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Sample records for alcohol synthesis cu-co

  1. Bimetallic CuCo nanoparticles derived from hydrotalcite supported on carbon fibers for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfang; Cao, Ang; Liu, Guilong; Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) is a strong exothermal reaction which leads to the formation of hotspots on the catalysts and the hotspots result in poor selectivity, and Cu-Co based catalysts are one of the most promising to which the formation of Cu-Co alloy is critical. Therefore a new scheme was proposed, based on the excellent thermal conductivity of carbon fibers (CFs) and the uniform mixing of metal ions in layered double hydroxides (LDHs), the latter favors the formation of metallic alloy. Nanocomposites of LDHs and CFs were prepared by using co-precipitation method and used for HAS, and characterized by using FTIR, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR, SEM and TEM techniques. In the composites, nanosheets with the typical LDHs morphology are perpendicularly grown on the surface of CFs while intersecting each other, creating a highly open and porous structure. After reduction, Cu-Co-alloy nanoparticles are formed from the LDHs. The resultant catalysts showed high activity and much high selectivity to higher alcohols. The reported methods can be expanded to prepare other LDHs/CFs composites.

  2. Effects of impregnation sequence on the microstructure and performances of Cu-Co based catalysts for the synthesis of higher alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siyu Deng; Wei Chu; Huiyuan Xu; Limin Shi; Lihong Huang

    2008-01-01

    Silica-supported CuCo catalysts were prepared by impregnation method with different impregnation sequence for higher alcohols synthesis. These catalysts were characterized by H2-TPR, XRD, N2 adsorption, XPS techniques and CO selective hydrogenation reaction measurement. The effects of impregnation sequence on the structure and performance of cata-lysts were investigated, and there were important influences on the selectivity to higher alcohols. There was a strong synergistic effect between copper and cobalt for the co-impregnated sample. The CuCo/SiO2 catalyst prepared by co-impregnation showed a better yield of total alcohols, and a higher selectivity to total alcohols which reached 51.5%.

  3. Cu-Co bi-metal catalyst prepared by perovskite CuO/LaCoO3 used for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Fang; Yuan Liu; Wei Deng; Junhai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Co bi-metal catalysts derived from CuO/LaCoO3 perovskite structure were prepared by one-step citrate complexing method, and the structure evolution reaction from CuO/LaCoO3 to Cu-Co2C/La2O2CO3 under H2 pretreatment was investigated by techniques of XRD, TPR and TEM. The results suggest that a much higher dispersion of copper significantly enhanced the reduction of cobalt, and a stronger interaction between copper and cobalt ions in LaCoO3 particles led to the formation of bi-metallic Cu-Co particles in the reduced catalysts and the enrichment of Co on the surface of bimetallic particles. The prepared catalysts were highly active and selective for the alcohol synthesis from syngas due to the presence of copper-modified Co2 C species.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphene-LaFeO3 composite supported with Cu-Co nanocatalyst for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, T.; Liu, G. L.; Chen, Y.; Yang, J.; Wu, Jiang; Cao, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The composite of graphene and a perovskite-type oxide (PTO) should be an attractive new material, owing to the special properties of graphene and the flexibility of PTO. Both graphene and PTO are promising support for some metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, in this work, taking LaFeO3 as the representative for PTO, a novel composite of graphene sheets-LaFeO3 has been prepared by using hydrothermal synthesis, and bimetallic nanoparticles of Cu-Co have been loaded on the composite. The resultant catalyst is applied to higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas. The morphology, structure and the state of the bimetallic composite catalyst are characterized by using techniques of SEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, TPR, Raman and N2 adsorption-desorption. For the graphene-LaFeO3 support, the graphene sheets are embedded into the bulk LaFeO3 or uniformly deposited on the surface of the LaFeO3 grains, resulting in high specific surface area. And the mass transferring ability of the bimetallic catalyst is optimized by uniform mixing of graphene and LaFeO3 and the formation of the mesopores. For the active component, the Cu-Co alloy nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the graphene-LaFeO3 composite, which leads to the high activity, high selectivity and excellent stability to higher alcohols.

  5. Solution Synthesis of Thiospinel CuCo2S4 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltrout, Alex M; Read, Carlos G; Spencer, Evan M; Schaak, Raymond E

    2016-01-01

    CuCo2S4 is an important mixed-metal spinel-type sulfide that is typically synthesized using high-temperature solid-state reactions, which produce agglomerated particles with low surface areas that are not optimal for applications such as heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we show that highly crystalline and nonagglomerated colloidal CuCo2S4 nanoparticles can be synthesized in solution at 200 °C, which is significantly lower than previously reported methods. The CuCo2S4 nanoparticles were found to be highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under strongly alkaline conditions (1.0 M KOH, pH 14), requiring an OER overpotential of 395 mV to produce a current density of 10 mA cm(-2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed evidence of oxide formation, suggesting, in conjunction with the observed electrocatalytic properties, that the mixed-metal sulfides may serve as precursors to oxides and/or hydroxides, which are likely to be the catalytically active species. PMID:26671642

  6. Design and synthesis of copper-cobalt catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to ethanol and higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gonzalo; Beijer, Steven; Smith, Miranda L; He, Ming; Au, Yuen; Wang, Zi; Bruce, David A; de Jong, Krijn P; Spivey, James J; de Jongh, Petra E

    2014-06-16

    Combining quantum-mechanical simulations and synthesis tools allows the design of highly efficient CuCo/MoO(x) catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas (CO+H2) into ethanol and higher alcohols, which are of eminent interest for the production of platform chemicals from non-petroleum feedstocks. Density functional theory calculations coupled to microkinetic models identify mixed Cu-Co alloy sites, at Co-enriched surfaces, as ideal for the selective production of long-chain alcohols. Accordingly, a versatile synthesis route is developed based on metal nanoparticle exsolution from a molybdate precursor compound whose crystalline structure isomorphically accommodates Cu(2+) and Co(2+) cations in a wide range of compositions. As revealed by energy-dispersive X-ray nanospectroscopy and temperature-resolved X-ray diffraction, superior mixing of Cu and Co species promotes formation of CuCo alloy nanocrystals after activation, leading to two orders of magnitude higher yield to high alcohols than a benchmark CuCoCr catalyst. Substantiating simulations, the yield to high alcohols is maximized in parallel to the CuCo alloy contribution, for Co-rich surface compositions, for which Cu phase segregation is prevented.

  7. Catalytic properties of Cu/Co/Zn/Zr oxides prepared by various methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin Shi; Wei Chu; Siyu Deng; Huiyuan Xu

    2008-01-01

    The new Cu-Co based (Cu/Co/Zn/Zr) catalysts for higher-alcohol synthesis were prepared using coprecipitation method, plasma enhanced method and reverse coprecipitation method under ultrasound irradiation. The catalysts were investi-gated by the means of BET, SEM, XRD, H2-TPR and XPS. Catalytic properties of the catalysts prepared by various methods were examined using CO hydrogenation reaction. It was found that plasma enhanced method and reverse coprecipitation method under ultrasound irradiation were both effective in enhancing the catalytic properties of Cu/Co/Zn/Zr mixed oxides. The small particle size, high dispersion of active components, the improvement of specific surface area and surface contents of active phases could account for the excellent performance of the experimental Cu/Co/Zn/Zr catalysts.

  8. Efficient Synthesis of Ethanol from CH4 and Syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 Catalyst Using a Stepwise Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi-Jun; Peng, Fen; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 catalyst is studied using experiments, density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modelling. The experimental results indicate that the active sites of ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas are Cu and CoO, over which the ethanol selectivity is approximately 98.30% in a continuous stepwise reactor. DFT and microkinetic modelling results show that *CH3 is the most abundant species and can be formed from *CH4 dehydrogenation or through the process of *CO hydrogenation. Next, the insertion of *CO into *CH3 forms *CH3CO. Finally, ethanol is formed through *CH3CO and *CH3COH hydrogenation. According to our results, small particles of metallic Cu and CoO as well as a strongly synergistic effect between metallic Cu and CoO are beneficial for ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 catalyst. PMID:27694944

  9. Efficient Synthesis of Optically Active Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S. Chen; Z.R. Dong; Y.Y. Li; B.Z. Li; Y. Xing; W.Y. Shen; G. Chen; X.Q. Zhang; J. X. Gao

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Optically active secondary alcohols are versatile building blocks for synthesis of unnatural biological active compounds and functional materials. Therefore, study on efficient synthesis of optically active alcohols is becoming an important subject in synthetic organic chemistry. Catalytic asymmetric reduction of carbonyl compounds is a practical method to create chiral alcohols. For the past decades, a large number of catalytic methods have been developed to achieve this goal.

  10. Stereoselective Synthesis of Amino Alcohols : Applications to Natural Product Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Torssell, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is divided into four separate parts with amino alcohols as the common feature. The first part of the thesis describes the development of an efficient three-component approach to the synthesis of α-hydroxy-β-amino esters. Utilizing a highly diastereoselective Rh(II)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of carbonyl ylides to various aldimines, syn-α-hydroxy-β-amino esters are formed in high yields and excellent diastereoselectivities. An asymmetric version was also developed by emplo...

  11. Aliphatic nitro alcohols. Synthesis, chemical transformations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvekhgeimer, Mai-Genrikh A [A.N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-31

    The data on the synthesis, chemical transformations and practical use of aliphatic nitro alcohols published over the last 25 years are described systematically and analysed. The bibliography includes 316 references.

  12. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  13. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavind, Emilie; Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Grønbæk, Henning; Møller, Holger Jon; Orntoft, Nikolaj Worm; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Thomsen, Karen Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC), as well as to clinical disease severity. Methods We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC), i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Results The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01), and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05). The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05). Conclusions Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up

  14. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: ALCOHOL OXIDATION AND OLEFIN EPOXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound-assisted Organic Synthesis: Alcohol Oxidation and Olefin EpoxidationUnnikrishnan R Pillai, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie , Vasudevan Namboodiri, Quiming Zhao, Juluis EnriquezU.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. , Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-773...

  15. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao

    -Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-co-precipitation method. (6) There is no apparent catalyst deactivation observed during the tested time on stream (40-100 h), contrary to the observation for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. For higher alcohol synthesis, the main work has been performed...

  16. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-10-06

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  17. Multi-metallic oxides as catalysts for light alcohols and hydrocarbons from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Miguel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, L; Galindo, H de J; Dominguez, J. M; Salmon, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A series of Cu-Co-Cr oxides doped with alkaline metals (M), were prepared by the coprecipitation method with metal nitrates (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) and (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} in aqueous solution. The calcined products were used as catalysts for the Fisher-Tropsch synthesis in a stainless-steel fixed bed microreactor. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, and the specific surface area, pore size and nitrogen adsorption-desorption properties were also determined. The alkaline metals favored the methanol synthesis and prevent the dehydration reactions whereas the hydrocarbon formation is independent to these metals. [Spanish] Una serie de oxidos Cu-Co-Cr soportados con metales alcalinos (M), fueron preparados por el metodo con nitratos metalicos (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) y (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} en soluciones acuosas. Los productos calcinados fueron usados como catalizadores para la sintesis de Fisher-tropsch en la superficie fija de un microreactor de acero inoxidable. El material fue caracterizado por difraccion de rayos X y el area de superficie especifica, el tamano de poro y propiedades de absorcion-desorcion de nitrogeno fueron determinadas. Los metales alcalinos favorecieron la sintesis de metanol y previnieron las reacciones de deshidratacion, mientras que la formacion de hidrocarburos es independiente de estos metales.

  18. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao;

    microscopic and macroscopic properties of materials, e.g. relating catalytic performance with crystal structure and morphology. This study presents extensive characterization of NiGa and CuNi alloys during catalyst formation, alcohol synthesis, and accelerated aging experiments. The characterization platform...... consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...

  19. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiongxiao Wu

    2012-12-15

    consequently on the catalytic activity. (3) Addition of 3 mol % CO{sub 2} to the H2/CO feed stream leads to a significant loss of activity for the Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst contrary to the case for the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. DFT calculations show in accordance with previous surface science studies that oxygen on the surface could lead to an enrichment of the Ni-content in the surface. (4) Silica supported bimetallic Cu-Ni catalysts with different ratios of Cu to Ni have been prepared by impregnation. In situ reduction of Cu-Ni alloys with combined synchrotron XRD and XAS reveal a strong interaction between Cu and Ni, resulting in improved reducibility of Ni as compared to monometallic Ni. At high nickel concentrations silica supported Cu-Ni alloys form a homogeneous solid solution of Cu and Ni, whereas at lower nickel contents, copper and nickel are separately aggregated and form metallic Cu and Cu-Ni alloy phases. At the same reduction conditions, the particle sizes of reduced Cu-Ni alloys decrease with increasing in Ni content. A maximum methanol productivity of 0.66 kg kgcat-1 h-1 with methanol selectivity up to 99.2 mol % has been achieved for a Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-co-precipitation method. There is no apparent catalyst deactivation observed during the tested time on stream (40-100 h), contrary to the observation for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. For higher alcohol synthesis, the main work has been performed on CO hydrogenation over supported Mo2C. Mo2C supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over supported Mo2C are significantly higher compared to bulk Mo2C. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20 wt % Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active

  20. Direct Central Nervous System Effect of Alcohol Alters Synthesis and Degradation of Skeletal Muscle Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pruznak, Anne M; Nystrom, Jay; Lang, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol can directly impair protein synthesis in cultured myocytes as well as in in situ perfused skeletal muscle. However, alcohol in the general circulation diffuses rapidly into the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, this study determined whether localized elevation of alcohol within the CNS is capable of decreasing muscle protein synthesis. Methods: Conscious unstrained male rats received a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ethanol and skeletal muscle protei...

  1. Copper-catalysed enantioselective stereodivergent synthesis of amino alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Wong, Zackary L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2016-04-01

    The chirality, or ‘handedness’, of a biologically active molecule can alter its physiological properties. Thus it is routine procedure in the drug discovery and development process to prepare and fully characterize all possible stereoisomers of a drug candidate for biological evaluation. Despite many advances in asymmetric synthesis, developing general and practical strategies for obtaining all possible stereoisomers of an organic compound that has multiple contiguous stereocentres remains a challenge. Here, we report a stereodivergent copper-based approach for the expeditious construction of amino alcohols with high levels of chemo-, regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Specifically, we synthesized these amino-alcohol products using sequential, copper-hydride-catalysed hydrosilylation and hydroamination of readily available enals and enones. This strategy provides a route to all possible stereoisomers of the amino-alcohol products, which contain up to three contiguous stereocentres. We leveraged catalyst control and stereospecificity simultaneously to attain exceptional control of the product stereochemistry. Beyond the immediate utility of this protocol, our strategy could inspire the development of methods that provide complete sets of stereoisomers for other valuable synthetic targets.

  2. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  3. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  4. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Selective bromochlorination of a homoallylic alcohol for the total synthesis of (−)-anverene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The scope of a recently reported method for the catalytic enantioselective bromochlorination of allylic alcohols is expanded to include a specific homoallylic alcohol. Critical factors for optimization of this reaction are highlighted. The utility of the product bromochloride is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of an antibacterial polyhalogenated monoterpene, (−)-anverene. PMID:27559385

  6. Fructose derived pyridyl alcohol ligands: synthesis and application in the asymmetric diethylzinc addition to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU, Yong-Gui; DAI, Li-Xin; HOU, Xue-Long

    2000-01-01

    Easily available chiral ketones were employed for the synthesis of optically active pyridyl alcohols, which were applied in the asymmetric diethylzinc addition to aldehydes, up to 89.4%e.e. was obtained using D-fructose-derived pyridyl alcohol.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuming; Wu, Lina; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Pingping; Feng, Cuiyun [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China)

    2013-11-15

    A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state.

  8. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  9. Hierarchical Mesoporous 3D Flower-like CuCo2O4/NF for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S; Pawar, Sambhaji M; Jadhav, Arvind H; Thorat, Gaurav M; Seo, Jeong Gil

    2016-01-01

    Ternary spinel CuCo2O4 nanostructure clenches great potential as high-performance electrode material for next-generation energy storage systems because of its higher electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Carbon free and binder free 3D flower-like CuCo2O4 structure are grown on nickel foam (NF) via a facile hydrothermal synthesis method followed by annealing. The obtained CuCo2O4/NF is directly used as electrode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) application. The electrochemical study of 3D flower-like CuCo2O4 as an electrode for LIB and SC shows highly mesoporous unique architecture plays important role in achieving high capacity/capacitance with superior cycle life. The high surface area and mesoporous nature not only offer sufficient reaction sites, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. In outcome, it exhibits highest capacity of 1160 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles when used as an anode for LIB and specific capacitance of 1002 F g(-1) after 3000 cycles. The superior electrochemical of synthesized material is attributed to direct contact of electrode active material with good intrinsic electrical conductivity to the underneath conductive NF substrate builds up an express path for fast ion and electron transfer. PMID:27506839

  10. Hierarchical Mesoporous 3D Flower-like CuCo2O4/NF for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S.; Pawar, Sambhaji M.; Jadhav, Arvind H.; Thorat, Gaurav M.; Seo, Jeong Gil

    2016-01-01

    Ternary spinel CuCo2O4 nanostructure clenches great potential as high-performance electrode material for next-generation energy storage systems because of its higher electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Carbon free and binder free 3D flower-like CuCo2O4 structure are grown on nickel foam (NF) via a facile hydrothermal synthesis method followed by annealing. The obtained CuCo2O4/NF is directly used as electrode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) application. The electrochemical study of 3D flower-like CuCo2O4 as an electrode for LIB and SC shows highly mesoporous unique architecture plays important role in achieving high capacity/capacitance with superior cycle life. The high surface area and mesoporous nature not only offer sufficient reaction sites, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. In outcome, it exhibits highest capacity of 1160 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles when used as an anode for LIB and specific capacitance of 1002 F g−1 after 3000 cycles. The superior electrochemical of synthesized material is attributed to direct contact of electrode active material with good intrinsic electrical conductivity to the underneath conductive NF substrate builds up an express path for fast ion and electron transfer. PMID:27506839

  11. Hierarchical Mesoporous 3D Flower-like CuCo2O4/NF for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S.; Pawar, Sambhaji M.; Jadhav, Arvind H.; Thorat, Gaurav M.; Seo, Jeong Gil

    2016-08-01

    Ternary spinel CuCo2O4 nanostructure clenches great potential as high-performance electrode material for next-generation energy storage systems because of its higher electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Carbon free and binder free 3D flower-like CuCo2O4 structure are grown on nickel foam (NF) via a facile hydrothermal synthesis method followed by annealing. The obtained CuCo2O4/NF is directly used as electrode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) application. The electrochemical study of 3D flower-like CuCo2O4 as an electrode for LIB and SC shows highly mesoporous unique architecture plays important role in achieving high capacity/capacitance with superior cycle life. The high surface area and mesoporous nature not only offer sufficient reaction sites, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. In outcome, it exhibits highest capacity of 1160 mA h g‑1 after 200 cycles when used as an anode for LIB and specific capacitance of 1002 F g‑1 after 3000 cycles. The superior electrochemical of synthesized material is attributed to direct contact of electrode active material with good intrinsic electrical conductivity to the underneath conductive NF substrate builds up an express path for fast ion and electron transfer.

  12. X-ray excited ZnS:Cu,Co afterglow nanoparticles for photodynamic activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Zou, Xiaoju; Bui, Brian; Chen, Wei; Song, Kwang Hyun; Solberg, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Copper and cobalt co-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu,Co) afterglow nanoparticles were conjugated to photosensitizer tetrabromorhodamine-123 (TBrRh123) and efficient energy transfer from the nanoparticles to TBrRh123 was observed. In addition to their X-ray excited luminescence, the ZnS:Cu,Co nanoparticles also show long lasting afterglow, which continuously serve as a light source for photodynamic therapy (PDT) activation. Compared to TBrRh123 or ZnS:Cu,Co alone, the ZnS:Cu,Co-TBrRh123 conjugates show low dark toxicity but high X-ray induced toxicity to human prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that the ZnS:Cu,Co afterglow nanoparticles have a good potential for PDT activation.

  13. Heterometallic M/Mn (M=Cu, Co, Zn) acetate complexes as precursors for binary oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile one-pot procedure, or so-called 'direct synthesis,' was used to prepare the novel heterometallic complexes [M2Mn(OAc)6(bpy)2], where M=Cu (1), Co (2), Zn (3), bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl, with high yields via oxidative dissolution of pure metals in a liquid phase. The complexes were characterized by an elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction method and FTIR. These complexes are proposed as precursors, whose thermal degradation may lead to the formation of solids possessing nano- to microsize levels of dispersity. The thermal behavior of the complexes obtained was studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA/DTG) in both air and N2 and also by TPD mass-spectrometry in vacuo. The FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and thermoanalytical data were used for the identification of the solid products of thermal degradation. The morphology and microstructure of the solid residues were analyzed, using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) at mkm and sub-micro levels. -- Graphical abstract: The novel heterometallic complexes [M2Mn(OAc)6(bpy)2] (M=Cu, Co, Zn, bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl) were isolated and used as precursors for low-temperature synthesis of binary oxides. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR, TG/DTA/DTG, TPD-MS, PXRD, SEM/EDX analysis was performed on complexes and powders. Display Omitted

  14. Acceptorless Photocatalytic Dehydrogenation for Alcohol Decarbonylation and Imine Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2012-07-29

    It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H2 (see scheme). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H2.

  15. Microbial synthesis of n-butanol, isobutanol, and other higher alcohols from diverse resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ethan I; Liao, James C

    2013-05-01

    Microbial production of fuel and chemical feedstock is a promising approach to solving energy and environmental problems. n-Butanol, isobutanol and other higher alcohols are of particular interest because they can serve as both fuel and chemical feedstock. Alternative resources such as CO2, syngas, waste protein, and lignocellulose are currently being investigated for their potential to produce these compounds. Except for lignocellulose, utilization of such alternative resource has not been examined extensively. This review aims to summarize the development of metabolic pathways for efficient synthesis of these higher alcohols and the current status of microbial strain development for the conversion of diverse resources into higher alcohols.

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. CuCo2O4 nanoparticles on nitrogenated graphene as highly efficient oxygen evolution catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkarolla, Santosh Kumar; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2015-05-01

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction play a key role on developing energy-conversion technologies. Here, we report a composite material consisting of CuCo2O4 nanoparticles anchored on nitrogenated reduced graphene oxide (CuCo2O4/NrGO) as a highly efficient oxygen evolution electrocatalyst in both alkaline and neutral solutions for the first time. In 1 M KOH, 0.1 M KOH and 0.1 M PBS, CuCo2O4/NrGO catalyst exhibited a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at a small overpotential of 0.36 V, 0.41 V and 1.15 V respectively, which are better than those of RuO2 and IrO2 catalysts. The CuCo2O4/NrGO exhibited good stability under strong alkaline conditions. The enhanced OER performance of CuCo2O4/NrGO is attributed to the presence of Cu2+ ions at the octahedral sites, reduction in the size of the CuCo2O4 nanoparticles as measured by the TEM, enhancement of electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), and synergetic effect between CuCo2O4 nanoparticles and NrGO sheets. This cost effective and highly efficient catalyst can possibly replace the expensive catalysts such as RuO2 and IrO2.

  18. Supported molybdenum carbide for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Chiarello, Gian Luca;

    2013-01-01

    supported molybdenum carbide are significantly higher compared to the bulk carbide. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20wt% Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active carbon and reaches a maximum over bulk molybdenum...... carbide, while the selectivity to methanol follows the opposite trend. The effect of Mo2C loading on the alcohol selectivity at a fixed K/Mo molar ratio of 0.14 could be related to the amount of K2CO3 actually on the active Mo2C phase and the size, structure and composition of the supported carbide...... clusters. Unpromoted, active carbon supported Mo2C exhibits a high activity for CO conversion with hydrocarbons as the dominant products. The K2CO3 promoter plays an essential role in directing the selectivity to alcohols rather than to hydrocarbons. The optimum selectivity toward higher alcohols and total...

  19. Enantioselective alcohol synthesis using ketoreductases, lipases or an aldolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgedrager, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The demand for optically pure secondary alcohols, which has grown rapidly in recent years, has spurred the development of adequate enantioselective synthetic procedures. Although there are various chemical methods available, biocatalysts are increasingly applied due to their natural characteristic t

  20. A Striking Exception to the Chelate Model for Acyclic Diastereocontrol: Efficient Access to a Versatile Propargyl Alcohol for Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ronald J.; Gregory B. Dudley; Tlais, Sami F

    2009-01-01

    The four-step, asymmetric synthesis of a chiral propargyl alcohol 1 from (R)-pantolactone is described. A key feature of the synthesis is a diastereoselective acetylide addition to a chiral α-alkoxy-aldehyde 7, in which unusual Felkin selectivity is observed, despite the potential for chelation control. Crystalline propargyl alcohol 1 is valuable for complex molecule synthesis, and is easy to prepare in multi-gram quantities and high diastereomeric purity.

  1. A Striking Exception to the Chelate Model for Acyclic Diastereocontrol: Efficient Access to a Versatile Propargyl Alcohol for Chemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Clark

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The four-step, asymmetric synthesis of a chiral propargyl alcohol 1 from (R-pantolactone is described. A key feature of the synthesis is a diastereoselective acetylide addition to a chiral α-alkoxy-aldehyde 7, in which unusual Felkin selectivity is observed, despite the potential for chelation control. Crystalline propargyl alcohol 1 is valuable for complex molecule synthesis, and is easy to prepare in multi-gram quantities and high diastereomeric purity.

  2. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk;

    2010-01-01

    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems...

  3. Spin-valve magnetoresistance in Co/Si/(Co/Cu/Co) multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong-lie; LI Guan-xiong

    2005-01-01

    A series of Co/Si/(Co/Cu/Co) multilayers and Co/Si/Co sandwiches were prepared by high vacuum electron-beam evaporation. It was found that a Si spacer (≥0.9nm) could greatly decrease the interlayer coupling in Co/Si/Co sandwiches and there was no magnetoresistance(MR) or spin-valve MR in them due to the high resistivity of Si spacer. While in Co/Si/(Co/Cu/Co) multilayers, we observed a spin-valve MR of about 0.5% through a nominal 2.7nm Si spacer at room temperature. The spin-valve MR in Co/Si/(Co/Cu/Co) multilayers was attributed to the enhanced spin polarization of conduction electrons caused by the top Co/Cu/Co sandwich with GMR mechanism and high spin-dependent scattering at Co/Cu interface.

  4. Effects of Ni addition on liquid phase separation and giant magnetoresistance of Cu-Co alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Ni addition on the liquid phase separation and giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Cu-Co alloys were discussed. The results reveal that Ni addition can partially restrain the liquid phase separation of Cu-Co alloys, resulting in a decrease of volume fraction for the Co-rich particles separated from the liquid phase and in refined microstructures. The composition analyses indicate that Ni is dissolved in both the Co-rich and the Cu-rich phases, but Ni content in the Co-rich phase is much higher than that in the Cu matrix. At the same time, Ni addition enhance the solubility between Cu and Co, especially Cu in Co solid solution. Ni alloying into Cu-Co alloys can fully prevent the liquid phase separation during melt spinning, which is very beneficial to improve GMR of Cu-Co alloys.

  5. Microstructure and micromorphology of Cu/Co nanoparticles: Surface texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Bramowicz, Miroslaw; Kulesza, Slawomir; Ghaderi, Atefeh; Dalouji, Vali; Solaymani, Shahram; Khalaj, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the three-dimensional (3-D) surface texture of Cu/Co thin films deposited by DC-Magnetron sputtering method on the silicon substrates. The prepared Cu/Co nanoparticles were used as research materials. Three groups of samples were deposited on silicon substrates in the argon atmosphere and gradually cooled down to room temperature. The crystalline structures and elemental compositions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum with conventional Bragg-Brentano geometry. X-ray diffraction profile indicates that Co and Cu interpenetrating crystalline structures are formed in these films. The sample surface images were recorded using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and analyzed by means of the fractal geometry. Statistical, fractal and functional surface properties of prepared samples were computed to describe major characteristics of the spatial surface texture of Cu/Co nanoparticles. Presented deposition method is a versatile, costeffective, and simple method to synthesize nano- and microstructures of Cu/Co thin films. This type of 3-D morphology allows to understand the structure/property relationships and to investigate defect-related properties of Cu/Co nanoparticles. Presented results confirm the possibility of preparing high-quality Cu/Co nanoparticles via DC-Magnetron sputtering method on silicon substrates.

  6. Effect of cobalt promoter on Co—Mo—K/C catalysts used for mixed alcohol synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunBao; MingJiang; TianduoHu; TaoLiu; Yan-ningXie; ZhongruiLi; YiluF

    2001-01-01

    The structures of sulfided Co-Mo-K/C catalysts were studied by menas of X-ray diffraction (XRD),laser Raman spectra(LRS),and X-ray absorption fine structure(XAFS).Activities for alcohol synthesis via CO hydrogenation were used to characterize the catalytic performance of these catalysts.On the activeated carbon support,molybdenum is mainly resent as MoS2 species which shrinks with the cobalt loading,While cobalt is mainly present in the form of “Co-Mo-S”phase at the low Co loading and partly in a Co9S8--like structure at higher Co loading.The catalysts exhibit outstanding performance for higher alcohol synthesis due to addition of the promotion of cobalt.The catalysts exhibit outstanding performance for higher alcohol synthesis due to the addition of the promotion of cobalt.The activity for alcohol formation is optimized at a Co/Mo atomic ratio of 0.5.Co species operate as s synergistic system,rather than independently from the MoS2 phase.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of chloroacetylated poly(vinyl alcohol (CPVA with triethylamine (TEA, triphenylphosphine (TPP, and tributylphosphine (TBP. The antimicrobial activity of the polymers against variety of test microorganisms was examined by the cut plug and viable cell counting methods of shake cultures of 10 times dilute nutrient broth and Sabouraud’s media, seeded with the test microorganisms. It was found that the immobilized polymers exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and the dermatophyte fungus (Trichophyton rubrum. The growth inhibition of the test microorganisms (ratio of surviving cell number, M/C varied according to the composition of the active group in the polymer and the test organism. It increased by increasing the concentration of the polymer. Triphenyl phosphonium salt of the modified poly(vinyl alcohol exhibited the most biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria after 24 h.

  8. Synthesis of biodiesel from edible and non-edible oils in supercritical alcohols and enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Rathore; Giridhar Madras [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. The synthesis of biodiesel from edible oils like palm oil and groundnut oil and from crude non-edible oils like Pongamia pinnata and Jatropha curcas was investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol without using any catalyst from 200 to 400{sup o}C at 200 bar. The variables affecting the conversion during transesterification, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature and time were investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol. Biodiesel was also synthesized enzymatically with Novozym-435 lipase in presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of reaction variables such as temperature, molar ratio, enzyme loading and kinetics of the reaction was investigated for enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide. Very high conversions (>80%) were obtained within 10 min and nearly complete conversions were obtained at within 40 min for the synthesis of biodiesel in supercritical alcohols. However, conversions of only 60-70% were obtained in the enzymatic synthesis even after 8 h. 48 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Highly diastereoselective synthesis of enantiopure β-trifluoromethyl β-amino alcohols from chiral trifluoromethyl oxazolidines (Fox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julien; Chelain, Evelyne; Brigaud, Thierry

    2012-01-20

    The organolithium species addition to 2-hydroxymethyl fluorinated oxazolidines (Fox) provides a highly diastereoselective and straightforward route for the synthesis of enantiopure trifluoromethyl β-amino alcohols quaternarized at the β-position.

  10. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    , but not in alcohol-dependent patients. Moderator analyses showed that the magnitude of the association between dopamine synthesis capacity and RPE coding depended on the amount of chronic, habitual alcohol intake. Despite the relatively small sample size, a power analysis supports the reported results. Using...

  11. Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunkumar Lagashetty; Vijayanand Havanoor; S Basavaraja; A Venkataraman

    2005-08-01

    The synthesis of ultrafine MoO3 through a self-propagating combustion route employing polyethylene glycol as fuel is reported. The precursor molybdenum oxalate is employed in this study for the conversion of the precursor to ultrafine MoO3 particles. The solvent casting method is adopted for the synthesis of MoO3 dispersed polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film (MoO3–PVA). These synthesized MoO3 and their composite samples are characterized for their structure, morphology, bonding and thermal behaviour by XRD, SEM, IR and DSC techniques, respectively. The distribution of MoO3 in polyvinyl alcohol gives a crystalline polymer, a compact structure and an increase in glass transition temperature.

  12. Efficient Synthesis of Primary Nitrocarbamates of Sugar Alcohols: From Food to Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis of various new polyvalent nitrocarbamates derived from sugar alcohols was accomplished by an economically benign two-step synthesis. The precursor carbamates were synthesized with the reagent chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) and further nitrated using mixed acid. The starting materials, sugar alcohols, are renewable biomass, mainly used in food and cosmetic industry. The structures of one carbamate and one nitrocarbamate were exemplary described by single-crystal X-ray-analysis. The heat of formation is calculated by the use of isodesmic reactions and the energetic performance data were estimated. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, (1)H, (13)C, and (14/15)N NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC). The nitrocarbamates exhibit good detonation performance and have significantly lower sensitivities compared to the commonly used nitrate ester explosive PETN.

  13. Catalytic synthesis of long-chained alcohols from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    . Various catalysts based upon the bulk carbides Mo2C, WC and NbC have been synthesized and evaluated with respect to the catalytic behavior in highpressure CO hydrogenation. NbC is largely inactive, and K2CO3/WC produces mainly methanol and methane with a low activity, while K2CO3/Mo2C produces a mixture...... of methanol and higher alcohols, but also significant amounts of hydrocarbons. The role of the choice of alkali cation in Mo2C promoted by an alkali salt has also been evaluated at a promoter level of Alkali/Mo = 0.164±0.001 mol/mol. At 275 °C-300 °C the behavior of catalysts promoted by Cs2CO3 and K2CO3...... at the same general activity level, corresponding to the Li-containing catalyst being operated at a lower temperature, the Li-promoted catalyst is however only slightly inferior to the K-promoted catalyst in terms of the alcohol selectivity. Finally different multiply promoted Mo2C catalysts have been...

  14. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as ceramic precursor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Das; S Ghatak

    2012-02-01

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  15. Synthesis and properties of physically crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ru-yin; XIONG Dang-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an investigation of the properties of poly (vinyl alcohol), which would be a better contact lens material than conventional HEMA in some ways. A transparent PVA hydrogel was prepared from a PVA solution in a mixed solvent consisting of water and a water-miscible organic solvent, DMSO, by the freezing-thawing method. The water content, visible light transmittance, mechanical and swelling properties of the hydrogels were evaluated as a function of PVA concentration and number of freeze-thaw cycles. The results show that the properties of PVA hydrogels depend on the polymer concentration, the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the addition of the organic solvent.

  16. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  18. Alcohol Synthesis over Pre-Reduced Activated Carbon-Supported Molybdenum-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin L. Kugler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC-supported molybdenum catalysts, either with or without a potassium promoter, were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis (DTA and temperature programmed reduction (TPR, and were used for mixed alcohol synthesis from syngas (CO+H2. DTA results showed that a new phase, related to the interaction between Mo species and the AC support, is formed during the calcination of the Mo/AC catalyst, and the introduction of a K promoter has noticeable effect on the interaction. TPR results indicated that the Mo is more difficult to reduce after being placed onto the AC support, and the addition of a K promoter greatly promotes the formation of Mo species reducible at relatively low temperatures, while it retards the generation of Mo species that are reducible only at higher temperatures. These differences in the reduction behavior of the catalysts are atributed to the interaction between the active components (Mo and K and the support. Potassium-doping significantly promotes the formation of alcohols at the expense of CO conversion, especially to hydrocarbons. It is postulated that Mo species with intermediate valence values (averaged around +3.5 are more likely to be the active phase(s for alcohol synthesis from CO hydrogenation, while those with lower Mo valences are probably responsible for the production of hydrocarbons.

  19. Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96% for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.

  20. Theoretical perspective of alcohol decomposition and synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Yang, Yixiong; White, Michael G.

    2013-06-01

    Advances in theoretical methods, in particular density functional theory (DFT), make it possible to describe catalytic reactions at surfaces with the detail and accuracy required for computational results to compare with experiment in a meaningful way. The theoretical studies also describe chemical reaction networks and understand variations in catalytic activity from one catalyst to another. Such understanding allows the theoretical optimization for better catalysts. In the current report we discussed the theoretical studies in the past few years on decomposition and synthesis of methanol and ethanol on various catalyst surfaces. The knowledge of reactions including the intermediates and transition states along different reaction pathways together with kinetic modeling was demonstrated. The theoretical studies on alcohol synthesis help gain better understanding of the complex kinetics and the roles that each component of a catalyst plays. In general, moving from mono-functional catalysts to multi-functional catalysts by increasing the complexity offers new opportunities to tune the behavior of a catalyst. A good multi-functional catalyst is not necessary to compromise the binding strong enough to adsorb and dissociate reactants and weak enough to allow the formation of intermediates and removal of products; instead, it may take advantage of each component, which catalyzes different elementary steps depending on its unique activity. The synergy between the different components can enable the multi-functional catalyst a novel activity in catalysis. This is of great importance for rational design of better catalysts for alcohol renewal synthesis and efficient use.

  1. Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen, M.S.

    1992-08-28

    Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

  2. [1,2]-Wittig Rearrangement of THP Acetal Compounds: Facile Synthesis of Aromatic Tertiary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lei Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several sec-aromatic THP acetal compounds have been found to be suitable substrates for the [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement in the absence of an external electrophile, which resulted in the generation of new carbon-carbon bond and the facile synthesis of aromatic tertiary alcohols. More interestingly, an unexpected effect of chlorotrimethylsilane on this [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement of sec-aromatic THP acetal compounds was found, in which two different products involving oxidative procedure were obtained due to the competitive [1,4]-Sigmatropic rearrangement versus [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement

  3. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  4. Synthesis of Energetic Nitrocarbamates from Polynitro Alcohols and Their Potential as High Energetic Oxidizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Krumm, Burkhard; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2015-06-19

    A new synthesis strategy for the preparation of energetic carbamates and nitrocarbamates starting from readily available polynitro alcohols is introduced. The efficient synthesis of mainly new carbamates was performed with the reactive chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) reagent. The carbamates were nitrated using mixed acid to form the corresponding primary nitrocarbamates. The thermal stability of all synthesized compounds was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, and the energies of formation were calculated on the CBS-4 M level of theory. Detonation parameters and propulsion properties were determined with the software package EXPLO5 V6.02. Furthermore, for all new substances single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies were performed and are presented and discussed as Supporting Information.

  5. Synthesis of Energetic Nitrocarbamates from Polynitro Alcohols and Their Potential as High Energetic Oxidizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Krumm, Burkhard; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2015-06-19

    A new synthesis strategy for the preparation of energetic carbamates and nitrocarbamates starting from readily available polynitro alcohols is introduced. The efficient synthesis of mainly new carbamates was performed with the reactive chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) reagent. The carbamates were nitrated using mixed acid to form the corresponding primary nitrocarbamates. The thermal stability of all synthesized compounds was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, and the energies of formation were calculated on the CBS-4 M level of theory. Detonation parameters and propulsion properties were determined with the software package EXPLO5 V6.02. Furthermore, for all new substances single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies were performed and are presented and discussed as Supporting Information. PMID:25996052

  6. Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Evelyn B; Camera, Donny M.; José L Areta; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three exp...

  7. [Determination of low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Wu, Peng; Shi, Yulin; Bai, Yu; Long, Yinhua

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of low-carbon (C1-C8) alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was developed by gas chromatography. It included the optimization of separation conditions, the precision and accuracy of determination, and the use of correction factors of the analytes to ethanol for quantification. The aqueous products showed that the correlation coefficients for ethanol in different content ranges were above 0.99, which means it had good linear correlations. The spiked recoveries in the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were from 93.4% to 109.6%. The accuracy of the method can satisfy the requirement for the analysis of the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The results showed that the total mass fractions of the major low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes, ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were about 3%-12%, and the contents of ethanol were the highest (about 1.7%-7.3%). The largest share of the total proportion was n-alcohols, followed by isomeric alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the lowest. This method is simple, fast, and has great significance for the analysis of important components in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  8. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  9. Thermomechanical treatment of low-alloy copper alloys of the kind CuCo2Be and CuCo1NiBe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the investigations is to test the influence of the complex thermomechanical treatment on the structure and mechanical properties of low-alloy copper alloys with cobalt, beryllium and nickel of the kind CuCo2Be (CB4 and CuCo1NiBe (CCNB.Design/methodology/approach: The range of investigations comprises an analysis of the complex technique of thermomechanical treatment of the investigated alloys and the conventional thermal treatment of these alloys, the analysis of their chemical composition, a static tensile test, measurement of their hardness, observations of their structure on a light microscope and a fractographic analysis on an electron scanning microscope.Findings: The analysis of the results of investigations concerning the mechanical effect properties permitted to determine the effect of the combined thermomechanical treatment and the comparatively performed precipitation hardening on the structure and mechanical properties of the investigated low-alloy kinds of copper. The character of cracking in the course of stretching were determined basing on fractographic tests.Practical implications: The investigated copper alloys subjected to a complex thermomechanical treatment display a higher strength and lower plastic properties in comparison with these properties achieved by means of the conventional heat treatment.Originality/value: Complex thermomechanical treatment ensures an optimal strength of the investigated alloys as well as satisfying plastic properties.

  10. Influence of Si buffer layer on the giant magnetoresistance effect in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Co/Cu/Co sandwiches with a semiconductor Si buffer layer were prepared by high vacuum electron-beam evaporation. The influence of the Si buffer layer with different thickness on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches was investigated. It was found that the GMR showed an obvious anisotropy when the thickness of Si buffer layer was larger than or equal to 0.9 nm, and that the GMR was basically isotropic with an Si buffer layer thinner than 0.9 nm. The anisotropic behavior of GMR can be ascribed to the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the sandwiches. Due to the interdiffusion at the Si buffer/Co interface, a Co2Si interface layer with a good (301) texture formed and induced the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the sandwiches. The dependence of the crystalline texture of the sandwiches on the thickness of Si buffer layer was also studied.

  11. Magnetic and Structural Properties in Co/Cu/Co Sandwiches with Ni and Cr Buffer Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic and structural properties in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches with Ni and Cr buffer layers were investigated. It was found that the coercivity in Ni layer buffered samples decreases with increasing Ni layer thickness, while that in Cr layer buffered ones increases with increasing Cr layer thickness, leading to a large difference in field sensitivity of their giant magnetoresistance (GMR) properties. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope images exhibited that there is a strong fcc (111) texture in the samples with Ni buffer layer. But there are only randomly oriented polycrystalline grains in Cr buffered sandwiches. According to atomic force microscope topography, the surface roughness of Cr buffered sandwiches is smaller than that of Ni buffered ones. It is demonstrated that buffer layer influences both magnetic and structural properties in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches as well as their GMR characteristics.

  12. Glass forming ability and thermodynamic properties in novel La-Al-Cu-Co bulk metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培友; 孟凡莹; 王永善; 董敏敏; 史俊婷; 宋佩维

    2015-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) and thermodynamic properties of the La-Al-Cu-Co alloy system were investigated, and novel La-Al-Cu-Co bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with a minimum critical diameter of 8 mm were fabricated. The differing GFAs were examined from a thermodynamic viewpoint. The GFA of the La-Al-Cu-Co alloys was well-correlated with the supercooled liq-uid region, ΔTx, and the parameter,γ;but not with the reduced glass transition temperature, Trg. In addition, the La62Al14Cu14Co8 BMG exhibited a high GFA, low glass transition temperature of 412 K, and broad supercooled liquid region of 70 K. These novel BMGs, which were fabricated from low-cost raw materials, had the potential to be used in various applications. The GFA of the pre-sent alloys exhibited a dependence on the relative number of Al–Co and Al–Cu atomic pairs, i.e., on the Al:Co and Al:Cu ratios, which were~2.3 and 0.85, respectively.

  13. Highly enantioselective synthesis of fluorinated gamma-amino alcohols through proline-catalyzed cross-Mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustero, Santos; Jiménez, Diego; Sanz-Cervera, Juan F; Sánchez-Roselló, María; Esteban, Elisabet; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    A new, simple route for the synthesis of fluorinated beta-alkyl gamma-amino alcohols in optically pure form in only two steps and featuring proline catalysis from inexpensive and readily available starting materials is described. The applied strategy allows for the introduction of diversity into both the beta-fluoroalkyl and alpha-alkyl groups of these compounds. [reaction: see text

  14. Near- and supercritical alcohols as solvents and surface modifiers for the continuous synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slostowski, Cédric; Marre, Samuel; Babot, Odile; Toupance, Thierry; Aymonier, Cyril

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluids offer fast and facile routes toward well-crystallized tailor-made cerium oxide nanoparticles. However, the use of surfactants to control morphology and surface properties remains essential. Therefore, although water, near-critical (nc) or supercritical (sc), is a solvent of choice, the poor water solubility of some surfactants could require other solvent systems such as alcohols, which could themselves behave as surface modifiers. In here, the influence of seven different alcohols, MeOH, EtOH, PrOH, iPrOH, ButOH, PentOH, and HexOH, in alcothermal conditions (300 °C, 24.5 MPa) over CeO(2) nanocrystals (NCs) size, morphology, and surface properties was investigated. The crystallite size of the CeO(2) nanocrystals can be tuned in the range 3-7 nm depending on the considered alcohol, and their surface has been modified by these solvents without the use of surfactants. Mechanisms are proposed for the interaction of primary and secondary alcohols with CeO(2) surface and its functionalization during the synthesis based on FTIR and TGA-MS studies. This study allows apprehending the role of alcohols during the synthesis and may lead to an informed choice of solvent as a function of the required size and surface properties of CeO(2) NCs. It also opens new route to CeO(2) functionalization using supercritical alcohol derivatives. PMID:23126630

  15. Synthesis of higher alcohols over highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts derived from layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinyou; Fang, Kegong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Lu; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-05-15

    Highly dispersed Cu-Fe based catalysts with Fe/Cu molar ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1 were prepared via thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors and tested for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) via CO hydrogenation. The catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, and H2-TPR. It was demonstrated that the Cu and Fe ions were highly dispersed in the brucite-like layers of the LDHs. With increased Fe/Cu atomic ratio, the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content, Cu reduction temperatures, and the spacing of layers initially increase until the Fe/Cu ratio reaches 0.5 and then decrease. In addition to the catalytic evaluation for CO hydrogenation and catalyst characterization, the relationships between the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and their catalytic performances were also investigated. It was also found that the alcohols/hydrocarbons ratios correlate linearly with the tetrahedrally coordinated Cu ion content. Moreover, higher reduction temperatures of Cu species as well as larger spacing between the layers in the catalyst are favorable for the synthesis of alcohols. The incorporation of a suitable amount of Fe is beneficial for the production of higher alcohols, with the best catalytic performance (alcohol selectivity of 20.77% and C2+ alcohol selectivity of 48.06%) obtained from a Fe/Cu atomic ratio of 0.5. PMID:26943001

  16. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  17. Continuous-Flow Multistep Synthesis of Cinnarizine, Cyclizine, and a Buclizine Derivative from Bulk Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Noël, Timothy; Hessel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Cinnarizine, cyclizine, buclizine, and meclizine belong to a family of antihistamines that resemble each other in terms of a 1-diphenylmethylpiperazine moiety. We present the development of a four-step continuous process to generate the final antihistamines from bulk alcohols as the starting compounds. HCl is used to synthesize the intermediate chlorides in a short reaction time and excellent yields. This methodology offers an excellent way to synthesize intermediates to be used in drug synthesis. Inline separation allows the collection of pure products and their immediate consumption in the following steps. Overall isolated yields for cinnarizine, cyclizine, and a buclizine derivative are 82, 94, and 87 %, respectively. The total residence time for the four steps is 90 min with a productivity of 2 mmol h(-1) . PMID:26663906

  18. Poly(aniline-co--aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl alcohol): Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Adhikari; P Banerji

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we have deposited poly(aniline-co--aminobenzoic acid) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ polymerization. The polymerization was effected within maleic acid (MA) cross-linked PVA hydrogel. The copolymer was obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride and -aminobenzoic acid using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. Instead of conventional solution polymerization, here synthesis was carried out on APS soaked MA cross-linked PVA (MA–PVA) film where the polymer was in situ deposited in its conducting form. The composite film was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT–IR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Surface morphology of the composite films was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The variation of conductivity of the films was studied.

  19. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes of Few Walls Using Aliphatic Alcohols as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinosa-Magaña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of CNTs of only few walls by means of the use of the spray pyrolysis technique. For this purpose, ferrocene is utilized as a catalyst and aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol or butanol as the carbon source. The characterization of CNTs was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The study of the synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs show important differences in the number of layers that constitute the nanotubes, the diameter length, the quantity and the quality as a function of the number of carbons employed in the alcohol. The main interest of this study is to give the basis of an efficient synthesis process to produce CNTs of few walls for applications where small diameter is required.

  20. Impact of potassium promoter on Cu–Fe based mixed alcohols synthesis catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adding K facilitated the immigration of bulky iron species to surface layers. • Adding potassium strengthened the interaction of Fe–K on the surface layers. • Increasing K content facilitated the formation of C2+OH. • A maximum in catalytic activity is obtained at 0.5 wt.% of potassium loading. - Abstract: Impacts of K promoter on microstructures of a precipitated Cu–Fe based catalyst were studied by N2-physisorption (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and hydrogen temperature-programmed desorption/reduction (H2-TPD/TPR). Mixed alcohols synthesis (MAS) was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that incorporation of K in the Cu–Fe based catalyst decreased the surface area of the particles, whereas promoted the immigration of bulky iron species to surface layers and strengthened the interaction of surface Fe–Cu. The increase of K concentration weakened the H2 chemisorption and restrained the reduction of both the Cu and Fe species. The catalytic activity and mixed alcohols selectivity increased accompanied with a gradually increasing K concentration, and reached the highest values as the amount of K increased to 0.5 wt.%. Subsequently, the MAS activity and selectivity C2+OH presented a decreasing trend. In addition, the increase of K concentration facilitated the formation of heavy hydrocarbons

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A; Spivey, James J

    2013-05-01

    Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.

  2. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively.

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  5. Effect of planar doping in Co/SiO2-Ni/Cu/Co structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of interfacial planar doping with insulating granular layer in a sandwiched structure was studied. By inserting a thin SiO2-Ni layer into the sandwiched Co/Cu/Co structures, the magnetoresistance curve as a function of the magnetic field changed significantly because of reduction of interlayer coupling and the change of its switching mechanism of the magnetizations by the interface modification. The switching fields are 10 and 60 Oe for the magnetization reversals in two magnetic layers. The MR peaks are square-shaped with the width of about 30 Oe and the peak MR ratio of 3.3%

  6. Microstructure and tensile properties of FeMnNiCuCoSnx high entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a new high entropy alloy system. ► The alloys have good plasticity that can do tensile testing at room temperature. ► The maximum tensile strain can reach to 16.9%. -- Abstract: High-entropy FeMnNiCuCoSnx (x denotes the atomic fraction of Sn) alloys with good plasticity have been developed. The systematical investigation demonstrates that the concentration of Sn element plays a significant role in the microstructure and tensile properties. As 0.03 5.6Sn) in the interdendritic regions forms, which degrades the ductility of alloys.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Icosahedral Transformations in Solid Cu-Co Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-Jian; WANG Qiang; LIU Tie; LI Dong-Gang; LU Xiao; HE Ji-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We study the icosahedral transformations of solid Cu-Co clusters with different initial configurations by using molecular dynamics with the embedded atom method.It is found that the formation of symmetric icosahedral cluster is strongly related to the atomic number and initial configuration.The transformation originates from the surface into the interior of the cluster and is a structural change which is rapid and diffusionless.The icosahedral clusters with any composition and configuration,such as core-shell or three-shell cluster,can be prepared by the means of solid-solid phase transition in bimetallic dusters.

  8. Giant magnetoresistance effect in Ni buffered Co/Cu/Co sandwich

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Ni buffer layer on the giant magnetoresistance structure of Co/Cu/Co sandwich are investigated systematically in this paper.It is found that Ni buffer layer can induce the crystallization of the lower Ni/Co layer and produce small coercivity,thus enlarging the difference in the magnetic behavior between the two magnetic layers in the sandwich.Moreover,the use of the Ni buffer layer can also improve the interface flatness in the sandwich.All these factors enhance the sensitivity of the Ni buffered sandwich.``

  9. One-pot synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines using supported gold and base as catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie;

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol.......Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol....

  10. A study of transglucosylation kinetic in an enzymatic synthesis of benzyl alcohol glucoside by α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, M.; Dimitrijević, A.; Trbojević, J.; Milosavić, N.; Gavrović-Jankulović, M.; Bezbradica, D.; Veličković, D.

    2013-12-01

    α-1,4-Glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an enzyme which is widely used in synthesis of different drugs. Glucosidase inhibitors are studied as potential drugs for prevention of HIV and diabetes. For understanding of these processes it is very important to have insights in the transglucosylation activity of this enzyme. In this paper the kinetics of transglucosylation reaction catalyzed by this enzyme in the synthesis of benzyl alcohol glucoside was studied and all relevant kinetic constants for this system are found. It was shown one additional property of transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by glycosidases—inhibition by both, glucose acceptor and glucose donor, and mechanisms for these inhibitions were proposed.

  11. Synthesis of Monodispersed Gold Nanoparticles with Exceptional Colloidal Stability with Grafted Polyethylene Glycol-g-polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaaldin M. Alkilany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles with tunable core size (23–79 nm in the presence of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-g-PVA grafted copolymer as a reducing, capping, and stabilizing agent in a one-step protocol. The resulted PEG-g-PVA-capped gold nanoparticles are monodispersed with an exceptional colloidal stability against salt addition, repeated centrifugation, and extensive dialysis. The effect of various synthesis parameters and the kinetic/mechanism of the nanoparticle formation are discussed.

  12. Mesoporous CuCo2O4 nanoparticles as an efficient cathode catalyst for Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Xiang; Shao, Lin; Zhang, Nai-Qing; Sun, Ke-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Extremely high energy density and environment friendly reaction make Li-O2 batteries a promising energy storage system. In order to improve the energy efficiency and cycle life of Li-O2 battery, spinel mesoporous CuCo2O4 was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and investigated in Li-O2 batteries. The electrochemical measurements show that mesoporous CuCo2O4 possess higher oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution activity than bulk CuCo2O4 both in alkaline and non-aqueous solution. Owing to the inherent catalytic activity, high conductivity and facile mass transfer of mesoporous CuCo2O4, Li-O2 battery shows enhanced electrochemical performances, including much lower charge overpotential and a high capacity up to 5288 mAh g-1. When restricting the discharge capacity at 500 mAh g-1, it could operate over 80 cycles and exhibit superior cycle stability. These results indicate that mesoporous CuCo2O4 nanoparticles are appropriate bifunctional catalysts for Li-O2 batteries.

  13. LDA +U calculation of electronic and thermoelectric properties of doped CuCoO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knížek, K.

    2015-02-01

    Doped CuCoO2 is a candidate oxide material for thermoelectric power generation. The evolution of the band structure and thermoelectric properties of CuCoO2 upon hole and electron doping in the CoO2 layer and hole doping at the Cu site were calculated by the local-density approximation (LDA) and LDA +U methods and using standard Boltzmann theory. The doping was simulated by the virtual atom approximation and the supercell approach and the results were compared with previous calculations using the rigid band approximation. The calculated thermopowers are comparable for the virtual atom and rigid band approximations, but the thermopower obtained from the supercell calculation is significantly lower. The reason is the similar energy of Co and Cu d orbitals and the hybridization of symmetrically related Co a1 g and Cu dz2 orbitals. As a consequence, both cations contribute to the bands around the Fermi level and hence a substitution at any of the cation sites alters the band structure at EF and affects the thermoelectric properties. Our results show that in the case of hole doping, higher thermopower is obtained for substitution at the Cu site than in the CoO2 layer.

  14. Synthesis of alkynes and alkynyl iodides bearing a protected amino alcohol moiety as functionalized amino acids precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AYED; Charfedinne; PICARD; Julien; LUBIN-GERMAIN; Nadège; UZIEL; Jacques; AUGE; Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid precursors in protected amino alcohol form are important synthons that can be used as building-blocks for the hemisynthesis of non-natural amino acids.Serine can be used as a common starting material for the synthesis of such compounds differently protected.Particularly,protected amino alcohols bearing an ethynyl and/or an iodoethynyl group can be used in cross-couplings,in 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions and/or in Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi type reactions.We thus demonstrated that the efficiently protected amino alcohols derived from serine can be coupled to a sugar derivative by an indium mediated alkynylation reaction.The conditions of this coupling are compatible with such functionalized derivatives and allow envisaging an access to C-glycosylated amino acids.

  15. Ultrasound assisted N-bromosuccinimde catalyzed one pot condensation approach for synthesis of Bis(indolylmethanes from primary alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chhattise

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple, efficient protocol for one pot synthesis of bis(indolylmethanes from primary alcohols is investigated with N-bromosuccinimde as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. Alcohols can be converted into carbonyl compounds by removal of hydrogen in presence of N-bromosuccinimde as an oxidant and can react in situ with indole to give desired bis(indolylmethanes. In the reported one pot multicomponent condensation reaction N-bromosuccinimde promotes the oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde, facilitating the subsequent condensation with indole to afford bis(indolyl methanes in good to excellent yields. The inexpensiveness and easy handling are some of important feature of N-bromosuccinimde. The by-product N-succinimide can be easily recovered and recycled to N-bromosuccinimide.

  16. Direct Coupling of Cs2CO3 and Alcohols for the Synthesis of Dimethyl, Diethyl, and Various Dialkyl Carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient and high-yield synthesis for DMC has been actively investigated. Reaction conditions typically involve either carbon monoxide (CO) or derivatives (e. g., phosgene), or carbon dioxide (CO2) or derivatives (e. g., inorganic carbonates or organic cyclic carbonates). Due to the toxicity and flammability of CO and phosgene, the more environmentally benign and sustainable carbon sources CO2 and derivatives have been actively employed for production of DMC and related acyclic carbonates. The DMC and acyclic carbonate syntheses that have been reported include: 1) transesterification of cyclic carbonates derived from oxirane and CO2; 2) dehydrative condensation of alcohols with CO2; 3) reactions between alkyl halide and metal carbonates; 4) reactions between alcohol, alkyl halide, and CO2; and 5) reactions between alcohol and CO2 in the presence of condensing agents

  17. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  18. Unexpected lateral-lithiation-induced alkylative ring opening of tetrahydrofurans in deep eutectic solvents: synthesis of functionalised primary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone, Francesca C; Perna, Filippo M; Salomone, Antonio; Florio, Saverio; Capriati, Vito

    2015-06-11

    o-Tolyl-substituted tetrahydrofurans undergo highly regioselective ring opening with the concomitant formation of new C-C bonds as the result of a lateral lithiation reaction. This reaction provides a new method for the synthesis of functionalised primary alcohols and can be run directly in protic eutectic mixtures as benign reaction media at 0 °C and under air, competitively with protonolysis. PMID:25959580

  19. Synthesis of β-amino alcohol derivatives from phenols in presence of phase transfer catalyst and lipase biocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant S. Borude

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and environmentally friendly reaction has been developed for the first time for one-pot synthesis of β-amino alcohol derivatives from aromatic phenols, epichlorohydrin and amines by using phase transfer catalysts (PTC and Aspergillus Oryzae lipase biocatalyst. This method provides access to pharmaceutically relevant products in excellent yields with high regioselectivity. The remarkable catalytic activity and reusability of lipase was possible up to four consecutive cycles.

  20. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  1. Reaction kinetics for synthesis of sec-butyl alcohol catalyzed by acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Qiu; Wenli Tang; Chenggang Li; Chengming Wu; Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    The acid-functionalized ionic liquid ([HSO3Pmim]HSO4) was synthesized by a two-step method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) show that the synthesis method is feasible and high purity of ionic liquid can be obtained. Using [HSO3Pmim]HSO4 as the catalyst, we studied the reaction kinetics of synthesizing sec-butyl alcohol from sec-butyl acetate and methanol by transesterification in a high-pressure batch reactor. The effects of temperature, initial molar ratio of methanol to ester, and catalyst concentration on the conversion of sec-butyl acetate were studied. Based on its possible reaction mechanism, a ho-mogeneous kinetic model was established. The results show that the reaction heatΔH is 10.94 × 103 J·mol−1, so the reaction is an endothermic reaction. The activation energies Ea+and Ea−are 60.38 × 103 and 49.44 × 103 J·mol−1, respectively.

  2. Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, José L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass−1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass−1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (Pmuscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to training and/or subsequent performance. PMID:24533082

  3. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state (GCEO

  4. Novel CuCo2O4/graphitic carbon nitride nanohybrids: Highly effective catalysts for reducing CO generation and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongqian; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Keqing; Yuen, Richard K K; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan; Jiang, Saihua

    2015-08-15

    Novel spinel copper cobaltate (CuCo2O4)/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) (named C-CuCo2O4) nanohybrids with different weight ratios of g-C3N4 to CuCo2O4 were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Then the nanohybrids were added into the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix to prepare TPU nanocomposites using a master batch-melt compounding approach. Morphological analysis indicated that CuCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on g-C3N4 nanosheets. Thermal analysis revealed that C-CuCo2O4-7 (proportion of g-C3N4 to CuCo2O4 of 93/7) was an optimal nanohybrid for the properties improvement of TPU. Incorporation of C-CuCo2O4-7 into TPU led to significant improvements in the onset decomposition temperature, temperature at maximal mass loss rate and char yields. The heat release rate and total heat release of TPU/C-CuCo2O4-7 decreased by 37% and 31.3%, respectively, compared with those of pure TPU. Furthermore, the amounts of pyrolysis gaseous products, including combustible volatiles and carbon monoxide (CO), were remarkably reduced, whereas, non-flammable gas (carbon dioxide) increased. Excellent dispersion of C-CuCo2O4-7 in TPU host was achieved, due to the synergistic effect between g-C3N4 and CuCo2O4. Enhancements in the thermal stability and flame retardancy were attributed to the explanations that g-C3N4 nanosheets showed the physical barrier effect and catalytic nitrogen monoxide (NO) decomposition, and that CuCo2O4 catalyzes the reaction of CO with NO and increased char residues.

  5. Spin momentum transfer effects observed in electrodeposited Co/Cu/Co nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blon, T.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Piraux, L.;

    2007-01-01

    Spin-transfer torque effects are reported in nanowires consisting in Co/Cu/Co trilayers electrodeposited on an anodic alumina template. Using a nanolithography process based on electrically controlled nanoindentation of the alumina template, we are able to investigate the spin transport properties...... are driven by a spin-polarized current. The critical current densities needed for the magnetization reversals are in the 107 A/ cm2 range and the dependence of the critical currents with the applied field is consistent with the spin-transfer mechanism. For large applied magnetic fields, the differential...... resistance exhibits some peaks that we attribute to the onset of high-frequency excitations of the free-layer magnetization. According to the high density of electrodeposited nanowires in alumina templates, our results are promising for synchronized spin-transfer oscillators. © 2007 American Institute...

  6. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  7. Poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanospheres: a facile synthesis approach based on confinement effect of polymer and a template for synthesis of metal oxide hollow nanospheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei-Zhi Wang; Zhi-Qiang Li; Kong-Lin Wu; Ya-Jing Lu; Ya-Fei Xu; Xin-Jie Song

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that different morphologies of PFA could be obtained by adjusting the ratio of PVP and furfuryl alcohol (FA). As a whole, the results demonstrate that PVP plays a key role in controlling the polymerization process of FA. The confinement effect of PVP is proposed to explain the formation process of PFA nanospheres. Furthermore, the as-prepared PFA nanospheres have a functional surface that allow them to act as an ideal template for fabricating metal oxide hollow nanospheres.

  8. Alkali promoted molybdenum (IV) sulfide based catalysts, development and characterization for alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Belinda Delilah

    For more than a century transition metal sulfides (TMS) have been the anchor of hydro-processing fuels and upgrading bitumen and coal in refineries worldwide. As oil supplies dwindle and environmental laws become more stringent, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels and/or synthetic fuels. The depletion of oil reserves and a rapidly increasing energy demand worldwide, together with the interest to reduce dependence on foreign oil makes alcohol production for fuels and chemicals via the Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) very attractive. The original Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction is the heart of all gas-to-liquid technologies; it creates higher alcohols and hydrocarbons from CO/H2 using a metal catalyst. This research focuses on the development of alkali promoted MoS2-based catalysts to investigate an optimal synthesis for their assistance in the production of long chain alcohols (via FTS) for their use as synthetic transportation liquid fuels. Properties of catalytic material are strongly affected by every step of the preparation together with the quality of the raw materials. The choice of a laboratory method for preparing a given catalyst depends on the physical and chemical characteristics desired in the final composition. Characterization methods of K0.3/Cs0.3-MoS2 and K0.3 /Cs0.3-Co0.5MoS2 catalysts have been carried out through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET porosity and surface analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Various characterization methods have been deployed to correlate FTS products versus crystal and morphological properties of these heterogeneous catalysts. A lab scale gas to liquid system has been developed to evaluate its efficiency in testing FT catalysts for their production of alcohols.

  9. Synthesis of R-3-quinine alcohol by CBS catalysis%CBS催化合成R-3-奎宁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彦荣

    2012-01-01

    The chiral synthesis technique was applied to prepare R-3-quinine alcohol by catalytic reduction of 3-quinine ketone with the help of CBS catalyst. The yield and ee value were above 92% and 98% .respectively. The proposed synthesis method appeared to be convenient, high-yield, and applicable for industrial purpose.%探讨R-3-奎宁醇的合成工艺.通过手性合成的方法,以3-奎宁酮盐酸盐为原料,经CBS催化剂催化还原得R-3-奎宁醇.收率可达到92%以上,ee值可达98%以上.该合成路线操作步骤简单、收率高,具有工业应用价值.

  10. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  11. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  12. Magnetostatic coupling of 90 domain walls in FeNi/Cu/Co trilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurde, Julia; Miguel, Jorge; Kuch, Wolfgang [Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Bayer, Daniela; Aeschlimann, Martin [Technische Universitaet, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Kronast, Florian; Duerr, Herrmann A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The magnetic interlayer coupling of FeNi/Cu/Co trilayered microstructures has been studied by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in combination with photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). We find that a parallel coupling between magnetic domains coexists with a non-parallel coupling between magnetic domain walls of each ferromagnetic layer. We attribute the non-parallel coupling of the two magnetic layers to local magnetic stray fields arising at domain walls in the magnetically harder Co layer. In the magnetically softer FeNi layer non-ordinary domain walls such as 270 and 90 domain walls with overshoot of the magnetization either inwards or outwards relative to the turning direction of the Co magnetization are identified. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that in the absence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy, both types of overshooting domain walls are energetically equivalent. However, if a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy is present, the relative orientation of the domain walls with respect to the anisotropy axis determines which of these domain walls is energetically favorable.

  13. Structures and performance of Rh—Mo—K/Al2O3 catalysts used for mixed alcohol synthesis from synthesis gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-ruiLi; Yi-luFu; 等

    1999-01-01

    A series of rhodium-modified Mo-K/Al2O3 catalyst samples was prepared by varying the rhodium loading between 0 and 1.0 wt% and maintaining molybdenum and potassium contents as constants.The structures of the samples were charaterized by techniques of XRD.LRS.TPR,XPS and EXAFS and correlated to the catalytic properties of the samples for alcohol synthesis from synthesis gas,It was found that.in the oxidic rhodium-modified samples.a strong interaction of the rhodium modifier with the supported K-Mo-O species occurs.This interaction facilitates the sulfidation and reduction of the supported oxo-molybdenum and leads to a decrease in the size of the molybdenum species and stabilization of the cationic rhodium species on the samples during sulfidation.Upon sulfidation.The sulfided molybdenum species in the rhodium-free sample is manly present as large pateches of MoS2-like slabs with their basal sulfur planes interacting with the support surface.With the modirication of rhodium to the samples.The supported MoS2-like species becomes highly dispersed.as revealed by the decrease in the average size of the sulfided molybdenum species.The interaction of the rhodium species with the molybdenum somponent may cause the basal planes of the MoS2-like species to become oriented perpendicular to the support surface due to favorable bonding of the MoS2edge planes to the support through Mo-O-Al bonds.In comparison with the sulfided sample free of rhodium.the properties of the rhodium-modified samples for alcohol synthesis from synthesis gas are much improved.It most probably results from the synergic interaction of the rhodium with the molybdenum species that gives rise to the appearance of the catalytically active surfaces of sites.The co-existence of cationic and metallic rhodium stabilized by this interaction may be responsible for the increased selectivity for the formation of C2+ alcohols.

  14. On the stereoselective synthesis of (+)-pinoresinol in Forsythia suspensa from its achiral precursor, coniferyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, L B; Bedgar, D L; Katayama, T; Lewis, N G

    1992-11-01

    The residue from Forsythia suspensa stems, upon removal of soluble enzymes, has provided the first evidence for a stereoselective coupling enzyme in lignan biosynthesis. This preparation catalyses the preferred formation (ca 65%) of (+)-[8,8'-14C]pinoresinol from [8-14C]coniferyl alcohol in the absence of exogenously provided cofactors; addition of H2O2 had little effect on enantiomeric composition. However, when NAD and malate were supplied, the stereoselectivity of the coupling reaction was significantly enhanced and pinoresinol consisting of ca 80% of the (+)-antipode was obtained. Clearly, the insoluble residue contains a specific coupling enzyme which catalyses (+)-pinoresinol formation from coniferyl alcohol. By contrast, when [8-14C]sinapyl alcohol was employed as substrate, only racemic syringaresinols were formed: this non-stereoselective peroxidase-catalysed coupling reaction presumably accounts for the low levels of (-)-pinoresinol encountered in this system when coniferyl alcohol is used as a substrate.

  15. A practical one-pot synthesis of azides directly from alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalthazuala Rokhum; Ghanashyam Bez

    2012-05-01

    Alkyl/benzyl azides can be readily synthesized in excellent yields from their corresponding alcohols by stirring a solution of sodium azide in DMSO with a thoroughly ground equimolecular mixture of triphenylphosphine, iodine and imidazole.

  16. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt;

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures....... spectroscopy were applied for determining the carburization temperature and evaluating the composition of the carbide clusters of different samples through determinations of the Mo-C and Mo-Mo coordination numbers....

  17. Reversal mode instability and magnetoresistance in perpendicular (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) pseudo-spin-valves

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J. E.; Gilbert, D. A.; Mohseni, S. M.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    We have observed distinct temperature-dependent magnetization reversal modes in a perpendicular (Co/Pd)4/Co/Cu/(Co/Ni)4/Co pseudo-spin-valve, which are correlated with spin-transport properties. At 300 K, magnetization reversal occurs by vertically correlated domains. Below 200 K the hysteresis loop becomes bifurcated due to laterally correlated reversal of the individual stacks. The magnetic configuration change also leads to higher spin disorders and a significant increase in the giant magn...

  18. Synthesis of Toll-like receptor 4 in Kupffer cells and its role in alcohol-induced liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左国庆; 龚建平; 刘长安; 吴传新; 李生伟; 戴立里

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the synthesis of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 protein and its mRNA expression in Kupffer cells (KCs) and evaluate the role of TLR 4 in liver injury to rats through alcohol-induced liver disease.Methods Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into two groups: ethanol-fed (group E) and control (group C). Group E rats were given ethanol at a dose of 5-12 g@kg-1@d -1, while group C received dextrose. Animals from bot h groups were killed at 4 and 8 weeks. The KCs were isolated and synthesis of T LR 4 protein was determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. TLR 4 mRNA e xpression in KCs was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reacti on (RT-PCR) analysis. The levels of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TN F-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined. Changes in liver pathology were observed.Results Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that the intensity of fluorescence of TLR 4 protein in group E was stronger than group C. Ethanol administration led to a significant increase in TLR 4 mRNA expression in group E compared with grou p C (P<0.05). The concentrations of plasma endotoxin, TNF-α and IL- 6 were higher in group E than in group C (P<0.05). Liver sections from rat s in group E demonstrated marked pathological changes.Conclusion Ethanol administration can lead to the synthesis of TLR 4 protein and its gene expression in KCs, indicating that TLR 4 may play a major role in the development of alcohol-induced liver injury.

  19. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  20. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  1. Effects of H2S and process conditions in the synthesis of mixed alcohols from syngas over alkali promoted cobalt-molybdenum sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Trane, Rasmus;

    2009-01-01

    The present work is an investigation of how the process conditions influence the synthesis of mixed alcohols from syngas over a K2CO3/Co/MoS2/C catalyst. The emphasis in the investigations is upon the effects of H2S in the syngas feed. However the effects of the temperature and of the partial...

  2. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  3. Room Temperature Synthesis of Gold Nanokites in Polyvinyl Alcohol-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Aggregations Aqueous Solution%Room Temperature Synthesis of Gold Nanokites in Polyvinyl Alcohol-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Aggregations Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren, Yueping; Liu, Jia; Feng, Feng; Chen, Tingzhong; Fang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Controlled synthesis of asymmetrical gold nanokites was realized by reducing HAuCl4 with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in PVA-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aggregations aqueous solution at room temperature without any addi- tional reducing agents. The crystal structures, optical property and growth process of the gold nanokites were inves- tigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vis-NIR spectrum and transmission electron microscope (TEM). HAuCl4 con- centration dramatically influenced the morphologies of the products. When HAuCl4 concentration was increased from 0.5 mmol·L^-1 to 2.2 mmol·L^-1, the products changed from network-like nanostructures to nanokites, nanoleaves and microplates. SDS was indispensable for the formation of gold nanokites and without SDS su- per-branched structures became the dominant products.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL ALCOHOL-SOLUBLE POLYORGANOSILOXANE CONTAINING AMINO SIDE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-qing Liu; Yang Liu; Zhong-rong Shen; Ping Xie; Rong-ben Zhang; Chao-bin He; Tai-shung Chung

    2001-01-01

    A novel alcohol-soluble polyorganosiloxane containing amino side groups, poly[3-(4-aminophenoxy)propylmethylsiloxane] (2), was first prepared by the reduction of nitro groups on 4-nitrophenoxypropyl side chains of poly[3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propylmethylsiloxane] (1). The reaction proceeded easily with nearly 100% conversion. The synthesized alcohol-soluble polymer 2, which has potential application as a precursor for preparing advanced functional polymers, was characterized by FTI1R 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 29Si-NMR, VPO and GPC, respectively.

  5. [Development of novel methods for synthesis of heterocyclic compounds catalyzed by transition metals in fluorinated alcohols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akio

    2008-08-01

    New possibilities for catalytic syntheses of lactone derivatives and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds in fluorinated alcohols are described. The cationic Rh(I) catalyst in fluorinated alcohol solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol: HFIP, trifluoroethanol: TFE) brought about not only mild cycloaddition reactions of ester-tethered compounds but also a facile formation of indole derivatives by the aromatic amino-Claisen rearrangement of N-propargyl aniline derivatives. The use of HFIP as an additive exerted a remarkable effect on the Pictet-Spengler reaction catalyzed by the fluorinated surfactant-combined Brønsted acid catalyst in water.

  6. Synthesis of acetate of isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil using immobilized candida antarctica lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase catalyzed production of isoamyl acetate, the flavor and fragrance ester was carried out in n-hexane solvent. Isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil and acetic acid were used as reactants The favorable reaction conditions for maximum (92 %) ester production were amount of enzyme 9 %. acid:alcohol molar ratio 1:2 M, temperature 40 degree C and reaction time 6 hour. Enzyme could be reused six times before loss of activity started. Product was confirmed by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  7. Synthesis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites by direct in-situ polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Djamal Eddine Kherroub; Mohammed Belbachir; Saad Lamouri

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanocomposites with Algerian organically modified clay (termed 12-montmorillonite). The formation of poly(furfuryl alcohol) was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR); the prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The evolution of mechanical properties was also studied. The obtained results confirm the intercalation of molecules of salt in the clay layers, and a good interaction with the polymer, showing the formation of intercalated and/or exfoliated structures. The nanocomposites showed higher thermal stability compared to pure polymer, and the mechanical properties presented interesting and promising results.

  8. Mechanisms mediating the effects of alcohol and HIV anti-retroviral agents on mTORC1,mTORC2 and protein synthesis in myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ly; Q; Hong-Brown; Abid; A; Kazi; Charles; H; Lang

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism and acquired immune deficiency syndrome are associated with severe muscle wasting.This impairment in nitrogen balance arises from increased protein degradation and a decreased rate of protein synthesis.The regulation of protein synthesis is a complex process involving alterations in the phosphorylation state and protein-protein interaction of various components of the translation machinery and mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR) complexes.This review describes mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis in cultured C2C12 myocytes following exposure to either alcohol or human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral drugs.Particular attention is given to the upstream regulators of mTOR complexes and the downstream targets which play an important role in translation.Gaining a better understanding of these molecular mechanisms could have important implications for preventing changes in lean body mass in patients with catabolic conditions or illnesses.

  9. Improved synthesis of cyclic tertiary allylic alcohols by asymmetric 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Andreas; Zuo, Wei; Siewert, Jürgen; Harms, Klaus; von Zezschwitz, Paultheo

    2013-11-25

    The development of an improved protocol for the enantioselective Rh(I) /binap-catalysed 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to cyclic enones is reported. (31)P NMR analysis of the reaction revealed that the catalyst in its resting state is a chloride-bridged dimer. This insight led to the use of AgBF4 as an additive for in situ activation of the dimeric precatalyst. Thus, the catalyst loading can now be reduced to only 1 mol% with respect to rhodium. Various 5-7-membered cyclic enones can be transformed into tertiary allylic alcohols with excellent levels of enantioselectivity and high yields. The obtained products are versatile synthetic building blocks, shown by a highly enantioselective formal total synthesis of the pheromone (-)-frontalin as well as formation of a bicyclic lactone that has the core structure of the natural flavour component "wine lactone".

  10. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar

    2001-06-01

    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  11. Stability engineering of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase and application for the synthesis of a polyamide 12 precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmair, Ludwig; Seiler, Daniel Leonard; Skerra, Arne

    2015-12-01

    The thermostable NAD(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsADH) was exploited with regard to the biocatalytic synthesis of ω-oxo lauric acid methyl ester (OLAMe), a key intermediate for biobased polyamide 12 production, from the corresponding long-chain alcohol. Recombinant BsADH was produced in Escherichia coli as a homogeneous tetrameric enzyme and showed high activity towards the industrially relevant substrate ω-hydroxy lauric acid methyl ester (HLAMe) with K M = 86 μM and 44 U mg(-1). The equilibrium constant for HLAMe oxidation to the aldehyde (OLAMe) with NAD(+) was determined as 2.16 × 10(-3) from the kinetic parameters of the BsADH-catalyzed forward and reverse reactions. Since BsADH displayed limited stability under oxidizing conditions, the predominant oxidation-prone residue Cys257 was mutated to Leu based on sequence homology with related enzymes and computational simulation. This substitution resulted in an improved BsADH variant exhibiting prolonged stability and an elevated inactivation temperature. Semi-preparative biocatalysis at 60 °C using the stabilized enzyme, employing butyraldehyde for in situ cofactor regeneration with only catalytic amounts of NAD(+), yielded up to 23 % conversion of HLAMe to OLAMe after 30 min. In contrast to other oxidoreductases, no overoxidation to the dodecanoic diacid monomethyl ester was detected. Thus, the mutated BsADH offers a promising biocatalyst for the selective oxidation of fatty alcohols to yield intermediates for industrial polymer production.

  12. Stability engineering of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase and application for the synthesis of a polyamide 12 precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmair, Ludwig; Seiler, Daniel Leonard; Skerra, Arne

    2015-12-01

    The thermostable NAD(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsADH) was exploited with regard to the biocatalytic synthesis of ω-oxo lauric acid methyl ester (OLAMe), a key intermediate for biobased polyamide 12 production, from the corresponding long-chain alcohol. Recombinant BsADH was produced in Escherichia coli as a homogeneous tetrameric enzyme and showed high activity towards the industrially relevant substrate ω-hydroxy lauric acid methyl ester (HLAMe) with K M = 86 μM and 44 U mg(-1). The equilibrium constant for HLAMe oxidation to the aldehyde (OLAMe) with NAD(+) was determined as 2.16 × 10(-3) from the kinetic parameters of the BsADH-catalyzed forward and reverse reactions. Since BsADH displayed limited stability under oxidizing conditions, the predominant oxidation-prone residue Cys257 was mutated to Leu based on sequence homology with related enzymes and computational simulation. This substitution resulted in an improved BsADH variant exhibiting prolonged stability and an elevated inactivation temperature. Semi-preparative biocatalysis at 60 °C using the stabilized enzyme, employing butyraldehyde for in situ cofactor regeneration with only catalytic amounts of NAD(+), yielded up to 23 % conversion of HLAMe to OLAMe after 30 min. In contrast to other oxidoreductases, no overoxidation to the dodecanoic diacid monomethyl ester was detected. Thus, the mutated BsADH offers a promising biocatalyst for the selective oxidation of fatty alcohols to yield intermediates for industrial polymer production. PMID:26329849

  13. Synthesis and photo physical properties of Au - Ag (core - shell) nanoparticles disperse in poly vinyl alcohol matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of core - shell (Au - Ag) nanoparticle with varying silver composition has been carried out in aqueous poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Core gold nanoparticle (∼15 nm) has been synthesized through seed-mediated growth process. Synthesis of silver shell with increasing thickness (∼1–5 nm) has been done by reducing Ag+ over the gold sol in the presence of mild reducing ascorbic acid. Characterization of Au - Ag nanoparticles has been done by UV–Vis, High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic study. The blue shift of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band with increasing mole fraction of silver has been interpreted due to dampening of core, i.e. Au SPR by Ag. The dependence of nonlinear optical response of spherical core - shell nanoparticles has been investigated as a function of relative composition of each metal. Simulation of SPR extinction spectra based on quasi-static theory is done. A comparison of our experimental and the simulated extinction spectra using quasi-static theory of nanoshell suggests that our synthesized bimetallic particles have core - shell structure rather than bimetallic alloy particles.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of neodymium oxide modified nafion membrane for direct alcohol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafion composite membranes were prepared by incorporating neodymium oxide (Nd2O3), a hygroscopic rare earth oxide and a dopant for H+ ion conduction, into the nafion structure. Five different loadings of Nd2O3 were used to fabricate Nd2O3/nafion composite membranes and characterized extensively for possible use in direct alcohol fuel cells. The proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity, water uptake, tensile strength, and oxidation stability of the composite membrane were higher than pure cast nafion membrane. Nd2O3/nafion composite membrane exhibited reduced methanol and ethanol crossover as compared to pure cast nafion membrane and thus has potential to use in direct alcohol fuel cells.

  15. Synthesis of PVP-stabilized ruthenium colloids with low boiling point alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Yu, Jiulong; Niu, Haijun; Liu, Hanfan

    2007-09-15

    A route to the preparation of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized ruthenium colloids by refluxing ruthenium(III) chloride in low boiling point alcohols was developed. Deep purple colloids with shuttle-like ruthenium particles were also synthesized. XPS measurement verified the nanoparticles were in the metallic state. The morphology of metal nanoparticles was characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, TEM and XRD. PMID:17568601

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Structure of Chiral Amino Acids and Their Corresponding Amino Alcohols with Camphoric Backbone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hui-Fen; HUANG Wei; LI Hui-Hui; YAO Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Chiral amino acids and their corresponding amino alcohols bearing camphoric backbone were prepared from D-(+)-camphoric imide and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, ESI-MS, and NMR measurements. Among them, one intermediate (lS,3R)-3-amino-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid hydrochloride 3 was structurally elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. Versatile intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions observed in its packing structure result in a two-dimensional framework.

  17. Radiolytic synthesis and antimicrobial activity of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles have been prepared by impregnation of PVA hydrogels in AgNO3 solution and subsequent reduction of Ag+ ions induced by gamma radiation. UV-Visible spectra showed the absorption bands of the surface plasmon at 410 nm. The hydrogels of PVA/Ag have shown excellent activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and have potential for use as wound dressings. (orig.)

  18. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of β-methyl-γ- monofluoromethyl-substituted alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo

    2011-06-07

    Enanatiopure β-methyl-γ-monofluoromethyl alcohols were prepared from the allylic alkylation between fluorobis(phenylsulfonyl)methane with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates. The reaction was catalyzed by using the Cinchona alkaloid derivative, (DHQD)2AQN. The origin of the stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed stereoselectivity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis and Immunosuppressive Activity of New Amino Alcohol Derivatives(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Hao-yu; CUI Lin-lin; ZHANG Qun-li; LI Fang; JIANG Tao; LIANG Yong-tao; WANG En-si

    2011-01-01

    A series of new amino alcohol derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their immunosuppressive activity on mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes.The structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR,13C NMR,IR and MS.Most of the compounds display moderate to potent inhibitory activity.Compound 9d shows the most activity among them that are expected as a powerful candidate for safer immunosuppressant for organ transplantations and the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  20. Magnetic behaviour investigation on symmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁; 沈鸿烈

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we have obtained and investigated the magnetic behaviours of the ferromagnetic layer in thesymmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co by measuring with a vibrating sample magnetometer andanalysing in terms of the multi-domain Ising models. It has been found that some magnetic layer can have quitedifferent magnetic behaviours in different structures of spin valves, depending on the properties of the under-layer. Inour investigation, we have found that the magnetic behaviour of a Co layer depends mainly on the magnetization of theunder-layer, whereas this is not the case for the NiFe layer.

  1. Multicomponent versus domino reactions: One-pot free-radical synthesis of β-amino-ethers and β-amino-alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an optimized multicomponent procedure, an aryl amine, a ketone, and a cyclic ether or an alcohol molecule are assembled in a one-pot synthesis by nucleophilic radical addition of ketyl radicals to ketimines generated in situ. The reaction occurs under mild conditions by mediation of the TiCl4/Zn/t-BuOOH system, leading to the formation of quaternary β-amino-ethers and -alcohols. The new reaction conditions guarantee good selectivity by preventing the formation of secondary products. The secondary products are possibly derived from a competitive domino reaction, which involves further oxidation of the ketyl radicals.

  2. Synthesis of γ-Substituted Alcohol with Polymer-bound Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jun; HUANG Jin-xia; LI Yan; ZHOU Yuan-yuan

    2004-01-01

    With solid phase organic synthesis method(SPOS), polymer-bound N-enoylprolinol(4) was prepared by the attachment of N-enoylprolinol(3) to Merrifield resin and was used for asymmetric Michael additions for the first time. The enantiomeric excess obtained by this method is increased as compared with that obtained by the corresponding solution phase reactions.

  3. Solvothermal synthesis of superhydrophobic hollow carbon nanoparticles from a fluorinated alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyth, S. M.; Ma, W.; Liu, J.; Daio, T.; Sasaki, K.; Takahara, A.; Ameduri, B.

    2015-09-01

    A new and simple method of synthesizing fluorinated carbon at the gram scale is presented by reacting a fluorinated alcohol with sodium at elevated temperatures in a sealed Teflon reactor. The resulting carbon nanoparticles are around 100 nm in diameter, and display a hollow shell morphology, with a significant amount of fluorine doped into the carbon. The nanoparticles disperse easily in ethanol, and are thermally stable up to 400 °C and 450 °C under air and nitrogen, respectively. The nanoparticle dispersion was printed onto various substrates (paper, cloth, silicon), inducing superhydrophobicity.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF POLYMER-STABILIZED RUTHENIUM COLLOIDS BY LOW BOILING POINT ALCOHOL REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-li Su; Xiu-ru Li; Yue-jin Tong; Yue-sheng Li

    2003-01-01

    Stable and well-dispersed poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized ruthenium colloidal clusters were prepared via the reduction of ruthenium(Ⅲ) chloride by refluxing with low boiling point alcohols. Investigation of the size of Ru colloids by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the average diameters could be controlled in the range of 1.2-1.6 nm with relative standard deviations of less than 0.33 by changing the molar ratio of PVP to Ru. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization verified the formation of elemental ruthenium colloids.

  5. Isocyanate Reduction by Epoxide Substitution of Alcohols for Polyurethane Bioelastomer Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lubguban, Arnold A.; Lozada, Zuleica R.; Yuan-Chan Tu; Hongyu Fan; Fu-Hung Hsieh; Galen J. Suppes

    2011-01-01

    A phosphate ester-forming reaction was carried out by mixing epoxidized soybean oil with up to 1.5% o-phosphoric acid. In situ oligomerization took effect almost instantly producing a clear, homogeneous, highly viscous, and a low-acid product with a high average functionality. The resulting epoxide was used as a reactant for urethane bioelastomer synthesis and evaluated for rigid foam formulation. Results have shown that with a number of catalysts tested phosphoric acid significantly enhances...

  6. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol Silver Nanoparticles Gel for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hiep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to fabricate chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol/Ag nanoparticles (CPA gels with microwave-assistance for skin applications. Microwave irradiation was employed to reduce silver ions to silver nanoparticles and to crosslink chitosan (CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The presence of silver nanoparticles in CPA gels matrix was examined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The interaction of CS and PVA was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The release of silver ions was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The antimicrobial properties of CPA gels against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were investigated using agar diffusion method. Finally, the biocompatibility and wound-healing ability of the gels were studied using fibroblast cells (in vitro and mice models (in vivo. In conclusion, the results showed that CPA gels were successfully fabricated using microwave irradiation method. These gels can be applied to heal an open wound thanks to their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.

  7. Development of 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin as polymer-supported synthesis support: Preparation and benzyl ether cleavage by DDQ oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiang Huang; Bao-Zhong Zheng; Quan Long

    2010-03-01

    3-Methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin was synthesized by a two-step sequence under microwave irradiation involving the reaction of commercially available Merrifield resin with vanillin, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. MBBA resin was treated with bromides in the presence of sodium hydride to afford the corresponding resin-bound benzyl ethers. Cleavage of the resin-bound benzyl ethers from the MBBA resin was carried out using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoqunone (DDQ) to give the corresponding alcohols in good yields. Moreover, the recovery, regeneration, and reuse of this polymer support could be achieved easily. MBBA resin can be developed as a kind of solid-phase synthesis bead of alcohols.

  8. Direct Coupling of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Alcohols for the Synthesis of Dimethyl, Diethyl, and Various Dialkyl Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yu Na; Wang, Xi; Park, Eunjin; Jang, Hyeyoung [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    An efficient and high-yield synthesis for DMC has been actively investigated. Reaction conditions typically involve either carbon monoxide (CO) or derivatives (e. g., phosgene), or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) or derivatives (e. g., inorganic carbonates or organic cyclic carbonates). Due to the toxicity and flammability of CO and phosgene, the more environmentally benign and sustainable carbon sources CO{sub 2} and derivatives have been actively employed for production of DMC and related acyclic carbonates. The DMC and acyclic carbonate syntheses that have been reported include: 1) transesterification of cyclic carbonates derived from oxirane and CO{sub 2}; 2) dehydrative condensation of alcohols with CO{sub 2}; 3) reactions between alkyl halide and metal carbonates; 4) reactions between alcohol, alkyl halide, and CO{sub 2}; and 5) reactions between alcohol and CO{sub 2} in the presence of condensing agents.

  9. Synthesis of boron carbide nano particles using polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fathi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study boron carbide nano particles were synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid. First, initial samples with molar ratio of PVA : H3BO3 = 2.7:2.2 were prepared. Next, samples were pyrolyzed at 600, 700 and 800°C followed by heat treatment at 1400, 1500 and 1600°C. FTIR analysis was implemented before and after pyrolysis in order to study the reaction pathway. XRD technique was used to study the composition of produced specimens of boron carbide. Moreover, SEM and PSA analysis were also carried out to study the particle size and morphology of synthesized boron carbide. Finally, according to implemented tests and analyses, carbon-free boron carbide nano particles with an average size of 81 nm and mainly spherical morphology were successfully produced via this method.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON BLACK/POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-fei Xue; Ji-bin Wang; Yu-bin Bao; Qiu-ying Li; Chi-fei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Carbon black (CB)/polymer composites with high refractive index (RI) were fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and covalently functionalized nano-CB (PVA-es-CB) by simple esterification reaction.Transmission electron microscopy showed that uniform aggregates of PVA-es-CB nanoparticles with a size smaller than 100 nm formed in the nanocomposite films.Ellipsometric measurements indicated that the PVA-es-CB/PVA composite films had a RI in the range 1.520-1.598 linearly increased with the PVA-es-CB volume content.Theoretical equation based on Lorentz-Lorenz theory provided reasonably close estimation of the refractive indices to the experimentally observed values.The hybrid films also revealed relatively good surface planarity,thermal stability and optical transparency.

  11. Novel triazole alcohol antifungals derived from fluconazole: design, synthesis, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Badali, Hamid; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Samadi, Nasrin; Afsarian, Mohammad Hosein; Irannejad, Hamid; Emami, Saeed

    2015-02-01

    A series of new triazole alcohol antifungals were designed by replacing one of the triazolyl moiety from fluconazole with a distinct 4-amino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole motif, which is found in some antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of target compounds demonstrated that the direct analogs of fluconazole (difluorophenethyl-triazoles) were less active against fungi, while compound 10h containing dichloro substitutions on both phenyl rings of the molecule had potent activity against yeasts including Candida albicans (four strains) and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs = 2-8 μg/mL). Also, compound 10h was active against Candida parapsilosis, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, while it showed no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, a molecular docking study suggested that compound 10h interacts suitably with lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which is the key enzyme in ergosterol biosynthesis. PMID:25182365

  12. Synthesis of Nitrogen-doped Titania by Solvothermal Reactions in Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped titania nanoparticles were obtained by the homogeneous precipitation in hexamethylenetetraminetitanium trichloride-alcohol aqueous solutions at 90 ℃ followed by heating at 190 ℃. Anatase, rutile and brookite were obtained, where the crystallite size, specific surface area and color greatly changed as 5~50 nm, 20~200 m2/g and light gray to yellow, depending on the solvent and pH. The products after calcination were yellow, indicating doping with nitrogen ion. All colored titania showed photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for the oxidative decomposition of nitrogen monoxide in air. Especially, the nanoparticles of anatase type nitrogen-doped titania obtained using methanol aqueous solution showed excellent photocatalytic activity.

  13. Long-Term Testing of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2013 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2013-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research since 2005 to develop a catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) into mixed alcohols for use in liquid transportation fuels. Initially, research involved screening possible catalysts based on a review of the literature, because at that time, there were no commercial catalysts available. The screening effort resulted in a decision to focus on catalysts containing rhodium and manganese. Subsequent research identified iridium as a key promoter for this catalyst system. Since then, research has continued to improve rhodium/manganese/iridium-based catalysts, optimizing the relative and total concentrations of the three metals, examining baseline catalysts on alternative supports, and examining effects of additional promoters. Testing was continued in FY 2013 to evaluate the performance and long-term stability of the best catalysts tested to date. Three tests were conducted. A long-term test of over 2300 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was conducted with the best carbon-supported catalyst. A second test of about 650 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed for comparison using the same catalyst formulation on an alternative carbon support. A third test of about 680 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed using the best silica-supported catalyst tested to date.

  14. Ba/ZrO₂ nanoparticles as efficient heterogeneous base catalyst for the synthesis of β-nitro alcohols and 2-amino 2-chromenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAGNIKA PRADHAN; KUMARI SWARNIMA; B G MISHRA

    2016-07-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation, urea hydrolysis, amorphous citrate and combustion synthesis methods. The zirconia surface was subsequently modified by grafting Ba²⁺ species. The Ba²⁺ modified zirconia (Ba/ZrO₂) materials were characterized using XRD, Fourier analysis, UV-vis-DRS, FESEM and HRTEM techniques. XRD study indicated selective stabilization of the tetragonal phase of zirconia in the presence of Ba²⁺ species. Fourier line profile analysis of the XRD peaks revealed that the average crystallite size of the zirconia nanoparticles is in the range of 5-15 nm. The surface area, basicity and barium content of the material depend strongly on the method of synthesis. The Ba/ZrO₂ catalyst prepared by urea hydrolysis method exhibited higher surface area and barium content compared to other samples. The catalytic activity of the Ba/ZrO₂ catalyst was evaluated for synthesis of β-nitro alcohols and 2-amino 2-chromenes. The β-nitro alcohols were synthesized by condensation of aryl aldehydes and nitromethane. Similarly, the 2-amino 2-chromenes were synthesized by condensation of arylaldehydes, α-naphthol and malononitrile. The Ba/ZrO₂ catalyst was found to be highly efficient for synthesis of both classes of compounds providing excellent yield and purity of the products.

  15. The influence of the temperature of plastic deformation on the structure and mechanical properties of copper alloys CuCo2Be and CuCo1Ni1Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of temperature of plastic deformation on the structure and mechanical properties of copper alloy of the CuCo2Be and CuCo1Ni1Be during a tensile test applied on electrodes to welders.Design/methodology/approach: The tensile test of the investigated copper alloys was realized in the temperature range of 20-800°C with a strain rate of 1.2•10-3s–1 on the universal testing machine. Metallographic observations of the structure were carried out on a light microscope and the fractographic investigation of fracture on an electron scanning microscope.Findings: The mechanical properties of alloys as well as the range of occurrence of the Portevin - Le Chatelier (PLC phenomenon was determined on the basis of F-ΔL curves formed by tensile tests; however the character of fracture during the break of the samples was defined on the basis of fractographic investigations.Research limitations/implications:Practical implications: In result of tensile tests of copper alloys it has been found that the PLC effect occurs in both alloys in the temperature range of 150-350°C. However, the ductility minimum temperature of the alloys equals about 500°C. At the temperature of stretching of about 450°C the investigated copper alloys show maximum strength values.Originality/value: The type of ”teething” on the load - displacement curves was defined, according to the classification received in literature. The dependence εkr = f(t was marked too.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of technetium(V) complexes with amine, alcoholate, and chloride ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two general routes for the preparation of technetium complexes with aromatic amine, chloride, and alkoxide ligands are presented. The reactions of the tetrachlorooxotechnetate(V) anion of (n-Bu4N)[TcOCl4] with pyridine in tetrahydrofuran/alcohol solvent or of the dioxotetrakis(pyridine)technetium(V) cation of [TcO2(py)4]Cl with LiCl in sulfuric acid/alcohol both yield a neutral alkoxydichlorooxobis(pyridine)technetium(V) complex. The same isomer appears to result from either route. The analogous thiazole derivatives may be prepared in a like manner. The complex chloro(1,2-ethanediolato)oxo(1,10-phenanthroline)technetium(V), TcOCl(C2H4O2)(C12H8N2), is prepared from (n-Bu4N)[TcOCl4] with 1,2-ethanediol and 1,10-phenanthroline in methanol. This complex was characterized by ir, uv/vis, and 1H and 99Tc NMR spectroscopies and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Further insight into the bonding in this complex comes from the single-crystal x-ray structure determination. The space group is monoclinic, P21/c, with a = 7.440 (2) angstrom, b = 8.928 (3) angstrom, c = 21.355 (4) angstrom, β = 92.48 (2)degree, V = 1417.2 (7) angstrom 3, and Z = 4. The structure was solved by standard methods and refined to R = 0.051 and Rw = 0.036 based on 1859 reflections. The oxo and chloride ligands are mutually cis in the highly distorted octahedral coordination sphere. The unusually long Tc-Cl bond length (2.418 (2) angstrom) is attributed to a trans influence exerted by the coordinated diolate. This effect combined with short lengths for the C-C bond (1.491 (1) angstrom) and for the O-Tc-O linkage (1.924 (4), 1.902 (3) angstrom) suggests partial multiple bonding between the technetium and the diolate. 38 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  17. The Economical Production of Alcohol Fuels From Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this time period, at WVU, we tried several methods to eliminate problems related to condensation of heavier products when reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. We have also obtained same preliminary results in our attempts to analyze quantitatively the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) spectra for C-supported Mo-based catalysts. We have completed the kinetic study for the sulfided Co-K-MoS /C catalyst. We have compared the results of methanol synthesis 2 using the membrane reactor with those using a simple plug-flow reactor. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been completed. The results suggest that catalyst pretreatment under different reducing conditions yield different surface compositions and thus different catalytic reactivities

  18. Isocyanate Reduction by Epoxide Substitution of Alcohols for Polyurethane Bioelastomer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold A. Lubguban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A phosphate ester-forming reaction was carried out by mixing epoxidized soybean oil with up to 1.5% o-phosphoric acid. In situ oligomerization took effect almost instantly producing a clear, homogeneous, highly viscous, and a low-acid product with a high average functionality. The resulting epoxide was used as a reactant for urethane bioelastomer synthesis and evaluated for rigid foam formulation. Results have shown that with a number of catalysts tested phosphoric acid significantly enhances a solvent-free oxirane ring cleavage and polymerization of the epoxidized soybean oil via phosphate-ester formation at room temperature. The resulting phosphoric acid-catalyzed epoxide-based bioelastomer showed an 80% decrease in extractable content and increased tensile strength at the same isocyanate loading relative to the noncatalyzed epoxide. The oligomerized epoxidized soybean oil materials exhibited ASTM hydroxyl values 40% less than the nonoligomerized starting material which translates to reduced isocyanate loadings in urethane applications.

  19. Design and Synthesis of Potential New Apoptosis Agents: Hybrid Compounds Containing Perillyl Alcohol and New Constrained Retinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bhaskar C.; Mahalingam, Sakkarapalayam M.; Panda, Lipsa; Wang, Bo; Campbell, Phillp; Evans, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Novel retinoids 1–3 containing perillyl alcohol were synthesized through the addition of perillyl alcohol to the activated carboxylic acids (retinoids) promoted by DCC (N, N′-Dicylohexyl cabodiimide). A set of structurally and functionally diverse perillyl alcohol derivatives of retinoids were obtained in good yields (78–82%). Biological evaluation of these novel hybrid compounds (containing retinoids and perillyl alcohol) is currently underway in our laboratory.

  20. Synthesis of a di-alcohol derivative of cobalt dicarbollide for condensation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers containing the cobalt dicarbollide anion in the main chain are currently of interest as possible cation exchange materials for the selective removal of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2 from nuclear wastes. Suitable monomeric compounds are obtained by derivatizing the carbon sites of the cobalt dicarbollide anion with organic functional groups. Selective deprotonation of [Co(C2B9H11)2] with 2 equivalent of nBuLi in the results in the formation of the dilithio complex, [Co(LiC2B9H10)2]. Reaction of [Co(LiC2B9H10)2] with ethylene oxide followed by protonation of the alcohol group with IIcl (g) gives the dialcohol monomer, [Co13(C2B9H10)2(C2H4OH)2]. The dialcohol monomer has been characterized by FTIR, and 1H and 13C NMR. The characterization as well as the reaction chemistry of the dialcohol monomer with isocyanates will be discussed

  1. Synthesis, characterization, optical and antimicrobial studies of polyvinyl alcohol-silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) through sodium borohydride. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance band located at around 400 nm in the UV-Visible absorption spectrum confirmed the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Polyvinyl alcohol-silver (PVA-Ag) nanocomposite films were prepared by the casting technique. The morphology and interaction of PVA with Ag NPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Optical studies show that PVA exhibited indirect allowed optical transition with optical energy gap of 4.8 eV, which reduced to 4.45 eV under addition of Ag NPs. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant and their dispersions have been analyzed using Wemple and DiDomenco model. Color properties of the nanocomposites are discussed in the framework of CIE L∗u∗v∗ color space. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite samples was tested against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 7447 &Bacillus subtillis NCIB 3610), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, NTC10416 &Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIB 9016) and fungi (Aspergillus niger Ferm - BAM C-21) using the agar diffusion technique. The antimicrobial study showed that PVA has moderate antibacterial activity against B. subtillis and the 0.04 wt% Ag NPs composite sample effect was strong against S. aureus.

  2. Synthesis of hybrid polymer networks of irradiated chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid polymer network (HPN) of chitosan (CS) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared by using radiation degraded chitosan. The chemical structure of chitosan promoted chain scission reactions upon irradiation which lowered its molecular weight and also changed its hydrophilic balance. The effect of molecular weight and hydrophilicity of irradiated chitosan on structural, thermal and surface properties of the HPN were studied. The increased hydrophilicity of irradiated chitosan lowered the crystallinity of the HPN. The endothermic peak was shifted towards higher temperatures in HPN having irradiated chitosan. The decreased value of contact angle with increasing dose, further confirmed the increased hydrophilicity of the HPN. The cytotoxicity results of HPN showed the viability of human fibroblast cells and their non-toxic nature making it suitable for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Biocompatible HPN are prepared from irradiated chitosan. • XRD showed the decrease in crystallinity of the HPN with increase in dose. • Lowering of contact angle with increase in dose showed increased hydrophilicity. • Cytotoxicity results showed nontoxicity of HPN and viability of the cells

  3. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYBRID PROTON CONDUCTING MEMBRANES OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) AND PHOSPHOMOLYBDIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arfat Anis; A.K. Banthia; S. Mondal; A.K. Thakur

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid proton conducting membranes of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were prepared by solution casting method. The effect of PMA doping and PVA crosslinking density on the membrane properties and proton conductivity were investigated. The crosslinking reaction between the hydroxyl group of PVA and the aldehyde group of glutaraldehyde (GA) was characterized by IR spectroscopy. Proton conductivity of the membranes increases with an increase in concentration of the doped PMA and also with an increase in crosslinking density of the membranes. Proton conductivity results indicate that a significant amount of PMA was maintained in the membranes even after several hours of immersion in water. A maximum conductivity of 0.0101 Scm-1 was obtained for the membrane with 33.3 wt% PMA and crosslinking density of 5.825 mol%. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out to investigate the influence of PMA doping and crosslinking density on the nature of the membranes. These properties make them very good candidates for polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cell application.

  4. Synthesis of coprecipitated strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoodi, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, M.H. [Department of Physics, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Esfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method and using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a protective agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, particle size analyzer, sedimentation test and vibrating sample magnetometer. In the presence of PVA, the single-phase SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were obtained at low temperature of 650 deg. C. The average particle size of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} precursor was 15 nm, which increased to 61 nm after calcination at 650 deg. C. The magnetic measurements indicated that PVA decreased coercivity from 4711 to 3216 Oe with particle size reduction. The results showed that PVA as a protective agent could be effective in decreasing the particle size, calcination temperature and coercivity of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles. - Highlights: > Producing SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles with average sizes of 15 and 61 nm before and after calcination at 650 deg. C, respectively. > Obtaining the single phase SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} after calcination at a low temperature (650 deg. C). > Decreasing coercivity from 4711 to 3216 Oe with particle size reduction. > Usage of PVA as an effective protective agent in size reduction of coprecipitated SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and application of biodegradable crosslinked carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaa, Magdy W.; Abdallah, Heba M.; Mohamed, Nadia A.; Mohamed, Riham R., E-mail: rihamrashad@hotmal.com

    2015-11-01

    Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) nanocomposites were synthesized using terephthaloyl diisothiocyanate crosslinker, in the presence of montmorillonite (MMT), in different ratios of the two matrices. Characterization of nanocomposites was performed using different analyses. Swelling behavior was studied in different buffered solutions. It was found that formation of crosslinked CMCh/PVA hydrogels increased the swellability. Metal ion adsorption has also been investigated. The results indicated that crosslinked CMCh adsorbs various metal ions much more than non crosslinked CMCh. Antimicrobial activity was examined against Gram positive bacteria, against Gram negative bacteria, and also against fungi. Results indicated that most of these nanocomposites exhibited good antimicrobial potency. Degradation study was carried out in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for different time periods in order to find out degradation index (Di). Results showed that weight loss of most of the nanocomposites increased as a function of incubation time. - Highlights: • CMCh/PVA nanocomposites have been evaluated for activity against bacteria and fungi. • TEM showed that these hydrogels have size 3–19 nm. • Nanocomposites increased metal ion uptake and showed selectivity for cadmium ions. • Biodegradation increased as a function of incubation time in SBF solution. • Biodegradation increased with increase in CMCh and clay in nanocomposites.

  6. Mucoadhesive polymers: Synthesis and in vitro characterization of thiolated poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Netsomboon, Kesinee; Rohrer, Julia; Hoffmann Abad, Patricia; Laffleur, Flavia; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study was to synthesize thiolated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and to evaluate its mucoadhesive properties. Thiourea and 3-mercaptopropionic acid were utilized in order to obtain thiolated PVAs, namely, TPVA1 and TPVA2, respectively. TPVA1 and TPVA2 displayed 130.44 ± 14.99 and 958.35 ± 155.27 μmol immobilized thiol groups per gram polymer, respectively, which were then evaluated regarding reactivity of thiol groups, swelling behavior and mucoadhesive properties. Both thiolated PVAs exhibited the highest reactivity at pH 8.0 whereas more than 95% of free thiol groups were preserved at pH 5.0. Thiolation of PVA decelerated water uptake and prolonged disintegration time of test discs compared to unmodified PVA. Contact time of TPVA1- and TPVA2-based test discs on porcine intestinal mucosa was 3.2- and 15.8-fold prolonged, respectively, in comparison to non-thiolated PVA as measured by rotating cylinder method. According to tensile studies on mucosa, the total work of adhesion (TWA) and the maximum detachment force (MDF) were increased when compared to PVA. Furthermore, thiolated PVAs preserved higher percentage of viable cells compared to unmodified PVA within 24h as evaluated by MTT assay. Accordingly, thiolated PVA represents a novel excipient that can likely improve the mucoadhesive properties of various pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:26965199

  7. Synthesis, characterization and applications of N-quaternized chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Riham R; Abu Elella, Mahmoud H; Sabaa, Magdy W

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogels composed of N-quaternized chitosan (NQC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios (1:3), (1:1) and (3:1) chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde in different weight ratios – 1.0 and 5.0% – have been prepared. The prepared hydrogels were characterized via several analysis tools such as: Fourier transform IR (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Different applications have been done on NQC/PVA hydrogels including; metal ions uptake, swellability in different buffer solutions (pH: 4, 7 and 9), swellability and degradation studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions and antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi. The results indicated that crosslinked NQC/PVA hydrogels with glutaraldehyde (GA) are more thermallystable than non crosslinked hydrogels, NQC/PVA hydrogels swell highly in different buffer solutions as PVA content increases and the antimicrobial activity of NQC/PVA hydrogels is higher than NQC itself.

  8. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylenglycol blends with tungstophosphoric acid addition: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monopoli, Victor D.; Pizzio, Luis R. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J.J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET, 47 No. 257, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, Mirta N. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J.J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET, 47 No. 257, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mnblanco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2008-04-15

    New materials, based on a Keggin-structured compound (tungstophosphoric acid) immobilized in a polymeric matrix formed by a blend of polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylenglycol with 400, 2000, and 6000 Da molecular weight, were prepared and characterized. Hydrogels with physical type links were produced, using the freezing-thawing technique, and are an alternative to the matrices traditionally obtained by developing chemical links by the use of cross-linkers. The supported tungstophosphoric acid retained its Keggin primary structure intact. There is evidence of a heteropolyacid-polymeric matrix interaction, which could occur between the [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} Keggin anions and protonated hydroxyl groups C-OH{sub 2}{sup +} of the support. An effective immobilization was achieved, because there was no anion solubilization when the materials were put in contact with toluene at reflux. By differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetrical analysis, it was observed that the materials containing tungstophosphoric acid can be used as catalysts in reactions carried out at temperatures lower than 160-200 deg. C, without degradation of the solids, the temperature being dependent on the tungstophosphoric acid content and, at a lesser extent, on the polyethylenglycol molecular weight.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and drug-delivery activity of rifampin anchored poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Palanichamy Jeyaraman; Balakrishnan Meenarathi; Ramasamy Anbarasan

    2016-02-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has wide applications in film industries owing to the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. In recent times the application of PVA is extended to drug-delivery field. Unfortunately, the thermal stability of PVA is very poor. In order to increase the thermal stability, the drugs were chemically conjugated with PVA. In the present investigation rifampin (Rif.) a bactericidal antibiotic drug was chemically conjugated with PVA backbone. The resultant Rif.-conjugated PVA was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, the Rif.-conjugated PVA was tested for the drug-release activity. The scanning electron microscope morphology declared the presence of microvoids on the surface of PVA and the same was effectively used for the drug-loading purpose. Mechanical properties of PVA before and after the structural modification process were also tested. The aromatic carbon signal around 120–150 ppm in the 13C NMR confirmed the chemical grafting of Rif. on to the PVA backbone. The TGA confirmed the four-step degradation process for the structurally modified PVA.

  10. Co and Cu co-doped ZnO epitaxial films—A magnetically soft nano-composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, V.; Venkataraman, V.; Henne, B.; Ollefs, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Ney, A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Co/Cu co-doped ZnO epitaxial films has been grown on sapphire substrates to investigate the possibilities of tailoring the magnetic properties in functional ZnO-Co/Cu nano-composites. The growth was performed using reactive magnetron sputtering varying the oxygen partial pressure to tune the incorporation of the dopants and the resulting valence state. At high oxygen pressures, Co2+ is formed and the resulting magnetic properties are very similar to phase pure paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO samples. However, the formation of a secondary CuO phase reduces the overall structural quality of the layers and virtually no substitutional incorporation of Cu2+ in ZnO could be evidenced. At low oxygen pressures, a significant fraction of metallic Co and Cu forming nanometer-sized superparamagnetic precipitates of a Co/Cu alloy can be evidenced which are embedded in a ZnO host matrix.

  11. Local structure investigation of (Co, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals and its correlation with magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, N.; Doke, S.; Lohar, A.; Mahamuni, Shailaja; Kamal, C.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Choudhary, R. J.; Mondal, P.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2016-03-01

    Pure, Co doped and (Co, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been prepared by wet chemical route at room temperature to investigate the effect of Cu doping in Co doped ZnO nanocrystals . The nanocrystals have initially been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, Raman, optical absorption and EPR spectroscopy and the results were corroborated with DFT based electronic structure calculations. Magnetic properties of the samples have been investigated by studying their magnetic hysteresis behavior and temperature dependence of susceptibilities. Finally the local structure at the host and dopant sites of the nanocrystals have been investigated by Zn, Co and Cu K edges EXAFS measurements with synchrotron radiation to explain their experimentally observed magnetic properties.

  12. Influence of cathodic current density and mechanical stirring on the electrodeposition of Cu-Co alloys in citrate bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Trinta de Farias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cathodic polarization curves of Cu-Co alloys were galvanostatically obtained on a platinum net, using electrolytes containing copper and cobalt sulfates, sodium citrate and boric acid (pH values ranging from 4.88 to 6.00, with different mechanical stirring conditions. In order to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the applied current density and the mechanical stirring on the cathodic efficiency, the alloy composition for the Cu-Co alloy deposition process, and the average deposition potential, an experimental central composite design 2² was employed, and three current density intervals (0.11 to 0.60, 0.50 to 1.98 and 2.44 to 9.94 mA.cm-2 were chosen from the polarization curves for this purpose. The results indicated that the current density (mainly in the range between 0.11 and 0.60 mA.cm-2 affected significantly all the studied variables. In the intermediate range (0.50 to 1.98 mA.cm-2, only the average potential was influenced by the current density. On the other hand, the mechanical stirring had a significant effect only on the copper content, for both the lowest (0.11 to 0.60 mA.cm-2 and the highest current density range (2.44 to 9.94 mA.cm-2. Indeed, in the last range, none of the studied deposition parameters presented significant influence on the studied variables, except for the copper content. This could probably be explained by the direct incorporation of Cu-Citrate complexes in the coating, which was enhanced at high current values.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibrous scaffolds modified by blending with chitosan for neural tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi Alhosseini S

    2012-01-01

    scaffolds enhances viability and proliferation of nerve cells, which increases the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. In fact, addition of a small percentage of chitosan to the PVA scaffolds proved to be a promising approach for synthesis of a neural-friendly polymeric blend.Keywords: polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan, polymer blending, nanofibrous scaffolds, neural tissue engineering

  14. 丁辛醇装置工艺技术分析%Butyloctyl alcohol denice technologies of low-pressure carbonyl synthesis analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍低压羰基合成生产丁辛醇的生产工艺进展情况,对比了四种工艺技术。液相低压羰基合成法是以丙烯、合成气为原料,以铑为催化剂,是低压羰基合成的进一步改进。具有反应器容积小、产率高、能耗低、反应温度低、原料消耗低等诸多优点,是目前生产丁辛醇的主要方法。%In this paper,the production technology of low-pressure carbonyl synthesis butyl octyl alcohol production pro-gress,compared the four types of technology. Liquid of low-pressure carbonyl synthesis in propylene,syngas as raw materi-al,with rhodium catalysts,is a low-pressure carbonyl synthesis of further improvement. With the reactor volume is small, high yield,low energy consumption,low reaction temperature,low raw material consumption,a lot of advantage,is the main method of butyl octyl alcohol production.

  15. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  16. Environmentally benign synthesis of amides and ureas via catalytic dehydrogenation coupling of volatile alcohols and amines in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2016-05-31

    In this study, we report the direct synthesis of amides and ureas via the catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines using the Milstein catalyst in a Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor. A series of amides and ureas, which could not be synthesized in an open system by catalytic dehydrogenation coupling, were obtained in moderate to high yields via catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines. This process could be monitored by the hydrogen produced. Compared to the traditional method of condensation, this catalytic system avoids the stoichiometric pre-activation or in situ activation of reagents, and is a much cleaner process with high atom economy. This methodology, only possible by employing the Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor, not only provides a new environmentally benign synthetic approach of amides and ureas, but is also a potential method for hydrogen storage.

  17. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

  18. Bond dissociation mechanism of ethanol during carbon nanotube synthesis via alcohol catalytic CVD technique: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoya; Shimamura, Kohei; Shibuta, Yasushi; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Yamaguchi, Shu

    2014-03-01

    Dissociation of ethanol on a nickel cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to reveal the bond dissociation mechanism of carbon source molecules during carbon nanotube synthesis. C-C bonds in only CHxCO fragments are dissociated on the nickel cluster, whereas there is no preferential structure among the fragments for C-O bond dissociation. The dissociation preference is uncorrelated with the bond dissociation energy of corresponding bonds in freestanding molecules but is correlated with the energy difference between fragment molecules before and after dissociation on the nickel surface. Moreover, carbon-chain formation occurs after C-C bond dissociation in a continuous simulation. What determines the chirality of CNTs? What happens at the dissociation stage of carbon source molecules? Regarding the former question, many researchers have pointed out the good epitaxial relationship between a graphite network and a close-packed facet (i.e., fcc(1 1 1) or hcp(0 0 0 1)) of transition metals [17-19]. Therefore, the correlation between the chirality of CNTs and the angle of the step edge on metal (or metal carbide) surfaces has been closely investigated [20-22]. In association with this geometric matching, the epitaxial growth of graphene on Cu(1 1 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces has recently been achieved via CCVD technique [23-25], which is a promising technique for the synthesis of large-area and monolayer graphene.Regarding the latter question, it is empirically known that the yield and quality of CNT products strongly depend on the choice of carbon source molecules and additives. For example, it is well known that the use of ethanol as carbon source molecules yields a large amount of SWNTs without amorphous carbons (called the alcohol CCVD (ACCVD) technique) compared with the CCVD process using hydrocarbons [4]. Moreover, the addition of a small amount of water dramatically enhances the activity and lifetime of the catalytic metal (called the

  19. Substrate and stereocontrolled iodocycloetherification of highly functionalized enantiomerically pure allylic alcohols: application to synthesis of cytotoxic 2-epi jaspine B and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundooru, Somireddy; Das, Pintu; Meena, Sanjeev; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Datta, Dipak; Shaw, Arun K

    2015-08-14

    Stereoselectivities of electrophilic additions of molecular iodine to enantiomerically pure highly functionalized allylic alcohols with internal nucleophiles have been investigated. The intramolecular nucleophilic attack on the I2-π complex by an oxygen nucleophile to obtain tri- and tetrasubstituted THFs is highly regio-, stereoselective and substrate controlled. The application of this study has been shown by utilizing one of the THFs 4a as a key intermediate to complete the total synthesis of marine anti-cancer natural product 2-epi jaspine B. PMID:26133669

  20. Microwave-assisted efficient synthesis of 2-arylbenzo[b]furans and 2-ferrocenylbenzo[b]furans from readily prepared propargylic alcohols and -iodophenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liansheng Wu; Xiaokang Shi; Xiaoyun Xu; Fen Liang; Guosheng Huang

    2011-09-01

    A simple, efficient and expeditious method for synthesis of 2-arylbenzo[b]furans and 2-ferrocenylbenzo[b]furans from readily prepared propargylic alcohols, -iodophenols and silica gel with the catalyst of PdCl2(PPh3)2 (2 mol%)/CuI (2mol%) and microwave-promoted Sonogashira coupling/cyclization reaction is developed. The methodology can produce good to excellent yields. In addition, this method can also be completed in one-pot with iodobenzene, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol and 2-iodo-4-methylphenol as reactants.

  1. Synthesis of 1,2-cis-homoiminosugars derived from GlcNAc and GalNAc exploiting a β-amino alcohol skeletal rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blériot, Yves; Auberger, Nicolas; Jagadeesh, Yerri; Gauthier, Charles; Prencipe, Giuseppe; Tran, Anh Tuan; Marrot, Jérôme; Désiré, Jérôme; Yamamoto, Arisa; Kato, Atsushi; Sollogoub, Matthieu

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of 1,2-cis-homoiminosugars bearing an NHAc group at the C-2 position is described. The key step to prepare these α-D-GlcNAc and α-D-GalNAc mimics utilizes a β-amino alcohol skeletal rearrangement applied to an azepane precursor. This strategy also allows access to naturally occurring α-HGJ and α-HNJ. The α-D-GlcNAc-configured iminosugar was coupled to a glucoside acceptor to yield a novel pseudodisaccharide. Preliminary glycosidase inhibition evaluation indicates that the α-D-GalNAc-configured homoiminosugar is a potent and selective α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase inhibitor.

  2. Engineered Hybrid Scaffolds of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Bioactive Glass for Potential Bone Engineering Applications: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytocompatibility, and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Hermes S; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Marivalda M. Pereira; Mansur, Herman S

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, preliminary cytocompatibility, and degradation behavior of the hybrids based on 70% Poly(vinyl alcohol) and 30% bioactive glass (58SiO2–33CaO–9P2O5, BaG) with macroporous tridimensional structure is reported for the first time. The effect of glutaraldehyde covalent crosslinker in the organic-inorganic nanostructures produced and, as a consequence, tailoring the hybrids properties was investigated. The PVA/BaG hybrids scaffolds are characterized by Fourier tran...

  3. Improved regioselectivity in pyrazole formation through the use of fluorinated alcohols as solvents: synthesis and biological activity of fluorinated tebufenpyrad analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustero, Santos; Román, Raquel; Sanz-Cervera, Juan F; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio; Cuñat, Ana C; Villanova, Salvador; Murguía, Marcelo

    2008-05-01

    The preparation of N-methylpyrazoles is usually accomplished through reaction of a suitable 1,3-diketone with methylhydrazine in ethanol as the solvent. This strategy, however, leads to the formation of regioisomeric mixtures of N-methylpyrazoles, which sometimes are difficult to separate. We have determined that the use of fluorinated alcohols such as 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as solvents dramatically increases the regioselectivity in the pyrazole formation, and we have used this modification in a straightforward synthesis of fluorinated analogs of Tebufenpyrad with acaricide activity.

  4. Desarrollo calorimétrico del proceso de precipitación en aleaciones Cu-Co-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso, E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC the precipitation processes of supersaturated solid solutions of three Cu-Co-Si alloys, with a constant cobalt composition, were studied. Thermograms, and previous studies, reveal that the decomposition begins with cobalt precipitation. Clustering of cobalt initiates the silicon precipitation, finally Co2Si stoichiometric particles are formed. Volume fractions are determined by the amount of cobalt present in these alloys. It is inferred that surplus silicon atoms retained in the solution increase the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters were calculated by a method based in the Mehl-Johnson-Avrami (MJA formalism. The lower activation energy obtained, associated with cobalt clustering is attributed to the contribution of quenched-in vacancies.

    Mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC se estudió el proceso de precipitación de soluciones sólidas supersaturadas de tres aleaciones de Cu-Co-Si, con composición de cobalto constante. Evaluaciones entalpimétricas y estudios previos, revelaron que la descomposición comienza con la precipitación de cobalto. El agrupamiento de átomos de cobalto inicia la precipitación del silicio, formándose finalmente partículas de composición estequiométricas de Co2Si. Las fracciones volumétricas fueron determinadas en función de la cantidad de cobalto presente en estas aleaciones. Se infiere que el superávit de átomos de silicio retenidos en la solución aumenta la velocidad de reacción. Los parámetros cinéticos fueron calculados a partir de un método basado en el formalismo de Mehl- Johnson-Avrami (MJA. La energía de activación más baja obtenida, asociada con el apilamiento de cobalto, se atribuyó a la contribución de las vacantes retenidas por temple.

  5. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991–2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, G.; Bouttell, J.; Craig, N.; Craig, P.; Graham, L; Lakha, F.; Lewsey, J.; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J.; Parkinson, J.; Robinson, M; Shipton, D.; Taulbut, M.; D. Walsh

    2016-01-01

    Objective This paper tests the extent to which differing trends in income, demographic change and the consequences of an earlier period of social, economic and political change might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality between 1991 and 2011 in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Study design Comparative time trend analyses and arithmetic modelling. Methods Three approaches were utilised to compare Scotland with E&W:...

  6. Development of alcohol-based synthetic transportation fuels from coal-derived synthesis gases. Second quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-15

    Nineteen catalysts were prepared by either (a) evaporation of metal nitrate-citric acid solutions; (b) coprecipitation of nitrates with carbonates; (c) mechanical blending of the metal oxide (or nitrate) powders or (d) modification of commercial methanol synthesis catalysts. Fourteen catalysts were tested in either the Berty gradientless reactor or the plug-flow reactor. Previously reported selectivities to liquid products were determined with a more refined gas chromatographic system, show that C/sub 4/-C/sub 9/ HC were also present in the liquid product in addition to the alcohols. A sample of liquid product recovered from a 100 hour test made with a CuZn/sub 0/ /sub 125/CrCoK/sub 0/ /sub 11/ catalyst was analyzed by GC and found to contain 55.9 wt % C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ linear alcohols, 33.0% C/sub 1/-C/sub 7/ aldehydes, 9.2% C/sub 5/-C/sub 9/ paraffins and 1.9% unidentified oxygenates. A preliminary techno-economic assessment of three potential synthesis reactor systems - liquid-fluidized, multi-tube, jacketed fixed-bed or adiabatic fixed-bed - was made which indicated that there are significant captial cost and operating cost savings associated with the use of a liquid-fluidized reactor system.

  7. A facile and general strategy for the synthesis of porous flowerlike Pt-based nanocrystals as effective electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Bing; Yuan, Qiang; He, Pei-Lei; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, porous flowerlike Pt-based (Pt, PdPt, RhPt and RhPdPt) nanocrystals were successfully achieved by a simple, economic, environmentally friendly route under the same synthetic conditions at 85 °C. The electrocatalytic properties of these flowerlike Pt-based nanocrystals toward alcohols (glycol, glycerol, methanol and ethanol) oxidation were investigated and they displayed enhanced catalytic performance compared with commercial Pt black. Among them, porous Pd45.5Pt54.5 nanoflowers showed the best catalytic performance with significant mass activity and long-term stability. More importantly, the current synthesis strategy can be easily amplified to gram-scale production.In this paper, porous flowerlike Pt-based (Pt, PdPt, RhPt and RhPdPt) nanocrystals were successfully achieved by a simple, economic, environmentally friendly route under the same synthetic conditions at 85 °C. The electrocatalytic properties of these flowerlike Pt-based nanocrystals toward alcohols (glycol, glycerol, methanol and ethanol) oxidation were investigated and they displayed enhanced catalytic performance compared with commercial Pt black. Among them, porous Pd45.5Pt54.5 nanoflowers showed the best catalytic performance with significant mass activity and long-term stability. More importantly, the current synthesis strategy can be easily amplified to gram-scale production. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, digital photos, TEM, XRD, CVs, EDX and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04927c

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Application of H3PW12O40/MCM-48 in the Esterification of Methacrylic Acid with n-butyl Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yijun; YANG Shuijin

    2008-01-01

    A novel environmental friendly catalyst, H3PW12O40/MCM-48, was prepared by impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD and FT-IR. The synthesis of n-butyl methacrylate catalyzed by H3PW12O40/MCM-48 was studied with methacrylic acid and n-butyl alcohol as reactants. H3PW12O40/MCM-48 is an excellent catalyst for synthesizing n-butyl methacrylate and Keggin structure of H3PW12O40 kept unchanged after being impregnated on surface of the molecular sieve support. Effects of n (methacrylic acid): n (n-butyl alcohol), catalyst dosage, cyclohexane (water-stripped reagent) and reaction time on yields of the product were investigated. The optimum conditions have been found, that is, molar ratio of acid to alcohol is 1:1.6, mass ratio of catalyst used to the reactants is 0.5% and reaction time is 2.0h. Under these conditions, the yield of n-butyl methacrylate can reach 93.7%.

  9. Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Recalescence and Surface Velocity Field in Electromagnetically Levitated Molten CuCo Droplet in Undercooled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Tsubasa; Tanada, Koki; Ueno, Shoya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    The recalescence events of phase-separated Co-rich phases in undercooled molten CuCo droplets electromagnetically levitated under various static magnetic fields were observed directly using a high-speed camera, and also the surface velocities on the levitated droplets were measured by tracing the trajectories of the phase-separated Co-rich phases as tracer particles. In addition, numerical simulations of melt convection in a spherical electromagnetically levitated CuCo droplet exposed to a static magnetic field were performed assuming laminar flow. We observed the emergence of many intermittent bright spots due to recalescence on the entire surface of the levitated droplet, and the frequency of the bright spots decreased markedly as the static magnetic field increased, with no bright spots observed at fields larger than 1.5 T. Also, the Reynolds numbers were evaluated from the measured and calculated velocities in the droplet for various static magnetic fields and compared with the critical Reynolds number of approximately 600, at which the laminar-turbulent transition of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in an electromagnetically levitated droplet occurs, as proposed by Hyers et al. The above results clearly revealed that the marked change in the phase separation structures in undercooled molten CuCo droplets at approximately 1.5 T is due to a convective transition from turbulent flow to laminar flow in the levitated droplets, as speculated in our previous work.

  10. Inhibitory Role of Greatwall-Like Protein Kinase Rim15p in Alcoholic Fermentation via Upregulating the UDP-Glucose Synthesis Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Hirata, Aiko; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Takagi, Kenichi; Akao, Takeshi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The high fermentation rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains is attributable to a loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene, which encodes a Greatwall-family protein kinase that is conserved among eukaryotes. In the present study, we performed intracellular metabolic profiling analysis and revealed that deletion of the RIM15 gene in a laboratory strain impaired glucose-anabolic pathways through the synthesis of UDP-glucose (UDPG). Although Rim15p is required for the synthesis of trehalose and glycogen from UDPG upon entry of cells into the quiescent state, we found that Rim15p is also essential for the accumulation of cell wall β-glucans, which are also anabolic products of UDPG. Furthermore, the impairment of UDPG or 1,3-β-glucan synthesis contributed to an increase in the fermentation rate. Transcriptional induction of PGM2 (phosphoglucomutase) and UGP1 (UDPG pyrophosphorylase) was impaired in Rim15p-deficient cells in the early stage of fermentation. These findings demonstrate that the decreased anabolism of glucose into UDPG and 1,3-β-glucan triggered by a defect in the Rim15p-mediated upregulation of PGM2 and UGP1 redirects the glucose flux into glycolysis. Consistent with this, sake yeast strains with defective Rim15p exhibited impaired expression of PGM2 and UGP1 and decreased levels of β-glucans, trehalose, and glycogen during sake fermentation. We also identified a sake yeast-specific mutation in the glycogen synthesis-associated glycogenin gene GLG2, supporting the conclusion that the glucose-anabolic pathway is impaired in sake yeast. These findings demonstrate that downregulation of the UDPG synthesis pathway is a key mechanism accelerating alcoholic fermentation in industrially utilized S. cerevisiae sake strains.

  11. Evaluaciones calorimétricas de la precipitación en aleaciones Cu-Co-Si, ricas en Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso, Eduardo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation process of cobalt and silicon atoms from supersaturated solid solutions of Cu-Co-Si for two compositions was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Calorimetric traces analysis showed the presence of two overlapping exothermic reactions (stages 1 and 2, which can are attributed to two precipitation processes. First stage correspond to the preceding formation of a cobalt precipitate, while the second stage correspond to the formation of stoichiometric CO2Si composition which takes place by silicon diffusion to the first precipitate. Heat contents during the stages 1 and 2 are proportional to precipitates volume fractions. Activation energies of both precipitates, calculated from the Kissinger method, are consistent with those corresponding to diffussion of Co in Cu and Si in Cu. Both processes can be decribed by the Johnson-Mehl Avrami (JMA equation. Values of n are compatible with precipitate nucleation from the solid solution (stage 1 and with growth of paticles from preexisting Co precipitates. Furthermore,, the kinetic of the concentration decay of Co and Si in the matrix was estimated as function of the transformated fraction for each thermal event and from their respective volume fractions.

    Mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC se estudió el proceso de precipitación de átomos de cobalto y silicio a partir de dos soluciones sólidas supersaturadas de Cu-Co- Si. El análisis de las trazas calorimétricas muestra la presencia de dos reacciones exotérmicas traslapadas (etapas 1 y 2, que se interpretan como la formación de dos tipos de precipitados. La primera etapa corresponde a la formación precursora de un precipitado de cobalto, en tanto que la etapa 2 corresponde a la formación de un precipitado de composición estequiométrica CO2Si producido por difusión de silicio hacia la primera partícula. Los calores liberados durante las etapas 1 y 2 son proporcionales a

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Furfuryl Alcohol Ester with Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B and Its Kinetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Avery; Dey, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Mahua; Ghosh, Jaydip; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the successful enzymatic production of furfuryl oleate and its detailed kinetic study by Michaelis-Menten model. Esterification of oleic acid and furfuryl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation) in a solvent free system was studied in the present work at 1:1 molar ratio of furfuryl alcohol and oleic acid. About 99 % conversion (on the basis of oleic acid) has been achieved within 6 h at 5 % enzyme concentration. Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomenon taken into account) was applied to describe the ratios as a complex kinetic model. The kinetic parameters were determined using MATLAB language programme. The two initial rate constants KA and KB respectively were found out by different progress curves plotted with the help of MATLAB language programme. It was concluded from the results that furfuryl alcohol considerably inhibited the enzymatic reaction while oleic acid had negligible inhibitory effect. It was clearly seen that the initial rate was increased with the increase in the furfuryl alcohol concentration until 2 M/L after which there was a drop in the initial rate depicting the inhibitory effect of furfuryl alcohol. Surprisingly, it has been observed that addition of 0.1 mol of product activated the esterification reaction. Finally, the model was found to be statistically fitting well with the experimental data.

  13. Synthesis of Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticles and Their Potential as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Solvent-Free Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah R. ALI; Prakash CHANDRA; Mamta LATWAL; Shalabh K. JAIN; Vipin K. BANSAL; Sudhanshu P. SINGH

    2011-01-01

    Nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis,thermal analysis,infrared spectroscopy,and X-ray diffraction.A FE-SEM image of the nickel hexacyanoferrate showed that it consists of nearly spherical particles with sizes ranging from 30 to 70 nm.The synthesized material was found to be a heterogeneous catalyst useful for the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol with H2O2 as an oxidant.A 36% conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was achieved under optimized reaction conditions using specific parameters such as the amount of catalyst,the temperature,the benzyl alcohol to H2O2 molar ratio,and the reaction time.

  14. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  15. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  16. A facile and general strategy for the synthesis of porous flowerlike Pt-based nanocrystals as effective electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Bing; Yuan, Qiang; He, Pei-Lei; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xun

    2016-08-21

    In this paper, porous flowerlike Pt-based (Pt, PdPt, RhPt and RhPdPt) nanocrystals were successfully achieved by a simple, economic, environmentally friendly route under the same synthetic conditions at 85 °C. The electrocatalytic properties of these flowerlike Pt-based nanocrystals toward alcohols (glycol, glycerol, methanol and ethanol) oxidation were investigated and they displayed enhanced catalytic performance compared with commercial Pt black. Among them, porous Pd45.5Pt54.5 nanoflowers showed the best catalytic performance with significant mass activity and long-term stability. More importantly, the current synthesis strategy can be easily amplified to gram-scale production. PMID:27443246

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of a Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic IPN Composed of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhen TAN; Man Cai XU; Hai Tao LI

    2005-01-01

    A hydrophilic/hydrophobic interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of poly (vinyl alcohol) /polystyrene was prepared by conversion of the IPN of poly (vinyl acetate)/polystyrene. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic IPN was characterized by FT-IR and DSC, and the swelling ratios of the IPN in different solvents were measured.

  18. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  19. An Efficient and Facile Procedure for Synthesis of Acetates from Alcohols Catalyzed by Poly(4-vinylpyridinium tribromide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam HAJJAMI; Arash GHORBANI-CHOGHAMARANI; Masoomeh NOROUZI

    2012-01-01

    Poly(4-vinylpyridinium tribromide) is an efficient catalyst for the conversion of various alcohols to their corresponding acetate derivatives with acetic anhydride.This method has some advantages such as mild reaction conditions,good to excellent yields,and ease of work-up.

  20. Progress in the Synthesis Methods of Long Chain Alcohol Acrylate%长链醇丙烯酸酯合成方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛文娟; 许孝良

    2014-01-01

    The long chain alcohol acrylate have gained enormous attention among material chemists over the years because of their three-dimensional effect and hydrophilic or hydrophobic macromolecule. They can be used as synthetic organic monomer of various polymers. In this paper, the synthesis methods of long chain alcohol acrylate were reviewed, which provided a fundamental base for the application in biological medicine, materials, surface active agent, etc.%长链醇丙烯酸酯是支链具有空间立体效应以及亲水性或疏水性的大分子,可以用作多种聚合化合物的有机合成单体。本文综述了长链丙烯酸酯的合成方法,为以后进一步研究其在生物医药、材料、表面活性剂等方面的应用提供依据。

  1. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-10-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K2PtCl4 and InCl3.xH2O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt2In3 intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt2In3 catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be ~3.2 and ~2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt2In3 nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  2. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 13, October 1--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    At WVU, Mo{sub 2}S{sub 3} was produced from gas-phase reactions at 1,100 C. The gas-phase reactor was modified to increase product yields and to decrease particle size. Four Chevrel phases were synthesized for catalytic evaluation. In addition, four supported alkali-modified MoS{sub 2} materials were prepared from a single-source precursor, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}S{sub 13}. Screening runs have been carried out on some of these materials and others prepared earlier. At UCC and P, test runs on the reactor system have commenced. Higher alcohols up to butanol were observed and identified at high temperatures. Significant progress has been made on the Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. Frequency distributions have been determined for all of the equipment blocks for the Texaco gasifier cases. For these cases, there is a 10% chance that the actual installed capital cost could exceed the estimated installed capital cost by $40 million dollars. This work will continue with inclusion of variable costs and prediction of the uncertainties in the return on investment. Modifications to the simulated annealing optimization program have been underway in order to increase the level of certainty that the final result is near the global optimum. Alternative design cases have been examined in efforts to enhance the economics of the production of high alcohols. One such process may be the generation of electric power using combustion turbines fueled by synthesis gas.

  3. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New δ34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in δ34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  5. Enhanced photorefractive properties in Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO{sub 3} crystals for holographic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao, E-mail: tzhang_hit02@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Postdoctoral Research Station of Mechanical Engineering, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xin; Geng, Tao; Tong, Chengguo [Key Laboratory of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Kang, Chong [Key Laboratory of In-fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry of Education of China, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Postdoctoral Research Station of Mechanical Engineering, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-04-25

    Graphical abstract: Correlation spots of 200 holograms in a Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Several doped LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with various level of Hf doping were grown by Cz method. • IR peak shift is attributed to the complex defect change at different level of Hf. • Enhanced photorefractive properties have been got with higher Hf-doping level. • Reduced defect and increased photoconductivity are responsible for optical properties. • 200 holograms’ experiment is realized in a coherent volume 0.073 cm{sup 3}. - Abstract: Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with various level of Hf doping were grown in air by a conventional Cz method. The infrared spectra were measured to discuss the defect structures and the mechanism of the absorption peak shift in these crystals. The light-induced scattering of the crystals was evaluated by the transmitted light method. The influence of the Hf-doping level on the photorefractive properties of Hf, Ce and Cu co-doped LiNbO{sub 3} crystals was studied via two-beam coupling. It is found that proper doping Hf is an efficient method to enhance the comprehensive photorefractive properties of the LiNbO{sub 3}. Using one of these crystals as medium, 200 holograms storage and correlation experiments based on angle fractal multiplexing have been realized in a coherent volume 0.073 cm{sup 3}. Moreover the diffraction efficiency is uniform and the storage density has reached 2.2 Gb/cm{sup 3}.

  6. Development of Self-Organized Polymeric Lewis Acid-Catalysts for the Zero-Emission Synthesis of 2-Amino Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Inanaga

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction β-Amino alcohols are versatile synthetic intermediates for a wide range of biologically active natural and unnatural products. They can also serve as good chiral ligands for some asymmetric metal complex catalysts.The nucleophilic ring-opening of epoxides with an amine is one of the most efficient routes to obtain such β-amino alcohols with 1,2-trans stereochemistry. Therefore, various homogeneous catalysts have been developed for this transformation. Meanwhile, the development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts that can be easily prepared, recovered, and reused without losing their activities has currently received much attention from a practical and environmental point of view, and not a few such reusable heterogeneous catalysts (e. g., supported on inorganic materials or insoluble polymers) have been developed[1]. In general, however, they tend to show lower catalytic activities and selectivities compared to the corresponding homogeneous one, and the preparation of them are often tedious.

  7. Synthesis,characterization and swelling properties of a chemically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenbo; XUE Feng; CHENG Rongshi

    2007-01-01

    A poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel was prepared by coupling poly(vinyl alcohol) with epichlorohydrin as the cross-linking agent.The structure of the hydrogel was characterized by FTIR and GPC techniques.Various amounts of water were added into the dry gel to swell it,and the quantity of water in various states in the partially swollen hydrogel was determined by DSC technique.The analytical results indicate that the water introduced into the dry gel first combines with the hydrophilic groups of the network chains through hydrogen bond forming non-freezable water.The weight ratio of the non-freezable water to dry gel in the hydrogels is about 0.20.After the non-freezable water is saturated,the additional water penetrates the network space and exists simultaneously both in the freezable and free water states until reaching equilibrium swelling.

  8. Probing the Structure, Stability and Hydrogen Adsorption of Lithium Functionalized Isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn by Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen.

  9. Retinoic acid response element in the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3: implications for regulation of retinoic acid synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Duester, G; Shean, M L; McBride, M S; Stewart, M J

    1991-01-01

    Retinoic acid regulation of one member of the human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family was demonstrated, suggesting that the retinol dehydrogenase function of ADH may play a regulatory role in the biosynthetic pathway for retinoic acid. Promoter activity of human ADH3, but not ADH1 or ADH2, was shown to be activated by retinoic acid in transient transfection assays of Hep3B human hepatoma cells. Deletion mapping experiments identified a region in the ADH3 promoter located between...

  10. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols and Hydroxide Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Primary alcohols have been reacted with hydroxide and the ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] to afford carboxylic acids and dihydrogen. The dehydrogenative reaction is performed in toluene, which allows for a simple isolation of the products by precipitation and extraction. The transformat......Primary alcohols have been reacted with hydroxide and the ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] to afford carboxylic acids and dihydrogen. The dehydrogenative reaction is performed in toluene, which allows for a simple isolation of the products by precipitation and extraction...... reaction is most likely involved in this case. The kinetic isotope effect was determined to be 0.67 using 1-butanol as the substrate. A plausible catalytic cycle was characterized by DFT/B3LYP-D3 and involved coordination of the alcohol to the metal, β-hydride elimination, hydroxide attack...... on the coordinated aldehyde, and a second β-hydride elimination to furnish the carboxylate....

  11. Reaction and surface characterization study of higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. 9: Pd- and alkali-promoted Zn/Cr-based spinels containing excess ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M. [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States); Epling, W.S.; Hoflund, G.B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-10-01

    A Zn/Cr spinel support material was prepared which contains excess ZnO and then was promoted with 5.9 wt% Pd and varying amounts ranging from 0 to 7 wt % of either K or Cs. Each of these catalysts were tested at four different reactor operating conditions (T of 400 or 440 C and P of 1000 or 1500 psig) for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) using a syngas feedstream (1:1 CO:H{sub 2}) after reductive pretreatment. High isobutanol production rates in conjunction with low methanol-to-isobutanol mole ratios ({le}1.0) and low hydrocarbon byproduct rates are desired. For the K-promoted catalysts the highest isobutanol production rates are obtained at the higher pressure and temperature settings of 1500 psig and 440 C, and methanol-to-isobutanol mole ratios below the ideal value of 1.0, which is required for downstream methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis, are obtained. The Cs-promoted catalysts generally yield higher isobutanol production rates than the K-promoted catalysts. The highest isobutanol production rate of 170 g/kg-h is obtained using the 3 wt% Cs-promoted catalyst at 1000 psig and 440 C. The lower pressure is economically advantageous with regard to process costs. Most importantly, this isobutanol production rate is quite high compared to others presented in the literature and demonstrates that Pd does enhance the synthesis of isobutanol. The catalytic activity remained stable over a 5-day test period for each catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) were used to characterize these catalysts. The results obtained from these techniques indicate that pretreating the catalysts in 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} Torr of H{sub 2} at 300 C for 4 h causes an enrichment of the near-surface alkali-promotor concentration.

  12. Synthesis of benzyl chlorides and cycloveratrylene macrocycles using benzylic alcohols under homogeneous catalysis by HCl/dioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Marina Vargas-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of benzyl chlorides, cyclic derivatives cyclotriveratrylene and cyclotripiperotrylene were carried out in using the HCl/dioxane system as a catalyst. The reaction proceeded with high selectivity and is sensitive to the number of alkyl and methoxy substituent on the aromatic ring.

  13. Controlled synthesis of novel 3D dendritic Bi2S3 /cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel spherical three-dimensional (3D) dendritic Bi2S3 /cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized in aqueous solution of amphiphilic polyvinylacetone (PVKA) (ketalization degree DH = 0.549), via one-step in situ decomposition of the complex [Bi(Tu)x]3+ under γ-ray irradiation, utilizing the controllable hydrolysis property of PVKA in acidic solution. Herein, PVA chains are obtained from the hydrolysed PVKA. These uniform 3D spherical nanocomposites have a structure similar to that found in the natural lotus leaf, where every microscale papilla on the leaf surface is covered by nanoscale papillae

  14. Porous CuCo2O4 nanocubes wrapped by reduced graphene oxide as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenpei; Tang, Yongbing; Li, Wenyue; Li, Zhangpeng; Yang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-21

    A composite of porous CuCo2O4 nanocubes well wrapped by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets has been synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction and applied as anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The porous structure of the CuCo2O4 nanocubes not only provides a high surface area for contact with the electrolyte, but also assists by accommodating volume change upon charging-discharging. Impedance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that incorporation of rGO further decreases the charge transfer resistance and improves the structural stability of the composite. As an anode material for a LIB, the composite exhibits a high stable capacity of ∼ 570 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) after 350 cycles. With a high specific surface area and a low charge transfer resistance, the composite anode shows impressive performance especially at high current density. The LIB shows a high capacity of ∼ 450 mA h g(-1) even at a high current density of 5000 mA g(-1), demonstrating the composite's potential for applications in LIBs with long cycling life and high power density.

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  16. S-3-奎宁醇的合成研究%Study on the Synthesis of S-3-Quinine Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彦荣

    2012-01-01

    A new method is reported for synthesizingS-3-quininealcohoL Based on a configuration transformation strategy, the raw material 3-quinineketoneis, in turn, reduced,esterified, and finally hydrolyzed into S-3-quinine alcohol by potassium borohydride, acetyl chloride, and sodium hydroxide, respectively- Subsequently, 1H NMRcharacterization is employed to confirm the S -3 -quinine alcohol and HPLC also reveals that theoverall yield of the desired product isabout 88-96%-The proposedsynthesis method appears to be convenient,high-yielding, and applicable for industrial purpose.%探讨S-3-奎宁醇的合成新工艺.通过构型转化的方法,以3-奎宁酮为原料,经硼氢化钾还原、与乙酰氯成酯、水解得S-3-奎宁醇.其结构经1H NMR等表征证实,总收率可达到88.96%.该合成路线操作步骤简单、收率高,具有工业应用价值.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of bimetallic nanocatalysts and their application in selective hydrogenation of citral to unsaturated alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Ananthan; R Suresh; K Giribabu; V Narayanan

    2013-11-01

    TiO2-supported bimetallic nanocatalysts were prepared and reduced at two different temperatures, 375°C and 575°C for selective hydrogenation of citral to corresponding unsaturated alcohols (geraniol (GOL) and nerol (NOL)). The nanocatalysts were characterized by difference techniques of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared nanocatalysts are uniformly dispersed with an average particle size of 50-100 nm and zero valence metallic state. Catalysts reduced at higher temperature lead to an increase in selectivity toward unsaturated alcohols (GOL and NOL). The Pt-Ru/TiO2 shows higher activity compared to Pt-Pd/TiO2 and Pt-Au/TiO2 nanocatalysts. In addition, a second metal (Ru) also leads to an increase in GOL and NOL selectivity during citral hydrogenation. Partially generated oxidized second metal species due to the difference in electronegativity, strongly binds the C=O group and also paves the way for selective activation of C=O bond.

  18. 天然气经合成气制低碳混合醇研究%SYNTHESIS OF MIXED C1~C6 ALCOHOLS FROM NATURAL GAS THROUGH SYNGAS ROUTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏伟; 李文怀; 杨成; 马育刚; 孙予罕

    2003-01-01

    Cu/ZrO2 and MoS2 based catalysts were developed for the synthesis of higher alcohols. Modified by the carbon chain growth enhancing elements, both catalyst systems showed the high performance without the obvious deactivation after 2000 h running at 9.0~12.0 MPa and 300~380 ℃, indicating a good prospect for the further development in practical application.

  19. Effects of Co/AC catalyst on alcohol products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis%Co/AC催化剂对F-T合成醇产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊亮; 于广欣; 孙玉平

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbon supported cobalt based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by vacuum impregnation method. The influence of reaction temperatures,reaction pressure and raw gas space velocity on alcohol product of F-T synthesis was invetigated in a slurry reactor. The results showed that the increase of reaction temperature was beneficial to the production of long-chain hydrocarbon and alcohols;the selectivity to alcohols enhanced with the increase of reaction pressure,but the selectivity to alcohols changed little when the reaction pressure was increased to 3 . 0 MPa;although the content of alcohols in the liquid products enhanced with the increase of GHSV,the distribution of alcohols was not changed.%以活性炭为载体,采用真空浸渍法制备Co/AC催化剂,在浆态床反应器中考察反应温度、反应压力和空速等条件对F-T合成醇产物的影响.结果表明,升高反应温度对长链烃和醇的生成有利,醇类的选择性随着反应压力的增大而提高,但反应压力增至3 . 0 MPa后,继续增加反应压力对醇类选择性变化不大;随着空速的增大,液相产物中醇含量虽然增加,但醇的分布无变化.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles: A recyclable heterogeneous organocatalyst for the acetylation of alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, Arash; Norouzi, Masoomeh

    2016-03-01

    Herein, we describe a simple and efficient procedure for the preparation of 3-((3-(trisilyloxy)propyl)propionamide)-1-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid supported on magnetic nanoparticle (TPPA-IL-Fe3O4). The structure of this magnetic ionic liquid is fully characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XRD, VSM, SEM, EDX and DLS techniques. TPPA-IL-Fe3O4 is employed as a catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols with acetic anhydride under mild and heterogeneous conditions at room temperature with good to excellent yields. The magnetic catalyst could be readily separate from the reaction media by simple magnetic decantation, and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity.

  1. Ultrasound assisted green synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) capped silver nanoparticles for the study of its antifilarial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Swadhin Kr.; Chowdhury, Pranesh; Saini, Prasanta; Babu, Santi P. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) capped stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been synthesized sonochemically with the help of catalytic amount of a biomolecule (tyrosine). An attempt has been made to reduce the harmfull chemical additives (like sodium borohydride, hydrazine, dimethyl formamide, etc.) used in conventional methods. Tyrosine shows excellent reducing activity in presence of PVA stabilizer. Ultra-sound increased the reaction rate and yield, and improved the quality of the AgNP in terms of regular size distribution. The synthetic route follows the principles of green chemistry. Bioactivity has been tested in the light of antifilarial efficacy through induction of apoptosis. The biocompatible polymer (PVA) capped AgNPs are suitable for the treatment of filarial nematode.

  2. Gold & silver nanoparticles supported on manganese oxide: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic studies for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Alabbad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-gold and silver particles supported on manganese oxide were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The catalytic properties of these materials were investigated for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol using molecular oxygen as a source of oxygen. The catalyst was calcined at 300, 400 and 500 °C. They were characterized by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and surface area. It was observed that the calcination temperature affects the size of the nanoparticle, which plays a significant role in the catalytic process. The catalyst calcined at 400 °C, gave a 100% conversion and >99% selectivity, whereas catalysts calcined at 300 and 500 °C gave a conversion of 69.51% and 19.90% respectively, although the selectivity remains >99%.

  3. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  4. Synthesis, non-isothermal crystallization and magnetic properties of Co0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taieb Aouak; Nasrallah M Deraz; Abdullah S Alarifi

    2013-06-01

    The synthesis of Co0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4/poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (ferrite/PEVA) nanocomposite was carried out through two steps: impregnation of the ferrite particules by PEVA and then mixing the ferrite/PEVA impregnated with PEVA solution. A non-isothermal study of the crystallization kinetic of ferrite/PEVA nanocomposite was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was observed that the Ozawa equation describes perfectly the primary process of non-isothermal crystallization of ferrite/PEVA system. There is a strong dependence of the ferrite/PEVA composition on the crystallization parameters. The crystallization activation energy (a) calculated from the Xu and Uhlmann model increased by increasing the ferrite content in ferrite/PEVA nanocomposites between 3 and 7wt% and decreased dramatically beyond these values. The results revealed that the ferrite nanoparticles were uniformly distributed throughout the PEVA matrix. The percentage of magnetization of the composite decreases as the concentration of the ferrite increases.

  5. Engineered Hybrid Scaffolds of Poly(vinyl alcohol/Bioactive Glass for Potential Bone Engineering Applications: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytocompatibility, and Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, preliminary cytocompatibility, and degradation behavior of the hybrids based on 70% Poly(vinyl alcohol and 30% bioactive glass (58SiO2–33CaO–9P2O5, BaG with macroporous tridimensional structure is reported for the first time. The effect of glutaraldehyde covalent crosslinker in the organic-inorganic nanostructures produced and, as a consequence, tailoring the hybrids properties was investigated. The PVA/BaG hybrids scaffolds are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray Microcomputed tomography analysis (μCT. Cytotoxicity assessment is performed by the MTT method with VERO cell culture. Additionally, the hybrid in vitro degradation assay is conducted by measuring the mass loss by soaking in deionized water at 37°C for up to 21 days. The results have clearly shown that it is possible to modify the PVA/BaG hybrids properties and degradation behavior by engineering the structure using different concentrations of the chemical crosslinker. Moreover, these hybrid crosslinked nanostructures have presented 3D hierarchical pore size architecture varying within 10–450 μm and a suitable cytocompatibility for potential use in bone tissue engineering applications.

  6. Synthesis, Radical Reactivity, and Thermochemistry of Monomeric Cu(II) Alkoxide Complexes Relevant to Cu/Radical Alcohol Oxidation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Capitao, Dany; Kaminsky, Werner; Qian, Zhaoshen; Mayer, James M

    2016-06-01

    Two new monomeric Cu(II) alkoxide complexes were prepared and fully characterized as models for intermediates in copper/radical mediated alcohol oxidation catalysis: Tp(tBuR)Cu(II)OCH2CF3 with Tp(tBu) = hydro-tris(3-tert-butyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate 1 or Tp(tBuMe) = hydro-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate 2. These complexes were made as models for potential intermediates in enzymatic and synthetic catalytic cycles for alcohol oxidation. However, the alkoxide ligands are not readily oxidized by loss of H; instead, these complexes were found to be hydrogen atom acceptors. They oxidize the hydroxylamine TEMPOH, 2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenol, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene to the nitroxyl radical, phenoxyl radical, and benzene, with formation of HOCH2CF3 (TFE) and the Cu(I) complexes Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)-MeCN in dichloromethane/1% MeCN or 1/2 [Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 in toluene. On the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics arguments, these reactions likely proceed through concerted proton-electron transfer mechanisms. Thermochemical analyses give lower limits for the "effective bond dissociation free energies (BDFE)" of the O-H bonds in 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 + TFE and upper limits for the free energies associated with alkoxide oxidations via hydrogen atom transfer (effective alkoxide α-C-H BDFEs). These values are summations of the free energies of multiple chemical steps, which include the energetically favorable formation of 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2. The effective alkoxide α-C-H bonds are very weak, BDFE ≤ 38 ± 4 kcal mol(-1) for 1 and ≤44 ± 5 kcal mol(-1) for 2 (gas-phase estimates), because C-H homolysis is thermodynamically coupled to one electron transfer to Cu(II) as well as the favorable formation of the 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 dimer. Treating 1 with the H atom acceptor (t)Bu3ArO(•) did not result in the expected alkoxide oxidation to an aldehyde, but rather net 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxyl radical transfer occurred to generate an unusual 2-substituted dienone-ether product. Treating 2

  7. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  8. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  9. Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanofibril hybrid aerogel microspheres and their use as oil/solvent superabsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianliang; Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Xia, Hesheng; Gong, Shaoqin

    2016-09-01

    Superhydrophobic and crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogel microspheres were prepared via a combination of the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification process with the freeze-drying process, followed by thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane. The oil phase and the cooling agent were judiciously selected to ensure that the frozen ice microspheres can be easily separated from the emulsion system. The silanized microspheres were highly porous with a bulk density ranging from 4.66 to 16.54mg/cm(3). The effects of the solution pH, stirring rate, and emulsifier concentration on the morphology and microstructure of the aerogel microspheres were studied. The highly porous structure of the ultralight aerogel microspheres demonstrated an ultrahigh crude oil absorption capacity (up to 116 times its own weight). This study provides a novel approach for the large-scale preparation of polymeric aerogel microspheres with well-controlled particle sizes that can be used for various applications including oil and chemical spill/leak clean-up.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose cryogels and their testing as carriers for a bioactive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduraru, Oana Maria; Ciolacu, Diana; Darie, Raluca Nicoleta; Vasile, Cornelia, E-mail: cvasile@icmpp.ro

    2012-12-01

    Novel physically cross-linked cryogels containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained by freezing/thawing technique. The main goal of this study was to improve the properties and the performances of the pure PVA cryogels. The morphological aspects of the cryogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to reveal the presence of the interactions between the two polymers. Changes in crystallinity of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The modification of the thermal behavior induced by cellulose was studied by thermogravimetry. Rheological analysis revealed higher values of storage modulus (G Prime ) for the cryogels containing higher amounts of cellulose. The degree and rate of swelling were controlled by the presence of the natural polymer in the network. The potential application as bioactive compound carriers was tested, using vanillin as an active agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PVA/microcrystalline cellulose cryogels were obtained by freezing/thawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main advantage of this technique is that no chemical crosslinker is being used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cellulose improves the swelling properties and the cryogels' strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential application as carriers for bioactive components was tested.

  11. Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanofibril hybrid aerogel microspheres and their use as oil/solvent superabsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianliang; Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Xia, Hesheng; Gong, Shaoqin

    2016-09-01

    Superhydrophobic and crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogel microspheres were prepared via a combination of the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification process with the freeze-drying process, followed by thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane. The oil phase and the cooling agent were judiciously selected to ensure that the frozen ice microspheres can be easily separated from the emulsion system. The silanized microspheres were highly porous with a bulk density ranging from 4.66 to 16.54mg/cm(3). The effects of the solution pH, stirring rate, and emulsifier concentration on the morphology and microstructure of the aerogel microspheres were studied. The highly porous structure of the ultralight aerogel microspheres demonstrated an ultrahigh crude oil absorption capacity (up to 116 times its own weight). This study provides a novel approach for the large-scale preparation of polymeric aerogel microspheres with well-controlled particle sizes that can be used for various applications including oil and chemical spill/leak clean-up. PMID:27185143

  12. Water/alcohol soluble electron injection material containing azacrown ether groups: synthesis, characterization and application to enhancement of electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Shing; Lu, Huai-An; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Using an environmentally stable metal as the cathode in a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) is an essential requirement for its practical application. We present the preparation of a water/alcohol soluble copoly(p-phenylene) (P1) containing pendant azacrown ether and ethylene glycol ether groups as a highly efficient electron injection layer (EIL) for PLEDs, allowing the use of environmentally stable aluminum as the cathode. Multilayer PLEDs [ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PF-Green-B/EIL/Al] using P1 as EIL exhibit significantly enhanced device performance, particularly in the presence of K2CO3 or Cs2CO3. The maximum luminous power efficiency and maximum luminance of the device with Cs2CO3-doped P1 as EIL were enhanced to 9.16 lm W(-1) and 17,050 cd m(-2), respectively, compared with those without EIL (0.16 lm W(-1), 890 cd m(-2)). The turn-on voltage was also significantly reduced from 5.7 V to 3.7 V simultaneously. The performance enhancement has been attributed to improved electron injection which has been confirmed by the rise in open-circuit voltage (Voc) obtained from photovoltaic measurements. The incorporation of such an electron injection layer significantly enhances device performance for PLEDs with an environmentally stable metal as the cathode. PMID:24442208

  13. Synthesis, Characterization of Mesoporous Al-Mg Composite Oxide and Catalytic Performance for Oxyethylation of Fatty Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei-ming; DENG Qi-gang; ZHOU De-rui; ZHAO De-feng

    2005-01-01

    A mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide with a hexagonal structure was synthesized with aluminium nitrate and magnesium nitrate as the reagents and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as the template in the presence of ethylenediamine. The XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and TEM studies indicate that the composite has a hexagonal framework structure and an average pore diameter of 2.6 nm. The TG/DTA spectra indicate that the decomposition and the removal of the occluded surfactant of the sample take place in a range of 230-550 ℃. The mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide exhibites a highly catalytic activity for the oxyethylation of fatty alcohols. Narrow-range distributed ethoxylates are formed in the presence of the mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide catalyst. The distribution selectivity coefficient(Cs) is 24 when the mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide was used as a catalyst for the oxyethylation of octanol and the average adduct degree of ethoxylates is 6.4.

  14. Facile synthesis of glucose-sensitive chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel: Drug release optimization and swelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abureesh, Mosab Ali; Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Gazi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    The study describes the development of glucose-sensitive hydrogel and optimization of bovine serum albumin release profile from the hydrogel. To enhance the glucose sensitivity and improve the swelling behaviors of the hydrogel system, boric acid crosslinking, and freeze-thawing cycle techniques were used to prepare chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. The structure of the resultant hydrogel was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results revealed that the swelling of the hydrogel was influenced by the pH of the medium, and the hydrogel displayed explicit glucose-sensitivity under physiological conditions. The values of the diffusion exponent range between 0.34 and 0.44 and the diffusion of water into the gel system are assumed to be pseudo-Fickian in nature. Under optimized conditions, the cumulative Bovine serum albumin (BSA) drug releases ranged between 69.33±1.95% and 86.45±1.16% at 37°C in the presence of glucose and pH 7.4, respectively. PMID:26459171

  15. 半导体硅上电沉积Cu/Co层状薄膜%Preparation of Cu/Co Layer Film by Electrodeposition on Semiconductor Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 龚正烈; 姚素薇; 郭鹤桐; 袁华堂; 张允什

    1999-01-01

    The Cu/Co layer film on the semiconductor silicon was obtained by electrodeposition for the first time. The results of current-time transient curves and STM image showed that the growth of Cu film is two dimensional while an island three dimension growth for the Co film was formed. The addition of CrO3 changed the current-time transient curves,and affected the growth of crystal.The addition of CrO3 decreased the nucleation rate of Cu,while it changed the shape of current-time transient curves of the deposition of Co at higher deposition potentials.For the deposition of Co,addition of CrO3 can form the adhesive film [Co· xCr2O3· yH2O]ad or [CoOH· nCr(OH)3]ad,which decreased the nucleation rate of Co.

  16. Large magnetocaloric effect in La0.845Sr0.155Mn1-xMxO3 (M = Mn, Cu, Co) perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Phan, The-Long; Yu, Seong-Cho; Tho, Nguyen Duc; Chau, Nguyen

    2004-06-01

    We present the results of an investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in the perovskites of La0.845Sr0.155Mn1-xMxO3 (M = Mn, Cu, Co). It is found that there was a large magnetic entropy change, i.e. a large magneto-caloric effect, in all these samples. Among them, the magnetic entropy change reaches a maximum value of 2.67 J/kg K at the applied field of 13.5 kOe for the Cu-doped sample, suggesting that this material would be a suitable candidate for the advanced magnetic refrigeration technology. The large magnetic entropy change produced by the abrupt reduction of magnetization is attributed to the strong coupling between spin and lattice that occurs in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature (TC) - which is experimentally verified by electron paramagnetic resonance study.

  17. Compositional Dependence of Electronic Specific Heat in AlCuCo Decagonal Quasicrystals: Evidence for the Hume-Rothery Mechanism of Phase Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zhen-Jun; JING Xiu-Nian; ZHANG Dian-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ There is no consensus whether the electron density of states of decagonal quasicrystals has a pseudogap at the Fermi energy similar to that of the icosahedron phase. We answer this question by measuring the electronic specific heat coefficient of AlCuCo decagonal single-quasicrystals over a wide range of composition. While the average valence electron number per atom, e/a, for all the resultant samples changes only within 1.5%, from ~ 1.92 to less than 1.95. The specific heat coefficient decreases by 15% with the increasing e/a. The large change and the negative slope give strong evidence for Hume-Rothery mechanism of the decagonal phase.

  18. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  19. Binuclear ruthenium(III) bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: Synthesis, spectral, electrochemical studies and catalytic oxidation of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Subarkhan, M.; Ramesh, R.

    2015-03-01

    A new series of binuclear ruthenium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes of general formula [(EPh3)2(X)2Ru-L-Ru(X)2(EPh3)2] (where E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = NS chelating bis(thiosemicarbazone ligands) has been synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vis and EPR). IR spectra show that the thiosemicarbazones behave as monoanionic bidentate ligands coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulphur. The electronic spectra of the complexes indicate that the presence of d-d and intense LMCT transitions in the visible region. The complexes are paramagnetic (low spin d5) in nature and all the complexes show rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion with three different 'g' values (gx ≠ gy ≠ gz) at 77 K. All the complexes are redox active and exhibit an irreversible metal centered redox processes (RuIII-RuIII/RuIV-RuIV; RuIII-RuIII/RuII-RuII) within the potential range of 0.38-0.86 V and -0.39 to -0.66 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl. Further, the catalytic efficiency of one of the complexes [Ru2Cl2(AsPh3)4(L1)] (4) has been investigated in the case of oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide(NMO) as co-oxidant. The formation of high valent RuVdbnd O species is proposed as catalytic intermediate for the catalytic cycle.

  20. Structure of Co—K—Mo/γ—Al2O3 catalysts and their catalytic activity for mixed alcohols synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-zhuBian; Yi-luFu; 等

    1999-01-01

    A series of oxideized CO-K-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst samples,prepared by impregnating oxidized K-Mo/γ-Al2O3 samples with an aqueous solution of calculated Co(NO3)2 and then calcining in air at temperatures of 350℃,500℃65℃ and 800℃ respectively,were sulfided and then investigated for the activity in the synthesis of mixed alcohols from CO hydrogenation under conditions of p=5.0MPa,T=350℃ and GHSV=4800h-1 .The results demonstrate that the addition of cobalt promoter is favorable to the formation of higher alcohols and the opimum calcination temperatures after impregnating with Co2+ are about 500-650℃.The structure of Co and Mo species on the oxidized and sulfided samples was determined by X-ray diffraction(XRD),laser Raman spectrum (LRS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS).For oxidized sample calcined at 350℃ ,cobalt exists as Co3O4 specties and covers the surface of K-Mo-O species,the structure of K-Mo-O species is the same as that in K-Mo/Al2O3 sample.The interaction between cobalt and K-Mo-O species is relatively weak.After sulfidation.Cobalt exists as sulfide crystallites with an octahedral coordinated structure,and molybdenum as MoS2 crystallites.For oxidized samples calcined at 500-650℃,Co component interacts with the K-Mo-O species and destroys the long-range order of the K-Mo-O spectes gradually,After sulfidation.Co tends to exist as a sulfide with tetrahedral coordinated structure and Mo still as MoS2 crystallites.For oxidized sample calcined at 800℃,Co component exists mainly as CoAl2O4 species,most of which cannot be sultided during sulfidation.

  1. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George W

    1997-02-13

    Effort during this quarter was devoted to three areas: 1) analyzing the data from earlier runs with "zinc chromite"catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin®, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of "zinc chromite" catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375°C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425°C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

  2. Review in Catalysts Comprising F-T Components for Mixed Alcohols Synthesis from Syngas%包含Co、Fe组分的合成气制低碳混合醇催化剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李导; 李克健; 章序文; 王洪学

    2015-01-01

    低碳混合醇由于其具有巨大的工业应用价值,而成为C1化工中重要的研究内容。CO加氢合成低碳醇的过程为强放热、体积缩小的可逆反应,并且需要C-O键断裂的表面解离吸附,来实现碳链的增长,以及C-O键保留的表面非解离吸附来实现CO的插入成醇。包含F-T组元的混合醇催化剂分别采用Co、Fe组分及甲醇合成活性组元,来实现二者的协同作用。本文对含Co、含Fe催化剂活性中心的作用方式、关键影响因素进行简要阐述,并指出低碳混合醇催化剂与合成新工艺的整合开发,是提高醇选择性和产率,实现工业化应用的关键。%Mixed alcohols synthesis is an important process in the field of C1 chemistry because of its huge in⁃dustrial application value. The process is a strong exothermic, volume reduced reaction,which needs the C-O bond cleavage and Surface dissociative adsorption to realize the growth of carbon-chain,and non-dissociative CO adsorption for CO insertion and alcohol formation. Using F-T synthesis active components and methanol synthesis active components to achieve the synergy in mixed alcohol catalyst comprising Co、Fe.This article briefly described the action mode of the active centers and the key factors in catalyst containing Co, Fe Cata⁃lyst. Integrating the development of low-carbon mixed alcohol catalyst and the new process of synthesis is the key to improve the selectivity and yield of alcohol , and is the point to realize the industrial application.

  3. Novel synthesis of manganese and vanadium mixed oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2) as an efficient and selective catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Vahid, E-mail: v-mahdavi@araku.ac.ir; Soleimani, Shima

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Oxidation of various alcohols is studied in the liquid phase over new composite mixed oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2) catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). The activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2 samples was considerably increased with respect to OMS-2 catalyst and these samples are found to be suitable for the selective oxidation of alcohols. - Highlights: • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 with different V/Mn molar ratios prepared by the impregnation method. • Oxidation of alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst had excellent activity for alcohol oxidation. • Benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. • The selected catalyst was reused without significant loss of activity. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis and characterization of mixed oxide vanadium–manganese V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 at various V/Mn molar ratios and prepared by the impregnation method. Characterization of these new composite materials was made by elemental analysis, BET, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and TEM techniques. Results of these analyses showed that vanadium impregnated samples contained mixed phases of cryptomelane and crystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} species. Oxidation of various alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant. Activity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 samples was increased considerably with respect to K-OMS-2 catalyst due to the interaction of manganese oxide and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The kinetic of benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst was investigated at different temperatures and a pseudo-first order reaction was determined with respect to benzyl alcohol. The effects of reaction time, oxidant/alcohol molar ratio, reaction temperature, solvents, catalyst recycling potential and

  4. 啤酒生产中高级醇的形成与低产高级醇酵母菌种的选育%Synthesis of Higher Alcohols During Beer Fermentation and Brewing Yeast Improving for Low Higher Alcohols Producing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冬光; 陈叶福; 张翠英

    2013-01-01

    高级醇是啤酒中主要的风味物质,但含量过高会对啤酒质量产生不利影响。选育低产高级醇的啤酒酵母菌种,可从源头上有效控制啤酒酿造过程中高级醇的过量生成。本文对啤酒生产中高级醇的生成机制,及依据此机制开展的啤酒酵母选育工作做一综述。随着生物技术的不断发展,高级醇生成的精确机制将会得到清晰阐释,据此对啤酒酵母高级醇代谢进行精细调控以提高啤酒风味质量,将成为啤酒酵母菌种选育工作的重要方向。%Higher alcohols , the major flavor materials in beer , have significant negative effects on beer quality when their concentration beyond certain level .Breeding of yeast strains with low higher alcohols productivity is proved to be an efficient method for the controlling of higher alcohols in beer .In this paper,the synthesis mechanisms of higher alcohols during beer fermentation ,and the strains improving works based on these mechanisms were reviewed .With the development of biotechnology , the details of higher alcohols biosynthesis will be revealed , and the fine tuning of higher alcohols metabolism of beer yeast would be a more efficient strategy to promote beer flavor quality .

  5. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  6. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  7. Synthesis and structural studies of complexes of Cu, Co, Ni and Zn with isonicotinic acid hydrazide and isonicotinic acid (1-naphthylmethylenehydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA KRIZA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight new complexes of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid, (INH and isonicotinic acid (1-naphthylmethylenehydrazide (INNMH, having the formula of the type [M(INH(ac2] or [M(INNMH(ac2] (M = Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II and [Cu(INH(ac2]2, [Cu(INNMH(ac2]2, were synthesized and characterized. All complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, and IR, UV–VIS–NIR and EPR spectroscopy, as well as by thermal analysis and determination of their molar conductivity and magnetic moments. The structure of INNMH was established by single crystal X-ray analysis. In all complexes, both ligands were coordi¬nated to the metal via N and O. The complexes of Cu (II were dimeric, with four bridges between acetate ions and Cu(II.

  8. Synthesis and structural studies of complexes of Cu, Co, Ni and Zn with isonicotinic acid hydrazide and isonicotinic acid (1-naphthylmethylene)hydrazide

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELA KRIZA; LUCICA VIORICA ABABEI; NICOLETA CIOATERA; ILEANA RĂU; NICOLAE STĂNICĂ

    2010-01-01

    Eight new complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid, (INH)) and isonicotinic acid (1-naphthylmethylene)hydrazide (INNMH), having the formula of the type [M(INH)(ac)2] or [M(INNMH)(ac)2] (M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) and [Cu(INH)(ac)2]2, [Cu(INNMH)(ac)2]2, were synthesized and characterized. All complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, and IR, UV–VIS–NIR and EPR spectroscopy, as well as by thermal analysis and determination of...

  9. Shape- and morphology-controlled sustainable synthesis of Cu, Co, and in metal organic frameworks with high CO2 capture capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2012-11-06

    We studied the effects of various surfactants on the shape and morphology of three metal organic frameworks (MOFs), i.e., Co-MOF, Cu-MOF, and In-MOF, which were synthesized under microwave irradiation. The as-synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen sorption. The effects of microwave irradiation time, temperature, and surfactant template were investigated. The synthetic parameters, including the type of surfactant template and the reaction temperature, played crucial roles in the size, shape, and morphology of the MOF microcrystals. We also evaluated these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2. Of the synthesized materials, Cu-MOF demonstrated the highest CO2 capture capacity, even at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as model substrates. For the acyclic enone enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as mod

  12. Enantioselective Alcohol C-H Functionalization for Polyketide Construction: Unlocking Redox-Economy and Site-Selectivity for Ideal Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiajie; Kasun, Zachary A; Krische, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The development and application of stereoselective and site-selective catalytic methods that directly convert lower alcohols to higher alcohols are described. These processes merge the characteristics of transfer hydrogenation and carbonyl addition, exploiting alcohols and π-unsaturated reactants as redox pairs, which upon hydrogen transfer generate transient carbonyl-organometal pairs en route to products of C-C coupling. Unlike classical carbonyl additions, stoichiometric organometallic reagents and discrete alcohol-to-carbonyl redox reactions are not required. Additionally, due to a kinetic preference for primary alcohol dehydrogenation, the site-selective modification of glycols and higher polyols is possible, streamlining or eliminating use of protecting groups. The total syntheses of several iconic type I polyketide natural products were undertaken using these methods. In each case, the target compounds were prepared in significantly fewer steps than previously achieved. PMID:27113543

  13. Analysis of Cu, Co, V and Zn in coastal waters of the East China Sea by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rujun; Ning, Yutong; Zhang, Aibin; Li, Yan; Su, Han

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a simple method for the simultaneous determination of trace metals (Cu, V, Co, Zn) in coastal seawater using the Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed. This multi-element method enables the simultaneous extraction of four metals, particularly Co and V. The recoveries of Cu, Co, V and Zn after Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation were 73%, 96%, 94% and 92%, which means that our procedure was well-suited to the determination of these four trace metals. The detection limits were 3.81, 0.18, 6.09 and 1.91 nmol L-1, respectively. Then, applying this method to the simultaneous determination of these four metals in coastal water samples from the East China Sea revealed that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Co and V were higher in bottom waters compared to water at other depths, and higher concentrations were generally observed at the Yangtze River estuary. Additionally, example vertical profiles of dissolved trace metal concentrations for the East China Sea in spring and autumn are compared. These findings indicate that Zn had the greatest seasonal variation followed by Cu, V and Co. For Zn and Co, the concentrations were higher during spring than during autumn. For Cu and V, the seasonal variation in the concentrations was opposite.

  14. Structure and Redox Properties of VCe0.95M0.05 (M=Cu, Co, Mn, Fe and Cr) Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟依均; 罗孟飞

    2002-01-01

    The mixed oxides, VCe and VCe0.95M0.05 (M=Cu, Co, Mn, Fe and Cr), we re prepared by sol-gel method. The structure and redox properties of these mixe d oxides were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS and TPR techniques. The main phas e is tetragonal VCeO4 phase in all samples. The substitution of Fe, Mn, Cu or Co for Ce results in the formation of CeO2 or monoclinic VCeO4 phase. The XP S result indicates that valence of V is +5+δ(δ<1) in VCe0.95Co0 .05, VCe0.95Mn0.05, VCe0.95Cr0.05 and VCe0.95Fe 0.05 samples compared with VCe , on the contrary, valence of V is +5-δ (δ<1) in VCe0.95Cu0.05 sample. The Fe, Co, Cr and Mn enhanc e the reduction of V5+ in VCeO4, whereas Cu inhibits this reduction.

  15. Magnetostatic coupling of 90{sup 0} domain walls in Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81}/Cu/Co trilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurde, J; Miguel, J; Kuch, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, J; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A, E-mail: julia.kurde@fu-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The magnetic interlayer coupling of Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81}/Cu/Co trilayered microstructures has been studied by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in combination with photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). We find that a parallel coupling between magnetic domains coexists with a non-parallel coupling between magnetic domain walls (DWs) of each ferromagnetic layer. We attribute the non-parallel coupling of the two magnetic layers to local magnetic stray fields arising at DWs in the magnetically harder Co layer. In the magnetically softer FeNi layer, non-ordinary DWs, such as 270{sup 0} and 90{sup 0} DWs with overshoot of the magnetization either inwards or outwards relative to the turning direction of the Co magnetization, are identified. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that in the absence of magnetic anisotropy, both types of overshooting DWs are energetically equivalent. However, if a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy is present, the relative orientation of the DWs with respect to the anisotropy axis determines which of these DWs is energetically favorable.

  16. Direct imaging of thermally-activated grain-boundary diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange-bias structures using atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, F.; Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.lebreton@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Lechevallier, L. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Département de GEII, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-28

    Magnetic devices are often subject to thermal processing steps, such as field cooling to set exchange bias and annealing to crystallize amorphous magnetic electrodes. These processing steps may result in interdiffusion and the subsequent deterioration of magnetic properties. In this study, we investigated thermally-activated diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange biased polycrystalline thin-film structures using atom probe tomography. Images taken after annealing at 400 °C for 60 min revealed Mn diffusion into Co grains at the Co/IrMn interface and along Pt grain boundaries for the IrMn/Pt stack, i.e., a Harrison type C regime. Annealing at 500 °C showed further Mn diffusion into Co grains. At the IrMn/Pt interface, annealing at 500 °C led to a type B behavior since Mn diffusion was detected both along Pt grain boundaries and also into Pt grains. The deterioration of the films' exchange bias properties upon annealing was correlated to the observed diffusion. In particular, the topmost Pt capping layer thickness turned out to be crucial since a faster deterioration of the exchange bias properties for thicker caps was observed. This is consistent with the idea that Pt acts as a getter for Mn, drawing Mn out of the IrMn layer.

  17. Direct imaging of thermally-activated grain-boundary diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange-bias structures using atom-probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, F.; Lechevallier, L.; Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J.-M.; Akmaldinov, K.; Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic devices are often subject to thermal processing steps, such as field cooling to set exchange bias and annealing to crystallize amorphous magnetic electrodes. These processing steps may result in interdiffusion and the subsequent deterioration of magnetic properties. In this study, we investigated thermally-activated diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange biased polycrystalline thin-film structures using atom probe tomography. Images taken after annealing at 400 °C for 60 min revealed Mn diffusion into Co grains at the Co/IrMn interface and along Pt grain boundaries for the IrMn/Pt stack, i.e., a Harrison type C regime. Annealing at 500 °C showed further Mn diffusion into Co grains. At the IrMn/Pt interface, annealing at 500 °C led to a type B behavior since Mn diffusion was detected both along Pt grain boundaries and also into Pt grains. The deterioration of the films' exchange bias properties upon annealing was correlated to the observed diffusion. In particular, the topmost Pt capping layer thickness turned out to be crucial since a faster deterioration of the exchange bias properties for thicker caps was observed. This is consistent with the idea that Pt acts as a getter for Mn, drawing Mn out of the IrMn layer.

  18. Synthesis of Mixed Carbonates via a Three-Component Coupling of Alcohols, CO2, and Alkyl Halides in the Presence of K2CO3 and Tetrabutylammonium Iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Mei Shen; Min Shi

    2002-01-01

    Various mixed carbonates can be conveniently prepared in good yields using the corresponding alcohols, alkyl halides under CO2 atmosphere in the presence of potassium carbonate or sodium carbonate and tetrabutylammonium iodide.

  19. Subcellular localization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase in Penicillium simplicissimum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, MW; Sjollema, KA; Veenhuis, M; van Berkel, WJH; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Growth of Penicillium simplicissimum on anisyl alcohol, veratryl alcohol or 3-(methoxymethyl)phenol, is associated with the synthesis of relatively large amounts of the hydrogen peroxide producing flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO), Immunocytochemistry revealed that the enzyme has a dual lo

  20. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  1. The selectivity and activity of catalyst for CO hydrogenation to methanol and hydrocarbon: A comparative study on Cu, Co and Ni surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingbo; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Qiang; Chan, Siewhwa; Su, Haibin

    2016-03-01

    Typical Fischer-Tropsch catalysts display different selectivity and activity in catalyzing CO hydrogenation to diverse products. In this work, the preferable routes for CH3OH formation on Cu, chain growth on Co and CH4 formation on Ni are identified guided by the comprehensive reaction network that is mapped out by density function theory calculations. The difference in selectivity among catalysts is controlled delicately by several reactions, including CH3O + H ↔ CH3OH, CH3 + H ↔ CH4 and CH2 + CO ↔ CH2CO. The equilibrium shifts of CH2O + H ↔ CH3O and CH2 + H ↔ CH3 also make an impact on selectivity. The distinct selectivity can be understood further with the activity of catalysts. Our results show that the ability of surface to absorb species increases in the order Cu Co. Generally, Cu catalyzes the association reaction better than Co and Ni, while Co facilitates the dissociation reaction. Two key factors, thermodynamic effect and kinetic effect, are identified in determining the activity of catalyst. We proof that surface with strong binding capability promotes the dissociation reaction, meanwhile impedes the association reaction when the thermodynamic effect is dominant in determining the barrier height. The Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relation is observed for C-O bond breaking reactions. In addition, kinetic effect also affects the barrier when special transition state exists. The tilt of CO at the transition state for COH formation and chain growth reactions introduces the interaction of atom O with surface. The stronger binding of atom O on Co is crucial to branch the selectivity of Co to chain growth rather than methane. Present study provides a comprehensive picture on the activity and selectivity of catalysts, which is the essential to develop novel catalyst for syngas conversion.

  2. Size-controlled synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanospheres via a PEG assisted hydrothermal route and their catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-05-01

    A novel and facile approach for synthesis of spinel nickel ferrites (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) employing homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating is reported. The synthesis involves use of tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent in synthesis of nickel ferrites. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized NiFe2O4 NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD pattern revealed formation of cubic face-centered NiFe2O4 and TEM image showed spherical particles of sizes 2-10 nm. These NiFe2O4 NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of cyclic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This eco-friendly procedure affords products in very high yield and selectivity. The reusability of the catalyst is proved to be noteworthy as the material exhibits no significant changes in its catalytic activity even after five cycles of reuse.

  3. Rhodium-Catalyzed/Copper-Mediated Tandem C(sp(2))-H Alkynylation and Annulation: Synthesis of 11-Acylated Imidazo[1,2-a:3,4-a']dipyridin-5-ium-4-olates from 2H-[1,2'-Bipyridin]-2-ones and Propargyl Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Kun; Liu, Wenmin; Zhang, Xu; Mao, Wutao; Guo, Yongming; Ge, Xiaolin; Pan, Fei

    2016-03-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed/copper-mediated tandem C(sp(2))-H alkynylation and intramolecular annulation of 2H-[1,2'-bipyridin]-2-ones with propargyl alcohols for the synthesis of 11-acylated imidazo[1,2-a:3,4-a']dipyridin-5-ium-4-olates is described.

  4. The promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol synthesis from syngas over cesium-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jie; Cai, Qiuxia; Wan, Yan; Wan, Shaolong; Wang, Li; Lin, Jingdong; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol (C2+OH) synthesis from syngas over Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated using a combined experimental and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculation method. In the presence of cesium, the C2+OH productivity increases from 77.1 g•kgcat-1•h-1 to 157.3 g•kgcat-1•h-1 at 583 K due to the enhancement of the initial C–C bond formation. Detailed analysis of chain growth probabilities (CGPs) confirms that initial C–C bond formation is the rate-determining step in the temperature range of 543-583 K. Addition of cesium promoter significantly increases the productivities of 2-methyl-1-propanol, while the CGPs values (C3* to 2-methyl-C3*) is almost unaffected. With the assistance of cesium promoter, the CGPs of the initial C–C bond formation step (C1* to C2*) could be increased from 0.13 to 0.25 at 583 K. DFT calculations indicate that the initial C–C bond formation is mainly contributed by the HCO+HCO coupling reaction over the ZnCu(211) model surface. In the presence of the Cs2O, the stabilities of key reaction intermediates such as HCO and H2CO are enhanced which facilitates both HCO+HCO and HCO+H2CO coupling reaction steps with lower activation barriers over the Cs2O-ZnCu(211) surface. The promotional effects of cesium on the C2+OH productivity are also benefited from the competitive CH+HCO coupling reaction over CH hydrogenation that leads to lower alkane formation. In addition, Bader charge analysis suggests that the presence of cesium ions would facilitate the nucleophilic reaction between HCO and H2CO for initial C–C bond formation. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91545114 and No. 91545203). We appreciate the joint PhD scholarship support from the China Scholarship Council. The authors would also like to thank the support from Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (2011-iChEM). DM

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  6. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  8. Silver(I)-Catalyzed Synthesis of β-Oxopropylcarbamates from Propargylic Alcohols and CO2 Surrogate: A Gas-Free Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Yin, Hong; He, Liang-Nian

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide poses major challenges owing to its high thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness. To circumvent these problems, a simple reaction system is reported comprising ammonium carbamates as carbon dioxide surrogates, propargylic alcohols, and a silver(I) catalyst, for the effective conversion of a wide range of alcohols and secondary amines into the corresponding β-oxopropylcarbamates. A key feature of this strategy includes quantitative use of a carbon resource with high product yields under gas-free and mild reaction conditions. Notably, this catalytic protocol also works well for the carboxylative cyclization of propargylic amines and carbon dioxide surrogates to afford 2-oxazolidinones.

  9. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization;Sintese e caracterizacao de particulas derivadas de poli(alcool vinilico) (PVA) para embolizacao e quimioembolizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzim, Vinicius L.; Basso, Glaucia G.; Passos, Rodrigo A.; Nery, Jose G. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Agreli, Guilherme; Oliveira, Ana P.M.L.; Kawasaki-Oyama, Rosa S.; Braile, Domingo M., E-mail: nery@ibilce.unesp.b [Braile Biomedica Industria e Comercio Representacoes S.A., Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  11. Tuning the synthesis of platinum-copper nanoparticles with a hollow core and porous shell for the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuangshuang; Yang, Nating; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol.Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03894h

  12. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES COMPRISING SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES, MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES AND BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a facile method to accomplish cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) using microwave (MW) irradiation. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked with SW...

  13. Synthesis of ZrO2-HfO2-Y2O3-Sc2O3 Nano-Particles by Sol-Gel Technique in Aqueous Solution of Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Agglomeration-free nanosized ZrO2-HfO2-Y2O3-Sc2O3 composite powders were successfully synthesized by Sol-Gel technique in heated aqueous solution of alcohol, using analytically pure ZrOCl2·8H2O, HfOCl2·8H2O, Y(NO3)3·6H2O, and Sc2O3 as raw materials. The effect of synthesis condition on the size and dispersity of the composite powders was investigated by means of XRD, TEM, and TG-DSC techniques. The results showed that well-dispersed predecessor of ZrO2-HfO2-Y2O3-Sc2O3 composite nanopowders could be obtained. The optional condition: PEG6000 as dispersant was 1%, alcohol/H2O ratio was 5/1, metallic ion concentration in whole solution was 0.5 mol·L-1 and the pH value of the solution was 12. After calcined at 620 ℃, the powder obtained was in uniform cubic structure, and its average particle size was about 13 nm, which was good for producing nanocrystalline solid electrolyte.

  14. Efficient and versatile catalysis of N-alkylation of heterocyclic amines with alcohols and one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzazoles with newly designed ruthenium(II) complexes of PNS thiosemicarbazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Prakash, Govindan; Selvamurugan, Sellappan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Malecki, Jan Grzegorz; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-06-01

    Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with phosphine-functionalized PNS type thiosemicarbazone ligands [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(L)] (1-6) (E = P or As, L = 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene) thiosemicarbazone (PNS-H), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-methylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Me), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Ph)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 2 and 6 were identified by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The analysis revealed that all the complexes possess a distorted octahedral geometry with the ligand coordinating in a uni-negative tridentate PNS fashion. All the ruthenium complexes (1-6) were tested as catalyst for N-alkylation of heteroaromatic amines with alcohols. Notably, complex 2 was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards N-alkylation of a wide range of heterocyclic amines with alcohols. Complex 2 can also catalyze the direct amination of 2-nitropyridine with benzyl alcohol to the corresponding secondary amine. Furthermore, a preliminary examination of performance for N,N-dialkylation of diamine showed promising results, giving good conversion and high selectivity. In addition, N-alkylation of ortho-substituted anilines (-NH2, -OH and -SH) led to the one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles, also revealing the catalytic activity of complex 2. PMID:24705796

  15. A novel dinuclear schiff base copper complex as an efficient and cost effective catalyst for oxidation of alcohol: Synthesis, crystal structure and theoretical studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atena Naeimi; Samira Saeednia; Mehdi Yoosefian; Hadi Amiri Rudbari; Viviana Mollica Nardo

    2015-07-01

    An environmentally friendly protocol is described for an economic, practical laboratory-scale oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, using a bis-chloro-bridged binuclear Cu(II) complex [(HL)Cu(2-Cl)2Cu(HL)]*1.5 CH3OH as catalyst. The catalyst was prepared in situ from commercially available reagents and is characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis, FT-IR, UV-visible spectra, mass spectrometry, and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The geometry of the complex has been optimized using the B3LYP level of theory confirming the experimental data. Our results demonstrated well the efficiency, selectivity and stability of this new catalyst in the oxidation of alcohols in ethanol and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH) as a green solvent and oxidant, respectively. Turnover number and reusability have proven the high efficiency and relative stability of the catalyst.

  16. Synthesis of his-quaternary ammonium peroxotungstates (peroxomolybdates)and their catalytic activity in oxidation of alcohols by aqueous H2O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xianying; WEI Junfa

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of bis-quaternary ammonium salts of peroxotungstate and peroxomolybdate,such as PhCH2NO(O2)2(C2O4)] and PhCH2N(CH2)6NCH2Ph [MoO(O2)2(C2Oa)],have been synthesized and characterized.Their catalytic activity in the oxidation of cyclohexanol and benzyl alcohol was investigated with only aqueous 30% hydrogen peroxide.The results show that the bis-quaternary ammonium peroxotungstates are excellent catalysts in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol under moderate conditions.However,the catalytic ability of bis-quaternary ammonium peroxomolybadates is relatively poor.The yields of benzyl acid,benzaldehyde,and cyclohexanone reached up to 93.0%,93.6%,and 91.7%,respectively.

  17. Synthesis and activity of (R)-(-)-m-trimethylacetoxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride: a prodrug form of (R)-(-)-phenylephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S S; Bador, N

    1976-06-01

    Optically pure (R)-(-)-m-trimethylacetoxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride was synthesized by the following sequence: (R)-(-)-phenylephrine was condensed with acetone in the presence of calcium carbide to give an oxazolidine derivative and then treated with thallous ethoxide in ether followed by trimethylacetyl chloride to yield the phenolic ester. Finally, the oxazolidine ring was cleaved by one equivalent of hydrogen chloride in ethanol. Condensation of phenylephrine with benzaldehyde, with or without solvents, gave either 1,1,2-trimethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline or a mixture of side-chain oxazolidine and the tetrahydroisoquinoline. Condensation of epinephrine with opianic acid in pyridine also gave a tetrahydroisoquinoline only. When applied on rabbit eyes, the prodrug (R)-(-)-m-trimethylacetoxy-alpha[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride exhibited an unexpected, three times higher mydriatic activity than the corresponding racemic prodrug and was 15 times more active than the parent, (R)-(-)-phenylephrine.

  18. Synthesis of 1,2-allenic ketones through oxidation of homopropargyl alcohols with CrO3(cat.)/TBHP under MWI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Ying Zhang; Ying Ying Qu; Yang Yang Wang; Xue Sen Fan

    2011-01-01

    A Cr3 catalyzed oxidation of homopropargyl alcohols with tert-butyl hydroperoxide under microwave irradiation was found to be an efficient and rapid alternative for the preparation of 1,2-allenic ketones. The advantages of this procedure include short reaction time, less adverse impact on the environment and reasonably high efficiency. (c) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.

  19. Palladium-catalyzed dehydrative heck olefination of secondary aryl alcohols in ionic liquids: towards a waste-free strategy for tandem synthesis of stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Shard, Amit; Bharti, Richa; Thopate, Yogesh; Sinha, Arun Kumar

    2012-03-12

    All in one: a tandem strategy has been developed wherein secondary aryl alcohols are directly coupled with aryl halides to provide stilbenoids through a dehydrative Heck sequence in the ionic liquid [hmim]Br, and with water as a by-product under microwave irradiation. Classical methods do not permit this sequence to proceed in one pot, and some methods require multiple steps. hmim=1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium.

  20. Neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Emelyanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the present-day Russian and foreign literature on neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication. The most common manifestations of alcohol disease include alcoholic polyneuropathy (PNP and alcohol-induced skeletal muscle injury. The clinical polymorphism of alcoholic PNP is discussed. The paper considers a chronic sensory automatic form due to the direct toxic effects of ethanol and its metabolites during long-term alcohol intoxication, as well as acute/subacute sensorimotor neuropathy, the basis for the pathogenesis of which is B group vitamins, predominantly thiamine, deficiency that develops in the presence of drinking bouts concurrent with malnutrition and/or alcohol-related gastrointestinal tract diseases. In addition to nonuse of alcohol and a properly balanced diet, antioxidant therapy with alphalipoic acid and neurotropic B group vitamins is considered to be pathogenetic therapy for neuropathy. The most common and least studied clinicalform of alcohol-induced musculoskeletal injury is chronic alcoholic myopathy (AM, the diagnostic standard for which is morphometricand immunohistochemical examination of a muscle biopsy specimen. The morphological base for this form of myopathy is predominantly type 2 muscle fiber atrophy caused by impaired protein synthesis and a decreased regenerative potential of muscle fiber. The efficacy of antioxidants and leucine-containing amino acid mixtures in the treatment of chronic AM is discussed.

  1. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  2. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may ... alcohol content). If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. ...

  3. Cu-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reaction of Styrenes, Perfluoroalkyl Halide, Alcohol, and tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide: One-Pot Synthesis of (Z)-β-Alkoxyperfluoroalkenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiang; Liu, Chunmei; Tong, Jingjing; Shao, Ying; Shan, Wenyu; Wang, Hanghang; Zheng, Hao; Cheng, Jiang; Wan, Xiaobing

    2016-04-15

    An efficient synthesis of Z-perfluoroalkyl-substituted enones by a multicomponent reaction strategy has been described. A variety of elusive perfluoroalkylated enones are furnished under mild reaction conditions in good yields with unique chemo- and stereoselectivity. A sequence of radical-mediated Kornblum-DeLaMare reaction, Michael addition, and HF elimination is proposed for the mechanism. PMID:26980724

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol): effect of molar fraction of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) with size lower than Bohr radius present quantum confinement effect, and properties dependent on particle diameter. The use of these nanoparticles for biological applications is highly promising, however this kind of use requires biocompatible systems. In this sense, the choice of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, as stabilizing agent has been investigated. The main goal of this work was synthesize and characterize CdS nanoparticles using PVA as capping agent varying the molar ratio of cadmium and sulfur precursors. The results revealed that absorption and emission properties, as well as nanoparticle size, were function of Cd/S ratio. (author)

  5. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid/Poly(vinyl alcohol IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiong Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified poly(aspartic acid/poly(vinyl alcohol interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550 and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN, and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  7. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingqiong; Li, Yinhui; Hu, Deng; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Modified poly(aspartic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN) hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid) grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid), respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery. PMID:26351630

  8. Synthesis, characterization and study of catalytic activity of Silver doped ZnO nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fallah Shojaei; K Tabatabaeian; M A Zanjanchi; H Fallah Moafi; N Modirpanah

    2015-03-01

    Powder samples of Ag/ZnO nanocomposite containing different amounts of Ag were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM techniques. The XRD results revealed that all the samples show wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. The TEM micrographs of the samples showed that size of Ag-ZnO nanoparticles was in the range of 30–50 nm. Catalytic activity was tested using liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes. The influence of some parameters such as optimum weight of Ag, catalyst dosage, oxidant and various solvents were studied. The superior catalytic performance of the Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was observed in microwave condition compared to that performed in reflux condition. The catalysts were recycled three times in the oxidation of alcohols and little change in the conversion efficiency was observed. The highly dispersed Ag metal particles on ZnO surface was considered to be responsible for the catalytic activity.

  9. Alcohol abuse and glycoconjugate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycoconjugate metabolism is complex and multidimensional. This review summarizes the advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the metabolic effects of alcohol on glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. We summarize the action of ethanol, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nonoxidative metabolite of alcohol — fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and the ethanol-water competition mechanism, on glycoconjugate biosynthesis, modification, transport and secretion, as well as on elimination and catabolism processes. As the majority of changes in the cellular metabolism of glycoconjugates are generally ascribed to alterations in synthesis, transport, glycosylation and secretion, the degradation and elimination processes, of which the former occurs also in extracellular matrix, seem to be underappreciated. The pathomechanisms are additionally complicated by the fact that the effect of alcohol intoxication on the glycoconjugate metabolism depends not only on the duration of ethanol exposure, but also demonstrates dose- and regional-sensitivity. Further research is needed to bridge the gap in transdisciplinary research and enhance our understanding of alcohol- and glycoconjugate-related diseases.

  10. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Celorrio, V.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that ...

  11. New phosphine-diamine and phosphine-amino-alcohol tridentate ligands for ruthenium catalysed enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones and a concise lactone synthesis enabled by asymmetric reduction of cyano-ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes José A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones is a key reaction in organic chemistry. In the past, we have attempted to deal with some unsolved challenges in this arena by introducing chiral tridentate phosphine-diamine/Ru catalysts. New catalysts and new applications are presented here, including the synthesis of phosphine-amino-alcohol P,N,OH ligands derived from (R,S-1-amino-2-indanol, (S,S-1-amino-2-indanol and a new chiral P,N,N ligand derived from (R,R-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. Ruthenium pre-catalysts of type [RuCl2(L(DMSO] were isolated and then examined in the hydrogenation of ketones. While the new P,N,OH ligand based catalysts are poor, the new P,N,N system gives up to 98% e.e. on substrates that do not react at all with most catalysts. A preliminary attempt at realising a new delta lactone synthesis by organocatalytic Michael addition between acetophenone and acrylonitrile, followed by asymmetric hydrogenation of the nitrile functionalised ketone is challenging in part due to the Michael addition chemistry, but also since Noyori pressure hydrogenation catalysts gave massively reduced reactivity relative to their performance for other acetophenone derivatives. The Ru phosphine-diamine system allowed quantitative conversion and around 50% e.e. The product can be converted into a delta lactone by treatment with KOH with complete retention of enantiomeric excess. This approach potentially offers access to this class of chiral molecules in three steps from the extremely cheap building blocks acrylonitrile and methyl-ketones; we encourage researchers to improve on our efforts in this potentially useful but currently flawed process.

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  13. Heterogeneous catalysis of novel polymeric rare earth complexes under solvent-free conditions: Zero-emission synthesis of β-amino alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel polymeric rare earth complexes, RE2(BPDS)3 (RE = rare earth metal, BPDS = biphenyl-4,4'-disulfonate), in which the metal ions are homogeneously dispersed, were synthesized by the self-organization of the metal ion and the corresponding aryldisulfonate and successfully used as a reusable Lewis acid catalyst for the ring-opening reaction of epoxides with amines to give the desired β-amino alcohols in excellent yields under solvent-free heterogeneous conditions. The catalysts can be quantitatively recovered and reused more than five times without decreasing their activities. The catalytic activity of Sc(OPf)3 (Pf = SO2C8F17) for the same reaction under solvent-free conditions was also examined

  14. Designed Single-Step Synthesis, Structure, and Derivative Textural Properties of Well-Ordered Layered Penta-coordinate Silicon Alcoholate Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XS; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Smith, SJ; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2014-04-15

    The controllable synthesis of well-ordered layered materials with specific nanoarchitecture poses a grand challenge in materials chemistry. Here the solvothermal synthesis of two structurally analogous 5-coordinate organosilicate complexes through a novel transesterification mechanism is reported. Since the polycrystalline nature of the intrinsic hypervalent Si complex thwarts the endeavor in determining its structure, a novel strategy concerning the elegant addition of a small fraction of B species as an effective crystal growth mediator and a sacrificial agent is proposed to directly prepare diffraction-quality single crystals without disrupting the intrinsic elemental type. In the determined crystal structure, two monomeric primary building units (PBUs) self-assemble into a dimeric asymmetric secondary BU via strong Na+O2- ionic bonds. The designed one-pot synthesis is straightforward, robust, and efficient, leading to a well-ordered (10)-parallel layered Si complex with its principal interlayers intercalated with extensive van der Waals gaps in spite of the presence of substantial Na+ counter-ions as a result of unique atomic arrangement in its structure. However, upon fast pyrolysis, followed by acid leaching, both complexes are converted into two SiO2 composites bearing BET surface areas of 163.3 and 254.7m(2)g(-1) for the pyrolyzed intrinsic and B-assisted Si complexes, respectively. The transesterification methodology merely involving alcoholysis but without any hydrolysis side reaction is designed to have generalized applicability for use in synthesizing new layered metal-organic compounds with tailored PBUs and corresponding metal oxide particles with hierarchical porosity.

  15. Acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc): A New Photochemically Removable Protecting Group for Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Bo; TANG Wen-Jian; YU Jing-Yu; SONG Qin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis and photochemistry of acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc) as a new photochemically removable protecting group for alcohols were described. Three carbonates of alcohols 1-3 were synthesized through condensation of 9-hydroxymethylacridine and chloroformates of alcohols, including benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and one galactose derivative. The photolysis of protected alcohols can efficiently release the corresponding alcohol in the efficiencies (Qu1ε) of 100-200 (quantum yield Qu1=0.011-0.023, and molar absorptivity ε=9.1 × 103-9.8 × 103 mol-1·L·cm-1) under 360 nm light.

  16. Rapid Capacity Growth of Long Chain Fatty Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yuying

    2007-01-01

    @@ Long chain fatty alcohols here are referring to those alcohols with more than six carbon atoms per molecular.They are basic chemical raw materials for the synthesis of surfactants,detergents, plasticizers and various other fine chemicals and are extensively used in textile, household chemicals, papermaking, foodstuffs,pharmaceuticals and leather manufacturing sectors.

  17. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver disease and disrupts methionine and oxidative balances. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) acts as a methyl donor for methylation reactions and participates in the synthesis of glutathione, the main cellular antioxidant. Randomised clinical trials have addressed...... the question whether SAMe may benefit patients with alcoholic liver diseases....

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heuvel, RHH; Fraaije, MW; Laane, C; van Berkel, WJH; Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; van Berkel, Willem J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated conversion of creosol proceeds via a two-step process in which the initially formed vanillyl alcohol is further oxidized to vanillin. Catalysis is limited by the formation of an abortive complex betwee...

  19. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using alcoholic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis and in vitro investigation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The present study depicts the green synthesis of AgNPs using Nyctanthes arbortristis. • AuNPs found to be biocompatible and can be used for biomedical applications. • The FTIR, TGA and DTA results showed that AgNPs are bounded by organic coating. • The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity on E. Coli MTCC 443. • We investigated the antioxidant activity for both EFE and AgNPs

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using alcoholic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis and in vitro investigation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, Nayanmoni [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Mahanta, Chandan [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bora, Utpal, E-mail: ubora@iitg.ernet.in [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The present study depicts the green synthesis of AgNPs using Nyctanthes arbortristis. • AuNPs found to be biocompatible and can be used for biomedical applications. • The FTIR, TGA and DTA results showed that AgNPs are bounded by organic coating. • The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity on E. Coli MTCC 443. • We investigated the antioxidant activity for both EFE and AgNPs.

  1. One-Pot Synthesis of Dialkyl Hexane-1,6-Dicarbamate from 1,6-Hexanediamine, Urea, and Alcohol over Zinc-Incorporated Berlinite (ZnAlPO4 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lei Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate was synthesized, for the first time, by a one-pot reaction of 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA, urea, and alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol, in a self-designed batch reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as a catalyst. The yield of dibutyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate (2 was systematically investigated as a function of Zn/Al molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst usage and urea/HDA/butanol molar ratio. Based on these studies, the optimized reaction conditions were as follows: molar ratio urea/HDA/butanol = 2.6:1:8.6, catalyst usage = 3.0 g, reaction temperature = 493 K, reaction time = 6 h and reaction pressure = 1.2 MPa; a yield of 2 of 89.7% was achieved over the ZnAlPO4 (molar ratio Zn/Al = 0.04 catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, based on these experimental results, it was also proposed that the catalysis recycle of the one-pot synthesis of 2 from urea, HDA, and butanol over the ZnAlPO4 catalyst.

  2. Study of Enzymatic Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters in Tert-amyl Alcohol%叔戊醇体系中酶法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪勇; 钱俊青

    2011-01-01

    研究以棕榈油为酰基供体和L-抗坏血酸在有机相中利用脂肪酶催化酯交换反应合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.对催化合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的反应介质进行了比较,系统考察了底物浓度、溶剂用量、底物摩尔比、温度、水活度、分子筛加入时间和加入量对酶催化反应的影响,确定了最适反应条件:在20 mL用分子筛充分除水的叔戊醇中,0.352g·L-1抗坏血酸和4.535 g棕榈油(L-抗坏血酸和脂肪酸的底物摩尔比为1∶8)在14.2%(w/w,酶/L-抗坏血酸)的脂肪酶Novo435催化作用下,反应初始加入50 g·L-1的分子筛,温度55℃,摇床转速200 r ·min-1,反应24 h后底物转化率可达65%,产物浓度可达22 g·L-1.%The synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters through transesterification of ascorbic acid and palm oil in tert-amy\\ alcohol catalyzed by immobilized lipase was studied. A series of solvents used for the reaction were investigated, among them the tert-amyl alcohol was found to be the most suitable reaction media for the enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters. The addition of the molecular sieves was found to be helpful for reaction system to keep the water activity and to make the equilibrium go to the product. The factors affecting catalytic leaction, such as the substrate concentration, amount of solvent, substrate molar ratio, temperature, water activity and the addition of molecular sieve, were investigated. The results show that, when 0.352 g ascorbic acid and 4.535 g palm oil (the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to fatty acid is 1:8) are catalyzed by 14.2% Novo435 (weight % of ascorbic acid) in 20 mL terf-amyl alcohol with 50 g·L-1 molecular sieve added and rotation speed of 200 r·min-1, the conversion of ascorbic acid can reach 65% and the concentration of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters is 22 g·L-1 after 24 h reaction at 55℃.

  3. The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador,Canada:Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor%The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador, Canada: Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter C.Lightfoot; Dawn Evans-Lamswood; Robert Wheeler

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit is hosted in a 1.34 Ga mafic intrusion that is part of the Nain Plutonic Suite in Labrador,Canada.The Ni-Cu-Co sulfide mineralization is associated with magmatic breccias that are typically contained in weakly mineralized olivine gabbros,troctolites and ferrogabbros,but also occur as veins in adjacent paragneiss.The mineralization is associated with a dyke-like body which is termed the feeder dyke.This dyke connects the shallow differentiated Eastern Deeps chamber in the east to a deeper intrusion in the west termed the Western Deeps Intrusion.Where the conduit is connected to the Eastern Deeps Intrusion,the Eastern Deeps Deposit is developed at the entry line of the dyke along the steep north wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion.The Eastern Deeps Deposit is surrounded by a halo of moderately to weakly mineralized Variable-Textured Troctolite (VTT) that reaches a maximum thickness above the ENE-WSW axis of the Eastern Deeps Deposit.At depth to the west,the conduit is adjacent to the south side of the Western Deeps Intrusion,where the dyke and intrusion contain disseminated magmatic sulfide mineralization.The Reid Brook Zone plunges to the east within the dyke,and both the dyke and adjacent paragneiss are mineralized.The Ovoid Deposit comprises a bowl-shaped body of massive sulfide where the dyke widens near to the present-day surface.It is not clear whether this deposit was developed as a widened-zone within the conduit or at the entry point into a chamber that is now lost to erosion.The massive sulfides and breccia sulfides of the Eastern Deeps are petrologically and chemically different when compared to the disseminated sulfides in the VTT; there is a marked break in Ni tenor (Ni content in 100% sulfide,abbreviated to [Ni] 100) and Ni/Co of sulfide between the two.The boundary of the sulfide types is often marked by strong sub-horizontal alignment of heavily digested and metamorphosed paragneiss fragments

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Uniform Spherical Nanoporous TiO2 Aerogel Templated by Cellulose Alcohol-Gel with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spherical nanoporous TiO2 aerogels were prepared by a simple ethanol-thermal method, using spherical cellulose alcohol-gel as the template. The morphology, crystalline structure, pore size, specific surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of obtained TiO2 aerogel were separately characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characteristics of TiO2 aerogels presented uniform sphere shape, good internal structural morphology, high specific surface area (ranging from 111.88 to 149.95 m2/g, and good crystalline anatase phase. Moreover, methyl orange dye was used as the target pollutant to characterize the photocatalytic activities and the adsorption performance. The photocatalytic experiment shows that the obtained spherical TiO2 aerogels had a higher degradation ratio of 92.9% on methyl orange dye compared with aspherical TiO2 aerogels prepared from other concentrations of tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT.

  5. Photoinduced synthesis of single-digit micrometer-size spheroidal calcite composites in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-06-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which was based on the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphyenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions of pH 8.4 and 10 was studied for preparation of CaCO3 composite particles in single-digit micrometer-sizes. In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol%) was used as a precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. After the UV irradiation for 50 min, calcite spheroids in single-digit micrometer-sizes were obtained as major products at pH 8.4. The obtained calcite spheroids contained organic components of about 10 wt%. The comparison of the characteristics of the CaCO3 obtained at pH 8.4 and 10 suggests that the nucleation and crystallization of both vaterite and calcite continuously took place in a moderated supersaturation owing to the CO2 hydration equilibrium as long as the photodecarboxylation of KP continued. Consequently, the aggregation-based crystal growth in the presence of PVAPS seemed to enable the formation of the spheroidal composites of calcite in single-digit micrometer-sizes.

  6. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol content and after synthesis neutralization on structure, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of sol-gel derived hybrid foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Aline Rocha de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass/polymer hybrids are promising materials for biomedical applications because they combine the bioactivity of these glasses with the flexibility of polymers. In this work it was evaluated the effect of increasing the PVA content of the on structural characteristics and mechanical properties of hybrid. The hybrids were prepared with 70 wt. (% SiO2-30 wt. (% CaO and PVA fractions of 20 to 60 wt. (% by the sol-gel method. The structural and mechanical characterization was done by FTIR, SEM and compression tests. To reduce the acidic character of the hybrids due to the catalysts added, different neutralization solutions were tested. The calcium acetate alcoholic solution was the best neutralizing method, resulting in foams with final pH of about 7.0 and small sample contraction. The foams presented porosity of 60-85 wt. (% and pore diameters of 100-500 μm with interconnected structure. An increase of PVA fraction in the hybrids improved their mechanical properties. The scaffolds produced provided a good environment for the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  7. Electroactive behavior of poly(acrylic acid) grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) samples, their synthesis using a Ce(IV) glucose redox system and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkuri, Mahaveer D.; Lee, Jae-Rock; Han, Jae Hung; Lee, In

    2006-04-01

    Grafted copolymers of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared using a Ce(IV) glucose redox initiator by free radical polymerization. Three grafted copolymers having 20%, 50% and 80% grafting were selected for this study. Thus-modified polymer was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra, 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis and universal testing machine approaches. The membranes were prepared by a solution casting method, where the cross-linking process was performed through the in situ addition of glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid as the cross-linking agent and catalyst respectively. The following four membranes were prepared: (i) pure PVA; (ii) 20% grafted PVA; (iii) 50% grafted PVA; (iv) 80% grafted PVA. The membranes obtained were employed in the electroactive behavior study under a DC electric stimulus in different concentrations of electrolyte. The equilibrium bending angles (EBA) of these polymers were studied with respect to time, poly(acrylic acid) content, electric voltage applied across the polymer and ionic strength of the electrolyte used. Experimental results show stable reversibility of the bending behavior of these polymers under an applied DC electric field. The EBA increased with increase in the applied electric voltage and poly(acrylic acid) content within the polymer.

  8. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  9. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  10. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  11. Bone changes in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with growth impairment,osteomalacia, delayed fracture healing, and asepticnecrosis (primarily necrosis of the femoral head), butthe main alterations observed in the bones of alcoholicpatients are osteoporosis and an increased risk offractures. Decreased bone mass is a hallmark of osteoporosis,and it may be due either to decreased bone synthesis and/or to increased bone breakdown. Ethanolmay affect both mechanisms. It is generally acceptedthat ethanol decreases bone synthesis, and most authorshave reported decreased osteocalcin levels (a "marker" ofbone synthesis), but some controversy exists regardingthe effect of alcohol on bone breakdown, and, indeed,disparate results have been reported for telopeptideand other biochemical markers of bone resorption.In addition to the direct effect of ethanol, systemicalterations such as malnutrition, malabsorption, liverdisease, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines,alcoholic myopathy and neuropathy, low testosteronelevels, and an increased risk of trauma, play contributoryroles. The treatment of alcoholic bone disease should beaimed towards increasing bone formation and decreasingbone degradation. In this sense, vitamin D and calciumsupplementation, together with biphosphonates areessential, but alcohol abstinence and nutritional improvementare equally important. In this review we study thepathogenesis of bone changes in alcoholic liver diseaseand discuss potential therapies.

  12. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  13. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  14. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  15. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G;

    2010-01-01

    establishment of biocatalytic routes to chiral aminodiols taking the original synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-aminopentane-1,3-diol as a specific example. An engineered variant of Escherichi coli transketolase (D469T) was used for the initial asymmetric ynthesis of (3S)-1,3-dihydroxypentan-2-one from the achiral...... substrates propanal and hydroxypyruvate. A bioinformatics led strategy was then used to identify and clone an ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (DSM30191) capable of converting the product of the transketolase-catalysed step to the required (2S,3S)-2-aminopentane-1,3-diol using isopropylamine...

  16. Novel synthesis of thick wall coatings of titania supported Bi poisoned Pd catalysts and application in selective hydrogenation of acetylene alcohols in capillary microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasov, Nikolay; Ibhadon, Alex O; Rebrov, Evgeny V

    2015-04-21

    Catalysis in microreactors allows reactions to be performed in a very small volume, reducing the environmental problems and greatly intensifying the processes through easy pressure control and the elimination of heat- and mass-transfer limitations. In this study, we report a novel method for the controlled synthesis of micrometre-thick mesoporous TiO2 catalytic coatings on the walls of long channels (>1 m) of capillary microreactors in a single deposition step. The method uses elevated temperature and introduces a convenient control parameter of the deposition rate (displacement speed controlled by a stepper motor), which allows deposition from concentrated and viscous sols without channel clogging. A capillary microreactor wall-coated with titania supported Bi-poisoned Pd catalyst was obtained using the method and used for the semihydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol providing 93 ± 1.5% alkene yield for 100 h without deactivation. Although the coating method was applied only for TiO2 deposition, it is nonetheless suitable for the deposition of volatile sols. PMID:25749619

  17. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  18. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  19. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  20. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  1. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, RHH; Fraaije, MW; Laane, C; van Berkel, WJH; Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated conv

  2. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  3. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  4. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  5. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  6. N/Cu共掺杂锐钛矿型TiO2第一性原理研究∗%First-principles study of N/Cu co-dop ed anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 苗仁德; 章曦

    2015-01-01

    Using the first-principles plane-wave ultra-soft pseudo-potential method based on the density functional theory, the structures, electronic-structures and optical properties of pure anatase TiO2, N (Cu) doped TiO2, and N/Cu co-doped TiO2 crystal are studied by the local-spin density approximation plus Hubbard U method. It is shown that the lattice constants become larger because of the lattice distortion caused by doping. Impurity levels in the band gap of TiO2 are introduced by N and Cu doping, and the forbidden band width is correspondingly changed. For N doped TiO2, the reduction of the band gap is weak, while the N/Cu co-doped TiO2 band gap decreases remarkably. It leads to a red shift of visible absorption spectrum and enhances optical catalysis. The effect is useful for the practical application of photo-catalytic.%基于密度泛函理论的第一性原理平面波超软赝势法,采用局域自旋密度近似加Hubbard U值方法研究了纯锐钛矿型TiO2, N, Cu单掺杂TiO2及N/Cu共掺杂TiO2的晶体结构、电子结构和光学性质。研究结果表明,掺杂后晶格发生相应畸变,晶格常数变大。 N和Cu的掺杂在TiO2禁带中引入杂质能级,禁带宽度发生相应改变。对于N掺杂TiO2禁带宽度减小较弱,而Cu掺杂和N/Cu共掺TiO2禁带宽度显著降低,导致吸收光谱明显红移,光学催化性增强,有利于实际应用。

  7. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by

  8. Adsorptive Separation of Methanol-Acetone on Isostructural Series of Metal-Organic Frameworks M-BTC (M = Ti, Fe, Cu, Co, Ru, Mo): A Computational Study of Adsorption Mechanisms and Metal-Substitution Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Chen, Huiyong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Defei; Liu, Zewei; Qian, Yu; Xi, Hongxia

    2015-12-01

    The adsorptive separation properties of M-BTC isostructural series (M = Ti, Fe, Cu, Co, Ru, Mo) for methanol-acetone mixtures were investigated by using various computational procedures of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations (GCMC), density functional theory (DFT), and ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST), following with comprehensive understanding of adsorbate-metal interactions on the adsorptive separation behaviors. The obtained results showed that the single component adsorptions were driven by adsorbate-framework interactions at low pressures and by framework structures at high pressures, among which the mass effects, electrostatics, and geometric accessibility of the metal sites also played roles. In the case of methanol-acetone separation, the selectivity of methanol on M-BTCs decreased with rising pressures due to the pressure-dependent separation mechanisms: the cooperative effects between methanol and acetone hindered the separation at low pressures, whereas the competitive effects of acetone further resulted in the lower selectivity at high pressures. Among these M-BTCs, Ti and Fe analogues exhibited the highest thermodynamic methanol/acetone selectivity, making them promising for adsorptive methanol/acetone separation processes. The investigation provides mechanistic insights on how the nature of metal centers affects the adsorption properties of MOFs, and will further promote the rational design of new MOF materials for effective gas mixture separation. PMID:26581027

  9. Dissolution de phases minérales MSiO3 ( M Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg) imparfaitement cristallisées au contact de solutions d'agents complexants organiques (porphyrines, amino-acides, asphaltènes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaya, F.; Perruchot, A.; Van Damme, H.

    1983-05-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the dissolution of ill-organized ("gels") high surface area silicates of general formula MO- SiO2- nH2O( M = Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg) in the presence of the following organic compounds have been investigated: meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2TPP, water insoluble), mesotetra(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (H 3TMPyP, water soluble), glycine, and asphaltenes. Kinetic aspects were emphasised in the case of H 2TMPyP. The initial rate of the gross dissolution complexation process followed almost quantitatively (passing from one metal to another) the complexation rate of M2+ ions by H 2TMPyP in a purely homogeneous medium, suggesting that the rate limiting step of the overall process is not related to the chemical or physical processes occurring in the solid particles or at the solid-solution interface, but is simply the complexation, in the solution, of the M2+ ions released by the gel particles. Thermodynamic aspects were emphasised in the case of glycine. The total amount of metal which is extracted at equilibrium can be reasonably well predicted from a simple model which takes into account (i) the stability constant of the metal-glycine complex. (ii) the "solubility product" of the gel particles in water. The results obtained with asphaltones are closer to those obtained with glycine than to those obtained with porphyrins, suggesting that porphyrins represent only a minor population in the complexing functional groups of asphaltenes.

  10. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via α-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  11. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  12. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  13. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  14. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  15. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  16. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  17. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  19. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  20. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  1. Practical chiral alcohol manufacture using ketoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Gjalt W; Liang, Jack; Krebber, Anke

    2010-04-01

    Over the past two years the application of ketoreductases in the commercial synthesis of chiral alcohols has undergone a revolution. Biocatalysts are now often the preferred catalyst for the synthesis of chiral alcohols via ketone reduction and are displacing reagents and chemocatalysts that only recently were considered break-through process solutions themselves. Tailor-made enzymes can now be generated from advanced, non-natural variants using HTP screening and modern molecular biology techniques. At the same time, global economic and environmental pressures direct industrial process development toward versatile platforms that can be applied to the different stages of product development. We will discuss the technologies that have emerged over the past years that have guided biocatalysis from the bottom of the toolbox, to the power tool of choice. PMID:20071211

  2. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  3. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  4. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  5. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  6. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  7. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  8. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... be converted into hydrogen by steam reforming over nickel or ruthenium based catalysts. This process could be important in a future hydrogen society, where hydrogen can be utilized in high efficiency fuel cells. Hydrogen produced from biofeedstocks can also be used directly in the chemical industry, where...... it can compete with hydrogen production from natural gas. Similar substitution possibilities are emerging in the case of conversion of renewable alcohols to synthesis gas, which is used for instance in the manufacture of methanol and synthetic fuel. Here it is illustrated how glycerol can be converted...

  9. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  10. Effects of alcohol compounds on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available The inhibitors present in dilute acid-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates would show great effect on the growth and product formation of microorganisms. To understand their inhibitory law and mechanism on oleaginous microorganism could help improving the efficiency of lignocellulose hydrolysis, detoxification, and lipid fermentation. The effects of four representative alcohol compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including furfuryl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, catechol, hydroquinone on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of Trichosporon fermentans were systematically investigated in this work. The toxicity of selected alcohol compounds was well related to their log P value except furfuryl alcohol, whose log P value was the minimum but with the highest toxicity to T. fermentans. The inhibition of all the alcohol compounds on the growth of T. fermentans was more serious than on the lipid synthesis. Also, the growth of T. fermentans was more sensitive to the variation of inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than lipid synthesis in the presence of alcohol compounds. Initial pH had more profound influence on the lipid fermentation than inoculum size and cultural temperature did. Careful control of fermentation conditions could be helpful for improving lipid yield of T. fermentans in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Among the four alcohol compounds tested, most alcohol compounds showed inhibition on both sugar consumption and malic enzyme activity of T. fermentans. However, vanillyl alcohol had little influence on the malic enzyme activity. Similarly, all alcohol compounds except vanillyl alcohol exerted damage on the cell membrane of T. fermentans.

  11. A Sustainable Multicomponent Pyrimidine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibl, Nicklas; Ament, Kevin; Kempe, Rhett

    2015-10-14

    Since alcohols are accessible from indigestible biomass (lignocellulose), the development of novel preferentially catalytic reactions in which alcohols are converted into important classes of fine chemicals is a central topic of sustainable synthesis. Multicomponent reactions are especially attractive in organic chemistry as they allow the synthesis of large libraries of diversely functionalized products in a short time when run in a combinatorial fashion. Herein, we report a novel, regioselective, iridium-catalyzed multicomponent synthesis of pyrimidines from amidines and up to three (different) alcohols. This reaction proceeds via a sequence of condensation and dehydrogenation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations. While the condensation steps deoxygenate the alcohol components, the dehydrogenations lead to aromatization. Two equiv of hydrogen and water are liberated in the course of the reactions. PN5P-Ir-pincer complexes, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyze this sustainable multicomponent process most efficiently. A total of 38 different pyrimidines were synthesized in isolated yields of up to 93%. Strong points of the new protocol are its regioselectivity and thus the immediate access to pyrimidines that are highly and unsymmetrically decorated with alkyl or aryl substituents. The combination of this novel protocol with established methods for converting alcohols to nitriles now allows to selectively assemble pyrimidines from four alcohol building blocks and 2 equiv of ammonia.

  12. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  14. Carbonates-based noble metal-free lean NOx trap catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) with superior catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; You, Rui; Liu, Dongsheng; Liu, Cheng; Li, Xingang; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying; Zha, Yuqing; Meng, Ming

    2015-12-01

    A series of base metal-based lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) were synthesized by successive impregnations and employed for the storage and reduction of NOx in the emissions of lean-burn engines at 350 °C. The XRD and XANES/EXAFS results reveal that the active phases in the corresponding catalysts exist as CeO2, Fe2O3, CuO and Co3O4, respectively. Among all the catalysts, CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 exhibits the best performance, which cannot only trap the NOx quickly and completely at lean condition, giving the highest storage capacity (3.32 mmol/g) reported so far, but also reduce the NOx at rich condition, showing a NOx reduction percentage as high as 99.0%. Meanwhile, this catalyst displays an ultralow NOx to N2O selectivity (0.3%) during NOx reduction. The excellent performance of CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 results from its largest amount of surface active oxygen species as revealed by XPS, O2-TPD and NO-TPD. HRTEM, FT-IR and CO2-TPD results illustrate that several kinds of K species such as sbnd OK groups, K2O, surface carbonates and bulk or bulk-like carbonates coexist in the catalysts. Based upon the in situ DRIFTS results, the participation of K2CO3 in NOx storage is confirmed, and the predominant NOx storage species is revealed as bidentate nitrites formed via multiple kinetic pathways. The low cost and high catalytic performance of the CoOx-based LNT catalyst make it most promising for the substitution of noble metal-based LNT catalysts.

  15. 刚果金某铜钴矿区天然放射性外照射估算%Estimation of natural radioactive external radiation in a certain Cu-Co deposit in Congo Kinshasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚; 行英弟; 冯雅丽

    2013-01-01

    天然放射性辐射估算,是环境评价中判定天然放射性辐射水平的一项重要工作.文章介绍了一种矿区天然放射性外照射的估算方法,通过系统地采集矿区地层岩石样品并记录其采样位置,用低本底多道γ能谱仪对样品中的镭-226、钍-232、钾-40放射性比活度进行测量,换算得到外照射空气的吸收率,按采样点位绘制矿区放射性外照射空气的吸收率分布区图,按区估算出矿区及外围天然放射性外照射年有效剂量.%Estimating the natural radioactive external radiation is an important work to measure the level of natural radiation in the environmental assessment. This article will introduce a method of estimating the external natural radioactive radiation in a Cu - Co deposit in Congo Kinshasa. By systematically collecting rock samples from the strata and recording the sampling position, the specific radio activity of Radium226, thorium232, and potassium 40 are measured using a low background multi - channels gamma - ray spectrometer for each sample, then transformed into external exposure air absorption. According to the sample position, the external exposure air absorption distribution area chart can be rendered and on the basis of the area chart, the annual effective dose of natural radioactive radiation can be finally estimated.

  16. 针铁矿法从铜钴矿生物浸出液中除铁的研究%Study on Goethite Deironization from Bioleaching Solution of Cu-Co Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国宝; 杨洪英; 周立杰; 李海军

    2013-01-01

    The iron was removed from Cu-Co ore bioleaching solution after copper extraction with goethite process. The parameters of pH value, concentration of oxidant, oxidation time and deironization time were optimized. The results show that the iron removal rate and cobalt recovery rate are 99. 9% and 99. 5% respectively under the optimum conditions including pH of 4. 0, oxidation temperature of 70 ℃ , holding time of 1 h, and concentration of oxidant of 8%. The goethite deironization process can be conducted at atmospheric pressure, low temperature (70 ℃) and without addition of other metal ions. The precipitation slag is rich of iron and has good filterability.%采用针铁矿法除去萃铜后的铜钴矿细菌浸出液中的铁,并对除铁时的pH、氧化剂浓度、氧化时间、保温时间等因素进行优化.结果表明,控制氧化过程中pH为4.0、氧化温度70℃、保温时间1h、氧化剂浓度8%,除铁率和钴回收率分别为99.9%和99.5%.针铁矿法除铁可在常压和较低温度(70℃)下进行,而且不需外加其他金属阳离子就能获得过滤性能良好且可作为含铁富矿使用的沉淀渣.

  17. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  18. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  19. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  20. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Anna B Gilmore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies...

  1. Folate, alcohol, and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H

    2013-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of ALD with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism, which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of ALD based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. PMID:23136133

  2. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  3. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  6. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  7. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  8. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  9. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  10. Significant residual fluorinated alcohols present in various fluorinated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglasan-Panlilio, Mary Joyce A; Mabury, Scott A

    2006-03-01

    Polyfluorinated telomer alcohols and sulfonamides are classes of compounds recently identified as precursor molecules to the perfluorinated acids detected in the environment. Despite the detection and quantification of these volatile compounds in the atmosphere, their sources remain unknown. Both classes of compounds are used in the synthesis of various fluorosurfactants and incorporated in polymeric materials used extensively in the carpet, textile, and paper industries. This study has identified the presence of residual unbound fluoro telomer alcohols (FTOHs) in varying chain lengths (C6-C14) in several commercially available and industrially applied polymeric and surfactant materials. NMeFOSE, a perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido alcohol, was also detected in a commercially available carpet protector product. A method was developed to remove these residual compounds from polymeric and surfactant materials by dispersion in water and stripping of the volatiles using a constant flow of air and trapping on XAD resin. Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, it was determined that the fluorinated materials examined consist of 0.04-3.8% residual alcohols on a fluoro alcohol to dry mass basis. These values indicate that residual alcohols, left unreacted and unbound from the manufacturing process of fluorinated polymers and surfactants, could be a significant source of the polyfluorinated telomer alcohols and sulfonamides released into the environment. This study suggests that elimination or reduction of these residual alcohols from all marketed fluorinated polymers and fluorosurfactants is key in reducing the prevalence of perfluorinated acids formed in the environment.

  11. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  12. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  13. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  14. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  16. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  17. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  18. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  19. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  20. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  1. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  2. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  3. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  4. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  5. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  6. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  7. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  9. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  10. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  11. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  12. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 叔丁醇与甲醇合成甲基叔丁基醚的研究%STUDY ON SYNTHESIS OF MTBE BY TERT BUTYL ALCOHOL AND METHANOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠梅; 朱相春; 侯磊

    2016-01-01

    介绍以叔丁醇和甲醇为原料,采用国产催化剂A催化醚化反应制MTBE,并用Aspen Plus软件模拟后续精馏分离装置的技术和工艺。采用小试装置考察了工艺条件对反应的影响。结果表明:在空速1.0 h-1、压力2.3 MPa、温度140℃、甲醇与叔丁醇摩尔比3∶1条件下,叔丁醇转化率可达79%以上,MTBE选择性可达73%以上。 Aspen Plus软件模拟结果表明,采用醇类化合物替代水作为萃取剂,能够解决叔丁醇、水的共沸问题,并将系统中的水基本脱除,能够促使主反应向右进行,有效提高叔丁醇的转化率。%The paper introduced the preparation course of MTBE with tert butyl alcohol and methanol as crude material, which adopting some domestic catalyst. Technology and process of the preparation course was simulated by Aspen Plus software, effect of the process conditions on the reaction were studied by test device. The results showed that under the following conditions such as air speed was 1. 0 h-1 , pressure was 2. 3 MPa, temperature was 140℃, ratio of metha-nol and tert butyl alcohol was 3∶1 , conversion yield of tert butyl alcohol reached higher than 79%, selectivity ratio of MTBE reached higher than 73%. Simulation results of the Aspen Plus software showed that it was feasible that azeotrope problem of tert butyl alcohol with water could be solved by adopting some alcohol substituted for water as extractant, which could promote the reaction rightward by removing water of the system, raise effectively conservation ratio of the tert butyl alcohol.

  16. Synthetic Applications of Chiral Unsaturated Epoxy Alcohols Prepared by Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the synthesis and applications of chiral 2,3-epoxy alcohols containing unsaturated chains is presented. One of the fundamental synthetic routes to these compounds is Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which is reliable, highly chemoselective and enables easy prediction of the product enantioselectivity. Thus, unsaturated epoxy alcohols are readily obtained by selective oxidation of the allylic double bond in the presence of other carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The wide availability of epoxy alcohols with unsaturated chains, the versatility of the epoxy alcohol functionality (e.g. regio- and stereo-selective ring opening; oxidation; and reduction, and the arsenal of established alkene chemistries, make unsaturated epoxy alcohols powerful starting materials for the synthesis of complex targets such as biologically active molecules. The popularization of ring-closing metathesis has further increased their value, making them excellent precursors to cyclic compounds.

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of ( - ) -(2R, 3R, 6S ) -Irnigaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA, Nan; MA, Da-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of irnigaine was achieved starting from an enantiopure β-amino ester 5 using the condensation of amino alcohol 2 with acetylacetone and the subsequent intramolecular cyclization as the key steps.

  18. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  19. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  20. A new method for the preparation of 1, 3-dilithium propyne and their applications in synthesis: I. Regioselective synthesis of mono and disubstituted homopropargylic alcohols. II. A new method of synthesis of ethyl (2E, 13Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl. Sex pheromone of the Zeuzera pyrine moth. III. A new method for the preparation of 1,5 diynes. Synthesis of (4E, 6Z, 10Z) -4,6,10-Hexadecatrien-1-ol, the pheromone component of the cocoa moth Conopomorpha cramellera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for obtaining 1,3-dilithium propyne has developed from propargyl bromide and regioselective synthesis of mono and disubstituted homopropargylic alcohols by addition of the same dianion to carbonyl compounds. The procedure has shown high versatility and yields above 80%, being more economical to allene and propyne used in previous methods; both in drilling Sanninoidea tipuliformis as other common pests of timber and fruit trees, Zeuzera pyrine (Cossidea) and Vitacea polistiformis (Sesiidea). Acetate (2E, 13Z) octadecadienyl was synthesized, whose biological activity has been an alternative for the biological control of these insects. The (Z)-1-iodinetetraceden-9-ene has been approved with 1,3 dilithium propyne and paraformaldehyde followed by stereoselective reduction procedures and acetylation with a total performance of 31%. The predecessors synthesis were surpassed in the simplicity of chemical transformations, relative ease of purification stages, so as requirements for equipment, reagents and minimal skill. A new method was developed for the preparation of linear and functionalized 1,5-diynes by propargylation with acceptable yields (50-80%) of various propargylic halides with 1,3 dilithium propyne obtained by dilithiation of allene with n-BuLi at low temperature. Also certain experimental cares were identified for the purification and isolation of 1,5 diynes not functionalized, compounds considerably volatile and sensitive to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. The 1,5 undecadiyne has been used as precursor in a synthesis of new route for the (4E, 6Z, 10Z)-4, 6, 10-hexadecatrien-1-ol, the main component of the sex pheromone of cocoa moth Conopomorpha cramellera (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae). The same was prepared in a total yield of 51% in just 5 steps, through a strategy of coupling C11 + C5 to generate the precursor enin. Two different approaches have yielded to get such enin in yields close to 90%: the first has been the coupling of 1

  1. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  2. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  3. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  4. Alcohol fuels. 1973-July, 1980 (citations from the American Petroleum Institute Data Base). Report for 1973-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Research on alcohol fuels are cited. The citations cover synthesis, chemical analysis, performance testing, processing, pollution, economics, environmental effects, and feasibility. (This updated bibliography contains 260 citations, 82 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  6. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  7. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  8. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  9. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  11. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  12. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  15. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  16. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  17. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Celorrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that the reactivity of Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures toward CO and HCOOH electro-oxidation is not only determined by the composition and structure of Pd overlayer but also by interaction with the support.

  18. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  19. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  20. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  1. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  2. Some Aspects of the Catalytic Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil; K.Saikia

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Catalytic reactions are gaining importance due to its low cost, operational simplicity, high efficiency and selectivity. It is also getting much attention in green synthesis. Many useful organic reactions, including the acylation of alcohols and aldehydes, carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, carbon-sulfur bond forming and oxidation reactions are carried out by catalyst. We are exploring the catalytic acylation of alcohols and aldehydes in a simple and efficient manner. Catalytic activation of unr...

  3. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  4. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  5. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  6. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  7. Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use among HIV-Infected Individuals: A Review and Critique of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer L; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Sales, Jessica M.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are common among HIV-infected individuals and are associated with adverse physiological complications and increased engagement in other health risk behaviors. This paper provides a review and critique of interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, including a: (a) synthesis of core intervention components and trial designs; (b) summary of intervention efficacy to reduce alcohol use outcomes; and (c) methodological critique and guidance for future ...

  8. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  9. Synthesis and reactivity of {alpha}-phenylseleno-{beta}-substituted styrenes: preparation of (Z)-allyl alcohols, (E)-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes and {alpha}-aryl acetophenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Jacob, Raquel G.; Silva, Thiago B. da [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Inorganica]. E-mail: lenardao@ufpel.edu.br; Cella, Rodrigo [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Perin, Gelson [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2006-09-15

    A new and efficient method was developed to prepare {alpha}-phenylseleno-{beta}-substituted styrenes by reaction of diethyl {alpha}-phenylseleno benzylphosphonate with NaH and aldehydes. Selenium-lithium exchange by reaction with n-BuLi yielded the vinyl lithium species, which were captured with several electrophiles, like aldehydes and DMF, affording exclusively (Z)-allyl alcohols, and (E)-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, respectively in good yields. The hydrolysis of the vinyl selenides in presence of TiCl{sub 4} allowed the corresponding {alpha}-aryl acetophenones. (author)

  10. The diagnosis and pathogenesis of chronic alcoholic myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kazantseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuromuscular apparatus lesion is a common complication of chronic alcohol intoxication. Alcohol-induced skeletal muscle diseaseis least studied now. A comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, and morphological examination was made in 42 patients with chronic alcoholintoxication during this study. All the patients underwent skeletal muscle biopsy followed by muscle fiber morphometry. There was both selective type 2 muscle fiber atrophy and diffuse types 1 and 2 muscle fiber atrophic changes. The clinical manifestations of skeletal muscle disease corresponded to the degree of an atrophic process. There was impairment in the main components of protein synthesis at both intracellular and systemic regulation levels.

  11. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse, either by acute intoxication or prolonged excessive consumption, leads to pathological changes in many organs and tissues including skeletal muscle. As muscle protein serves not only a contractile function but also as a metabolic reserve for amino acids, which are used to support the energy needs of other tissues, its content is tightly regulated and dynamic. This review focuses on the etiology by which alcohol perturbs skeletal muscle protein balance and thereby over time produces muscle wasting and weakness. The preponderance of data suggest that alcohol primarily impairs global protein synthesis, under basal conditions as well as in response to several anabolic stimuli including growth factors, nutrients, and muscle contraction. This inhibitory effect of alcohol is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in mTOR kinase activity via a mechanism that remains poorly defined but likely involves altered protein-protein interactions within mTOR complex 1. Furthermore, alcohol can exacerbate the decrement in mTOR and/or muscle protein synthesis present in other catabolic states. In contrast, alcohol-induced changes in muscle protein degradation, either global or via specific modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome or autophagy pathways, are relatively inconsistent and may be model dependent. Herein, changes produced by acute intoxication versus chronic ingestion are contrasted in relation to skeletal muscle metabolism, and limitations as well as opportunities for future research are discussed. As the proportion of more economically developed countries ages and chronic illness becomes more prevalent, a better understanding of the etiology of biomedical consequences of alcohol use disorders is warranted. PMID:25759394

  12. Synthesis of Polydentate Chiral Amino Alcohol from L-Phenyl Glycine%L-苯甘氨酸衍生物新型三齿手性氨基醇的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰良; 肖清波; 沈霞; 刘言萍; 刘畅; 尹军

    2011-01-01

    摘要:对叔丁基苯胺经二甲基化、甲酰化得到5-叔丁基.2-二甲氨基苯甲醛;L-苯甘氨酸经LiAlH4直接还原,得到的二齿手性氨基醇与上述醛经缩合、还原,得到新型三齿手性氨基醇(2S)-2-[(5-叔丁基-2-二甲氨基)苯基]甲氨基-2·苯基乙醇。用红外光谱(IR)、质谱(MS)和核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR)等对产物进行了结构表征。%5-tert-Butyl-2-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde was derived from 4-tert-butyl aniline by dimethylation and formylation. Polydentate chiral amino alcohol (2S)-2-[(5-tert-butyl-2-dimethylamino) penyl]methyl-amino-2-phenylethanol was synthesized from 5-tert-butyl-2-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde and chiral amino alcohol prepared from L-phenyl glycine with LiAIH4. The products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectroscopy (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR).

  13. 一种基于氨基葡萄糖的新型手性β氨基醇的合成%Synthesis of a New Kind of Chiral β-Amino Alcohol Based on Glucosamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施梅

    2014-01-01

    Chiral amino alcohol is widely used in a variety of asymmetric reactions as catalysts. A new kind of chiral β-amino alcohol, methyl 4,6-O-benzylidenen-2-deoxy-2-amino -α-D-glucopyranoside, was synthesized by a four-step reaction starting from D-glucosamine hydrochloride commercially available. Firstly, D-glucosamine hydro-chloride was condensed with methyl chloroformate under the catalyst of sodium carbonate. Then, the obtained prod-uct underwent methylation, benzylidene protection, and alkaline hydrolysis successively. The total yield was 35%, and the target compound and the key intermediates were characterized by 1 H NMR.%手性氨基醇作为催化剂广泛应用于多种不对称合成反应中.以氨基葡萄糖为原料设计合成一种新型手性β氨基醇.氨基葡萄糖盐酸盐首先与氯甲酸甲酯缩合,再先后经过甲基化、苄叉保护、碱性水解反应,得4,6 O 苄叉基2脱氧2氨基α D 吡喃葡萄糖甲苷.4步反应总收率35%,对目标化合物及反应中间体的结构均进行1 H NMR表征.

  14. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  15. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  19. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  20. Síntese de esteres terpenóides por via enzimática: influência do tamanho da cadeia alifática do ácido graxo e da estrutura do álcool de terpeno Synthesis of terpen esters by enzymatic route: influence of the fatty acid size chain and alcohol structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heizir F. CASTRO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A especificidade de uma preparação comercial de lipase imobilizada, com relação a molécula ácida e alcoólica do substrato, foi estudada através da síntese de diversos ésteres de terpenóides. Na série de reações do citronelol e ácidos graxos com diferentes tamanho de cadeia alifática (C2 a C18, altas taxas de esterificação (95 a 98% foram alcançadas para ácidos contendo 4 ou mais carbonos. Numa segunda série de experimentos, diferentes álcoois terpenos foram esterificados com ácido butírico, sendo constatado uma influência marcante da estrutura do álcool de terpeno no desempenho desta preparação enzimática. Graus de esterificação maiores que 95% somente foram obtidos para os álcoois primários como citronelol, geraniol e nerol. Álcoois secundários (mentol e terciários (linalol não foram esterificados, sob as condições testadas.The selectivity of a commercial immobilized lipase preparation was tested in two set of esterification reactions. In the first group, synthesis were carried out with citronellol and different organic acids (C2 to C18. For this case, with the exception of acetic acid, the size of the carbon chain showed no significant alteration in the esterification rates. Acids containing four or more carbons, were considered to be excellent acyl donors, resulting in the esterification rates in the range of 95% to 98%. Alternatively, the esterification reactions were carried out with different terpen alcohols and butyric acid. The alcohol structure showed to have great influence on the performance of this enzyme preparation. Esterification degree over 95% were attained for primary alcohols such as citronellol, geraniol and nerol. Secondary (menthol and tertiary (linallol were not esterified under the tested conditions.

  1. Is the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin a risk factor for alcoholic liver disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu Dee Harrison-Findik

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time,only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors,besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver,which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes.It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-α signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.

  2. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  3. Synthesis and Activation of Catalysts for Biofuel Synthesis in an Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Wu, Qiongxiao; Elkjær, Christian Fink;

    of CuNi and NiGa catalysts for alcohol synthesis using High-Resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy electron-loss spectroscopy (EELS), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Complementary observations have been done using in-situ X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). We focus on structural changes during the catalysts......The synthesis of transportation fuels from sustainable resources requires new and better production paths. Our approach is to use biogas to synthesize alcohols, such as methanol or higher alcohols for fuel and other chemical products. For the production of methanol a reduction of processing...... temperature and pressure to lower the process cost and make the product more competitive is desired. Higher alcohols are in general favorable over methanol due to their high energy density and ease of use in current internal combustion engines. However, better catalysts for this reaction are needed...

  4. GABAB receptor ligands for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: preclinical and clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAgabio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies conducted to define the anti-alcohol pharmacological profile of the prototypic GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and its therapeutic potential for treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD. Numerous studies have reported baclofen-induced suppression of alcohol drinking (including relapse- and binge-like drinking and alcohol reinforcing, motivational, stimulating, and rewarding properties in rodents and monkeys. The majority of clinical surveys conducted to date – including case reports, retrospective chart reviews, and randomized placebo-controlled studies – suggest the ability of baclofen to suppress alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, and alcohol withdrawal symptomatology in alcohol-dependent patients. The recent identification of a positive allosteric modulatory binding site, together with the synthesis of in vivo effective ligands, represents a novel, and likely more favorable, option for pharmacological manipulations of the GABAB receptor. Accordingly, data collected to date suggest that positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor reproduce several anti-alcohol effects of baclofen and display a higher therapeutic index (with larger separation – in terms of doses – between anti-alcohol effects and sedation.

  5. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  6. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  7. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  8. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  9. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  10. Catalytic Dealkylation of Ethers to Alcohols on Metal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biao; Lin, Haiping; Miao, Kangjian; Zhu, Pan; Liang, Liangbo; Sun, Kewei; Zhang, Haiming; Fan, Jian; Meunier, Vincent; Li, Youyong; Li, Qing; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-08-16

    On-surface synthesis has prompted much interest in recent years because it provides an alternative strategy for controlling chemical reactions and allows for the direct observation of reaction pathways. Herein, we combined scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory to provide extensive evidence for the conversion of alkoxybenzene-containing ethers into alcohols by means of surface synthesis. The reported dealkylation reactions are finely controlled by the annealing parameters, which govern the onset of successive alkyl chains dissociations. Moreover, density functional theory calculations elucidate the details of the reaction pathways, showing that dealkylation reactions are surface-assisted and very different from their homogeneous analogues in solution. PMID:27432690

  11. Da cervejinha com os amigos à dependência de álcool: uma síntese do que sabemos sobre esse percurso From one beer with friends to alcohol dependence: a synthesis about our knowledge of this path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Paula Ramos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Artigo de revisão sobre os estudos prospectivos a respeito da história natural do alcoolismo, com ênfase na contribuição de Vaillant, que discorre sobre o impacto de seus achados na evolução dos conceitos de uso nocivo e dependência, bem como suas principais implicações terapêuticas. É salientado o fato de as taxas de abstinência não terem aumentado no tratamento de dependentes graves nos últimos 25 anos.Review paper about prospective studies concerning the natural history of alcoholism. Emphasizing Vaillant and the impact of his contribution to the evolution of the concepts of harmful use and dependence, as well as its most important therapeutic implications. The fact that the abstinence rates, in the treatment of a severe dependence, almost remaining the same in the last twenty-five years is highlighted.

  12. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  13. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  14. Y-Cu共掺杂ZnO电子结构与光学性质的第一性原理计算%First-Principles Calculations of the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Y-Cu Co-Doped ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊辉; 高博; 汪文; 王嘉赋

    2015-01-01

    采用基于密度泛函理论(DFT)的第一性原理平面波赝势法研究了本征ZnO、Y和Cu单掺杂ZnO、Y-Cu共掺杂ZnO的电子结构和光学性质。计算结果表明,在本文的掺杂浓度下, Y和Cu单掺杂可以提高ZnO的载流子浓度,从而改善ZnO的导电性, Y-Cu共掺时ZnO半导体进入简并状态,呈现金属性。 Y掺杂ZnO可以提高体系在紫外区域的吸收,而Cu掺杂ZnO在可见光和近紫外区域发生吸收增强现象,其中由于Y离子和Cu离子之间的协同效应, Y-Cu共掺杂ZnO时体系对可见光和近紫外区域的光子能量吸收大幅增加,因此Y-Cu共掺杂ZnO可以用于制作光电感应器件。%Using the pseudo-potential plane-wave based on the density functional theory (DFT), the electronic structures and optical properties of intrinsic ZnO, Y-, Cu-, and Y-Cu co-doped ZnO were studied. The results show that the conductivity of ZnO can be improved by Y and Cu doping because of the increase in carrier concentration under the order of magnitude of the doping concentration in this paper. Y-Cu co-doping leads to degeneration and makes ZnO metal ic. Y-doped ZnO can show enhanced light absorption in the ultraviolet region, while doping with Cu enhances absorption in the visible and near ultraviolet regions. Y-Cu co-doping greatly increases the absorption of visible and near ultraviolet regions owing to the synergistic effect between Y ions and Cu ions, which can be exploited to fabricate the opto-electronic devices.

  15. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  16. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  17. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  18. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  19. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  20. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  1. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  2. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  3. Alcohol, marihuana and youth

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work is misusing alcohol and illicit addicting substances (primarily marijuana) by students at high schools. The research was done at specifically chosen high school by questionnaires, that helped to uncover student?s experiences with illicit addicting substances.

  4. Saying No to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  5. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  6. Picolylamine-methylphosphonic acid esters as tridentate ligands for the labeling of alcohols with the fac-[M(CO)3]+ core (M=99mTc, Re): synthesis and biodistribution of model compounds and of a 99mTc-labeled cobinamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [(Methyl-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-amino)-methyl]-phosphonic acid is a new bifunctional chelator for the fac-[99mTc(CO3)]+ core which can be linked to biomolecules via formation of phosphonic acid esters. Its synthesis and the coupling to model alcohols and to a bioactive molecule (cobinamide) are described. The rhenium complexes [Re(CO)3L] of the esters have been prepared and characterized, one of them by X-ray crystallography. The model esters could be labeled with [99mTc(OH2)3(CO)3]+ under mild conditions and relatively low ligand concentration with >97% yield and only one isomer formed. The 99mTc-labeled cobinamide analog was a mixture of four isomers. It bound strongly to transcobalamin I (TC I, haptocorrin) but only slightly to transcobalamin II (TC II) and intrinsic factor (IF), reflecting the binding abilities of cobinamide. Biodistribution studies in mice with B16 melanoma exhibited fast clearance with no specific tissue binding

  7. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  8. Orthogonal test study on synthesis of alcohol-soluble polyacrylate by semi-bulk polymerization%半本体法合成醇溶性聚丙烯酸酯的正交试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中华; 穆爱婷; 高菲菲; 张鸿

    2012-01-01

    An alcohol-soluble polyacrylate was synthesized using alcohol as solvent by semi-bulk polymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) as monomers, and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator. The optimal polymerization conditions were studied by orthogonal test with initiator concentration, HEA dosage, mass ratio of BA to MMA, feeding method, and solvent amount as factors. The results indicated that the polyacrylate coating prepared with 2.2% initiator, 2.5% HEA, and equal weight of solvent to total monomers at BA-to-MMA mass ratio of 4 : 5 by semi-bulk polymerization has a tough-dry time 10 min, through-dry time 40 min, water dropping resistance up to 20 d, water immersion resistance 7 d, and saline resistance 4 d, showing good comprehensive corrosion resistance.%以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)、丙烯酸羟乙酯(HEA)为共聚单体,以过氧化二苯甲酰(BPO)为引发剂,在乙醇溶剂中用半本体的方法合成了醇溶性聚丙烯酸酯.通过正交试验探索了最佳的聚合务件,包括引发剂浓度、丙烯酸羟乙酯用量、软硬单体配比、加料方式和溶剂用量.研究结果表明,当引发剂浓度为2.2%,HEA用量为2.5%,m(BA)∶m(MMA)=4∶5,溶剂用量与单体总量的比为1∶1时,以半本体方式共聚获得的聚丙烯酸酯涂料的表干时间为10 min,实干时间40 min,耐滴水达到20 d,耐水性7d,耐盐水4d,制得的涂料综合防腐性能最佳.

  9. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  10. Convenient synthesis of volatile streptomyces lactones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amonkar, C.P.; Tilve, S.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    A convenient three-step synthetic approach towards 3-alkyl-5-methyl-2[5H]furanones is described. The steps involved in the synthesis are domino primary alcohol oxidation-Wittig reaction, acid-catalysed lactonisation and isomerisation. This synthetic...

  11. Green Synthesis of a Fluorescent Natural Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas M.; Welker, Jacob J. C.; Doxsee, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferone via the acid-catalyzed Pechmann condensation introduces students to several types of organic reactions: transesterification, electrophilic aromatic substitution, and alcohol dehydration. Performed with a recyclable, solid catalyst and under solvent-free conditions, the experiment illustrates many of the…

  12. Synthesis of pterostilbene by Julie Olefination

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, stereoselective route for the synthesis of the biologically active compounds trans-pterostilbene and tetramethoxy stilbene from the readily available starting materials 3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde was developed using Julia olefination as a key reaction....

  13. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  14. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    by type of alcohol. However, we found a linear association between total alcohol consumption and total or free testosterone in both groups of men. Young and fertile men who consumed >20 units of alcohol per week had, respectively, 24.6 pmol/l (95% confidence interval 16.3-32.9) and 19.7 pmol/l (7......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  15. 用清洁生产理念优化苯甲醇和苯甲酸的合成实验%Experiment of Synthesis Optimization for Benzyl Alcohol and Benzoic Acid by Stratagem of Clean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿桂芳; 赵喜芝; 王珩

    2009-01-01

    Preparing benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid by benzyalde is an important experiment in organic chemistry experiment teaching in colleges. But in conventional experiment some problem appears including great consumption of alkali and acid as well as pollution of benzene and hydrogen chloride on the laboratory. In the highlight of clean production such as source controlling, pollution reduction and efficiency enhancement, the parameters of traditional experiment were optimized for the purpose of reducing the pollution of laboratory. The stratagem of clean production may direct a new way for students' life.%以苯甲醛为原料制备苯甲醇与苯甲酸是高校有机化学实验教学中的一个重要实验,但在传统实验中,存在原料用量大,苯、氯化氢污染实验室环境等问题.文章利用清洁生产从源头控制、减污增效的思想,对本实验的传统参数进行了优化,从而减轻对实验室的污染.并在该思想的引领下,使学生了解清洁生产可从身边的事做起.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of water-dispersed CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots prepared via Layer-by-layer Method capped with carboxylic-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanery, Fabio Pereira; Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander, E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia dos Materiais. Centro de Nanociencia, Nanotecnologia e Inovacao

    2014-08-15

    The main goal of this work was to synthesize CdSe/CdS (core-shell) nanoparticles stabilized by polymer ligand using entirely aqueous colloidal chemistry at room temperature. First, the CdSe core was prepared using precursors and acid-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) as the capping ligand. Next, a CdS shell was grown onto the CdSe core via the layer-by-layer technique. The CdS shell was formed by two consecutive monolayers, as estimated by empirical mathematical functions. The nucleation and growth of CdSe quantum dots followed by CdS shell deposition were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated a systematic red-shift of the absorption and emission spectra after the deposition of CdS, indicating the shell growth onto the CdSe core. TEM coupled with electron diffraction analysis revealed the presence of CdSe/CdS with an epitaxial shell growth. Therefore, it may be concluded that CdSe/CdS quantum dots with core-shell nanostructure were effectively synthesized.(author)

  17. Primary Alcohols from Terminal Olefins: Formal Anti-Markovnikov Hydration via Triple Relay Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, G.

    2011-09-15

    Alcohol synthesis is critical to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The addition of water across olefins to form primary alcohols (anti-Markovnikov olefin hydration) would be a broadly useful reaction but has largely proven elusive; an indirect hydroboration/oxidation sequence requiring stoichiometric borane and oxidant is currently the most practical methodology. Here, we report a more direct approach with the use of a triple relay catalysis system that couples palladium-catalyzed oxidation, acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, and ruthenium-catalyzed reduction cycles. Aryl-substituted terminal olefins are converted to primary alcohols by net reaction with water in good yield and excellent regioselectivity.

  18. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  19. Role of alcohol metabolism in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4 and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6. Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1 alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2 there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD.

  20. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  1. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem.

  2. Method for recovering alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, R.A.; Rubin, J.N.

    1980-04-17

    In this method for extraction of alcohol from fermented material, insoluble organic matter is first removed before the ferment enters the distillation column and tried spent grains then recovered by drying under pressure. Excess steam from the drying stage is used to heat the distillation column. In addition, excess water vapour produced as a result of further heating by head vapour from the first distillation column, is drawn off from the evaporation step, condensed and fed into the distillation columns and evaporation step.

  3. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  4. Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Retinoid Metabolic Effects in Mouse Knockout Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandeep; Sandell, Lisa L.; Trainor, Paul A; Koentgen, Frank; Duester, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that controls growth and development. The first step of RA synthesis is controlled by enzymes of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) families that catalyze oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde. The second step of RA synthesis is controlled by members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) that further oxidize retinaldehyde to produce RA. RA fun...

  5. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  6. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  7. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  8. Diagnostic challenges in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, Luisa; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; Francque, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that have been defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to damage of various organs, including the liver. Alcoholic liver disease includes different injuries ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis and implicates a diagnostic assessment of the liver disease and of its possible complications. There is growing interest in the possible different tools f...

  9. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurr...

  10. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related expectan

  11. Lewis Base-Catalyzed Formation of α-Trifluoromethyl Alcohol from CF3SiMe3 and Carbonyl-Containing Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-Fa; PANG Wan; XING Chun-Hui; ZHU Shi-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Lewis base could catalyze the formation of α-trifluoromethyl alcohol from CF3SiMe3 and carbonyl-containingcompounds. It was found that the a-trilluoromethyl alcohol could also be used to promote the synthesis in basic conditions.

  12. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol consu...... the potential confounding effect of alcohol use disorder, which is an established risk factor for mortality. This further highlights the importance of alcohol consumption measures in public health.......BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...

  13. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine against alcohol-and cytochrome P450 2E1-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur; I; Cederbaum

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) acts as a methyl donor for methylation reactions and participates in the synthesis of glutathione. SAM is also a key metabolite that regulates hepatocyte growth, differentiation and death. Hepatic SAM levels are decreased in animal models of alcohol liver injury and in patients with alcohol liver disease or viral cirrhosis. This review describes the protection by SAM against alcohol and cytochrome P450 2E1-dependent cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo and evaluates mechanism...

  15. An Analysis of Prospective Teachers’ Understanding Levels and Misconceptions in The Subjects of Organic Chemistry: The Case of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Sendur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemistry which is called as chemistry of carbon compounds has an important place in chemistry and other fields of science. The fact that the subject of alcohols in organic chemistry is related to organic compounds such as aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acid made this subject one of the basic subjects of organic chemistry. For this reason, it was aimed to describe prospective science teachers’ understanding levels and misconceptions about alcohols with this study. In this study, alcohol concept test which includes 16 multiple choice items was applied to 77 prospective science teachers to collect data. In addition, semi-structured interview was conducted with 12 prospective science teachers. At the end of study, it was determined that prospective science teachers had difficulties in understanding some topics such as physical properties of alcohols, structural isomerism, oxidation of alcohols and synthesis of alcohols and they had some misconceptions about these topics.

  16. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  17. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  18. Construct validation of the scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : The attitudes toward issues related to alcohol and alcoholism have been noted as important predictors of the quantity and quality of care provided to individuals who have problems related to alcohol use. The Scale of Attitudes toward Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholics (EAFAAA (Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e à pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool – EAFAAA has been widely used among students in health-related fields. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested among professionals. Objective : The goal of this study was to determine the construct validity of the EAFAAA for use among health professionals. Methods : A preliminary version of the EAFAAA was distributed to a sample of health care professionals (n = 1,025. For the construct validation of the scale, the data were subjected to a factorial analysis, and the internal consistency was examined; the cutoff score of the instrument was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results : The exploratory factor analysis and the refinement of the EAFAAA items resulted in a final version consisting of 50 items divided into four factors: (1 Work and interpersonal relationships with patients with alcohol use disorders, (2 The individual with an alcohol use disorder, (3 Etiology of alcoholism and (4 Alcoholic beverages and their use. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (Cronbach’s α > 0.80, and the instrument cutoff score was set at 3.15. Discussion : The results suggest that the instrument is valid for identifying attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders among health professionals.

  19. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  20. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy; Beccaria, Franca; Kolind, Torsten; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of harm reduction approaches to alcohol in Europe. First, definitions ascribed to alcohol harm reduction are outlined. Then, evaluated alcohol harm reduction interventions in European countries are described and the evidence for their effectiveness examined. These include multi-component programmes, improvements to the drinking environment, and initiatives to reduce the harms associated with drink-driving. Third, harm reduction activities that have been re...