conducted on this topic among psychopathological populations. The present study thus aimed at exploring the links between olfaction and executive functions. These links were evaluated using two tasks of comparable difficulty, one known to rely on orbitofrontal cortex processing (i.e., a confabulation task, and one not associated with this area (i.e., Stop-Signal task.Twenty recently detoxified alcoholic individuals and twenty paired controls took part in an experiment evaluating olfactory abilities and executive functioning (i.e., Stop-Signal task and confabulation task. Comorbidities and potential biasing variables were also controlled for. Alcoholic individuals exhibited impaired performance for high-level olfactory processing and significant confabulation problems as compared to controls (but no deficit in Stop-Signal task, even when the influence of comorbidities was taken into account. Most importantly, olfactory abilities and confabulation rates were significantly correlated in both groups.Alcoholism jointly leads to olfactory and memory source impairments, and these two categories of deficits are associated. These results strongly support the proposition that olfactory and confabulation measures both index orbitofrontal functioning, and suggest that olfaction could become a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it underlines the need to take into account these olfactory and source memory impairments in a clinical context.

  12. Competing with big business: a randomised experiment testing the effects of messages to promote alcohol and sugary drink control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-12-28

    Evidence-based policies encouraging healthy behaviours are often strongly opposed by well-funded industry groups. As public support is crucial for policy change, public health advocates need to be equipped with strategies to offset the impact of anti-policy messages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of theory-based public health advocacy messages in generating public support for sugary drink/alcohol policies (increased taxes; sport sponsorship bans) and improving resistance to subsequent anti-policy messages typical of the sugary drink/alcohol industry. We conducted a two-wave randomised online experiment assigning Australian adults to one of four health policies (sugary drink tax; sugary drink industry sports sponsorship ban; alcohol tax; alcohol industry sports sponsorship ban). Within each health policy, we randomised participants to one of five message conditions: (i) non-advocacy based message about the size and seriousness of the relevant health issue (control); (ii) standard pro-policy arguments alone; (iii) standard pro-policy arguments combined with an inoculation message (forewarning and directly refuting anti-policy arguments from the opposition); (iv) standard pro-policy arguments combined with a narrative message (a short, personal story about an individual's experience of the health issue); or (v) standard pro-policy arguments combined with a composite inoculation and narrative message. At time 1, we exposed participants (n = 6000) to their randomly assigned message. Around two weeks later, we re-contacted participants (n = 3285) and exposed them to an anti-policy message described as being from a representative of the sugary drink/alcohol industry. Generalised linear models tested for differences between conditions in policy support and anti-industry beliefs at both time points. Only the standard argument plus narrative message increased policy support relative to control at time 1. The standard argument plus narrative

  13. Examination of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) classification, and intended plans for getting home among bar-attending college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The college student population is one of the heaviest drinking demographic groups in the US and impaired driving is a serious alcohol-related problem. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and "plans to get home" among a sample of college students. We conducted four anonymous field studies to examine associations between breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) classification, and plans for getting home among a sample of bar-attending college students (N = 713). The vast majority of participants in our sample (approximately 95%) were not intending to drive and the average BrAC% of those intending to drive was .041. Our one-way ANOVAs indicated that (1) participants classified by the AUDIT-C as not having an alcohol problem had a significantly lower BrAC% than those classified as having a potential problem and (2) participants planning to drive had a significantly lower BrAC% than those with a plan that did not involve them driving and those without a plan to get home. Although it is encouraging that most of our sample was not intending to drive, it is important to continue to attempt to reduce impaired driving in this population. This study helps college health professionals and administrators to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and plans to get home among college students. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  15. Working memory, executive processes and the effects of alcohol on Go/No-Go learning: testing a model of behavioral regulation and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, P R; Justus, A; Mazas, C; Steinmetz, J E

    1999-10-01

    Impulsivity is associated with increased risk for alcoholism. Alcohol also may increase impulsive behavior, although little is known about the processes underlying this effect. This study tested a model proposing that the executive processes of working memory (WM) and conditional associative learning (CAL) modulate behavioral inhibition. Subjects had either a positive (FHP) or a negative (FHN) family history of alcoholism. Hypotheses were that alcohol would increase Go/No-Go impulsive responding but only in subjects with low working memory capacity (low-WM), low-CAL ability, or FHP for alcoholism. The model also predicted that WM and CAL modulate inhibitory responses to contingency reversal on a Go/No-Go task. A Go/No-Go learning task with a midway contingency reversal was administered to 71 FHP and 78 FHN subjects when sober and after drinking one of two moderate doses of alcohol. WM (digits backward) and CAL (conditional spatial association task) were also assessed when sober. Alcohol resulted in more false alarms but only in low-WM subjects. Both WM and CAL modulated learning to inhibit behavior after contingency reversal, suggesting separate modulation mechanisms for WM and CAL. Subjects with low- capacity WM and subjects with low-capacity CAL ability had more difficulty learning response inhibition after contingency reversal. FHPs and FHNs did not differ in their response to alcohol. The results support our model of the modulatory role of WM and CAL in the ongoing regulation of behavioral inhibitory systems. The results also suggest that individuals with low capacity WM are more susceptible to alcohol's effect of increasing impulsive behavior, suggesting that alcohol reduces the capacity of working memory to modulate response inhibition.

  16. Testing the four-factor model of personality vulnerability to alcohol misuse: a three-wave, one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Clark, Roderick; Sherry, Simon B; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-12-01

    The 4-factor model of personality vulnerability identifies 4 personality risk factors for alcohol misuse: hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. These personality traits are associated with distinct mechanisms and motivations for alcohol misuse. Individuals high in hopelessness drink to regulate dysphoric affect, while those high in anxiety sensitivity drink to reduce anxiety and to conform to peer expectations. Individuals high in sensation seeking are highly sensitive to the rewarding properties of alcohol, and misuse alcohol to maximize enjoyment. Impulsivity is a broad risk factor contributing to all drinking motives. We hypothesized that personality vulnerabilities would indirectly predict alcohol quantity and problems through specific drinking motives theorized by the 4-factor model. The present study tested hypotheses using a 3-wave, 1-year longitudinal study of undergraduate drinkers (N = 302). Data were analyzed using multilevel path analysis. Hopelessness and impulsivity were positively related to drinking motives in the expected fashion. Anxiety sensitivity was related to coping-anxiety and conformity motives only in the between-subjects model (partially supporting hypotheses), while sensation seeking was generally unrelated to all drinking motives and alcohol outcomes (failing to support hypotheses). Enhancement motives predicted alcohol quantity and problems at both levels, coping-depression motives predicted alcohol problems at the between-subjects level only, and coping-anxiety, conformity, and social motives failed to predict alcohol outcomes beyond other motives. Overall, this study partially supports the 4-factor model, with the strongest support emerging for impulsivity and hopelessness. This study suggests that personality traits such as impulsivity and hopelessness may be important targets in prevention and treatment with undergraduate drinkers.

  17. The Productivity of the Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI) Compared to an Expert Review of a Self-administered Questionnaire on Alcohol Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.M. Jansen (Harrie); A. Hak (Tony)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe three-step test interview (TSTI) is a recently developed observation-based procedure for the identification of response problems in self-administered survey questionnaires. The TSTI was applied in field test interviews to a quantity-frequency-variability questionnaire on alcohol

  18. Sex difference in the effects of alcohol on gastric emptying in healthy volunteers: a study using the (13)C breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Miyuki; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Sekime, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on alcohol and gastric emptying using the (13)C breath test showed that alcohol consumption delayed gastric emptying of meals in healthy male subjects. However, they did not employ female subjects, and the retention time of alcoholic beverages in the stomach has not been examined, yet. We examined the retention time (= gastric emptying rate) of alcoholic beverages in the stomach in healthy male and female subjects. We also examined whether the congeners (nonalcoholic components) of red wine have any effect on gastric emptying. The retention time of 60 mL of red wine, vodka, congeners of red wine, or mineral water, was measured using a (13)C labeled acetic acid breath test. In male subjects, the retention time of wine and vodka was significantly longer than that of congeners and mineral water. In female subjects, although the (13)C content in the breath was slightly but significantly decreased by wine and congeners, but not by vodka, and the parameters for gastric emptying did not differ significantly among the 4 drinks. That is, alcohol hardly influenced the retention time in female subjects. In conclusion, there are sex differences in the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  19. A systems approach to college drinking: development of a deterministic model for testing alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S; Fitzpatrick, Ben G; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J; Rommel, Robert; Simonsen, Neal

    2009-09-01

    The misuse and abuse of alcohol among college students remain persistent problems. Using a systems approach to understand the dynamics of student drinking behavior and thus forecasting the impact of campus policy to address the problem represents a novel approach. Toward this end, the successful development of a predictive mathematical model of college drinking would represent a significant advance for prevention efforts. A deterministic, compartmental model of college drinking was developed, incorporating three processes: (1) individual factors, (2) social interactions, and (3) social norms. The model quantifies these processes in terms of the movement of students between drinking compartments characterized by five styles of college drinking: abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers, problem drinkers, and heavy episodic drinkers. Predictions from the model were first compared with actual campus-level data and then used to predict the effects of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking. First, the model provides a reasonable fit of actual drinking styles of students attending Social Norms Marketing Research Project campuses varying by "wetness" and by drinking styles of matriculating students. Second, the model predicts that a combination of simulated interventions targeting heavy episodic drinkers at a moderately "dry" campus would extinguish heavy episodic drinkers, replacing them with light and moderate drinkers. Instituting the same combination of simulated interventions at a moderately "wet" campus would result in only a moderate reduction in heavy episodic drinkers (i.e., 50% to 35%). A simple, five-state compartmental model adequately predicted the actual drinking patterns of students from a variety of campuses surveyed in the Social Norms Marketing Research Project study. The model predicted the impact on drinking patterns of several simulated interventions to address heavy episodic drinking on various types of campuses.

  20. A randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with college-student alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Wood, Mollie; Frayjo, Kezia; Black, Ryan A; Surette, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students remains a major public health concern. Universal, Web-based interventions to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption have been found to be effective in changing their alcohol-related behavior. Recent studies also indicate that parent-based interventions, delivered in booklet form, are effective. A parent-based intervention that is also Web-based may be well suited to a dispersed parent population; however, no such tool is currently available. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an online parent-based intervention designed to (1) increase communication between parents and students about alcohol and (2) reduce risks associated with alcohol use to students. A total of 558 participants, comprising 279 parent-teen dyads, were enrolled in the study. The findings suggested that parents who participated in the online intervention were more likely to discuss protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, with their teens, as compared with parents in an e-newsletter control group. Moreover, students whose parents received the intervention were more likely to use a range of protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, as compared with students whose parents did not receive the intervention. A universal, online, parent-based intervention to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption may be an efficient and effective component of a college's overall prevention strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Some performance effects of age and low blood alcohol levels on a computerized neuropsychological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    COGSCREEN is a computerized test battery developed for the Federal Aviation Administration as an airman neuropsychological screening instrument for cognitive functioning. This study explored a multifaceted application of the sensitivity of the batter...

  2. The Right to Privacy in the Workplace, Part 2: Testing Applicants for Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Susan R.; Morrison, Kathryn K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the law concerning the testing of job applicants for substance abuse, pointing out differences between private and public employers and union and nonunion organizations. Concludes that the law is still not settled in this area. (CH)

  3. Alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students: A longitudinal test of 2 explanatory models of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A; Riley, Elizabeth N; Smith, Gregory T; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Participants reported their alcohol use and strenuous physical activity on 2 occasions (baseline and follow-up) spaced approximately 1 or 2 years apart. For females, alcohol use quantity at baseline was associated with increased strenuous physical activity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, and alcohol use frequency at baseline was associated with decreased strenuous physical activity at 2-year follow-up. For males, alcohol use frequency at baseline predicted decreased strenuous physical activity at 1-year follow-up. Gender differences may be explained from an eating disorders perspective such that women use physical activity as a compensatory strategy to combat potential weight gain from calories consumed during alcohol use.

  4. Determinants of common mental disorder, alcohol use disorder and cognitive morbidity among people coming for HIV testing in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayston, Rosie; Patel, Vikram; Abas, Melanie; Korgaonkar, Priya; Paranjape, Ramesh; Rodrigues, Savio; Prince, Martin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate associations between background characteristics (psychosocial adversity, risk behaviours/perception of risk and HIV-related knowledge, perceptions and beliefs) and psychological and cognitive morbidity among people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India. Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data (plus HIV status) from a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for HIV testing. Consistent with associations found among general population samples, among our sample of 1934 participants, we found that indicators of psychosocial adversity were associated with CMD (common mental disorder - major depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorder) among people coming for testing for HIV. Similarly, perpetration of intimate partner violence was associated with AUD (alcohol use disorder). Two STI symptoms were associated with CMD, and sex with a non-primary partner was associated with AUD. Suboptimal knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention was associated with low cognitive test scores. In contrast with other studies, we found no evidence of any association between stigma and CMD. There was no evidence of modification of associations by HIV status. Among people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India, we found that CMD occurred in the context of social and economic stressors (violence, symptoms of STI, poor education and food insecurity) and AUD was associated with violence and risky sexual behaviour. Further research is necessary to understand the role of gender, stigma and social norms in determining the relationship between sexual and mental health. Understanding associations between these background characteristics and psychological morbidity may help inform the design of appropriate early interventions for depression among people newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Predicting alcohol use with a recoding-free variant of the Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Rothermund, K.; Wiers, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the IAT-RF (IAT-Recoding Free) was developed which prevents recoding processes by switching response assignments randomly between trials rather than between blocks. In this study, the IAT-RF was used to measure and examine the

  6. Sensitivity of Some Tests for Alcohol Abuse: Findings in Nonalcoholics Recovering from Intoxication,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    1980. 9. Dreyer, A. S., C. A. Dreyer, and E. B. Nebelkopf: Portable Rod-and-Frame Test as a Measure of Cognitive Style in Kindergarten Children , Percept...Oklahoma City, OK. 48. Unpublished data provided by the Federal Aviation Administration, National Safety Data Branch, AFO -500, Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, Oklahoma Citymo OK. iI I I I

  7. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment in Testing the Effectiveness of an Alcohol Intervention: A Two-Arm Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. Methods Data were used from a two-arm

  8. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose cryogels and their testing as carriers for a bioactive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduraru, Oana Maria; Ciolacu, Diana; Darie, Raluca Nicoleta; Vasile, Cornelia, E-mail: cvasile@icmpp.ro

    2012-12-01

    Novel physically cross-linked cryogels containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained by freezing/thawing technique. The main goal of this study was to improve the properties and the performances of the pure PVA cryogels. The morphological aspects of the cryogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to reveal the presence of the interactions between the two polymers. Changes in crystallinity of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The modification of the thermal behavior induced by cellulose was studied by thermogravimetry. Rheological analysis revealed higher values of storage modulus (G Prime ) for the cryogels containing higher amounts of cellulose. The degree and rate of swelling were controlled by the presence of the natural polymer in the network. The potential application as bioactive compound carriers was tested, using vanillin as an active agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PVA/microcrystalline cellulose cryogels were obtained by freezing/thawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main advantage of this technique is that no chemical crosslinker is being used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cellulose improves the swelling properties and the cryogels' strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential application as carriers for bioactive components was tested.

  10. Indicadores de alcoolismo no Teste das Pirâmides Coloridas de Max Pfister Indicators of alcoholism in the Color Pyramid Test of Max Pfister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisa de Villemor Amaral

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A falta de pesquisas sobre a validação de alguns testes psicológicos torna o seu uso limitado, como no caso do Teste das Pirâmides Coloridas de Max Pfister. Apesar desse teste ser uma técnica simples, oferecer uma série de facilidades na testagem individual e ser bastante usado na clínica, não apresenta dados de validação para diagnóstico de quadros psicopatológicos. Realizamos um estudo no qual investigamos um grupo composto por 15 indivíduos diagnosticados como alcoolistas por meio da Entrevista Clínica Estruturada para o DSM-IV (SCID-I e comparamos seus resultados com um grupo não clínico de 109 pessoas que nunca procuraram ajuda psiquiátrica ou psicológica. O Teste das Pirâmides Coloridas foi aplicado em ambos os grupos. Os dados foram analisados empregando a regressão logística. Observou-se uma maior porcentagem da cor vermelha e da constância absoluta da cor violeta no grupo clínico em relação ao grupo não clínico.The lack of research about validity of some psychological tests make their use restricted as it is the case of the Color Pyramid Test of Max Pfister. Although this test is a simple technique offering some advantages in testing individuals and it is frequently used in clinical context, there is no data on its validity concerning psychopathological diagnosis. We conducted a study investigating a sample of 15 alcoholics diagnosed with the help of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID-I and comparing these subjects with 109 non-patients who never looked for psychological or psychiatric treatment. All subjects took the Color Pyramid Test. The data were analyzed by means of a logistic regression. An increase in the use of the red color and the constancy in the use of violet among the patients as compared with the non-patients were observed.

  11. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  12. Association between non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and hyper reactive blood pressure response on the exercise treadmill test

    OpenAIRE

    Laurinavicius, A.G.; Bittencourt, M.S.; Blaha, M.J.; Nary, F.C.; Kashiwagi, N.M.; Conceiçao, R.D.; Meneghelo, R.S.; Prado, R.R.; Carvalho, J.A.M.; Nasir, K.; Blumenthal, R.S.; Santos, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis (HS) is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk. While Blood pressure hyper-reactive response (HRR) during peak exercise indicates an increased risk of incident hypertension and increased cardiovascular risk, no data on the association of non-alcoholic HS and HRR exists. In this study, we have evaluated the association of HS with HRR.

  13. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise; Kristensen, Peter Lommer

    2010-01-01

    To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol.......To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol....

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  15. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Methods Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants’ intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. Results The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. Conclusions This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:24410764

  16. Messages that increase women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-13

    Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants' intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.

  17. Testing bidirectional relationships between alcohol use and depressive symptoms: What is the role of the serotonin transporter gene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Roy; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Engels, Rutger C

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol abuse often co-exists with a major depressive disorder. In order to understand the development of this comorbidity, it is important to concentrate on the preceding process. It has been suggested that the link between alcohol use and depressive symptoms is a result of an interaction with genetic factors. The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the effect of the 5-HTTLPR genotype on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use in a Dutch community sample. Following a stepwise approach, bivariate correlations, longitudinal regression analyses, and latent growth curve analyses were separately conducted for 316 males and 321 females. A positive correlation between depressive symptoms and alcohol use was shown in female carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele. In addition, latent growth curve analyses showed a positive association between alcohol use and the intercept of depressive symptoms (but not the slope), but only in female carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele. These findings show that alcohol use may be positively related, at least cross-sectionally, to depressive symptoms in female carriers of the 5-HTTLPR S allele, and indicate that moderators such as SLC6A4 genotype and sex need to be taken into account when examining associations between depressive symptoms and drinking behavior. In order to gain insight into the longitudinal association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms, studies should concentrate on earlier stages and focus on more fine-grained research designs that allow day-to-day changes in both alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploration of the (interrater) reliability and latent factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in a sample of Dutch probationers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, M.G.C.; Hildebrand, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual (risk and need) assessments in probation practice. In this exploratory study, the basic psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and

  19. Testing the Conjoint Influence of Impulsivity and Drinking Restraint on Alcohol Use Consequences in College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica N; Cohn, Amy M; Hagman, Brett T

    2013-09-01

    Impulsivity and drinking restraint play a role in excessive drinking patterns and related negative consequences. Two domains of drinking restraint include preoccupation with thoughts of drinking (CEP) and attempts to control drinking (CBC), which differentially predict varying alcohol use outcomes in clinical and non-clinical samples. However, findings do not replicate across clinical, dependent samples and risky drinking young adults. This study examined the moderating role of dispositional impulsivity on the association between drinking restraint and alcohol consequences among college students to help clarify inconsistencies in the literature. Data were collected from a sample of college student drinkers (N = 393) on drinking behavior in the past 90 days, alcohol-related problems, dispositional impulsivity, and drinking restraint. The association between CBC and alcohol consequences was significantly stronger for those higher than lower in dispositional impulsivity, after controlling for the effects of alcohol consumption. No such relationship was found for those high in trait temptation. Alcohol consequences are greater among those who attempt to control their drinking and who act rashly and without consideration of future consequences; those who are high on trait temptation show no such relationship.

  20. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  1. Validación de la prueba de identificación de trastornos derivados del consumo de alcohol (AUDIT en pacientes Mexicanos con esquizofrenia Validation of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT in Mexican patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Villamil Salcedo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Validar la Prueba de Identificación de Trastornos Derivados del Consumo de Alcohol (AUDIT, por su sigla en inglés en pacientes con esquizofrenia. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó la Cédula Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI, por su sigla en inglés versión 1.0 y el AUDIT a 80 sujetos con esquizofrenia, de ambos sexos y mayores de 16 años, de la consulta externa del Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría de la ciudad de México. RESULTADOS: De los 80 pacientes esquizofrénicos, 57 eran hombres y 23 mujeres con un promedio de edad de 30,5 y 34,3 años, respectivamente; la edad de inicio de la esquizofrenia fue de 22 años para los hombres y 26 años para las mujeres; 35 sujetos (43,7% consumían alcohol al momento del estudio. La escala AUDIT mostró alta consistencia interna, con un alfa de Cronbach de 0,812; el punto de corte de la escala completa del AUDIT para esta población fue de 4 puntos o más; se construyeron los puntos de corte de la "prueba rápida" y de los "Problemas psicosociales y probable dependencia al alcohol" del AUDIT utilizando como estándar de comparación el CIDI (DSM-III-R y CIE-10. CONCLUSIONES: La validación del AUDIT mostró que es un instrumento de tamizaje muy útil y sensible para identificar a pacientes con esquizofrenia en riesgo de abuso o dependencia de alcohol, por lo que se recomienda su uso en estudios clínicos y epidemiológicos en Latinoamérica.OBJECTIVES: To validate the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT in schizophrenic patients. METHODS: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI v. 1 and the AUDIT were administered to 80 subjects with schizophrenia, of both sexes, more than 16 years of age, from the outpatient services at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. RESULTS: Of the 80 schizophrenic patients, 57 were men and 23 women, with a mean age of 30.5 years and 34.3 years, respectively; the age at schizophrenia onset was 22 years for men, and 26 years

  2. Assessing phosphatidylethanol (PEth) levels reflecting different drinking habits in comparison to the alcohol use disorders identification test - C (AUDIT-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to monitoring problematic or harmful alcohol consumption, drinking experiments indicated the potential of phosphatidylethanols (PEth) in abstinence monitoring. To date, no profound evaluation of thresholds for the differentiation of abstinence from moderate drinking and for detection of excessive consumption based on PEth homologues exists. Investigations with a large group of healthy volunteers (n=300) were performed to establish PEth reference values reflecting different drinking habits. Blood samples were analyzed for PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 by online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Results were compared to AUDIT-C questionnaires, to the amounts of alcohol consumed during the two-weeks prior to blood sampling, and were statistically evaluated. PEth concentrations were significantly correlated with self-reported alcohol consumption (r>0.69) and with AUDIT-C scores (r>0.65). 4.0% of 300 volunteers reported abstinence (AUDIT-C score: 0), no PEth was detectable in their blood. PEth 16:0/18:1 concentrations below the limit of detection of 10.0ng/mL match with abstinence and light drinking habits (≤10g pure alcohol/day). However, some volunteers classified as "excessive alcohol consumers" had negative PEth results. In the group of volunteers classified as "moderate drinkers" (AUDIT-C score: 1-3 (women) and 1-4 (men)), 95% of the test persons had PEth 16:0/18:1 ranging from not detected to 112ng/mL, and PEth 16:0/18:2 ranging from not detected to 67.0ng/mL. Combination of self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT-C score showed that negative PEth results match with abstinence or light drinking. Moderate alcohol consumption resulted in PEth 16:0/18:1 from 0 to 112ng/mL and for PEth 16:0/18:2 ranged from 0 to 67.0ng/mL. Higher PEth concentrations indicated excessive alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): Exploring the Factor Structure and Cutoff Thresholds in a Representative Post-Conflict Population in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alden Hooper; Pearce, Margo Ellen; Katamba, Achilles; Malamba, Samuel S; Muyinda, Herbert; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2017-05-01

    Despite increased use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have assessed its underlying conceptual framework, and none have done so in post-conflict settings. Further, significant inconsistencies exist between definitions used for problematic consumption. Such is the case in Uganda, facing one of the highest per-capita alcohol consumption levels regionally, which is thought to be hindering rebuilding in the North after two decades of civil war. This study explores the impact of varying designation cutoff thresholds in the AUDIT as well as its conceptual factor structure in a representative sample of the population. In all, 1720 Cango Lyec Project participants completed socio-economic and mental health questionnaires, provided blood samples and took the AUDIT. Participant characteristics and consumption designations were compared at AUDIT summary score thresholds of ≥3, ≥5 and ≥8. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) explored one-, two- and three-factor level models overall and by sex with relative and absolute fit indicators. There were no significant differences in participant demographic characteristics between thresholds. At higher cutoffs, the test increased in specificity to identify those with hazardous drinking, disordered drinking and suffering from alcohol-related harms. All conceptual models indicated good fit, with three-factor models superior overall and within both sexes. In Northern Uganda, a three-factor AUDIT model best explores alcohol use in the population and is appropriate for use in both sexes. Lower cutoff thresholds are recommended to identify those with potentially disordered drinking to best plan effective interventions and treatments. A CFA of the AUDIT showed good fit for one-, two, and three-factor models overall and by sex in a representative sample in post-conflict Northern Uganda. A three-plus total AUDIT cutoff score is suggested to screen for hazardous drinking in this or

  4. A Laboratory-Based Test of the Relation between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Panic-Relevant Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Cloutier, Renee M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Bunaciu, Liviu; Knapp, Ashley A.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning literature supports a link between alcohol use and panic-spectrum problems (e.g., panic attacks, disorder) among adolescents, but the direction of influence has yet to be properly examined. From a theoretical perspective, panic-spectrum problems may increase risk for problematic drinking via affect regulation efforts (e.g., self-medication), and problematic consumption also may increase or initiate panic-relevant responding (e.g., learning or kindling models). The objective of the current investigation was to examine the role of prior alcohol use in predicting panic-relevant responding, as well as panic symptom history in predicting the desire to consume alcohol, in the context of either a voluntary hyperventilation or a low-arousal task. Participants were community-recruited adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 92, Mage = 15.42, SD = 1.51; 39.1% girls). Results indicated that prior alcohol use predicted panic-relevant responding among those undergoing the hyperventilation task (but not the low-arousal task), and that this finding was robust to the inclusion of theoretically-relevant covariates (i.e. age, sex, negative affectivity). However, panic symptom history did not predict the desire to consume alcohol as a function of either the hyperventilation or low-arousal condition. This work sheds further light on the nature of the relation between panic-spectrum problems and problematic alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, the current findings suggest that frequent alcohol use may increase panic vulnerability among adolescents, whereas acute panic symptoms may not elicit the immediate (self-reported) desire to drink. PMID:26053320

  5. Insecure Attachment Styles, Relationship-Drinking Contexts, and Marital Alcohol Problems: Testing the Mediating Role of Relationship-Specific Drinking-to-Cope Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one’s partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one’s partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  6. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV/AIDS-related stigma in South African alcohol-serving venues and its potential impact on HIV disclosure, testing and treatment-seeking behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Choi, Karmel W; Abler, Laurie; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa are sites for high-risk behaviours that may lead to HIV transmission. Prevention and treatment interventions are sorely needed in these settings, but HIV-related stigma may limit their effectiveness. This study explored expressions of stigma among alcohol-serving venue patrons in Cape Town and examined the potential impact of stigma on HIV disclosure, testing and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 92 in-depth interviews with male and female, black and coloured patrons were conducted. Transcripts were analysed via memo-writing and diagramming techniques. Many participants mentioned knowing other patrons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and this visibility of HIV impacted expressions of HIV-related stigma. Participants discussed four forms of HIV-related stigma in the venues: fearing PLWH, fearing HIV acquisition, blaming others for spreading HIV and isolating PLWH. HIV visibility and expressions of HIV-related stigma, particularly fear of isolation, influenced participants' willingness to disclose their status. HIV-related stigma in the venues also appeared to indirectly influence testing and treatment-seeking behaviour outside the venue. Results suggest that efforts to change norms and reduce expressions of HIV-related stigma in alcohol-serving venues are necessary to successfully deliver tailored HIV prevention interventions and increase uptake of HIV testing and care in this important social setting.

  8. Alcohol use history and panic-relevant responding among adolescents: a test using a voluntary hyperventilation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Knapp, Ashley A; Bunaciu, Liviu; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2012-12-01

    Given the onset of alcohol use, neurological sensitivity, and enhanced panic-relevant vulnerability, adolescence is a key period in which to study the documented linkage between alcohol and panic-related problems. The current study was designed to build upon and uniquely extend extant work via (a) utilization of well-established experimental psychopathology techniques and (b) evaluation of unique associations between alcohol use and panic symptoms after controlling for theoretically relevant behavioral, environmental, and individual difference variables (i.e., age, gender, negative affectivity, anxiety sensitivity, child and parent tobacco use, and parental panic disorder). Participants were 111 community-recruited adolescents ages 12-17 years (M = 15.76 years; n = 50 girls). Youth completed a battery of well-established questionnaires and a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and parents present at the laboratory completed a structured clinical interview. Adolescent alcohol use was categorized as Non-Users, Experimenters, or Users. Panic symptoms were indexed via retrospective self-report and adolescents' response to a biological challenge procedure (i.e., voluntary hyperventilation). After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, Users evidenced elevated panic-relevant symptoms and responding compared with Non-Users; Experimenters did not differ from Non-Users. Findings suggest alcohol use history is uniquely associated with panic symptomatology among youth, including "real-time" reactivity elicited by a laboratory challenge. Although there is significant work yet to be done, these data advance extant work and lay the groundwork for the types of sophisticated designs that will be needed to answer the most pressing and complex questions regarding the link between alcohol use and panic symptoms among adolescents. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Caffeinated alcohol use and expectancies for caffeine versus alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-08-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is related to alcohol-related risk. Limited research has examined outcome expectancies and CAB consumption. This study tested the predictive utility of caffeine and alcohol expectancies in CAB use outcomes (i.e. quantity, frequency, and alcohol-related harms). Participants were 419 (302 women) alcohol and caffeine users from a mid-sized urban university. Data collection occurred between August 2010 and December 2011. Participants completed measures of caffeine and alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, alcohol use, and CAB use. Caffeine and alcohol expectancies contributed uniquely to approximately 12% of the variability in quantity, 8% in frequency, and 16% in problems. When examined separately, alcohol expectancies explained approximately 10% to 11% of the variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 6% of the variance in CAB use quantity. For CAB use frequency, alcohol and caffeine expectancies accounted for about 8% and 4%, respectively. Alcohol expectancies accounted for 12% to 14% of variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 4% to 6% in alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSIONS/ IMPORTANCE: The present study sought to address a gap in the literature regarding the contributions of expectancies in the prediction of CAB use. Our findings provide support for the predictive utility of both caffeine and alcohol expectancies in accounting for individual variability in CAB use but alcohol expectancies may exert greater impact on use patterns. Inclusion of both types of expectancies in larger theoretical frameworks may be beneficial in gaining a more complete and deeper conceptualization of this risky behavior.

  10. The reciprocal influences of perceived risk for alcoholism and alcohol use over time: evidence for aversive transmission of parental alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira M; Chassin, Laurie

    2010-07-01

    This study examined how perceived risk for alcoholism and alcohol use influenced each other over time. We hypothesized an aversive transmission mechanism, by which some children of alcoholics may reduce their drinking because they perceive themselves to be at risk for future alcohol problems because of their parents' alcoholism. Using participants (N = 804, 47% female) from an ongoing longitudinal study of children of alcoholics (e.g., Chassin et al., 1991), we examined the reciprocal prospective relations between perceived risk for alcoholism and drinking across three measurement occasions, and also tested whether perceived risk for alcoholism mediated the effect of perceived parental alcoholism on subsequent drinking. Mediation analyses provided evidence for aversive transmission, in which the effect of perceived parental alcoholism on alcohol use during young adulthood was decreased to the extent that perceived parental alcoholism predicted higher levels of perceived risk for alcoholism during emerging adulthood. Results indicated reciprocal effects between perceived risk for alcoholism and drinking over time, such that higher levels of perceived risk were associated with lower levels of drinking. Results were replicated using both self-report and collateral-report of alcohol use, and using both actual and perceived parental alcoholism. Young adults may avoid drinking when they perceive their parent(s) to be alcoholic, and consequently perceive themselves to be at elevated risk for alcoholism. Given that beliefs about risk for alcoholism are potentially modifiable, increasing self-perceived risk for alcoholism may be one feasible way to reduce the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders within families.

  11. Correlation between spermatogenesis disorders and rat testes CYP2E1 mRNA contents under experimental alcoholism or type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Bondarenko, Larysa B; Matvienko, Anatoliy V; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between spermatogenesis disorders and CYP2E1 mRNA contents in testes of rats with experimental alcoholism or type I diabetes. Two pathological states characterized by CYP2E1 induction were simulated on Wistar male rats: experimental alcoholism and type I diabetes. As controls for each state, equal number of animals (of the same age and weight) were used. Morphological evaluation of rat testes was carried out. The spermatogenic epithelium state was estimated by four points system. CYP2E1 mRNA expression was rated by method of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Pearson correlation coefficients were used for describing relationships between variables. The presence of alcoholism and diabetes-mediated quantitative and qualitative changes in male rat spermatogenic epithelium in comparison with norm has been demonstrated. The increased levels of testes CYP2E1 have been fixed simultaneously. CYP2E1 mRNA content negatively strongly correlated with spermatogenic index value (r=-0.99; Palcoholism. The strong correlation between CYP2E1 mRNA content and number of spermatogonia (r=0.99; P<0.001) and "windows" occurrence (r=0.96; P<0.001) has been fixed in diabetic rats testes. Present investigation has demonstrated that the testicular failure following chronic ethanol consumption and diabetes type I in male rats accompanied CYP2E1 mRNA over-expression in testes. The correlation between the levels of CYP2E1 mRNA in testes and spermatogenesis disorders allow supposing the involvement of CYP2E1 into the non-specific pathogenetic mechanisms of male infertility under above-mentioned pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of an injection test using ethyl alcohol as tracer at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador, en el campo geotermico de Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Los Humeros is the third Mexican geothermal field where ethyl alcohol was used as organic tracer to test communication between wells. The first Mexican geothermal field where this kind of test was used Los Azufres, Michoacan. The second was Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur. In both cases, connections between wells were observed. The injection well H-29 is in the north-central sector of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. At a depth of 1580 meters, 600 liters of ethyl alcohol was pumped through a 60.35 mm (23/8 inch) diameter tube after 2.7 m{sup 3} of geothermal fluids were displaced, allowing the alcohol to reach the formation. Then, the normal injection process continued with water and condensed steam (130 t/h). On the basis of the experience acquired with similar tests conducted at Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, and with the goal of detecting the tracer, samples of condensed steam were collected in nearby wells (H-15, H-16, H-17, H-30, H-33, H-36 and H-8) and in distant wells-named special samples (H-32, H-1, H-11, H-12, H-19, H-20, H-35, H-37, H-39, H-6 and H-9). Condensed steam samples were collected every 12 hours, the every week and finally every 15 days, making a total of 592 samples. The chemical analysis were done in two stages because of probable with the chromatograph. In the first stage, 441 samples were run and the rest were run in the second stage. No evidence of the tracer was observed in the monitoring wells. The results confirm the existence of a low-to-moderate permeability, as was previously interpreted using pressure log data. [Spanish] Los Humeros es el tercer campo geotermico de Mexico en el que se realiza una prueba de trazadores organicos empleando alcohol etilico con la finalidad principal de conocer si existe comunicacion entre pozos. El primer campo geotermico en el que se realizo esta prueba fue el de Los Azufres, Michoacan y el segundo el de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur; en ambos casos se encontro

  13. Testing the assumption of measurement invariance in the SAMHSA mental health and alcohol abuse stigma assessment in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, B.L.; Oort, F.J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  14. Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Oort, Frans J.; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  15. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  16. Social and Individual-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use Initiation and Escalation: Replicating and Extending Tests of Differential Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Merrill, Jennifer E; Janssen, Tim; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-05-01

    Although alcohol use is considered a developmental phenomenon, there is a relative dearth of studies disaggregating predictors of alcohol use initiation versus early escalation of drinking. One perspective that has emerged is that social levels of influence may be relevant for the initiation of drinking, whereas individual levels of influence may be relevant for the early escalation in level of drinking among initiators, which we refer to as the specificity hypothesis. A sample of alcohol-naive youth (n = 944; mean age = 12.16 years, SD = 0.96) was prospectively assessed for 3 years, spanning six waves of data collection. Both social (parental conflict, perceived prevalence of peer drinking) and individual-level (higher sensation seeking) variables uniquely predicted increases in the likelihood of alcohol initiation. Likewise, both social (perceived descriptive norms of peer drinking) and individual-level (lower school grades, higher sensation seeking) variables uniquely predicted escalation in level of drinking among initiators (although only marginally for sensation seeking). Overall, there was little support for the specificity hypothesis. Our findings suggest that to assume that social and individual-level processes differentially predict drinking outcomes may be a false dichotomy. Theoretical work may benefit from drawing from developmental models emphasizing the interplay between individual and environmental factors in the prediction of the early development of drinking. The emergence of drinking behaviors is likely to result from a developmental cascade of interacting variables that make the ontogeny of drinking unlikely to emerge from a single class of variables.

  17. Alcohol Use and Strenuous Physical Activity in College Students: A Longitudinal Test of 2 Explanatory Models of Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Riley, Elizabeth N.; Smith, Gregory T.; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Participants: Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Methods: Participants reported…

  18. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Faerch, Louise Holmsgaard; Kristensen, Peter Lommer

    2010-12-14

    To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol. Open labelled, self experimental study, with no control group. Office of a Danish hospital. Three adults, median age 32 (range 31-35), free of chronic skin and liver disease and non-dependent on alcohol and psychoactive drugs. The primary end point was the concentration of plasma ethanol (detection limit 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL)), measured every 30 minutes for three hours while feet were submerged in a washing-up bowl containing the contents of three 700 mL bottles of vodka. The secondary outcome was self assessment of intoxication related symptoms (self confidence, urge to speak, and number of spontaneous hugs), scored on a scale of 0 to 10. Plasma ethanol concentrations were below the detection limit of 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL) throughout the experiment. No significant changes were observed in the intoxication related symptoms, although self confidence and urge to speak increased slightly at the start of the study, probably due to the setup. Our results suggest that feet are impenetrable to the alcohol component of vodka. We therefore conclude that the Danish urban myth of being able to get drunk by submerging feet in alcoholic beverages is just that; a myth. The implications of the study are many though.

  19. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs Fibrotest, Elastography and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang

    2018-01-01

    -dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal...... alcohol rehabilitation, n=128; 6% with advanced fibrosis) and secondary healthcare centers (hospital outpatient clinics, n=161; 36% with advanced fibrosis) in the Region of Southern Denmark from 2013 through 2016. Biopsy-verified fibrosis stage was used as the reference standard. The primary aim...... was to validate ELF in detection of advanced fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease recruited from primary and secondary healthcare centers, using the literature-based cut-off value of 10.5. Secondary aims were to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ELF for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis...

  20. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  1. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they can monitor you for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prevention Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should ... team. 02-05-18: Editorial update. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  2. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Competing with big business: a randomised experiment testing the effects of messages to promote alcohol and sugary drink control policy

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Maree; Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Dixon, Helen; Wakefield, Melanie; Barry, Colleen L.; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence-based policies encouraging healthy behaviours are often strongly opposed by well-funded industry groups. As public support is crucial for policy change, public health advocates need to be equipped with strategies to offset the impact of anti-policy messages. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of theory-based public health advocacy messages in generating public support for sugary drink/alcohol policies (increased taxes; sport sponsorship bans) and impr...

  4. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  5. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  6. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid all alcohol. Protect yourself from hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by a virus. Untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis. If you have hepatitis C and drink alcohol, you're far more likely ...

  7. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasch M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%. cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1. Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  8. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or... concentration of 0.04 or greater. No employer having actual knowledge that a driver has an alcohol concentration...

  9. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215...

  10. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcoholic beverage — such as chemicals, grains or preservatives. Combining alcohol with certain medications also can cause reactions. In rare instances, an unpleasant reaction to alcohol can be a sign of a serious underlying health problem that requires diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms Signs ...

  11. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top 5 risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  12. Common and specific effects of couples treatment for alcoholism: a test of the generic model of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, T Mark; Beutler, Larry E; Castillo, Salvador; Karno, Mitch

    2006-09-01

    The generic model of psychotherapy (Orlinsky & Howard, 1987) eschews the view that inputs, processes or outputs associated with treatment exert linear and independent effects on outcomes. Variables within these three clusters must be viewed both within the context of time and through their interactions with other variables within a class. This study illustrates the use of this model by identifying common (comprising both traditional relationship factors and shared therapy ingredients) and specific factors in cognitive-behavioural (CB) and family systems (FS) treatments for alcoholic couples and tracking their contributions over two treatment phases - the acute phase, and the follow-up phase. While four process variables (therapy type, intensity of treatment, common elements and FS-specific procedures) contributed to outcomes during the active treatment phase, these variables became more interactive during follow-up. Indeed, high levels of both specific interventions of both treatments were negatively associated with benefit, if common factors were also frequently used during the acute phase. The best effects were obtained when common and specific interventions were counterbalanced, one being frequently used and the other being infrequently used. Implications for future alcohol treatment and recommendations for research on common and specific factors are discussed.

  13. Relationship between liver tissue stiffness and histopathological findings analyzed by shear wave elastography and compression testing in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Saori; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Yoshida, Keiko; Oshiro, Hisashi; Kojima, Mayumi; Sano, Takatomo; Furuichi, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate two methods of determining liver stiffness in rats with various degrees of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet by comparing each finding with reference to histopathological liver findings. Twenty male Wister rats were fed an MCD diet for up to 32 weeks, and four were fed a normal diet. Ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) and mechanical compression testing using an Instron Universal Testing machine were performed on each rat at designated time points. After each examination, liver histopathology was analyzed to evaluate the degrees of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score, and each finding was compared with reference to liver histopathologic findings. Median liver stiffness values measured using SWE showed a stepwise increase with increasing histological inflammation score (P = 0.002), hepatic fibrosis stage (P = 0.029), ballooning score (P = 0.012), and steatosis grade (P = 0.030). Median liver stiffness measured using an Instron machine showed a stepwise increase only with increasing histological fibrosis stage (P = 0.033). Degree of liver stiffness measured by SWE and the Instron machine differed. SWE reflected mainly inflammation, whereas Instron machine-derived values primarily reflected fibrosis. This is the main source of discrepancies between measurements made with these two modalities.

  14. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158 Met genotype, parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use: testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucht, Manfred; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Treutlein, Jens; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2012-04-01

      Recently, first evidence has been reported for a gene-parenting interaction (G × E) with regard to adolescent alcohol use. The present investigation set out to extend this research using the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor. Moreover, the current study examined whether a potential G×E would be consistent with one of two models of gene-environment interplay (genetic vulnerability vs. differential susceptibility).   Data were collected as part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study following the outcome of early risk factors from birth into adulthood. Two hundred and eighty-five participants (130 males, 155 females) were genotyped for the COMT Val(158) Met polymorphism and were administered an alcohol interview, providing measures of current frequency and amount of drinking at ages 15 and 19 years. Information on three dimensions of perceived parenting behavior was obtained from the 15-year-olds.   Adolescents homozygous for the Met allele showed higher drinking activity at age 19 years when their parents had engaged in less supervision or were less involved, while their drinking activity was reduced under conditions of favorable parenting. No such relationship was found in individuals carrying the Val allele.   The present findings correspond with the pattern of results predicted by the differential susceptibility hypothesis, suggesting that environmental variation would have a greater impact in individuals carrying a genetic susceptibility such that, in this group, exposure to negative environmental conditions would result in more adverse outcomes and the experience of favorable conditions would lead to more positive outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  17. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  18. Cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Gatha

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption can have a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Awareness of the cutaneous changes of alcohol abuse can allow early detection and intervention in an attempt to limit the adverse medical consequences. Hence a study was planned to determine the cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics. AIMS: To determine the cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: All the patients attending alcohol de-addiction camps were examined for cutaneous changes. The results were analyzed using Gausian test and compared with other reports. RESULTS: Out of 200 alcoholics examined for cutaneous changes, 182 (91% had cutaneous, nail, hair or oral cavity changes. Nail changes were found in 51 (25.5% alcoholics, koilonychia being the commonest (16%. Oral changes were present in 107 (53.5% alcoholics and changes due to nutritional deficiency in 20 (10%. Diseases due to poor hygiene were seen in 55 (27.5% alcoholics. Tinea versicolor (14% and seborrheic dermatitis (11.5% were the commonest cutaneous changes noted. CONCLUSION: Even though alcohol abuse has a variety of cutaneous manifestations and perhaps aggravates many diseases, there are no specific cutaneous signs of alcoholism. Knowledge of the spectrum of cutaneous manifestations of alcohol abuse can allow its early detection and treatment in an attempt to minimize the medical consequences.

  19. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health . Accessed March 18, 2016. National Institute on Alcohol ... Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders . Accessed March ...

  20. Colorimetric analysis of saliva–alcohol test strips by smartphone-based instruments using machine-learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strip lateral flow assays, similar to a home pregnancy test, are used widely in food safety applications to provide rapid and accurate tests for the presence of specific foodborne pathogens or other contaminants. Though these tests are very rapid, they are not very sensitive, are not quantitative, a...

  1. Craving Alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2014-01-01

    Individuals involved in the treatment of alcoholism for decades have argued that men and women crave alcohol essentially because they enjoy the effect it offers. This effect is so mysterious that, while adults will confess that these cravings are potential dangerous to their health and well being, during consumption their reasoning and belief of these facts will alternate between the true and the false. In essence these individuals alcohol cravings life actually seems to them the only normal ...

  2. The utility of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)for the analysis of binge drinking in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Tomás, María T; Giménez Costa, José A; Motos-Sellés, Patricia; Sancerni Beitia, María D; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The increasingly precise conceptualization of Binge Drinking (BD), along with the rising incidence of this pattern of intake amongst young people, make it necessary to review the usefulness of instruments used to detect it. Little evidence exists regarding effectiveness of the AUDIT, AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 in the detection of BD. This study evaluates their utility in a sample of university students, revealing the most appropriate cut-off points for each sex. All students self-administered the AUDIT and completed a self-report of their alcohol consumption. A Two-step cluster analysis differentiated 5 groups of BD in terms of: the quantity consumed, the frequency of BD over the past six months and gender. A ROC curve adjusted cut-off points for each case. 862 university students (18-19 years-old/59.5% female), 424 (49.2%) from Valencia and 438 (50.8%) from Madrid, had cut-off points of 4 in AUDIT and 3 in AUDIT-C as a better fit. In all cases, the best classifier was AUDIT-C. Neither version properly classifies students with varying degrees of BD. All versions differentiate BD from non-BD, but none are able to differentiate between types of BD.

  3. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  4. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written alcohol... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202...

  5. VALIDATION OF THE YOUNG ADULT ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCREENING TEST “YAAPST” IN A GROUP OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS OF THE PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CRISTINA TORRES GONZÁLEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the high prevalence of alcohol consumption in Colombia, and its incidence in young people, theprimary objective of this study was to validate the YAAPST scale, determining its performance characteristics(sensibility, specify, validity, dimensionality in order to evaluate the negative consequences ofalcohol consumption in a group of college students of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana of Bogotá.It was applied in a questionnaire battery to 305 students. A study cohort was assembled in a methodologicaltype of research, with two separate measures during a period of 8 weeks. Results indicated thatthe YAAPST is a multidimensional scale whose results have good psychometric properties (good internalconsistency and stability. It was concluded that the YAAPST is a functional test to be applied in the targetpopulation because of the advantages in its administration, usefulness for making valid measurementsand for its reproducible use both in clinical and research contexts.

  6. Alcoholism & depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  7. Paternal alcoholism predicts the occurrence but not the remission of alcoholic drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, J; Penick, E C; Nickel, E J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of father's alcoholism on the development and remission from alcoholic drinking by age 40. METHOD: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort that included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk; HR) and 106 matched controls (low risk; LR). Clinical...... examinations were performed at age 40 (n = 202) by a psychiatrist using structured interviews and DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: HR subjects were significantly more likely than LR subjects to develop alcohol dependence (31% vs. 16%), but not alcohol abuse (17% vs. 15%). More subjects with alcohol...... abuse were in remission at age 40 than subjects with alcohol dependence. Risk did not predict remission from either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Familial influences may play a stronger role in the development of alcoholism than in the remission or recovery from alcoholism....

  8. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  9. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD. To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle. Participants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD. The identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  10. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  12. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and the Liver: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is ... provider or contact a Substance Use Disorder program Alcohol Drinking Diary and Change Plan Alcohol Drinking Diary ...

  13. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  14. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or similar...

  15. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V. Sullivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%. Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

  17. The substances and choices scale (SACS)--the development and testing of a new alcohol and other drug screening and outcome measurement instrument for young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Grant; Marsh, Reginald; Sheridan, Janie; Wheeler, Amanda; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau; Black, Stella; Butler, Rachael

    2007-09-01

    To describe the development and evaluation of the Substances and Choices Scale (SACS), an adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) self-report instrument designed in a similar format to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A literature review, extensive consultation and discriminant analysis on a pilot sample (n = 61) of adolescents informed the development of the SACS. The psychometric properties of the SACS were then tested in a larger community and clinical sample. Three youth out-patient AOD treatment services and three secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. 13-18-year-old males and females attending the services (n = 120) or schools (n = 531). The SACS was administered with the CRAFFT, the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Reliability of the SACS was sound, with coefficient alpha 0.91 and 3-week test-retest correlation 0.88. Congruent validity coefficients of the SACS versus the CRAFFT and the POSIT were 0.79 and 0.91, respectively. A ROC curve demonstrated the SACS as having a predictive value of 92%. Repeat SACS scores in a treatment sample indicated that the SACS had utility in measuring change. Feedback from participants indicated that the SACS was highly acceptable. The SACS is a simple AOD instrument that is reliable, valid and acceptable to young people. It has utility in screening and measuring outcome and should enhance the identification and treatment of AOD difficulties in adolescents across a range of health settings.

  18. Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: tests with studies of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10-14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read Peter's story Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery Does Drug Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the National Institute ...

  20. Youth alcohol use and dating abuse victimization and perpetration: a test of the relationships at the daily level in a sample of pediatric emergency department patients who use alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Stuart, Gregory L; Winter, Michael; Wang, Na; Bowen, Deborah J; Bernstein, Judith; Vinci, Robert

    2012-10-01

    This study retrospectively examined the daily-level associations between youth alcohol use and dating abuse (DA) victimization and perpetration for a 6-month period. Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview data were collected from 397 urban emergency department patients, ages 17 to 21 years. Patients were eligible if they reported past month alcohol use and past year dating. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses estimated the likelihood of DA on a given day as a function of alcohol use or heavy use (≥4 drinks per day for women, ≥5 drinks per day for men), as compared with nonuse. Approximately 52% of men and 61% of women participants reported experiencing DA victimization ≥1 times during the past 6 months, and 45% of men and 55% of women reported perpetrating DA ≥1 times. For both men and women, DA perpetration was more likely on a drinking day as opposed to a nondrinking day (ORs = 1.70 and ORs = 1.69, respectively). DA victimization was also more likely on a drinking day as opposed to a nondrinking day for both men and women (ORs = 1.23 and ORs = 1.34, respectively). DA perpetration and DA victimization were both more likely on heavy drinking days as opposed to nondrinking days (2.04 and 2.03 for men's and women's perpetration, respectively, and 1.41 and 1.43 for men's and women's victimization, respectively). This study found that alcohol use was associated with increased risk for same day DA perpetration and victimization, for both male and female youth. We conclude that for youth who use alcohol, alcohol use is a potential risk factor for DA victimization and perpetration.

  1. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  2. Youth Alcohol Use and Dating Abuse Victimization and Perpetration: A Test of the Relationships at the Daily Level in a Sample of Pediatric Emergency Department Patients Who Use Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Winter, Michael; Wang, Na; Bowen, Deborah J.; Bernstein, Judith; Vinci, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study retrospectively examined the daily-level associations between youth alcohol use and dating abuse (DA) victimization and perpetration for a 6-month period. Method: Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview data were collected from 397 urban emergency department patients, ages 17 to 21 years. Patients were eligible if they reported…

  3. Simultaneous species-specific PCR detection and viability testing of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel-entrapped Rhodococcus spp. after their exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyukina, Maria S; Ivshina, Irena B; Serebrennikova, Marina K; Rubtsova, Ekaterina V; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V

    2013-08-01

    A method of simultaneous species-specific PCR detection and viability testing of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel-entrapped Rhodococcus spp. was developed that allowed the estimation of immobilized Rhodococcus opacus and Rhodococcus ruber survival after their exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon mixture. Spectrophotometric INT assay revealed high tolerance of gel-immobilized rhodococci to petroleum hydrocarbons, while among two Rhodococcus strains studied, R. ruber tolerated better to hydrocarbons compared to R. opacus. These findings were confirmed by respirometry results that showed increased respiratory activity of gel-immobilized Rhodococcus strains after 10-day incubation with 3% (v/v) petroleum hydrocarbon mixture. Moreover, jointly incubated rhodococcal strains demonstrated higher oxidative activities toward petroleum hydrocarbons than individual strains. Both Rhodococcus species were recovered successfully in cryogel granules using 16S rDNA-targeted PCR, even though the granules were previously stained with INT and extracted with ethanol. The method developed can be used for rapid detection and monitoring of gel-immobilized bacterial inocula in bioreactors or contaminated soil systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-cultural examination of college drinking culture in Spain, Argentina, and USA: Measurement invariance testing of the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Pilatti, Angelina; Read, Jennifer P; Mezquita, Laura; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós

    2017-11-01

    Perceptions about what is "normal" drinking in college, measured by the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale (CLASS; 15 items), have been robustly associated with elevated levels of problematic alcohol use, yet the role of these beliefs has not been studied outside the U.S. The present work examined measurement invariance of the CLASS across sex, drinker status, and in individuals from three different countries (i.e., U.S., Argentina, Spain). Additional goals were to evaluate differences on the CLASS (i.e., latent mean differences) as a function of sex, drinker status and country and to compare construct validity (i.e., correlations with alcohol variables) across sex and different countries. A large sample of 1841 college students enrolled in universities from the U.S., Spain and Argentina completed, via an online survey, a battery of instruments that assess college alcohol beliefs, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. We found that a shortened 12-item version of the CLASS to be invariant across sex and drinker status, but only metric invariance was found across countries. As expected, men and drinkers showed significantly higher scores on the CLASS than women and non-drinkers, respectively. Bivariate correlations between CLASS scores and drinking outcomes strongly supported criterion-related validity of this measure across multiple countries and sex with differing strengths in relationships with alcohol-related constructs. Taken together, perceptions of the centrality of alcohol to the college experience appear to be an important target for college student alcohol interventions across various cultures and countries, especially for male college student drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is HOMA-IR a potential screening test for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults with type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Buey, Gala; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M; Llavero-Valero, María; Gargallo, Javier; Salvador, Javier; Escalada, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest hepatic disease in many parts of the World, with particularly high prevalence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, a good screening test for NAFLD in T2DM has not been established. Insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with NAFLD, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a good proxy for IR, may represent an affordable predictive test which could be easily applied in routine clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of HOMA-IR for NAFLD in T2DM and sought to estimate an optimal cut-off value for discriminating NAFLD from non-NAFLD cases. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 56 well-controlled patients with T2DM (HbAc1HOMA-IR and NAFLD was found (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1; p=0.033), independently of transaminases, fat percentage, BMI and triglyceride levels. The AUROC curve of HOMA-IR for identifying NAFLD was 80.7% (95% CI: 68.9-92.5). A value of HOMA-IR of 4.5 was estimated to be an optimal threshold for discriminating NAFLD from non-NAFLD cases. HOMA-IR is independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in adults with T2DM, and might potentially be applied in clinical practice as a screen for this condition. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    /1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence...

  7. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  8. Experimental Methods for Testing the Effects of Neurotrophic Peptide, ADNF-9, Against Alcohol-induced Apoptosis during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    Experimental designs for investigating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure during early embryonic stages in fetal brain growth are challenging. This is mostly due to the difficulty of microdissection of fetal brains and their sectioning for determination of apoptotic cells caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The experiments described here provide visualized techniques from mice breeding to the identification of cell death in fetal brain tissue. This study used C57BL/6 mice as the ani...

  9. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    national and international by ... Marketing restrictions, such as. Reducing availability of retailed alcohol. Bans on alcohol advertizing, ... relationships between alcohol consumption and household poverty (e.g. the opportunity costs of alcohol).

  10. Alcohol-induced risk taking on the BART mediates alcohol priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Abigail K; Jones, Andrew; Clarke, Natasha; Christiansen, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous drinking has been associated with risk taking and alcohol priming effects. However, the potential relationship between risk taking and priming has not been investigated. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is a behavioural measure of risk taking which appears to be associated with drinking behaviour. However, alcohol's acute effects on BART performance are not clear, and the potentially mediating effect of alcohol-induced risk taking on priming has not been tested. To assess the effects of a priming dose of alcohol on BART performance; to determine the predictive utility of the BART on drinking habits; and to identify whether alcohol-induced risk taking mediates alcohol priming (urge to drink). A total of 142 participants provided data on drinking habits and trait-like impulsivity and sensation seeking. The BART was then completed after consuming alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo (between-subjects design). Baseline and post-drink measures of alcohol urge were also taken. Alcohol consumption increased urge to drink (priming) and risk taking on the BART. In the alcohol group only, risk taking on the BART predicted unique variance in weekly alcohol consumption and bingeing. Mediation analysis showed that risk taking following alcohol consumption mediated alcohol priming. This is the first study to show that alcohol acutely increases risk taking on the BART. Results suggest that social drinkers susceptible to alcohol-induced risk taking may be more likely to drink excessively, perhaps due to increased urge to drink (priming).

  11. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R

    2004-01-01

    no impact on the conversion of INH to its metabolite acetylisoniazid, which is catalysed by the enzyme N-acetyltranferase. Accordingly, a metabolic effect of acute alcohol intake on INH metabolism probably contributes little to the therapeutic failure of anti-tuberculosis treatment among alcoholics.......SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...... dose of 300 mg INH was administered on 2 separate days, 14 days apart, with or without alcohol to a serum alcohol of about 21 mmol/l (1 g/l) maintained for 12 h. RESULTS: Neither the metabolism of INH nor that of acetylisoniazid was changed by acute alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Acute alcohol intake has...

  12. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R

    2004-01-01

    SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...... dose of 300 mg INH was administered on 2 separate days, 14 days apart, with or without alcohol to a serum alcohol of about 21 mmol/l (1 g/l) maintained for 12 h. RESULTS: Neither the metabolism of INH nor that of acetylisoniazid was changed by acute alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Acute alcohol intake has...... no impact on the conversion of INH to its metabolite acetylisoniazid, which is catalysed by the enzyme N-acetyltranferase. Accordingly, a metabolic effect of acute alcohol intake on INH metabolism probably contributes little to the therapeutic failure of anti-tuberculosis treatment among alcoholics....

  13. Selection criteria for alcohol detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    The potential need for testing workers in the aviation industry for job-related alcohol abuse requires the development of a testing strategy based, in part, on selection of alcohol test instruments appropriate to the specific goals of the Federal Avi...

  14. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, E.; Gonzalez, E. R.

    The faster kinetics of the alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells (ADAFCs), opening up the possibility of using less expensive metal catalysts, as silver, nickel and palladium, makes the alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell a potentially low cost technology compared to acid direct alcohol fuel cell technology, which employs platinum catalysts. A boost in the research regarding alkaline fuel cells, fuelled with hydrogen or alcohols, was due to the development of alkaline anion-exchange membranes, which allows the overcoming of the problem of the progressive carbonation of the alkaline electrolyte. This paper presents an overview of catalysts and membranes for ADAFCs, and of testing of ADAFCs, fuelled with methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol, formed by these materials.

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use disorders. The estimated prevalence of alcohol related problems was 39.4% with 28.8% harmful drinking and 10.6% hazardous drinking (alcohol ...

  16. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator shall... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199...

  17. Impact of Alcohol Availability and Accessibility on Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Availability and accessibility were measured using the number of alcohol sales outlets within and around the campuses and the freedom students have in accessing alcohol. The alcohol use of students was measured using World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The results showed ...

  18. [Alcohol consumption patterns and genotypes determining alcohol tolerance in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Constanza P; Flores, Sergio V

    2015-06-01

    Alleles involved in inefficient (ADH1B2*2 and ALDH2*2) or efficient (SNP6, ADH4 gene) alcohol metabolism may influence the risk of alcoholism. Alcoholism susceptibility has been classified as protector and risk-dependence phenotypes, associated with inefficient and efficient alcohol genetic metabolizing variants, respectively. To investigate the possible association between genetic protective and risk-dependence variants and alcohol intake patterns. Saliva DNA samples were obtained and the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) questionnaire was applied to 210 university students aged between 18 and 25 years old. No statistically significant association between protective or risk-dependence genetic variants and alcohol pattern intake was detected. However, new categories of alcohol intake patterns-not included in the AUDIT questionnaire-were identified. No association between the protector and risk-dependence phenotypes and patterns of alcohol consumption was detected in this sample of students.

  19. Alcohol expectancies as a mediator of the relation between impulsivity and alcohol consumption in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Susan C; Short, Jerome L

    2009-01-01

    Past research on alcohol consumption in minority groups has focused on examining differences in the level of drinking. However, research has yet to fully examine racial differences in the factors that might mediate alcohol consumption. The current study sought to test whether alcohol expectancies mediated the relation of impulsivity on alcohol consumption for an Asian American sample. Participants included 57 Asian American and 70 Caucasian undergraduate students. Results showed that positive alcohol expectancies fully mediated the pathway between dimensions of impulsivity and alcohol use for Asian Americans. For Caucasian participants, only impulsivity predicted alcohol use. Future research on alcohol use and abuse by Asian Americans should consider the role of alcohol expectancies in different social contexts.

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  1. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  2. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    although sales promotions affected stu- dents from Australia and Germany, Welsh students were more likely to purchase alcohol during promotions, because of their intention to take advantage of price discounts. In the Philippines, Swahn et al. (2013) revealed that promotional ac- tivities offering free drinks to students.

  3. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  4. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  5. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  6. Vulnerability for Alcohol Use Disorder and Rate of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Joshua L; Sloan, Matthew E; Stangl, Bethany L; Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-11-01

    Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session. This cross-sectional study included 159 young social drinkers who completed a laboratory session in which they self-administered alcohol intravenously. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine whether risk factors for alcohol use disorder were associated with the rate of achieving a binge-level exposure. A greater percentage of relatives with alcoholism (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% CI=1.02-1.07), male sex (hazard ratio: 1.74, 95% CI=1.03-2.93), and higher impulsivity (hazard ratio: 1.17, 95% CI=1.00 to 1.37) were associated with a higher rate of binging throughout the session. Participants with all three risk factors had the highest rate of binging throughout the session compared with the lowest risk group (hazard ratio: 5.27, 95% CI=1.81-15.30). Binge drinking may be an early indicator of vulnerability to alcohol use disorder and should be carefully assessed as part of a thorough clinical evaluation.

  7. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  8. Accuracy of the Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ACASI ASSIST) for identifying unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pritika C; Cleland, Charles M; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rotrosen, John; Strauss, Shiela; Russell, Linnea; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    An Audio Computer-assisted Self Interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) could reduce barriers to substance use screening and assessment in primary care settings. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an ACASI ASSIST for identification of unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). 399 adult patients were consecutively recruited from an urban safety-net primary care clinic. ACASI ASSIST scores for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine were compared against reference standard measures to assess the instrument's diagnostic accuracy for identifying unhealthy use and SUD, first using empirically-derived optimal cutoffs, and second using the currently recommended ASSIST cutoffs. For identifying any unhealthy use, at the empirically-derived cutoffs the ACASI ASSIST had 93.6% sensitivity and 85.8% specificity (AUC=0.90) for tobacco, 85.9% sensitivity and 60.3% specificity (AUC=0.73), for alcohol in men, 100% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity (AUC=0.81) for alcohol in women, 94.6% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity (AUC=0.88) for marijuana, and 86.1% sensitivity, 84.0% specificity (AUC=0.85) for cocaine. For SUD, sensitivity ranged from 79% (for alcohol in males), to 100% (for tobacco), and specificity was 83% or higher (AUCs ranged 0.83-0.91). For substances other than tobacco, empirically-derived cutoff scores were lower than the standard cutoffs, and resulted in higher sensitivity and lower specificity for identifying unhealthy substance use. The ACASI ASSIST is a valid measure of unhealthy use and SUD for substances that are commonly used by primary care patients, and could facilitate effective and efficient screening for substance use in medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  10. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of psychoeducation in systemic family therapy alcoholic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana; Đokić Gorica

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to analyze the impact of psychoeducation in alcoholism therapy treatment on initial motivation and comprehension, change in attitudes to alcoholism, and beginning of creating a new value system. The sample consisted of 166 respondents (83 married couples) that had been involved in one-year systemic group family therapy alcoholic treatment (with the man being alcoholic). A questionnaire on knowledge about alcoholism was used. The respondents were tested three tim...

  12. Alcohol feeding blocks methacholine-induced airway responsiveness in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg, P. J.; Wyatt, T. A.; Factor, P. H.; Sisson, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Historical accounts of alcohol administration to patients with breathing problems suggest that alcohol may have bronchodilating properties. We hypothesized that acute alcohol exposure will alter airway responsiveness (AR) in mice. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed either 20% alcohol in drinking water (fed) or received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alcohol (3 g/kg). Control groups received regular drinking water or ip saline. AR was assessed by means of ventilation or...

  13. Alcohol industry sponsorship and alcohol-related harms in Australian university sportspeople/athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Lynott, Dermot; Miller, Peter G

    2013-05-01

    Although there is evidence that alcohol sponsorship in sport is related to greater drinking, there is no empirical research on whether alcohol sponsorship is associated with alcohol-related harms. We examined whether there is an association between receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship, and attendance at alcohol sponsor's drinking establishments (e.g. bars), and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in university students who play sport. University sportspeople (n = 652) completed surveys (response rate >80%) assessing receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship, attendance at sponsor's establishments and confounders [i.e. age, gender, sport type, location and alcohol consumption measured by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) scores]. Participants also completed measures assessing displays and receipt of aggressive and antisocial behaviours (e.g. assaults, unwanted sexual advance, vandalism). Logistic regression models including confounders and reported attendance at alcohol sponsor's establishments showed that sportspeople receiving alcohol industry sponsorship were more likely to have been the victim of aggression (adjusted odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.22-5.64). Attending an alcohol sponsor's establishment was not associated with higher rates of other aggressive or antisocial behaviour. However, significant associations where found between AUDIT-C scores and having displayed and received aggression, and having damaged or had property damaged. Male sportspeople were more likely to have displayed and received aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Higher AUDIT-C scores, gender and receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship were associated with alcohol-related aggression/antisocial behaviours in university sportspeople. Sport administrators should consider action to reduce the harms associated with excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol industry sponsorship in sport. © 2012 Australasian Professional

  14. Circulating cytokines as biomarkers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achur, Rajeshwara N; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2010-03-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long-term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels, and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake.

  15. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  16. Vorvida: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of Internet-based self-help program for the reduction of alcohol consumption for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Jördis M; Meyer, Björn; Topp, Janine; Daubmann, Anne; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2016-01-29

    Problem drinking is an important global health concern, causing premature mortality and morbidity. Only few problem drinkers seek professional care, unfortunately, because of multiple barriers such as insufficient change motivation, fear of stigmatization or limited access to care. The aim of this study will be to examine the effectiveness of a novel Internet intervention termed Vorvida, which was developed based on established cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques with the aim of reducing problematic alcohol consumption. A two-arm randomized control trial (RCT) will be conducted to determine whether using Vorvida results in greater reductions in self-reported problem drinking, compared with a care-as-usual/waitlist (CAU/WL) control group. There will be a baseline assessment (t0) and follow-up assessments after three (t1) and six months (t2). Inclusion criteria will be: minimum age of 18, an average consumption of alcohol >24/12 g (men/women) per day and an AUDIT-C score ≥ 3, as well as informed consent. Participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition at a ratio of 1:1. Recruitment, informed consent, randomization and assessment will be Internet-based. Primary outcome will be change in self-reported alcohol consumption between t0 and t1. Secondary outcomes will be self-reported drinking behavior, expectancies of effects of alcohol use, abstinence and relapse tendencies, self-efficacy and motivation to change. This study is expected to establish the extent to which a novel Internet intervention could contribute to reducing problem drinking among adults with mild to severe alcohol use disorders who may or may not seek or access a traditional treatments. Potentially, this program could be an effective and efficient tool to help reduce problem drinking on a population level because a great number of users can be reached simultaneously without adding burden to treating clinicians. German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS

  17. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy...... (Castellammare di Stabia). Alcohol problems, which were defined by a cut-off score of 5 on the MAST and/or by heavy alcohol consumption (corresponding to at least 60 g of ethanol daily for males and 36 g of ethanol daily for females for at least 2 years), were identified in 54 patients [43.9%; 95% confidence...... heavy alcohol consumption had a predictive negative value of 97.2% (95% CI 90.2-99.7%) and a predictive positive value of 73.1% (95% CI 59.0-84.4%) in relation to MAST positive patients. It is suggested that general practitioners should incorporate this question about heavy alcohol consumption...

  18. Adolescent individuation and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, P E; Bray, J H

    1999-03-01

    This study evaluates a developmental psychosocial model of adolescent drinking. Specifically, the role of two aspects of adolescent individuation-separation and intergenerational individuation-is examined within the context of family dynamics, stress and peer associations. These measures parallel an ongoing debate regarding the nature of individuation. The separation measure captures aspects of individuation related to detachment or rebelliousness. Intergenerational individuation measures increasing self-reliance and control with maintenance of supportive family bonds. A structural equation model describing adolescent alcohol use as a function of two measures of individuation, family conflict, communication with mother, stress and peer use of alcohol was tested in two independent samples. The first included 6th- through 12th-grade adolescents and the second was composed of 6th- through 8th-grade students. In both studies, significant direct and indirect paths were found from individuation measures and family, peer use and stress constructs to adolescent alcohol use. Separation had a stronger relationship to alcohol use than did intergenerational individuation and was associated with higher levels of stress and alcohol use by peers. The findings support the role of individuation as a contributing factor in adolescent alcohol use. They indicate the importance of family and parent-adolescent relationships in adolescent alcohol use and suggest directions for both family-based and school-based preventive interventions.

  19. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordey, T.; Sunstrum, M.

    2006-01-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Alcohol and Cirrhosis for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and cirrhosis Alcohol and the Liver Cirrhosis is ... liver to a liver with cirrhosis. How does alcohol affect cirrhosis? Alcohol increases the damage done to ...

  2. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  3. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  5. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of this...

  6. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  7. Interaction of cannabidiol and alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consroe, P; Carlini, E A; Zwicker, A P; Lacerda, L A

    1979-01-01

    Six male and four female healthy volunteers were given oral placebo (glucose capsule and orange juice), cannabidiol (CBD 200 mg capsule and orange juice), alcohol (1 g/kg in orange juice and glucose capsule), and CBD (200 mg capsule) plus alcohol (1 g/kg in orange juice) in a double-blind, crossover, randomized design. Treatments were spaced one week apart. Parameters measured were a finger tap test (motor performance), cancellation and differential aptitude tests (psychomotor performance), a 1-min time production task, subjective effects (66 item adjective-pair semantic differential), and breathalyzer estimations of blood alcohol levels. Compared to placebo, alcohol and alcohol plus CBD, but not CBD alone, produced significant impairments of motor and psychomotor performances, overestimations of time production and subjective responses indicating an accurate self-perception of their intoxication and deficits. The combination of alcohol plus CBD resulted in significantly lower blood alcohol levels compared to alcohol given alone, however, there were few differences observed between the pharmacological effects of the two alcohol conditions. Thus, the inactivity of CBD, a major marijuana constituent, on motor and mental performance and effects also extends to its interaction with alcohol.

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain ...

  9. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  10. Condom Use Among High-Risk Adolescents: Testing the Influence of Alcohol Use on the Relationship of Cognitive Correlates of Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Angela; Rocheleau, Courtney A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was the exploration of distal effects of alcohol use on condom use. Criminally involved adolescents completed an initial measure of attitudes, beliefs, and prior behavior. Of the 300 who completed the initial measurement, 267 (89%) completed a behavioral assessment 6 months later. Analyses validated a theoretical model of condom use intentions and indicated that intentions and attitudes measured at baseline were significant predictors of condom use behavior 6 months lat...

  11. Habit predicts in-the-moment alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Ian P; Collins, Isabelle; Moss, Antony C; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether habit predicts in-the-moment behavioural intention (amount of alcohol poured) and behavioural enactment (amount and proportion of alcohol consumed) controlling for craving and positive alcohol expectancies. Forty-six college students, who defined themselves as social drinkers, were tested individually in a laboratory setting. After completing a measure of craving they were given a bottle of non-alcoholic beer and a cup, asked to pour a drink, and then drink as much as they liked. They were not informed that the beer was non-alcoholic. They were subsequently asked to complete measures of alcohol use and misuse, positive alcohol expectancies and habit. Positive alcohol expectancies were positively and significantly associated with the amount of alcohol poured and the amount and proportion of alcohol consumed. Habit was positively and significantly associated with the amount and proportion of alcohol consumed but not with the amount of alcohol poured. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that only habit was a significant predictor of both the amount and proportion of alcohol consumed. Even though measures of intention (amount of alcohol poured) and behaviour (amount and proportion of alcohol consumed) were positively correlated, habit was shown to effectively discriminate between these measures. These findings suggest that habit predicts in-the-moment behavioural enactment in terms of the amount and proportion of alcohol consumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bearer, Cynthia F.; Bailey, Shannon M.; Hoek, Jan B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled “Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders” in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation ...

  13. Context Effects of Alcohol Availability at Home: Implicit Alcohol Associations and the Prediction of Adolescents' Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Koning, Ina; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcohol-associated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this reasoning, we hypothesized that alcohol availability at home might moderate the relationship between implicit alcohol associations and future drinking behavior of adolescents. Participants were 262 at-risk adolescents (235 boys, 27 girls, adolescents with externalizing behavioral problems) with a mean age of 14.11 years (SD = 0.86, age range: 12-16 years) at baseline. Adolescents completed a questionnaire and a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test; SC-IAT). Stronger implicit alcohol associations predicted increase in frequency of alcohol use, only in adolescents who indicated that alcohol was available at home. No moderating effects were found for increase in quantity of alcohol use and problematic alcohol use, suggesting that implicit alcohol associations particularly influence the decision of whether to drink in adolescence. The findings illustrate that the availability of alcohol in the home setting influences adolescents' implicit alcohol associations and consequently affects the frequency of alcohol use. In this way, alcohol availability at home may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining the effect of implicit alcohol associations on the future drinking behavior of adolescents.

  14. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD and alcohol dependence. 25 Such interventions include cognitive–behavioral therapies, such as exposure-based therapies, in which the ... et al. Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: Psychobiology and clinical considerations. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews ...

  15. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  16. 49 CFR 199.235 - Required evaluation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.235 Required evaluation and testing. No operator shall...

  17. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  18. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    cirrhosis were 1.7 (0.6-4.7), 2.0 (0.8-7.1), 6.5 (2.0-21), and 13 (4.6-37) (P for trendeffect of alcohol on biochemical tests or risk of liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake from none to low (1-6 drinks per...... week) through to moderate (7-20 drinks per week) and excessive intake (> or = 21 drinks per week) leads to stepwise increases in signs of liver damage with no threshold effect, and to an increased risk of liver disease. The minor changes in biochemical tests for low alcohol intake may not account......OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that alcohol, alone and in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C genotypes, affects liver damage and disease in the general population. METHODS: Information on alcohol intake and on liver disease was obtained from 9,080 men and women from...

  19. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  20. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  1. COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE AND DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ilić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc. For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage. The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gammaglutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level; serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines.

  2. Alcoholism and its treatment approach from a citizen perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Antoni; Arbesú, José Ángel; Zarco, José; López Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    The main objective of the study is to describe alcohol consumption in the general Spanish population, to discover citizens' opinion on their alcohol consumption, on alcoholism and on treatment approaches.   In 2015 a cross-sectional study was carried out by means of a telephone survey. A representative sample was selected. Participants were asked about their alcohol consumption, their perception of risk regarding their pattern of alcohol consumption, about their opinion on alcoholism, alcohol consequences and the treatment approach. A questionnaire was designed. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C was used to define the pattern of alcohol intake. A descriptive and an statistical inference analysis were done. 22.1% were classified as risky drinkers, with a higher proportion in young males. The majority of individuals think that alcoholism is an illness, and more than 75% agree that alcohol has negative consequences on health, social functioning, occupational functioning and family relationships. Furthermore, the perception of risk that citizens have regarding their own drinking pattern is high (37.6%). 67.7% considered that the general practitioner can manage alcoholism, with females and older people believing this most strongly. Alcohol consumption is very prevalent in the Spanish population, especially in young people (31.8%). The perception of alcohol risk is high. The majority agree with the fact that general practitioners are well prepared for treating alcohol problems.

  3. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does it mean to be above the legal limit for drinking? The legal limit for drinking is the alcohol level above which ... arrest or loss of a driver’s license). Legal limits are measured using either a blood alcohol test ...

  4. Genetic propensities to increase ethanol intake in response to stress: studies with selectively bred swim test susceptible (SUS), alcohol-preferring (P), and non-preferring (NP) lines of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholomey, Megan L; West, Charles H K; Jensen, Meredith L; Li, Ting-Kai; Stewart, Robert B; Weiss, Jay M; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Swim test susceptible (SUS) rats selectively bred for reduced struggling in the forced swim test (FST) following stress show high voluntary ethanol intake like alcohol-preferring (P) rats selectively bred for ethanol preference. It is unknown whether stress enhances drinking in SUS rats or FST behavior in P and non-preferring (NP) rats. The aim of this study was to assess the response to stress in male SUS, Sprague-Dawley (SD), P, and NP rats on 10% ethanol drinking and FST behavior. In experiment 1, SUS and SD rats had limited access to ethanol and water following white noise, rehousing, and forced swim stress. In experiment 2, P and NP rats received footshock, white noise, restraint, or no stress prior to the FST. Rats then had continuous access to ethanol and water, and the effects of weekly exposures to stress were measured. SUS rats drank more ethanol (M = 2.98 g/kg) than SD rats (M = 1.26 g/kg) at baseline. Stress produced sustained increases (~33% of baseline) in ethanol intake in SUS rats. NP rats spent twice as much time immobile as P rats in the FST. Stress did not alter FST behavior in P or NP rats. Only footshock produced an increase (~29%) in ethanol intake in P rats. Selection for stress-induced depressive-like behavior in SUS rats is associated with enhanced stress-induced ethanol drinking. However, the selection for alcohol preference is not associated with stress-induced depressive-like behavior but is associated with footshock stress-induced ethanol drinking. In these experiments, relationships among stress, depressive-like behavior, and alcohol preference were not symmetrical.

  5. Alcohol consuption among academics of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jorge da Costa Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional study that aims to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption among physical education students of a public university of São Luís-MA. The sample consisted of 80 students. It was identified the following profile: 44 men and 36 women, aged between 18 and 21 years, most Catholics and having family income between $ 1,440.00 and $ 2,400.00. The prevalence of alcohol use was 95%, being higher among men (97.72%. The problematic use of alcohol, detected by the CAGE test, showed that 15% had physical and psychic problems and 23.75% mentioned to have missed classes in the last 30 days because of alcohol consumption. The study showed a significant number of students that had an exacerbated level of alcohol consumption, which draws attention to the need of addressing the topic of alcoholism in the academic scenario.

  6. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  7. Alcohol Intake, Myocardial Infarction, Biochemical Risk Factors, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Grønbæk, Morten; nordestgaard, børge

    2009-01-01

      Background- The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. Conclusions- Increasing alcohol intake is associated...... dehydrogenases. Methods and Results- We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated...

  8. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that alcohol, alone and in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C genotypes, affects liver damage and disease in the general population. METHODS: Information on alcohol intake and on liver disease was obtained from 9,080 men and women from...... volume. RESULTS: Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were...... 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-1.4), 1.4 (0.8-2.5), 1.8 (0.9-3.5), and 4.1 (2.5-7.0) for an alcohol intake of 1-13, 14-20, 21-27, and > or = 28 drinks per week, respectively, compared with drinking alcoholic liver...

  9. Alcohol content in declared non-to low alcoholic beverages: implications to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Y Ingrid; Verjee, Zulfikar; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may result in serious adverse fetal outcome. Non- or low alcoholic wines and beers may be a risk-reduction strategy to help alcohol-dependent individuals to prevent or limit ethanol consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify ethanol concentrations in Canadian beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content. Forty-five different beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content in the Canadian market were tested for ethanol concentration using gas chromatography. Thirteen (29%) of the beverages contained ethanol levels higher than the declared concentration on their label. Six beverages claiming to contain no alcohol were found to contain greater than 1% ethanol. Pregnant women seeking replacement to alcoholic beverages may be misled by these labels, unknowingly exposing themselves and their unborn babies to ethanol.

  10. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20.......04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without......-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68 486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian...

  11. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223 Alcohol...

  12. Alcoholism and Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNitto, Diana

    1982-01-01

    Describes patterns of problem drinking in rural areas, suggests factors which may influence the comparatively lower rates of alcoholism among rural residents, discusses the types of alcohol treatment available in rural communities, and offers preliminary ideas for applying the alcoholism-reducing factors of rural life to preventing alcoholism in…

  13. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  14. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with about 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits with about 40 percent alcohol content The percent of pure alcohol varies ... glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  15. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  16. Reliability and validity of the quantitative inventory of alcohol disorders (QIAD) and the veracity of self-report by alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, T D; Kordinak, S T

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a recently developed instrument for alcoholism severity: The Quantitative Inventory of Alcohol Disorders (QIAD). The primary intention was to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the QIAD as a diagnostic tool within the field of alcoholism. A secondary intention was to examine the veracity of alcoholics self-report on the QIAD and other alcohol-related instruments. The subjects for the experimental group were 25 inpatient alcoholics and their spouses. The control group consisted of 21 nonalcoholics and their spouses. All subjects were administered the QIAD, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), and the Alcohol Severity Rating Scale (ASRS). The alcoholics and partners were given the same tests 5 to 8 days after initial testing. The primary therapists for the alcoholics were asked to rate alcoholism severity for each subject using the ASRS. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were used for the test-retest reliability procedure. Alcoholics scores on the QIAD, MAST, and ASRS were compared with their spouses scores using a test-retest procedure. Nonalcoholics scores on these instruments were also compared with their spouses' scores. Construct and concurrent validity for the QIAD were tested through comparison of QIAD scores of the alcoholics with their corresponding scores on the MAST and ASRS. t-Tests were used to determine differences between alcoholics and nonalcoholics on all three scales. The results of this investigation supported the position that the QIAD is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring alcoholism severity. The QIAD correlated highly for both the alcoholics and their spouses. The test-retest procedure revealed a high level of correlation. A significant difference was found between the QIAD scores of the alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between the alcoholics QIAD and MAST scores, both measuring the extent of

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Heterologous transporter expression for improved fatty alcohol secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yating; Zhu, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    transporters tested, human FATP1 was shown to mediate fatty alcohol export in a high fatty alcohol production yeast strain. An approximately five-fold increase of fatty alcohol secretion was achieved. The results indicate that the overall cell fitness benefited from fatty alcohol secretion and that the acyl...... as a free fatty acid importer to date. We furthermore successfully identified the functional domain of FATP1 involved in fatty alcohol export through domain exchange between FATP1 and another transporter, FATP4. This study may facilitate a successful commercialization of fatty alcohol production in yeast...

  19. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  20. Acute alcohol effects on explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol in socially drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  2. Social determinants of alcohol use among drivers in Calabar | Bello ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semistructured questionnaire, which included the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, was administered at interview. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify social determinants of any and hazardous alcohol use. Results: Determinants of any alcohol use ...

  3. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a) General...

  4. 14 CFR 120.19 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.19 Section 120.19... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.19 Misuse of alcohol. (a) This section applies to covered employees who...

  5. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  6. Impact of a brief intervention on reducing alcohol use and increasing alcohol treatment services utilization among alcohol- and drug-using adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Romanoff, Justin; Zhang, Zihao; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R

    2017-12-01

    Most previous brief intervention (BI) studies have focused on alcohol or drug use, instead of both substances. Our primary aim was to determine if an alcohol- and drug-use BI reduced alcohol use and increased alcohol treatment services utilization among adult emergency department (ED) patients who drink alcohol and require an intervention for their drug use. Our secondary aims were to assess when the greatest relative reductions in alcohol use occurred, and which patients (stratified by need for an alcohol use intervention) reduced their alcohol use the most. In this secondary analysis, we studied a sub-sample of participants from the Brief Intervention for Drug Misuse in the Emergency Department (BIDMED) randomized, controlled trial of a BI vs. no BI, whose responses to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) indicated a need for a BI for any drug use, and who also reported alcohol use. Participants were stratified by their ASSIST alcohol subscore: 1) no BI needed, 2) a BI needed, or 3) an intensive intervention needed for alcohol use. Alcohol use and alcohol treatment services utilization were measured every 3 months for 12 months post-enrollment. Of these 833 participants, median age was 29 years-old, 46% were female; 55% were white/non-Hispanic, 27% black/non-Hispanic, and 15% Hispanic. Although any alcohol use, alcohol use frequency, days of alcohol use, typical drinks consumed/day, and most drinks consumed/day decreased in both the BI and no BI arms, there were no differences between study arms. Few patients sought alcohol use treatment services in follow-up, and utilization also did not differ by study arm. Compared to baseline, alcohol use reduced the most during the first 3 months after enrollment, yet reduced little afterward. Participants whose ASSIST alcohol subscores indicated a need for an intensive intervention generally had the greatest relative decreases in alcohol use. These results indicate that the BI was not

  7. Visual Attention to Alcohol Cues and Responsible Drinking Statements Within Alcohol Advertisements and Public Health Campaigns: Relationships With Drinking Intentions and Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. PMID:28493753

  8. Visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements within alcohol advertisements and public health campaigns: Relationships with drinking intentions and alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt

    2017-06-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  10. The party effect: Prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140

  11. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxytocin reduces alcohol consumption in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J R; Wenner, S M; Freestone, D M; Romaine, C C; Parian, M C; Christian, S M; Bohidar, A E; Ndem, J R; Vogel, I R; O'Kane, C M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans. Oxytocin treatment (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) reduced alcohol consumption in male and female prairie voles in animals that had access to 15% ethanol vs water every other day for 12 alcohol drinking sessions. In animals with continuous access to 15% alcohol and water, oxytocin (3.0mg/kg) reduced alcohol consumption only in the first hour of access after treatment, with no significant effects on consumption over the 24-hr period. In an open field locomotor test, oxytocin (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect overall locomotor activity; however, ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) increased locomotor activity in males and females, and produced anxiolytic effects (increased time in the center of an open field) in females only. Because prairie voles have been shown to match the alcohol consumption of their cage mate, we evaluated the relationship between cage mates' alcohol drinking. There was an overall pattern of social facilitation (consumption by one cage mate predicted consumption by the other cage mate); however, we found significant individual differences across cages in which many cages did not show significant matching, and, in some cases one cage mate's consumption negatively predicted the other cage mate's consumption. Overall, our data provide support for the potential of oxytocin as a treatment to reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  14. Identifying Aboriginal-specific AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 cutoff scores for at-risk, high-risk, and likely dependent drinkers using measures of agreement with the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a 10-item alcohol screener that has been recommended for use in Aboriginal primary health care settings. The time it takes respondents to complete AUDIT, however, has proven to be a barrier to its routine delivery. Two shorter versions, AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3, have been used as screening instruments in primary health care. This paper aims to identify the AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 cutoff scores that most closely identify individuals classified as being at-risk drinkers, high-risk drinkers, or likely alcohol dependent by the 10-item AUDIT. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted from June 2009 to May 2010 and from July 2010 to June 2011. Aboriginal Australian participants (N = 156) were recruited through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service, and a community-based drug and alcohol treatment agency in rural New South Wales (NSW), and through community-based Aboriginal groups in Sydney NSW. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of each score on the AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 were calculated, relative to cutoff scores on the 10-item AUDIT for at-risk, high-risk, and likely dependent drinkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to measure the detection characteristics of AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 for the three categories of risk. Results The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were high for drinkers classified as being at-risk, high-risk, and likely dependent. Conclusions Recommended cutoff scores for Aboriginal Australians are as follows: at-risk drinkers AUDIT-C ≥ 5, AUDIT-3 ≥ 1; high-risk drinkers AUDIT-C ≥ 6, AUDIT-3 ≥ 2; and likely dependent drinkers AUDIT-C ≥ 9, AUDIT-3 ≥ 3. Adequate sensitivity and specificity were achieved for recommended cutoff scores. AUROC curves were above 0.90. PMID:25179547

  15. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    ); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol......A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  16. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  17. Comparative study on dermatoglyphics in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devcić, Sanja; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Silić, Ante

    2009-12-01

    According to the world's prevalence rate, alcoholism is in the third place after heart and blood vessel diseases and malignant tumors. With the development of neuroscience, the causes of alcoholism's biological etiologic sources are still being studied. Considering that dermatoglyphics are highly determined by heritage, we contemplated the possibilities of their discrimination in alcoholic patients in relation to phenotypically healthy subjects. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphics properties of 100 alcoholic patients without psychiatric comorbidity, who have been cured in the Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan two or more times, and those of 100 phenotypically healthy men. Through the t-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the examined groups. Results showed a statistically significant difference on five examined variables. In the calculation of fluctuating asymmetry measure, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlation of values of the right and the left hand on the tested variables, beside one. Chi-square tests showed that there is no relation between the dermatoglyphic qualitative properties of alcoholic patients and those of the examinees from the comparison group. Despite the indisputable genetic role in the genesis of alcoholism, the analysis of the dermatoglyphics carried out in our study did not show any etiological connection between the results of the test on dermatoglyphics and the appearance of alcoholism.

  18. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  19. Internet alcohol sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether minors can successfully purchase alcohol online and to examine age verification procedures at the points of order and delivery. DESIGN A cross-sectional study evaluated underage alcohol purchase attempts from 100 popular Internet vendors. SETTING The study was conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, July 14-27, 2011. PARTICIPANTS Eight 18- to 20-year-old individuals participated. OUTCOME MEASURES Rates of successful sales to minors and use of age verification procedures at order and delivery were determined. RESULTS Of the 100 orders placed by the underage buyers, 45% were successfully received; 28% were rejected as the result of age verification. Most vendors (59%) used weak, if any, age verification at the point of order, and, of 45 successful orders, 23 (51%) used none. Age verification at delivery was inconsistently conducted and, when attempted, failed about half of the time. CONCLUSIONS Age verification procedures used by Internet alcohol vendors do not adequately prevent online sales to minors. Shipping companies should work with their staff to improve administration of age verification at delivery, and vendors should use rigorous age verification at order and delivery. Further research should determine the proportion of minors who buy alcohol online and test purchases from more vendors to inform enforcement of existing policies and creation of new policies to reduce youth access to alcohol online.

  20. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  1. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  2. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, Livia T.C.; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  3. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  4. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia T. C. Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA. The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture.

  5. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  6. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2017-08-01

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery. Three hundred and forty-one people (34% women) in the Paris area were questioned on their trajectories with a biographical questionnaire. Some open questions were aimed to understand the connection they made between events in their lives, how recovered they felt and what they considered strengths or obstacles. All the participants had stopped at least one product. Their mean age was 43, and 26% were over 50. How can the differences between one substance addicts and dual abusers be explained? Can we hypothesize a better result for the patients with a single dependence to alcohol in their lives for the following two reasons? (1) They could really be taken in charge for their alcoholism whereas the dual abusers mostly receive cared for their illicit drug problems with an under estimation of their problem with alcohol. In this case, they turn to alcohol after weaning themselves from their drug dependence so as to return to a social consumption, especially when they are given an opiate treatment. (2) Conversely could we suggest that the dual substance abusers had different trajectories from their childhood (more adverse events, more social difficulties, mental health problems), and that this accumulation explains their skipping from one substance or behaviour to another without any real recovery for decades? All respondents were polydrug users. Eighty-two had been dependent mainly on alcohol. One hundred and twenty-one people had been drug addicts (mostly heroin), which they had stopped on average ten years before the survey. The last group included 138 persons who had been heroin or cocaine addicts and alcoholics in their lives, a third of whom had been dependent on alcohol before their drug addiction (35%), a tenth on both at the same time (10

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  9. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  11. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kids and Alcohol KidsHealth / For Parents / Kids and Alcohol What's in ... it as they grow up. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of ...

  12. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  13. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  14. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…

  15. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  16. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  17. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas are blocked, you feel less need to drink alcohol. You don’t feel the “high” sensation that ... does not make you feel sick if you drink alcohol while taking it. How long will I take ...

  18. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  19. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the concern? Why is it bad to mix antidepressants and alcohol? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. It's best to avoid combining antidepressants and alcohol. It may worsen your symptoms, and ...

  20. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  2. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  3. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  4. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  5. Verbal learning and memory in alcohol abusers and polysubstance abusers with concurrent alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I

    1998-07-01

    To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.

  6. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hansen, Jane L; Grønbaek, Morten; Vogel, Ulla; Tjønneland, Anne; Joensen, Albert Marni; Overvad, Kim

    2010-07-01

    The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls). Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited.

  7. Using crowdsourcing to examine behavioral economic measures of alcohol value and proportionate alcohol reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vanessa; Amlung, Michael; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Petker, Tashia; MacKillop, James

    2017-08-01

    Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics. Responses on the APT were highly systematic (crowdsourcing websites for investigating behavioral economic determinants of alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests CBC (complete blood count), measures red and white blood cells, and platelets, which help blood to clot) Prothrombin time (PT), a different measure of blood clotting, often abnormal from liver disease) Toxicology (poison) screening Urine ketones Treatment Treatment may involve fluids ( ...

  9. Exploring the alcohol-behaviour link: Myopic self-enhancement in the absence of alcohol consumption as a function of past alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony C. Moss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual process accounts of the alcohol-behaviour link hypothesise that differences in drinking patterns will moderate the effects of exposure to alcohol-related cues on behaviour, such as when a placebo is administered. We test this hypothesis by adapting a paradigm used in alcohol myopia research to examine the effects of alcohol-related priming on self-enhancement behaviour amongst social drinkers. Participants were asked to engage in a computerised self-rating task prior to being exposed to alcohol related and/or motivational primes. A staged computer error then occurred, and participants were then asked to complete their self ratings again – this method allowed for an immediate assessment of the impact of alcohol and motivational primes on self enhancement. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory, the overall effect of priming with alcohol-related cues was not significant irrespective of response-conflict manipulations. However, drinker type moderated this effect such that heavier drinkers self-enhanced more after exposure to alcohol-related cues, but only in high-conflict conditions. This suggests that the efficacy of a placebo may be significantly moderated by individual differences in reactions to alcohol-related stimuli, and that dual process accounts of the effects of alcohol on behaviour better explains this variation than alcohol myopia theory.

  10. The Sale of Alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In the following we will analyse the sale of alcohol in Denmark. Various figures related to this question are published by Statistics Denmark at different frequencies. Our main concern will be with quarterly data for the sale of beer, wine and spirits from the period 1990 - 2004. Our two hypotheses...... are: First we want to convince the reader that the total sale of alcohol in Denmark since 1980 has been fairly stable. By total sale we mean the total sale of 100% alcohol so the three categories - beer, wine and spirits are measured in litres of 100% alcohol equivalents. In order to convince...... the reader that the total sale of alcohol has been fairly constant we will present graphs and various indicators and tests of the degree of temporal dependence in this series. The overall impression from this analysis is that our first hypothesis seems to be supported -at least not contradicted - by the data...

  11. The sale of alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    laCour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2009-01-01

    How do prices affect the choice of types of alcohol in Denmark? We study the Danish sale of alcoholic beverages in a time series framework. First, we look at annual data from 1980 investigating the hypothesis of a fairly stable level of sales. We conclude stationarity of sales and we also find...... that the income elasticity of total sales has been zero. Second, we analyse the composition of the alcohol sale between beer, wine and spirits in a multivariate model conditional on the development in prices. For this analysis we use Johansen cointegration techniques. Again we test that income can be omitted from...... the model and we use the model to derive the effects on the composition of alcohol sales of three different sets of changes in the alcohol taxation....

  12. 49 CFR 199.239 - Operator obligation to promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.239 Operator obligation to promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol. (a) General requirements. Each operator shall provide... misuse of alcohol. 199.239 Section 199.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  13. Isomerization Reactions of Allylic Alcohols into Ketones with the Grubbs Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Tori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Allylic alcohols were isomerized into ketones by the action of the Grubbs reagent. Some model alcohols were prepared and tested under similar conditions to reveal that less substituted alkenes rearrange more easily. More hindered alcohols are stable under these conditions, however, the simple allylic alcohols tend to isomerize producing ethyl ketone and the corresponding degraded methyl ketone.

  14. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  15. TO STUDY AND EVALUATE DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS OF ALCOHOLIC AND NON-ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cardiovascular dysfunction is the major component of morbidity in patients of liver cirrhosis and a cardinal prognostic indicator in patients undergoing liver transplantation. The constellation of hyperdynamic circulation, peripheral vasodilation and volume overload alters the systolic and diastolic dysfunction leading to cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM. In this study, we evaluated and compared the diastolic dysfunction among alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. AIMS 1 To Study the Prevalence of Diastolic Dysfunction in Alcoholic & Non-Alcoholic Cirrhotics and Controls. 2 To Compare the Diastolic functional status between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional case control study was conducted in 100 male cirrhotic patients consisting of alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic subjects with age matched 50 controls in Pt. JNM Medical College & Dr. BRAM Hospital, Raipur. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was assessed using echocardiographic parameters. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The range, median, standard deviation and statistical significance were calculated. Most of the data is analysed by Student Ttest, Mann Whitney U test, while the data with frequency distribution is analysed by Fisher’s exact. With p value 1. CONCLUSION Our study showed that patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis have higher occurrence of DD (49% and 46% respectively than controls owing to alterations in the myocardial contractile and relaxation function. It also shows that although DD is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There were no significant differences in diastolic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis concluding that alcohol likely plays a non-significant role in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhotics.

  16. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  17. PT and INR Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as alcohol, can affect the PT and INR tests. Some antibiotics can increase the PT and INR. Barbiturates, oral ... Time ; Fibrinogen ; Coagulation Factors ; Platelet Count ; Platelet Function Tests ; Thrombin Time ; Warfarin Sensitivity Testing Conditions: Bleeding Disorders , Excessive Clotting Disorders , Vitamin ...

  18. Alcohol policy and taxation in South Africa: an examination of the economic burden of alcohol tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption accounts for over 4% of the global burden of disease and an even higher figure in developing countries. Several policies have been proposed to curb the negative impact of alcohol misuse. Apart from South Africa, which has witnessed a rapid development in alcohol policy, such policies are poorly developed in most African countries. South Africa uses taxation as a policy lever, in line with international evidence, to reduce alcohol consumption. However, the problem of alcohol abuse still exists. The objective of this article is to present an analysis of alcohol tax incidence for the first time in South Africa. This was done for each category of alcohol tax (wines, spirits, beer and traditional brew [sorghum beer]) and for alcohol tax as a whole. The paper also uses the results to point to the areas where a greater understanding of the issues surrounding alcohol abuse needs to be developed. Data were drawn from the 2005/06 South African Income and Expenditure Survey. Reported expenditures on alcohol beverages were used to obtain the tax component paid by households. This was done under certain assumptions relating to alcohol content and the price per litre of alcohol. Per adult equivalent consumption expenditure was used as the measure of relative living standards and concentration curves and Kakwani indices to assess relative progressivity of alcohol taxes. Statistical dominance tests were also performed. Most sorghum beer and malt beer drinkers were in the poorer quintiles. The reverse was the case for wines and spirits. Overall, alcohol tax in South Africa was regressive (Kakwani index -0.353). The individual categories were found to be regressive. The most regressive tax was that on sorghum beer (Kakwani index -1.01); the least regressive was that on spirits (Kakwani index -0.09), although this was not statistically significant at conventional levels. These results were confirmed by the test of dominance. In South Africa, there has been a

  19. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  20. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attributable to alcohol consumption. 12 In 2014, the World Health Organization reported that alcohol contributed to more than 200 ... Medicine 49(5):e73– e79, 2015. PMID: 26477807 World Health Organization (WHO). Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. ...

  1. (HCV) among alcoholics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... and seventy (270) alcoholics and fifty (50) control subjects at selected locations in Jos South local ... subjects. Overall, the prevalence of HCV infection was found to be 45(16.7%) in response to alcoholics while the non-alcoholic (control) subjects recorded 3 (6.0%) positivity, [(x2 ... the family Flaviviridae.

  2. Alcohol and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  3. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  4. Analysis of qualitative data from the investigation study in pregnancy of the ASSIST Version 3.0 (the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Elizabeth D; Ali, Robert L; White, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    to utilise qualitative data from investigation of the screening tool ASSIST Version 3.0 with pregnant women to help determine its appropriateness for this cohort, thus informing potential innovations to enhance the questionnaire׳s utility. pregnant women were co-administered the ASSIST Version 3.0 and three established substance use questionnaires (the T-ACE for alcohol, the Timeline FollowBack for cannabis and the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire for tobacco). antenatal clinics and the antenatal ward of the Women׳s and Children׳s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia. 104 pregnant substance-users. as well as the quantitative date (reported elsewhere), rich qualitative data documenting participants' perspectives and experiences in antenatal care were thematically analysed. Women constantly reported friends and family urging them to stop use. Although care providers also advocated cessation or curtailment of use, this advice was reported as unpredictable, with only some providers strongly attuned to such recommendations. Some women voiced suggestions for the appropriate level of provider advice. While pregnancy was often reported as a motivator for changing substance-using behaviour, others reported continued attachment to use which was clearly linked to dependence. Those who reported successful control of use were in contrast to others who were more pragmatic, sceptical in relation to attributable harms, and disinterested in change. There were limited reports of experiences of discrimination directed to pregnant substance users. However, those instances were clearly linked with subsequent lack of honest discussions with care providers, resulting in an absence of appropriate support. current absence of universal screening for substance use has the potential for less than optimal consequences for both mother and baby. appropriate screening accompanied by honest, non-judgmental dialogue can guide the necessary interventions to achieve better outcomes. The recent

  5. Problematic Alcohol Use among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfa Mekonen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlcohol is attributable to many diseases and injury-related health conditions, and it is the fifth leading risk factor of premature death globally. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the proportion and associated factors of problematic alcohol use among University students.Material and methodsCross-sectional study was conducted among 725 randomly selected University students from November to December 2015. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, and problematic alcohol use was assessed by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Chi-square test was used to show association of problematic use and each variable and major predicators was identified using logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI; and variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.ResultsAbout 83 (11.4% of the samples were problematic alcohol users of which 6.8% had medium level problems and 4.6% had high level problems. Significantly associated variables with problematic alcohol use among students were presence of social phobia (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8, lifetime use of any substance (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 3.8, 12.7, higher score in students cumulative grade point average (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9, and having intimate friend who use alcohol (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.8.ConclusionProblematic alcohol use among university students was common and associated with social phobia, poor academic achievement, lifetime use of any substance, and peer pressure. Strong legislative control of alcohol in universities is important to reduce the burden of alcohol.

  6. Alcohol use behaviors among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-03-12

    To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.

  7. Alcohol Use Behaviors Among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C.; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue. PMID:24672063

  8. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  9. Alcohol and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-02-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5-6% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, and even in a theoretical case of binge drinking, the children would not be subjected to clinically relevant amounts of alcohol. Newborns metabolize alcohol at approximately half the rate of adults. Minute behavioural changes in infants exposed to alcohol-containing milk have been reported, but the literature is contradictory. Any long-term consequences for the children of alcohol-abusing mothers are yet unknown, but occasional drinking while breastfeeding has not been convincingly shown to adversely affect nursing infants. In conclusion, special recommendations aimed at lactating women are not warranted. Instead, lactating women should simply follow standard recommendations on alcohol consumption. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Dean M

    2006-07-01

    Research regarding internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems has suffered from methodological problems. Moreover, the results of the research have been mixed. The purpose of the current study was to examine internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among a sample of 335 lesbians and gay men recruited through lesbian and gay events, listserves, and friendship networks. Females completed the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale [Szymanski, D. M., & Chung, Y. B. (2001). The internalized homophobia scale for lesbians: A rational/theoretical approach. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 37-52.]; males completed the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory [Mayfield, W. (2001). The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 53-76.]. Items from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings 1998. Rockville, MD: Author.] measured alcohol consumption. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test [Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: the quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 89-94.] and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences [Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R. (1995). The drinker inventory of consequences (DrInC): An instrument for assessing adverse consequences of alcohol abuse test manual. National institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism project match monograph series volume 4. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.] measured alcohol-related problems. The hypothesis that a positive relationship exists was partially supported for lesbians, but generally not supported for males.

  11. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  12. Gender differences in the use of alcohol and prescription drugs in relation to job insecurity. Testing a model of mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colell, Esther; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Ferrer, Montse; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia

    2016-11-01

    The results of several studies suggest that economy-related stressors are less distressing for women compared with men. This study proposed to examine the relationship of perceived job insecurity with the use of licit drugs using a theoretical model that considered antecedents and mediators of this association, in order to identify differences between working men and women. Using information from the Catalan Health Survey (2010-2014), we selected working individuals aged 16-64 who were primary providers of household income (N=5315). The outcomes were two measures of alcohol consumption (heavy drinking and binge drinking) and the use of hypnotics/sedatives. As antecedents of the exposure to job insecurity we considered the type of contractual relationship and occupational class. The mediating factors were poor mental health, household structure and the hours of housework per week. The theoretical model was assessed using path analysis where the moderating effect of gender was considered in all the associations. No differences in the prevalence of job insecurity were found between men and women (17%). Job insecurity (Odds ratio [OR]=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.48) and house workload (OR=1.01, 95% CI=1.00-1.02) were positively associated with poor mental health, with no significant interactions with gender. Poor mental health was significantly associated with binge drinking (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.13-1.33) and with the use of hypnotics/sedatives (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.53-1.91). House workload showed a direct negative association with binge drinking (OR=0.99, 95% CI=0.98-1.00), while those in households with no children were more likely to be binge drinkers, with no significant interactions with gender. An alternative model had better fitting results for heavy drinking. No gender differences were found in the association of job insecurity with mental health nor with the use of substances among primary providers of household income, emphasising the importance of

  13. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  15. Exploring a new type of alcoholism survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H B; Negrete, J C; Tousignant, M

    1979-06-01

    A new type of method for surveying alcoholism and alcohol-abuse was tested in a way designed to cover about 20% of adults in a town of 50 000. The method proved able to identify types of alcohol-abuser which other survey techniques have difficulty with; it made no undue demands on respondents; and it is much more economical than conventional household surveys. However, more work is still needed on it, and for certain types of information the customary self-report is still going to be required.

  16. Cross-commodity delay discounting of alcohol and money in alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Lara N; Tegge, Allison N; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-06-01

    Despite real-world implications, the pattern of delay discounting in alcohol users when the commodities now and later differ has not been well characterized. In this study, 60 participants on Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess severity of use and completed four delay discounting tasks between hypothetical, equivalent amounts of alcohol and money available at five delays. The tasks included two cross-commodity (alcohol now-money later and money now-alcohol later) and two same-commodity (money now-money later and alcohol now-alcohol later) conditions. Delay discounting was significantly associated with clinical cutoffs of the AUDIT for both of the cross-commodity conditions but not for either of the same-commodity delay discounting tasks. The cross-commodity discounting conditions were related to severity of use wherein heavy users discounted future alcohol less and future money more. The change in direction of the discounting effect was dependent on the commodity that was distally available suggesting a distinctive pattern of discounting across commodities when comparing light and heavy alcohol users.

  17. Alcohol-induced histone acetylation reveals a gene network involved in alcohol tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ghezzi

    Full Text Available Sustained or repeated exposure to sedating drugs, such as alcohol, triggers homeostatic adaptations in the brain that lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. These adaptations involve long-term changes in the transcription of drug-responsive genes as well as an epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions that is thought to signal and maintain the altered transcriptional state. Alcohol-induced epigenetic changes have been shown to be important in the long-term adaptation that leads to alcohol tolerance and dependence endophenotypes. A major constraint impeding progress is that alcohol produces a surfeit of changes in gene expression, most of which may not make any meaningful contribution to the ethanol response under study. Here we used a novel genomic epigenetic approach to find genes relevant for functional alcohol tolerance by exploiting the commonalities of two chemically distinct alcohols. In Drosophila melanogaster, ethanol and benzyl alcohol induce mutual cross-tolerance, indicating that they share a common mechanism for producing tolerance. We surveyed the genome-wide changes in histone acetylation that occur in response to these drugs. Each drug induces modifications in a large number of genes. The genes that respond similarly to either treatment, however, represent a subgroup enriched for genes important for the common tolerance response. Genes were functionally tested for behavioral tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol and benzyl alcohol using mutant and inducible RNAi stocks. We identified a network of genes that are essential for the development of tolerance to sedation by alcohol.

  18. Culture and alcohol use: historical and sociocultural themes from 75 years of alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Barrera, Manuel; Mena, Laura A; Aguirre, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    For the period of almost 75 years, we examined the literature for studies regarding the influences of culture on alcohol use and misuse. This review is a chronology of research articles published from 1940 to 2013. From a structured literature search with select criteria, 38 articles were identified and 34 reviewed. This analysis revealed a progression across this period of research from studies that began as descriptive ethnographic evaluations of one or more indigenous societies or cultural groups, evolving to studies using complex multivariate models to test cross-cultural effects in two or more cultural groups. Major findings across this period include the assertions that (a) a function of alcohol use may be to reduce anxiety, (b) certain cultural groups possess features of alcohol use that are not associated with negative consequences, (c) the disruptive effects of acculturative change and the stressors of new demands are associated with an increase in alcohol consumption, (d) cultural groups shape expectations about the effects of alcohol use and their definition of drunkenness, and (e) the hypothesized relationships of culture with alcohol use and misuse have been demonstrated in multivariate model analyses. Across this 75-year period, the early proposition that culture is an important and prominent correlate of alcohol use and misuse has persisted. Within the current era of alcohol studies, this proposition has been supported by multivariate model analyses. Thus, the proposition that culture might affect alcohol use remains prominent and is as relevant today as it was when it was first proposed nearly 75 years ago.

  19. The Galician Beverage Picture Set (GBPS): A standardized database of alcohol and non-alcohol images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, E; Carbia, C

    2018-03-01

    The available picture sets in alcohol research are scarce and display a number of limitations, including poor picture quality, limited number of stimuli and absence of non-alcohol and/or real-life images. In the present study, we developed the Galician Beverage Picture Set (GBPS), a database of high-quality alcohol and non-alcohol pictures embedded in real-life scenarios. A total of 201 college students (∼59% females) were assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, ∼54% being characterized as no/low drinkers (N/LDs) and ∼46% as risky drinkers (RDs). The GBPS included six types of beverages: beer, wine, liquor (alcoholic drinks); water, juice, milk (non-alcoholic drinks). Additionally, two subcategories were considered: orientation (landscape, portrait) and number of people (0, 1, ≥2 people). Participants rated the images for valence, arousal and visual complexity. Objective measures of brightness and color and recognition rates were also assessed. Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. There was a high degree of internal consistency within each category (alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks) for valence, arousal and visual complexity scores. A mixed-model ANOVA revealed that RDs rated alcohol pictures as more pleasant and arousing than N/LDs. Conversely, N/LDs displayed greater valence and arousal ratings than RDs for non-alcohol pictures. The GBPS provides normative data on affective (valence/arousal), perceptual (visual complexity) and physical (brightness/color) values for a large number of images that may be useful for alcohol-related research. Differences in subjective assessments between N/LDs and RDs support the picture set's suitability for studies in young drinkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  1. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  2. Alcohol consumption in Colombian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Betancourth Zambrano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol consumption is conceived as a public health problem. Given the significant prevalence of consumption and its negative consequences, it is necessary to contribute to the prevention from the identification of populations at risk, such as the university, and the factors that influence the development of consumption. Objective: To identify and analyze the factors associated with alcohol consumption in university students from the South-western of Colombia. Materials and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study with a sample of 849 university students obtained by stratified random sampling was made. A questionnaire to characterize the consumption of alcohol and the sociodemographic factors was used for quantitative data collection. The analysis of the information included statistical descriptive for prevalence, consumption and polyconsumption pattern, as well as the relationship among the variables through the Chi-square test. Results: A prevalence of consumption of alcohol of 97.5% was found, most of the students reported consuming alcohol with their group of friends (76%, followed by the family (24.9%. The frequency of alcohol consumption is mainly given every month (25.8% and every fifteen days (18.8%. In addition, associations between sex and the frequency of alcohol consumption (p=000, the number of type of alcoholic beverages (p= 000 were found, where the men are the ones who most consumed and who mainly mixed different types of beverages. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption levels are maintained over time and it is necessary that universities are concerned by an integral education which make it possible to reduce alcohol consumption.

  3. Association Between Alcohol Use Among College Students and Alcohol Outlet Proximity and Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, Jacob; Shoff, Suzanne M; Koenings, Mallory; Zhang, Zhumin; Lai, HuiChuan J

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is common on college campuses and is associated with negative consequences. Factors associated with availability of alcohol are not completely understood. To describe how proximity and density of alcohol outlets are associated with any drinking and binge drinking in students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Participants were full-time students enrolled in the Young Adults Eating and Active for Health, a multisite, randomized intervention that assessed a variety of health behaviors. Geographic information systems were used to calculate proximity and enumerate alcohol outlet densities. Participants were categorized as "drinkers" or "nondrinkers" based on self-reported alcohol consumption. Binge drinking was categorized as "non-binge drinker," "frequent binge drinker," and "excessive binge drinker." Analysis included regression, t tests, and chi-square tests. RESULTS. Among the 166 participants, 126 (76%) were drinkers. Among drinkers, 80 (63%) were either frequent or excessive binge drinkers. Drinkers lived closer to an alcohol outlet than non-drinkers (0.18 +/- 0.15 vs. 0.61 +/- 1.59 miles, respectively, P=0.005). Within a 1-mile walking radius, there were 47% more establishments for drinkers (153 +/- 47 compared to 104 +/- 55 outlets for nondrinkers, Palcohol outlets and had significantly more outlets available at a distance of up to 1 mile. Municipal and college administrators could consider limiting alcohol license distributions in municipalities with high alcohol consumption.

  4. Father and son attachment styles in alcoholic and non-alcoholic families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Hazarika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theory of attachment is important to understand a lot of human behaviour. Styles of attachment could be important predictors in developing dependence on alcoholism. Insecure attachment patterns could be significant risk factors for future alcohol use. Methods: Participants for this study consist of fathers with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS from treatment centres and fathers from the community with no dependency on alcohol, and their sons (n=200. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST, socioeconomic status scale were administered, and attachment styles were derived by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. We hypothesised a prior concept reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment styles and alcohol in both the generations. Results: Statistics on SPSS-16 was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, fathers with ADS had insecure attachments styles in comparison to the control group. Substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation were at an all-time low for the secure group. Conclusion: The findings from this study identify attachment styles as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between alcohol dependence in treatment seekers. The findings further imply that differential treatment may need to be provided taking into account one’s attachment representation to promote successful recovery. It also highlights the need to develop secure ties in children of alcoholic parents to protect them from use of substances as a coping and a learned mechanism. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted and implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  7. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  8. Alcohol use among adolescents in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutula-Golo Dragana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD, the largest international research project, was conducted for the first time in Serbia in 2008. Objective. The objective was to analyze data obtained by ESPAD research on alcohol use among secondary school first grade students, and particularly the difference in the use of alcohol by gender, type of school students attend, their place of residence and the territory among secondary school students in Serbia in 2008. Methods. Attitudes and practice related to alcohol use of 6,553 secondary school first grade students were analyzed. A standardized, internationally approved questionnaire, structured and designed for self­filling was used on a stratified, one­stage sample of students. The data received from the ESPAD research were processed by χ2 test to test the significance of differences between the observed characteristics, with the conclusion level of p<0.01. Results. Over three­quarters of students can easily buy beer or wine. More than one half can buy spirits and alcopops. 89.1% of students drank alcoholic beverages at least once in a lifetime and 78.2% in the last year. At least once in a lifetime 42.2% of students were drunk and 29.7% in the last year. At least once in the last month 32.0% of students had five or more drinks in a row. Boys consumed alcohol more frequently and got drunk more often than girls (p<0.01. Conclusion. This research emphasizes the need for creating a prevention of alcohol use and alcohol abuse program among adolescents and more consistent application of the existing regulations aiming to decrease alcohol use among adolescents in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175087

  9. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is among the top ten consumers of alcohol worldwide though there is little data on alcohol related liver disease. We describe alcohol use, alcohol misuse, and alcoholic liver disease among adults at the emergency admission service of a large urban hospital in Uganda. Methods: All adults who ...

  10. Implicit and explicit alcohol-related motivations among college binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschl, Laura C; McChargue, Dennis E; MacKillop, James; Stoltenberg, Scott F; Highland, Krista B

    2012-06-01

    Positive alcohol outcome expectancies and behavioral economic indices of alcohol consumption are related to binge drinking among college students and may reflect explicit and implicit motivations that are differentially associated with this behavior. The present study hypothesized that implicit (alcohol purchase task) and explicit (positive expectancy for alcohol's effects) motivations for drinking would not be correlated. It was also hypothesized that greater implicit and explicit motivations would predict alcohol-related risk. Participants were 297 college student binge drinkers (54% female; 88% European-American; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: M = 9.53, SD = 5.04). Three indices from the alcohol purchase task (APT) were modeled as a latent implicit alcohol-related motivations variable. Explicit alcohol-related motivations were measured using a global positive expectancy subscale from the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total, Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index total, and age of drinking onset were modeled as a latent alcohol-related risk variable. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations amongst implicit motivations, explicit motivations, and alcohol-related risk. Implicit and explicit motivations were not correlated. Partially consistent with the second hypothesis, greater implicit motivations were associated with greater alcohol-related risk. Relations between explicit motivations and alcohol-related risk were marginally significant. Implicit and explicit drinking motivations are differentially associated with problem drinking behaviors. Future research should examine the underlying neurobiological mechanisms associated with these factors.

  11. Nurse counseling of patients with an overconsumption of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the associations between self-reported alcohol-related clinical practice among hospital nurses and their (a) self-rated qualifications for counseling on alcohol, and (b) attitudes toward care of patients with an overconsumption of alcohol. DESIGN AND METHODS: A survey based...... on self-administered questionnaires was undertaken at a Danish University Hospital in the Copenhagen area. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Variables were self-reported alcohol-related counseling, self-rated qualifications for counseling...... patients with an overconsumption of alcohol, attitudes toward the priority of counseling on alcohol and other lifestyle issues, and attitudes toward caring for patients with an overconsumption of alcohol. FINDINGS: Self-rated qualifications for counseling and attitudes toward care significantly influenced...

  12. Our Priceless Youth: What do They Know about Alcohol Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grønhøj, Alice; Godt, Diana

    2017-01-01

    in-store alcohol prices, though large variations exist across categories. Furthermore, logistic regressions revealed ‘purchased a special’ and ‘simple prices’ as determinants of alcohol price knowledge. The results suggest that alcohol tax increases must be significant to be effective when targeting......Young people’s excessive alcohol consumption is considered a societal problem in many countries, and higher alcohol taxes are often suggested as a possible remedy. Price increases cannot be effective if unnoticed, but little is known about young people’s alcohol price knowledge and sensitivity......, as aggregate price sensitivity studies have produced ambiguous results. Applying individual data, this study examines young people’s knowledge of retail alcohol prices using two price memory tests. Results show that the majority holds fairly accurate reference prices, while a large segment intentionally checks...

  13. Alcohol use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1998-01-01

    Several ongoing national surveys, including the Monitoring the Future study, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, are investigating the drinking behaviors of adolescents in the United States. These studies have found that the majority of adolescents under the age of 18 have consumed alcohol, although the minimum legal drinking age is 21. Drinking rates may even have increased in recent years in some age groups. No substantial differences exist among various sociodemographic subgroups with respect to drinking rates, although alcohol consumption generally is lowest among African-Americans and highest among whites. Moreover, alcohol consumption increases sharply throughout adolescence. Various attitudinal and behavioral factors, such as religious involvement, truancy, and average grade level, also influence adolescents' drinking behaviors. Almost two-thirds of 12th graders who report consuming alcohol experience at least one alcohol-related problem. Most adolescents drink to experience the pleasurable effects of alcohol, such as having a good time with friends.

  14. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  15. Alcohol influences the use of decisional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2010-03-01

    Excess consumption of alcohol leads to impaired cognition and decision making; hence, alcohol-containing products and advertising contain warning messages about the adverse effects of excess drinking. However, there is a need to understand how alcohol influences the processing of advisory messages. The current study used a computerised gambling simulation and investigated whether intoxication would affect the use of a decision aid. Using a double-blind repeated measures design, 16 adult males (aged 18-29) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the South Oaks Gambling Screen and played a computer blackjack program on two separate occasions, under differing doses of alcohol. On certain conditions, the computerised decision aid gave advice to participants as to whether the odds were in their favour. Participants were found to take longer to respond to the decision aid under higher risk conditions when they were losing. Alcohol intoxication may lead to problems evaluating information pertaining to risk, and this has implications for the use of other decision aids designed to assist intoxicated individuals. The problems processing warning information were consistent with alcohol induced 'myopia' where intoxicated individuals had problems processing less salient cues.

  16. Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P; Clark, Melissa

    2010-06-01

    To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but the number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  18. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  19. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  20. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on