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Sample records for alcohol synthesis cu-co

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, G.S.; Sreedhara Reddy, P., E-mail: psreddy4@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature using a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) and high resolution Raman spectroscopic techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction studies showed that the diameter of the particles was around 2–3 nm. Broadened XRD peaks revealed the formation of nanoparticles with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. DRS studies confirmed that the band gap increased with an increase in the dopant concentration. The Raman spectra of undoped and Ce, Cu ions co-doped ZnS nanoparticles showed longitudinal optical mode and transverse optical mode. Compared with the Raman modes (276 and 351 cm{sup −1}) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles, the Raman modes of Ce, Cu co- doped ZnS nanoparticles were slightly shifted towards lower frequency. PL spectra of the samples showed remarkable enhancement in the intensity upon doping.

  2. ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles: synthesis, luminescence and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lun; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cu 2+ and Co 2+ co-doped zinc sulfide water-soluble nanoparticles (ZnS:Cu,Co) were prepared and their afterglow luminescence was observed and reported for the first time. The nanoparticles have a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of about 4 nm as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In the photoluminescence, two emission peaks are observed at 470 and 510 nm. However, in the afterglow, only one peak is observed at around 525 nm. The blue emission at 470 nm is from surface states and the green emission at 525 nm is from Cu 2+ . This means that Cu 2+ is responsible for the afterglow from the nanoparticles, while the co-doping of Co 2+ is critical for the afterglow because no afterglow could be seen without co-doping with Co 2+ . The successful observation of the afterglow from water-soluble nanoparticles may open up new applications of afterglow phosphors in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  3. Efficient Synthesis of Ethanol from CH4 and Syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 Catalyst Using a Stepwise Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi-Jun; Peng, Fen; Huang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 catalyst is studied using experiments, density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modelling. The experimental results indicate that the active sites of ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas are Cu and CoO, over which the ethanol selectivity is approximately 98.30% in a continuous stepwise reactor. DFT and microkinetic modelling results show that *CH3 is the most abundant species and can be formed from *CH4 dehydrogenation or through the process of *CO hydrogenation. Next, the insertion of *CO into *CH3 forms *CH3CO. Finally, ethanol is formed through *CH3CO and *CH3COH hydrogenation. According to our results, small particles of metallic Cu and CoO as well as a strongly synergistic effect between metallic Cu and CoO are beneficial for ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 catalyst.

  4. Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quartery technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akundi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work done on the effect of CO adsorption on the magnetic character of cobalt in the Cu/Co/Cr catalysts is discussed.

  5. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  6. Direct electrochemical synthesis of metal alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrejder, V.A.; Turevskaya, E.P.; Kozlova, N.I.; Turova, N.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions of electrochemical synthesis of Ga, Sc, Y, Ge, Ti, Zr, Nb and Ta alcoholates during anodic metal dissolution in absolute alcohols in the presence of background electrolyte are studied. R 4 NBr and R 4 NBF 4 salts are optimum background electrolytes. Application limits of this synthetical method using different metals as anode are determined. It is supposed that alkoxyhalogenides the nature of which determines further direction of electrode process, are the primary products of anodic oxidation of metals [ru

  7. Investigation of syngas interactions in alcohol synthesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akundi, M.A.

    1998-04-15

    The primary objectives of the project are to (a) synthesize, by controlled sequential and co-impregnation techniques, three distinct composition metal clusters (consisting of Cu-Co-Cr and Cu-Fe-Zn): rich in copper (Methanol selective), rich in ferromagnetic metal (Co or Fe-Hydrocarbon selective) and intermediate range (mixed alcohol catalysts); (b) investigate the changes in the magnetic character of the systems due to interaction with CO, through Zero-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ZFNMR) study of cobalt and Magnetic character (saturation magnetization and coercive field) analysis of the composite catalyst of Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM); (c) examine the changes in syngas adsorption character of the catalyst as the composition changes, by FTIR Spectroscopic analysis of CO stretching frequencies; (d) determine the nature and size of these intermetallic clusters by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); and (e) perform catalytic runs on selected samples and analyze the correlations between the physical and chemical characteristics. The catalysts chosen have a greater promise for industrial application than the Rh and Mo based catalysts. Several groups preparing catalysts by synthetic routes have reported divergent results for activity and selectivity. Generally the research has followed an empirical path and less effort is devoted to analyze the mechanisms and the scientific basis. The primary intent of this study is to analyze the nature of the intermetallic and gas-metal interactions and examine the correlations to catalytic properties.

  8. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  9. Supported molybdenum carbide for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2013-01-01

    carbide, while the selectivity to methanol follows the opposite trend. The effect of Mo2C loading on the alcohol selectivity at a fixed K/Mo molar ratio of 0.14 could be related to the amount of K2CO3 actually on the active Mo2C phase and the size, structure and composition of the supported carbide......Molybdenum carbide supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for methanol and higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over...... supported molybdenum carbide are significantly higher compared to the bulk carbide. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20wt% Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active carbon and reaches a maximum over bulk molybdenum...

  10. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  11. Process for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for making alcohols comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalyst comprising: (1) as a first component, at least one element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and tungsten in free or combined form; (2) as a second component, at least one element selected from the group consisting of cobalt and nickel in free or combined form; (3) as a third component, a promoter comprising an alkali or alkaline earth element in free or combined form; the catalyst excluding rhodium and ruthenium and containing less than two (2) weight percent copper; at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and at conditions sufficient to form an alcohol fraction boiling in the range of motor gasoline in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the alcohol fraction containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  12. Poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanospheres: a facile synthesis approach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrroli- done) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed ...

  13. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly (vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  14. Poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanospheres: a facile synthesis approach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Food Science and Technology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712749, Republic of Korea. MS received 7 July 2015; accepted 10 August 2015. Abstract. This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an ...

  15. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao

    This work has investigated the catalytic conversion of syngas into methanol and higher alcohols. Based on input from computational catalyst screening, an experimental investigation of promising catalyst candidates for methanol synthesis from syngas has been carried out. Cu-Ni alloys of different ...

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of β-Hydrazino Alcohols Using Alcohols and N-Boc-Hydrazine as Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhihao; Du, Da-Ming

    2016-11-04

    An enantioselective approach for the synthesis of α-hydrazino aldehydes is described that utilizes alcohols and N-Boc hydrazine instead of the conventional combination of aldehydes with azodicarboxylates. This protocol is enabled by merging in situ aerobic dual oxidation with asymmetric organocatalysis. This reaction also exhibits a high tolerance for varieties of substituents on the alcohol component. This approach features excellent enantiocontrol, cheap starting materials, operational simplicity, and scalability. The corresponding chiral β-hydrazino alcohols were obtained by sequential reduction with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee).

  17. Multi-metallic oxides as catalysts for light alcohols and hydrocarbons from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Miguel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, L; Galindo, H de J; Dominguez, J. M; Salmon, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A series of Cu-Co-Cr oxides doped with alkaline metals (M), were prepared by the coprecipitation method with metal nitrates (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) and (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} in aqueous solution. The calcined products were used as catalysts for the Fisher-Tropsch synthesis in a stainless-steel fixed bed microreactor. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, and the specific surface area, pore size and nitrogen adsorption-desorption properties were also determined. The alkaline metals favored the methanol synthesis and prevent the dehydration reactions whereas the hydrocarbon formation is independent to these metals. [Spanish] Una serie de oxidos Cu-Co-Cr soportados con metales alcalinos (M), fueron preparados por el metodo con nitratos metalicos (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) y (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} en soluciones acuosas. Los productos calcinados fueron usados como catalizadores para la sintesis de Fisher-tropsch en la superficie fija de un microreactor de acero inoxidable. El material fue caracterizado por difraccion de rayos X y el area de superficie especifica, el tamano de poro y propiedades de absorcion-desorcion de nitrogeno fueron determinadas. Los metales alcalinos favorecieron la sintesis de metanol y previnieron las reacciones de deshidratacion, mientras que la formacion de hidrocarburos es independiente de estos metales.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuming; Wu, Lina; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Pingping; Feng, Cuiyun

    2013-01-01

    A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state

  19. Effects of the ratio of Cu/Co and metal precursors on the catalytic activity over Cu-Co/Al2O3 prepared using the polyol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chiyuan; Tseng, H.-H.; Wey Mingyen; Liu Lingyi; Chuang, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Cu-Co bimetallic catalysts were prepared using a simple polyol process. The effects of various metal precursors (nitrate, acetate, and chloride) and Cu/Co ratios on the activities of the catalysts were evaluated for toluene oxidation and NO reduction. The results indicated that the use of the metal precursor Cu-Co acetate in preparing the bimetallic catalysts resulted in good metal dispersion and high catalytic activity. When the atomic Cu/Co ratio was 0.21 in the Al 2 O 3 -supported catalyst, the dispersion of active sites was promoted by the Cu, and the catalytic activity was stable over the reaction time. CuO and Cu 0 species and large particle sizes (20 nm) formed when the Co loading weight in the catalyst increased, and conversion decreased. When the reaction temperature was 300 deg. C, NO and toluene were able to be simultaneously removed with high conversion rates (83% and 98%)

  20. Status and prospects in higher alcohols synthesis from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ho Ting; Mondelli, Cecilia; Ferré, Daniel Curulla; Stewart, Joseph A; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-06

    Higher alcohols are important compounds with widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and energy sectors. Currently, they are mainly produced by sugar fermentation (ethanol and isobutanol) or hydration of petroleum-derived alkenes (heavier alcohols), but their direct synthesis from syngas (CO + H 2 ) would comprise a more environmentally-friendly, versatile and economical alternative. Research efforts in this reaction, initiated in the 1930s, have fluctuated along with the oil price and have considerably increased in the last decade due to the interest to exploit shale gas and renewable resources to obtain the gaseous feedstock. Nevertheless, no catalytic system reported to date has performed sufficiently well to justify an industrial implementation. Since the design of an efficient catalyst would strongly benefit from the establishment of synthesis-structure-function relationships and a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanism, this review comprehensively overviews syngas-based higher alcohols synthesis in three main sections, highlighting the advances recently made and the challenges that remain open and stimulate upcoming research activities. The first part critically summarises the formulations and methods applied in the preparation of the four main classes of materials, i.e., Rh-based, Mo-based, modified Fischer-Tropsch and modified methanol synthesis catalysts. The second overviews the molecular-level insights derived from microkinetic and theoretical studies, drawing links to the mechanisms of Fischer-Tropsch and methanol syntheses. Finally, concepts proposed to improve the efficiency of reactors and separation units as well as to utilise CO 2 and recycle side-products in the process are described in the third section.

  1. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    The need for studying catalyst under realistic conditions is emphasized both by academic and industrial research. Acquiring highly resolved local information from materials under realistic environments by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been found to be essential in connecting...... microscopic and macroscopic properties of materials, e.g. relating catalytic performance with crystal structure and morphology. This study presents extensive characterization of NiGa and CuNi alloys during catalyst formation, alcohol synthesis, and accelerated aging experiments. The characterization platform...

  2. Chitosan-based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as heterogeneous, new catalysts for the -isophorone oxidation. C S Thatte ... A new chitosan-based Schiff base was prepared and complexed with manganese, cobalt and copper. These Schiff ...

  3. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  4. Nonradical Zinc-Barbier Reaction for Diastereoselective Synthesis of Vicinal Amino Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keinicke, Lise Edelmann; Fristrup, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2005-01-01

    A new protocol for the synthesis of vicinal amino alcohols is described. The method employs a Barbier-type reaction between an imine and 3-benzoyloxyallyl bromide in the presence of zinc metal. The addition products are debenzoylated to afford amino alcohols in good yields and with diastereomeric...

  5. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Cd and Cu co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, K. Ramachandra; Rao, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Cd and Cu co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by Polyol method and subsequently have been characterized by their structure, optical and photoluminescence studies. XRD and PSA results revealed the formation of Cd and Cu co-doped ZnO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 50 nm and average particle size of 246 nm. From Zeta Potential measurements the Zeta Potential was found to be - 29.2 eV indicating the stability of prepared nanoparticles. From Uv-Vis studies, it is found that the absorption of undoped ZnO is less compared with Cd and Cu co-doped ZnO and the absorbance increases with increase in dopant concentration. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the samples are with high structural and optical quality.

  6. Asymmetric synthesis of tertiary alcohols by the use of tricarbonylchromium (O) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, O.R.; Gomes Costa, M.R.; Marcelo Curto, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnolgia Industrial, Queluz (Portugal)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The demand for homochiral compounds by the pharmaceutical and related industries has stimulated great interest in the development of asymmetric methodology for organic synthesis. The authors report herein the stereoselective synthesis of tertiary benzylic alcohols. These homochiral tertiary alcohols could be obtained by stereoselective addition to the carbonyl function of chiral [(aryl)Cr(CO){sub 3}] ketones. The syntheses of these ketones were performed by reaction of lithiated (arene)Cr(CO){sub 3} complexes with acyl halides or aldehydes followed by Swern oxidation of the alcohols obtained.

  7. The synthesis of higher alcohols from CO2 hydrogenation with Co, Cu, Fe-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qinqin

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 is a clean carbon source for the chemical reactions, many researchers have studied the utilization of CO 2 . Higher alcohols are clean fuel additives. The synthesis of higher alcohols from CO hydrogenation has also been studied by many researchers, but there are few literatures about the synthesis of higher alcohols from CO 2 hydrogenation, which is a complex and difficult reaction. The catalysts that used for higher alcohols synthesis need at least two active phases and good cooperation. In our study, we tested the Co. Cu. Fe spinel-based catalysts and the effect of supports (CNTs and TUD-1) and promoters (K, Na, Cs) to the HAS reaction. We found that catalyst CuFe-precursor-800 is beneficial for the synthesis of C2+ hydrocarbons and higher alcohols. In the CO 2 hydrogenation, Co acts as a methanation catalyst rather than acting as a FT catalyst, because of the different reaction mechanism between CO hydrogenation and CO 2 hydrogenation. In order to inhibit the formation of huge amount of hydrocarbons, it is better to choose catalysts without Co in the CO 2 hydrogenation reaction. Compared the functions of CNTs and TUD-1, we found that CNTs is a perfect support for the synthesis of long-chain products (higher alcohols and C2+ hydrocarbons). The TUD-1 support are more suitable for synthesis of single-carbon products (methane and methanol).The addition of alkalis as promoters does not only lead to increase the conversion of CO 2 and H 2 , but also sharply increased the selectivity to the desired products, higher alcohols. The catalyst 0.5K30CuFeCNTs owns the highest productivities (370.7 g.kg -1 .h -1 ) of higher alcohols at 350 C and 50 bar. (author) [fr

  8. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  9. Synthesis of poly (furfuryl alcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanocomposites with Algerian organically modified clay (termed 12-montmorillonite). The formation of poly(furfuryl alcohol) was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR); the prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission ...

  10. Synthesis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanocomposites with Algerian organically modified clay (termed 12-montmorillonite). The formation of poly(furfuryl alcohol) was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR); the prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission ...

  11. Microscale Synthesis of Chiral Alcohols via Asymmetric Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Christine M.; Deliever, Rik; De Vos, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of pure enantiomers is a key issue in industry, especially in areas connected to life sciences. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis has emerged as a powerful and practical tool. Here we describe an experiment on racemic reduction and asymmetric reduction via a catalytic hydrogen transfer process. Acetophenone and substituted acetophenones are…

  12. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines by the Extrusion of Dihydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk; Vogt, Henning; Madsen, R.

    2008-01-01

    An environmentally friendly method for synthesis of amides is presented where a simple ruthenium catalyst mediates the direct coupling between an alcohol and an amine with the liberation of two molecules of dihydrogen. The active catalyst is generated in situ from an easily available ruthenium co...

  13. Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solvent casting method is adopted for the synthesis of MoO3 dispersed polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film (MoO3–PVA). These synthesized MoO3 and their composite samples are characterized for their structure, morphology, bonding and thermal behaviour by XRD, SEM, IR and DSC techniques, respectively.

  14. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  15. Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film. ARUNKUMAR LAGASHETTY†, VIJAYANAND HAVANOOR, S BASAVARAJA and. A VENKATARAMAN*. Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, India. †Appa Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gulbarga ...

  16. Synthesis of MoO 3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solvent casting method is adopted for the synthesis of MoO3 dispersed polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film (MoO3–PVA). These synthesized MoO3 and their composite samples are characterized for their structure, morphology, bonding and thermal behaviour by XRD, SEM, IR and DSC techniques, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of acetylene alcohols of heterocyclic type and the acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldir Dyusebaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of potentially biologically active heterocyclic amino alcohols of acetylene (Piperidine and Morpholine under the conditions of Mannich reaction accomplished and received their acyl derivatives. Pharmacological activity (antibacterial and antispasmotic of synthesized compounds, also acute toxicological characteristics studied. The study showed that the combination of DMAE-4 has antispasmodic activity with low toxicity.

  18. Synthesis of biodiesel from edible and non-edible oils in supercritical alcohols and enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Rathore; Giridhar Madras [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. The synthesis of biodiesel from edible oils like palm oil and groundnut oil and from crude non-edible oils like Pongamia pinnata and Jatropha curcas was investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol without using any catalyst from 200 to 400{sup o}C at 200 bar. The variables affecting the conversion during transesterification, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature and time were investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol. Biodiesel was also synthesized enzymatically with Novozym-435 lipase in presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of reaction variables such as temperature, molar ratio, enzyme loading and kinetics of the reaction was investigated for enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide. Very high conversions (>80%) were obtained within 10 min and nearly complete conversions were obtained at within 40 min for the synthesis of biodiesel in supercritical alcohols. However, conversions of only 60-70% were obtained in the enzymatic synthesis even after 8 h. 48 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Construction of porous CuCo2S4nanorod arrays via anion exchange for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siyi; Shi, Tielin; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Yan; Huang, Yuanyuan; Tao, Xiangxu; Li, Junjie; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong

    2017-07-27

    To push the energy density limit of supercapacitors, proper pseudocapacitive materials with favorable nanostructures are urgently pursued. Ternary transition metal sulfides are promising electrode materials due to the better conductivity and higher electrochemical activity in comparison to the single element sulfides and transition metal oxides. In this work, we have successfully synthesized porous CuCo 2 S 4 nanorod array (NRAs) on carbon textile through a stepwise hydrothermal method, including the growth of the Cu-Co precursor nanowire arrays and subsequent conversion into CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs via anion exchange reaction. The CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs electrode exhibits a greatly enhanced specific capacitance and an outstanding cycling stability. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor using the CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode delivers a high energy density of 56.96 W h kg -1 . Such superior performance demonstrate that the CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs are promising materials for future energy storage applications.

  20. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of chloroacetylated poly(vinyl alcohol (CPVA with triethylamine (TEA, triphenylphosphine (TPP, and tributylphosphine (TBP. The antimicrobial activity of the polymers against variety of test microorganisms was examined by the cut plug and viable cell counting methods of shake cultures of 10 times dilute nutrient broth and Sabouraud’s media, seeded with the test microorganisms. It was found that the immobilized polymers exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and the dermatophyte fungus (Trichophyton rubrum. The growth inhibition of the test microorganisms (ratio of surviving cell number, M/C varied according to the composition of the active group in the polymer and the test organism. It increased by increasing the concentration of the polymer. Triphenyl phosphonium salt of the modified poly(vinyl alcohol exhibited the most biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria after 24 h.

  1. Synthesis-condition dependence of carbon nanotube growth by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Inami et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the dependence of growth yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on heat-treatment time and catalyst film thickness by the alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Three types of heat-treatment, synthesis of 30 min, synthesis of 30 min after annealing of 30 min, and synthesis of 60 min, were investigated. Thickness of Co catalyst film was varied from 1 to 10 nm. In the case of thinner Co film less than 3 nm, long synthesis time of 60 min is favorable for the effective SWNT growth, because of the small amount of Co catalyst. In the case of thicker Co film more than 3 nm, an amount of grown SWNTs by 30 min synthesis after 30 min annealing and by 60 min synthesis was much higher than that by 30 min synthesis without annealing, showing that total heat-treatment time of 60 min is important for the SWNT growth. Results suggest that the conversion from the thicker film of Co to nano-particle which acts as catalyst takes place during the first 30 min.

  2. Synthesis of chirals regioisomers from D-mannitol: obtainment of a acetylenic alcohols mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cito, Antonia Maria das Gracas Lopes; Araujo, Bruno Quirino; Lopes, Jose Arimateia Dantas; Magalhes, Aderbal Farias; Magalhes, Eva Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral acetylenic regioisomers was described by using an appropriate intermediate such as isopropylidene glycerol, a synthon widely used in the enantioselective syntheses. This intermediate was prepared from D-mannitol. The nine obtained compounds have been characterized by their respective spectral data. The mixture of chiral acetylenic alcohols showed activity against Escherichia coli when tested through the monitoring of CO 2 released during microbial respiration by using a conductimetric system. (author)

  3. Revaluation of biomass-derived furfuryl alcohol derivatives for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Sidi Mohamed, Bemba; P?rigaud, Christian; Math?, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The racemic synthesis of new carbocyclic nucleoside methylphosphonate analogues bearing purine bases (adenine and guanine) was accomplished using bio-sourced furfuryl alcohol derivatives. All compounds were prepared using a Mitsunobu coupling between the heterocyclic base and an appropriate carbocyclic precursor. After deprotection, the compounds were evaluated for their activity against a large number of viruses. However, none of them showed significant antiviral activity or cytotoxicity.

  4. Novel reactor configuration for synthesis gas conversion to alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgerman, A.; Anthony, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the design of a chemical reactor for synthesis gas conversion. During the second quarter our objective was to continue with Task 2 and start on Task 3. Task 2 involved standardization and automation of GC analysis protocols. Task 3, as stated in the work breakdown schedule, was the modification and automation of the trickle bed reactor and performing the initial factorial design experiments. We have decided to modify this task by expanding it to incorporate determination of the hydrodynamic and transport parameters of the trickle bed reactor in order to isolate and study just the reaction parameters. 1 fig.

  5. Skin effect suppression for Cu/CoZrNb multilayered inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyuki; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    The Cu/Co85Zr3Nb12 multilayer is studied as a conductor of a spiral inductor to suppress the skin effect at the 5 GHz range (matches IEEE 802.11 a standard) using negative-permeability in CoZrNb films beyond the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The skin effect suppression becomes remarkable when the thickness of Cu in each period of the multilayer, tCu, is less than the skin depth of Cu at the targeting frequency. For the 5 GHz operation, tCu ≤ 750 nm. The resistance of the Cu/CoZrNb multilayered spiral inductor decreases as much as 8.7%, while keeping the same inductance of 1.1 nH as that of a similar air core. Accordingly, Q = 16. Therefore, the proposed method can contribute to realize a high-Q spiral inductor. We also study the potentially applicable frequency of this method. Given a soft magnetic material with Ms = 105 emu/cc and Hk = 5 Oe, the method can be applied at 700 MHz, the lowermost carrier frequency band for the 4th generation cellular phone system.

  6. Synthesis and morphology of polyvinyl alcohol /zinc sulfide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.; Motlan

    2017-07-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposites have been synthesized. The nanocomposites which prepared by sol-gel method were mixed to various concentrations of PVA using magnetic stirrer bar of 500 rpm at 80°C. After the solvent evaporates, the white suspensions were casted on to a flat metal and the film-like composites formed. Those samples were characterized including tensile for mechanical test follow ISO-527-2 and melting points for thermal analysis using DSC operated at 20°C/min with the temperature range of 30-300°C. The most homogeny and Young modulus samples were obtained at ratio 98:2 w/w % of PVA/ZnS, and the highest melting point were found at ratio 97:3% of PVA/ZnS.

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  9. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  10. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of higher alcohol synthesis products from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Robert; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven

    2012-07-20

    An on-line gas chromatographic (GC) system has been developed for rapid and accurate product analysis in catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of H₂ and CO) to alcohols, so called "higher alcohol synthesis (HAS)". Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols is an interesting second step in the route of converting coal, natural gas and possibly biomass to liquid alcohol fuel and chemicals. The presented GC system and method are developed for analysis of the products formed from syngas using alkali promoted MoS₂ catalysts, however it is not limited to these types of catalysts. During higher alcohol synthesis not only the wanted short alcohols (∼C₂-C₅) are produced, but also a great number of other products in smaller or greater amounts, they are mainly short hydrocarbons (olefins, paraffins, branched, non-branched), aldehydes, esters and ketones as well as CO₂, H₂O. Trace amounts of sulfur-containing compounds can also be found in the product effluent when sulfur-containing catalysts are used and/or sulfur-containing syngas is feed. In the presented GC system, most of them can be separated and analyzed within 60 min without the use of cryogenic cooling. Previously, product analysis in "higher alcohol synthesis" has in most cases been carried out partly on-line and partly off-line, where the light gases (gases at room temp) are analyzed on-line and liquid products (liquid at room temp) are collected in a trap for later analysis off-line. This method suffers from many drawbacks compared to a complete on-line GC system. In this paper an on-line system using an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD), together with an Agilent 6890 with sulfur chemiluminescence dual plasma detector (SCD) is presented. A two-dimensional GC system with Deans switch (heart-cut) and two capillary columns (HP-FFAP and HP-Al₂O₃) was used for analysis of the organic products on the FIDs. Light

  11. Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production over Cu/Co-Mg-Al-based catalysts prepared by hydrotalcite route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Doris; Rached, Jihane Abou; Aouad, Samer; Gennequin, Cédric; Dahdah, Eliane; Estephane, Jane; Tidahy, Haingomalala Lucette; Aboukaïs, Antoine; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    The performances of different 5Cu/Co x Mg 6-x Al 2 (x = 0; 2; 4; 6) catalysts prepared by the wet impregnation method were investigated in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction (ESR) at 450 °C during 4 h under a steam/ethanol ratio of 3 (S/E = 3). The best catalyst among the prepared solids was 5Cu/Co 6 Al 2 as it showed a complete ethanol conversion and the highest hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivities. However, following 50 h of aging, the catalyst deactivated due to the formation of a high amount of carbonaceous products detected by differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry. On the other hand, the 5Cu/Co 2 Mg 4 Al 2 catalyst showed a much lower quantity of coke deposition with no deactivation due to the basic character conferred by the magnesium oxide phase.

  12. Polyol Synthesis of Cobalt–Copper Alloy Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Laiza V.P.; Snider, Jonathan L.; Fleischman, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Novel catalysts for the selective production of higher alcohols from syngas could offer improved pathways towards synthetic fuels and chemicals. Cobalt–copper alloy catalysts have shown promising results for this reaction. To improve control over particle properties, a liquid phase nanoparticle...... and after catalytic testing in a flow reactor at 250 °C and 40 bar. The results show alloyed phases were obtained using the polyol method, resulting in selectivity towards higher alcohols, as high as 11.3% when supported on alumina. Segregation of cobalt and the formation of cobalt carbide were observed...

  13. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state

  14. Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96% for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.

  15. Fabrication and temperature dependent magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Co composite nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad; Khan, Maaz; Sun, Hongyu; Nairan, Adeela; Karim, Shafqat; Nisar, Amjad; Maqbool, M.; Ahmad, Mashkoor

    2015-10-01

    Ni-Cu-Co composite magnetic nanowires have been successfully synthesized by electrochemical deposition. Microstructural and compositional analyses were carried out using FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD. Magnetic measurements were performed from in the temperature range 5-300 K. A strong diamagnetic contribution, which results from the polycarbonate template, was found to show s-shape behavior of the hysteresis loops of the nanowires. The coercivity of the samples was found to increase with the decreasing temperature following simple model of thermal activation of particle's moment over the anisotropy barrier in the temperature range 50-300 K. Saturation magnetization was found to increase with decreasing temperature following the modified Bloch's law at low temperatures.

  16. Resonant magnetic X-ray reflectivity on Co/Cu/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Valeriano Ferreras; Brueck, Sebastian; Goering, Eberhard; Schuetz, Gisela [Max Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between ferromagnetic layers across a nonmagnetic or isolating spacer layer has reached great technological importance during the last years, i.e. GMR sensors. A Co/Cu/Co has been grown epitaxially on a Cu(100) single crystal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The quality of the film is controlled by LEED and TEM. On this system resonant magnetic X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed at BESSY II, which allows the determination of the magnetic depth profile in an element selective way. This has been done on the Co and Cu L{sub 3} edge in order to learn more about the origin of the oscillatory exchange coupling in such systems.

  17. Novel CuCo2O4/graphitic carbon nitride nanohybrids: Highly effective catalysts for reducing CO generation and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongqian; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Keqing; Yuen, Richard K K; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan; Jiang, Saihua

    2015-08-15

    Novel spinel copper cobaltate (CuCo2O4)/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) (named C-CuCo2O4) nanohybrids with different weight ratios of g-C3N4 to CuCo2O4 were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Then the nanohybrids were added into the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix to prepare TPU nanocomposites using a master batch-melt compounding approach. Morphological analysis indicated that CuCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on g-C3N4 nanosheets. Thermal analysis revealed that C-CuCo2O4-7 (proportion of g-C3N4 to CuCo2O4 of 93/7) was an optimal nanohybrid for the properties improvement of TPU. Incorporation of C-CuCo2O4-7 into TPU led to significant improvements in the onset decomposition temperature, temperature at maximal mass loss rate and char yields. The heat release rate and total heat release of TPU/C-CuCo2O4-7 decreased by 37% and 31.3%, respectively, compared with those of pure TPU. Furthermore, the amounts of pyrolysis gaseous products, including combustible volatiles and carbon monoxide (CO), were remarkably reduced, whereas, non-flammable gas (carbon dioxide) increased. Excellent dispersion of C-CuCo2O4-7 in TPU host was achieved, due to the synergistic effect between g-C3N4 and CuCo2O4. Enhancements in the thermal stability and flame retardancy were attributed to the explanations that g-C3N4 nanosheets showed the physical barrier effect and catalytic nitrogen monoxide (NO) decomposition, and that CuCo2O4 catalyzes the reaction of CO with NO and increased char residues. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen, M. Shawn [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1992-08-28

    Higher, i.e. C2+, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H2 mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO2 support and in the MoS2 form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

  19. Nonradical zinc-Barbier reaction for diastereoselective synthesis of vicinal amino alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinicke, Lise; Fristrup, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola; Madsen, Robert

    2005-11-16

    A new protocol for the synthesis of vicinal amino alcohols is described. The method employs a Barbier-type reaction between an imine and 3-benzoyloxyallyl bromide in the presence of zinc metal. The addition products are debenzoylated to afford amino alcohols in good yields and with diastereomeric ratios greater than 85:15 in favor of the anti isomer. A Hammett study has been performed which strongly indicates that the allylation does not follow a radical mechanism, but instead an organometallic reagent is formed which subsequently reacts with the imine. A computational study based on this mechanism reproduces the observed diastereoselectivity with high accuracy, but only when a sufficiently large portion of the substrate is included.

  20. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk

    2010-01-01

    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems......,3-diisopropylimidazolium chloride, tricyclopentylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate, and base. The second system uses the complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] together with tricyclohexylphosphine and base, whereas the third system employs the Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st-generation metathesis catalyst together with 1,3-diisopropylimidazolium...... not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction...

  1. Evaluation of catalytic ferrispinel MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Co, Mn and Ni) in transesterification reaction; Avaliacao catalitica de ferroespinelios MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Co, Mn e Ni) em reacao de transesterificacao visando obtencao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Kleberson Ricardo de Oliveira; Dantas, Joelda; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Silva, Adriano Sant' Ana, E-mail: klebersonric@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Cornejo, Daniel Reinaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    Among the existing biofuels, biodiesel has achieved great economic and technological, for its potential to replace petroleum diesel and being biodegradable, have low emission of gaseous and be from renewable sources highlighted. In this context we propose to evaluate the performance of ferrispinel type MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where M represents divalent metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Mn) in methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil. The ferrispinel were synthesized by combustion reaction and characterized by XRD, FTIR and magnetic measurements. The results indicate that the synthesis is conducive to the production of ferrispinel with magnetization values ranging from 11.0 to 58.0 emu/g. The conversion values were 53; 55; 57 and 52 %, respectively, concluding that the type of divalent metal affects the morphology and hence the catalytic conversion. (author)

  2. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon D Klein

    Full Text Available Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  3. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathon D; Sherrill, Jeremy B; Morello, Gabriella M; San Miguel, Phillip J; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  4. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  5. Synthesis Organonitrogen Compounds from Patchouli Alcohol Through Ritter Reaction with Acetonitrile and Its Toxicity to Artemia salina Leach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirun Nisyak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patchouli oil contains a compound with biological activities to human body called the patchouli alcohol that can be further developed in medical field. This research aimed to synthesize organonitrogen compound from patchouli alcohol through Ritter reaction with acetonitrile and discover its toxicity towards Artemia salina Leach. The isolation of patchouli alcohol from patchouli oil using fractional distillation under reduced pressure method. The synthesis of organonitrogen compound is done at room temperature with the mol ratio of patchouli alcohol: acetonitrile: sulfuric acid is 1:1,5:4 for 24 hours. The result showed that the amount of patchouli alcohol produced from fractional distillation is 65,25%. The main product yielded from the synthesis between patchouli alcohol and acetonitrile through Ritter reaction is 36,93 % of N-(4,8a,9,9-tetramethyl decahydro-1,6-methanonaphtalene-1-yl acetamide. Starting material used have LC50 of 77,39 ppm. The product of synthesis have higher toxicity level than starting material, which have LC50 value is 10,39 ppm with the potential as medical compounds.

  6. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  7. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Final technical report, September 25, 1990--December 24, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the research was to develop the methodology for the catalytic synthesis of ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been previously demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield MIBE and smaller amounts of MTBE at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. A wide range of organic resin catalysts and inorganic oxide and zeolite catalysts have been investigated for activity and selectivity in directly coupling alcohols, principally methanol and isobutanol, to form ethers and in the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in the presence of methanol. All of these catalysts are strong acids, and it was found that the organic and inorganic catalysts operate in different, but overlapping, temperature ranges, i.e. mainly 60--120{degrees}C for the organic resins and 90--175{degrees}C for the inorganic catalysts. For both types of catalysts, the presence of strong acid centers is required for catalytic activity, as was demonstrated by lack of activity of fully K{sup +} ion exchanged Nafion resin and zirconia prior to being sulfated by treatment with sulfuric acid.

  8. Leaching of a Cu-Co ore from Congo using sulphuric acidhydrogen peroxide leachants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cu-Co ore from Katinga Province, the Republic of Congo containing 1.5% Co and 1.6% Cu was tested to determine the leachability of Cu and Co using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures at different conditions. Without hydrogen peroxide, the maximum extraction of copper and cobalt were found to be ~80% and ~15%, respectively when the acid concentration was varied between 0.36 - 1.1M. When hydrogen peroxide was added (0.008-0.042M, Cu recovery was enhanced to ~90%. Recoveries of ~90% of Co could be achieved at 20ºC, using leachants consisting of 0.36M sulphuric acid and 0.025M hydrogen peroxide after 3 hours. The reaction time to reach 90% Co extraction was reduced to less than 2 hours at 30ºC. Stabcal modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams shows the importance of hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. The decrease of solution potential (300-350 mV by adding hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by Eh measurements during the tests. The leaching follows the shrinking core model kinetics, where the rate constant is linearly dependent on hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range 0-0.025M and proportional to (1/r2 where r is the average radius of the mineral particles. The activation energy for the leaching process is 72.3 kJ/mol.

  9. Structural and magnetic studies on (Fe, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, N.; Lohar, A.; Kamal, C.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Prajapat, C. L.; Mishra, P. K.; Mondal, P.; Karnar, B.; Misra, N. L.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2017-05-01

    (Fe,Cu) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been prepared through wet chemical route using acetate based precursors over a wide concentration range. The samples have been characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements to find out the concentration of dopants while phase purity of the samples has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. To have further micro structural insight, the samples have subsequently been subjected to synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements comprising of both X-ray near edge structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques. The results of the above measurements have been used to explain the magnetic properties of the samples which have further been corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations. It has been observed that inclusion of Cu dopants in the samples in addition to Fe increases anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) correlation among the transition metal ions and thus decreases the ferromagnetic susceptibility of the samples.

  10. Heterogeneous and homogeneous nanoscale precipitation in dilute Cu-Co alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: anarocha@dcmm.puc-rio.br; Solorzano, I.G. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vander Sande, J.B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The precipitation behavior of dilute Cu-Co alloys under isothermal annealing has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The observations show that different mechanisms occur in the coherent and incoherent precipitation stages. Coherent homogeneous Co particles of about 15 nm in size are consistently observed from the early stages of precipitation. The coexistence of coherent nanoscale spherical precipitates together with incoherent microscale precipitates is observed at higher temperatures, above 600 deg. C, with the latter forming well-developed and faceted Co-rich crystals. In the heterogeneous decomposition mode, the development of discontinuous precipitation colonies consisting of regularly-spaced rod-like Co particles is observed. Upon further growth, these rods break down into chains of spherical particles which are thought to be formed as a consequence of Rayleigh instability. In addition, depending on the thermal conditions, the generation of domains on the order of 100 nm is observed within the matrix, which is constituted of large grains with average size of 100 {mu}m.

  11. Heterogeneous and homogeneous nanoscale precipitation in dilute Cu-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.L.; Solorzano, I.G.; Vander Sande, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The precipitation behavior of dilute Cu-Co alloys under isothermal annealing has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The observations show that different mechanisms occur in the coherent and incoherent precipitation stages. Coherent homogeneous Co particles of about 15 nm in size are consistently observed from the early stages of precipitation. The coexistence of coherent nanoscale spherical precipitates together with incoherent microscale precipitates is observed at higher temperatures, above 600 deg. C, with the latter forming well-developed and faceted Co-rich crystals. In the heterogeneous decomposition mode, the development of discontinuous precipitation colonies consisting of regularly-spaced rod-like Co particles is observed. Upon further growth, these rods break down into chains of spherical particles which are thought to be formed as a consequence of Rayleigh instability. In addition, depending on the thermal conditions, the generation of domains on the order of 100 nm is observed within the matrix, which is constituted of large grains with average size of 100 μm

  12. Synthesis of radio-labeled caffeyl alcohol- and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Terashima, Noritsugu; Yasuda, Seiichi

    1996-01-01

    Syntheses of caffeyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucoside and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucoside were achieved with radio-labeling with 14 C at the glucose residue and with 3 H at the side chain γ-position of aglycon. The treatment of these compounds with commercially available β-glucosidase gave the corresponding aglycons, caffeyl alcohol, and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol. (author)

  13. Growth of highly mesoporous CuCo2O4@C core-shell arrays as advanced electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Kejia; Peng, Tao; Liu, Xianming; Liu, Yunxin; Luo, Yongsong

    2018-05-01

    A series of CuCo2O4 nanostructures with different morphologies were prepared by a hydrothermal method in combination with thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As the electrode materials for supercapacitors, CuCo2O4 nanoneedles delivered the highest specific capacitance compared with other CuCo2O4 nanostructures. Electrochemical performance measurements demonstrate that the carbon layer can improve the electrochemical stability of CuCo2O4 nanoneedles. The CuCo2O4@C electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1432.4 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, with capacitance retention of 98.2% after 3000 circles. These characteristics of CuCo2O4@C composite are mainly due to the unique one dimensional needle-liked architecture and the conducting carbon, which provide a faster ion/electron transfer rate. These excellent performances of the CuCo2O4@C electrode confirmed the material as a positive electrode for hybrid supercapacitor application.

  14. CuCo2O4 nanoplate film as a low-cost, highly active and durable catalyst towards the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanbing; Zhang, Shengjie; Liao, Jinyun; Feng, Kejun; Zheng, Yuying; Pollet, Bruno G.; Li, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane is one of the most promising routes for the production of clean hydrogen as it is seen as a highly efficient and safe method. However, its large-scale industrial application is either limited by the high cost of the catalyst (usually a noble metal based catalyst) or by the low activity and poor reusability (usually a non-noble metal catalyst). In this study, we have successfully prepared three low-cost CuCo2O4 nanocatalysts, namely: (i) Ti supported CuCo2O4 film made of CuCo2O4 nanoplates, (ii) Ti supported CuCo2O4 film made of CuCo2O4 nanosheets, and (iii) unsupported CuCo2O4 nanoparticles. Among the three catalysts used for the hydrolytic dehydrogeneration of ammonia borane, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film exhibits the highest catalytic activity with a turnover frequency (TOF) of ∼44.0 molhydrogen min-1 molcat-1. This is one of the largest TOF value for noble-metal-free catalysts ever reported in the literature. Moreover, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film almost keeps its original catalytic activity after eight cycles, indicative of its high stability and good reusability. Owing to its advantages, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film can be a promising catalyst for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane, which may find important applications in the field of hydrogen energy.

  15. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  16. Recurrent intergrowths in the topotactic reduction process of LaBaCuCoO5.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Luisa; Boulahya, Khalid; Parras, Marina; Alonso, José; González-Calbet, José M

    2002-12-16

    A new perovskite-related oxide with the LaBaCuCoO5.2 composition has been stabilised. Its structure can be described as formed by the recurrent intergrowth of two alternating blocks of YBaCuFeO5 (2ac, i.e., two-fold perovskite superlattice) and YBa2Fe3O8 (3ac) structural types. From the starting material LaBaCuCoO5.2-delta (delta = 0), the rigorous control of the oxygen content has allowed the stabilisation of three new five fold perovskite-related superstructures with the compositions delta = 0.4, 0.8 and 1.1, which can also be described as recurrent intergrowths of two blocks showing 2ac and 3ac periodicity. The reduction process takes place through the 3ac periodic blocks, when 0 topotactic reaction, since their basic structure is kept through the reduction process.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol- carboxymethyl tamarind gum based composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Indu; Rathnam, V S Sharan; Yogalakshmi, Yamini; Chakraborty, Subhabrata; Banerjee, Indranil; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal

    2017-06-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis of novel composite films using polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl tamarind gum. The microscopic study results confirmed the formation of composite matrices. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the occurrence of hydrogen-bonding amongst the components of the films. The extent of hydrogen bonding was composition-dependent which reached a critical higher limit at a particular composition. At the critical composition, the instantaneous and the intermediate polymer relaxation time were longer. All the films were found to be viscoelastic in nature. The melting endotherm was also highest for the composition described above. Ciprofloxacin loaded films showed excellent antimicrobial property against E. coli, suggesting that the drug was released in its active form. Cell proliferation study using human keratinocytes suggested better cell proliferation in the CMT containing films as compared to the control (PVA only) film. In gist, the developed films can be explored for skin tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized halloysite nanotubes for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Guan, Huijuan; Zhao, Yafei; Yang, Jing-He; Zhang, Bing

    2018-01-01

    In present work, we prepared the bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized halloysite nanotubes (Cu-Co/PDDA-HNTs) by a deposition-reduction technique at room temperature. The analysis of XRD, SEM, TEM, HAADF-STEM and XPS were employed to systematically investigate the morphology, particle size, structure and surface properties of the nanocomposite. The results reveal that the PDDA coating with thickness of ∼15 nm could be formed on the surface of HNTs, and the existence of PDDA is beneficial to deposit Cu and Co nanoparticles (NPs) with high dispersibility on the surface. While the cost-effective nanocomposite was used for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane (NH3BH3), the nanocatalyst showed extraordinary catalytic properties with high total turnover frequency of 30.8 molH2/(molmetal min), low activation energy of 35.15 kJ mol-1 and high recycling stability (>90% conversion at 10th reuse). These results indicate that the bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on PDDA functionalized HNTs have particular potential for application in release hydrogen process.

  19. Tuning the Synthesis of Manganese Oxides Nanoparticles for Efficient Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jingyuan; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Cuifeng; Ling, Huajuan; Yan, Feng; Zhong, Xia; Lu, Yuxiang; Shi, Jeffrey; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zongwen

    2017-01-01

    The liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol is an important reaction for generating benzaldehyde and benzoic acid that are largely required in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The current production systems suffer from either low conversion or over oxidation. From the viewpoint of economy efficiency and environmental demand, we are aiming to develop new high-performance and cost-effective catalysts based on manganese oxides that can allow the green aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under mild conditions. It was found that the composition of the precursors has significant influence on the structure formation and surface property of the manganese oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the crystallinity of the resulting manganese nanoparticles was gradually improved upon increasing the calcination temperature; however, the specific surface area decreased obviously due to pore structure damage at higher calcination temperature. The sample calcined at the optimal temperature of 600 °C from the precursors without porogen was a Mn3O4-rich material with a small amount of Mn2O3, which could generate a significant amount of {O}_2- species on the surface that contributed to the high catalytic activity in the oxidation. Adding porogen with precursors during the synthesis, the obtained catalysts were mainly Mn2O3 crystalline, which showed relatively low activity in the oxidation. All prepared samples showed high selectivity for benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. The obtained catalysts are comparable to the commercial OMS-2 catalyst. The synthesis-structure-catalysis interaction has been addressed, which will help for the design of new high-performance selective oxidation catalysts.

  20. Giant magnetoresistance effect in CoZr/Cu/Co spin-valve films (abstract)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Youssef, J. [CNRS-LMIMS, 92195 Meudon-Bellevue (France)]|[LPM Universite Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Koshkina, O.; Le Gall, H. [CNRS-LMIMS, 92195 Meudon-Bellevue (France); Harfaoui, M.E. [LPMC Universite Ibn Tofail Kenitra (Morocco); Bouziane, K. [CNRS-LMIMS, 92195 Meudon-Bellevue (France); Yamani, M.E. [LPM Universite Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Desvignes, J.M. [CNRS-LMIMS, 92195 Meudon-Bellevue (France)

    1997-04-01

    A high sensitivity of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) has been observed recently from soft magnetic layers such as NiFe, NiFeCo, and FeCoB. Amorphous CoZr alloys present ultrasoft properties compared to NiFe. GMR has been investigated for amorphous CoZr/Cu/Co thin films grown by rf diode sputtering using a target consisting of a Co disk partially covered with a Zr foil. The influence of the argon pressure on Cu layer deposition, Cu thickness, and Zr content on magnetic and transport properties was analyzed. The highest value of transverse GMR obtained along the easy axis is 3.6{percent} and the MR curve was saturated in a magnetic field of 100 Oe at room temperature. GMR shows scaling behavior with the sample composition. Very high sensitivity, around 1{endash}2{percent}/Oe was observed in a CoZr (3 nm)/Cu (3 nm)/Co (2 nm) sandwich. This study shows a large dependence of GMR on Cu thickness and the maximum of magnetoresistance strongly depending on the Ar pressure which modifies the interface roughness. The Zr content also influences the magnetotransport properties ({Delta}R/R and {Delta}R/R{Delta}H). The difference in coercivity between soft magnetic CoZr and hard magnetic Co layers induces antiferromagnetic alignment. Therefore a high MR ratio and field sensitivity are achieved by improving the magnetic properties of the CoZr layer.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Impact of potassium promoter on Cu–Fe based mixed alcohols synthesis catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Mingyue; Tu, Junling; Qiu, Minghuang; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Li, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adding K facilitated the immigration of bulky iron species to surface layers. • Adding potassium strengthened the interaction of Fe–K on the surface layers. • Increasing K content facilitated the formation of C 2 + OH. • A maximum in catalytic activity is obtained at 0.5 wt.% of potassium loading. - Abstract: Impacts of K promoter on microstructures of a precipitated Cu–Fe based catalyst were studied by N 2 -physisorption (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and hydrogen temperature-programmed desorption/reduction (H 2 -TPD/TPR). Mixed alcohols synthesis (MAS) was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that incorporation of K in the Cu–Fe based catalyst decreased the surface area of the particles, whereas promoted the immigration of bulky iron species to surface layers and strengthened the interaction of surface Fe–Cu. The increase of K concentration weakened the H 2 chemisorption and restrained the reduction of both the Cu and Fe species. The catalytic activity and mixed alcohols selectivity increased accompanied with a gradually increasing K concentration, and reached the highest values as the amount of K increased to 0.5 wt.%. Subsequently, the MAS activity and selectivity C 2 + OH presented a decreasing trend. In addition, the increase of K concentration facilitated the formation of heavy hydrocarbons

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes of Few Walls Using Aliphatic Alcohols as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinosa-Magaña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of CNTs of only few walls by means of the use of the spray pyrolysis technique. For this purpose, ferrocene is utilized as a catalyst and aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol or butanol as the carbon source. The characterization of CNTs was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The study of the synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs show important differences in the number of layers that constitute the nanotubes, the diameter length, the quantity and the quality as a function of the number of carbons employed in the alcohol. The main interest of this study is to give the basis of an efficient synthesis process to produce CNTs of few walls for applications where small diameter is required.

  3. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively.

  4. Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy on UV/ozonolysis irradiated polyethylene terephthalate film and its corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Xu, Yumeng; Mu, Yuhang; Lu, Yinxiang

    2017-05-01

    High corrosion resistant Cu-Co-P coatings were firstly prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by electroless plating in combination with UV/ozonolysis irradiation under optimized cobalt sulfate heptahydrate concentration, pH value, plating temperature and time. The copper polyalloy/PET composite can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the generation of oxygen-containing functionalities (carboxylic groups) onto PET surface through UV irradiation combined with ozone, (ii) Cu seeding catalysts were obtained after being immersed into cupric citrate and NaBH4 solutions subsequently, and (iii) Cu-Co-P polyalloy metallization using electroless plating bath. Attenuated total reflection fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurement and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were utilized to track the surface changes during the whole process. The electroless plating conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experiment (L9(3)4) for Cu-Co-P coating as follows: CoSO4·7H2O addition of 0.08 M, pH value, plating temperature and time were set on 10.0, 35 °C and 25 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, copper polyalloy possessed high adhesive strength and the lowest surface resistance (8.06 Ω/sq), while maintaining reliability even after over 1000 times of bending and mechanical stress. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements showed that Cu-Co-P layer formed on PET surface was imparted with fine uniformity and high compactness. Electrochemical test revealed the optimized Cu-Co-P coatings exhibited high corrosion resistance in NaCl, NaOH and HCl solutions, respectively. The excellent electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE >99.999% at frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz) of copper polyalloy/PET composites was confirmed by the spectrum analyzer. Therefore, this copper polyalloy will

  5. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  6. Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy on UV/ozonolysis irradiated polyethylene terephthalate film and its corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei; Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Xu, Yumeng; Mu, Yuhang; Lu, Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy was firstly fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. • An etchant-free and amine-free UV/ozonolysis irradiation method UV/ozonolysis was effective for the transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic of PET sheet. • A time-saving and cost-effective orthogonal experiment (L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}) was utilized to optimize the plating conditions. • The optimized copper polyalloy possessed high corrosion resistance in three aggressive mediums including NaCl, NaOH and HCl, respectively. • The Cu-Co-P coated PET composite showed excellent electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE > 99.999% at frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz). - Abstract: High corrosion resistant Cu-Co-P coatings were firstly prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by electroless plating in combination with UV/ozonolysis irradiation under optimized cobalt sulfate heptahydrate concentration, pH value, plating temperature and time. The copper polyalloy/PET composite can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the generation of oxygen-containing functionalities (carboxylic groups) onto PET surface through UV irradiation combined with ozone, (ii) Cu seeding catalysts were obtained after being immersed into cupric citrate and NaBH{sub 4} solutions subsequently, and (iii) Cu-Co-P polyalloy metallization using electroless plating bath. Attenuated total reflection fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurement and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were utilized to track the surface changes during the whole process. The electroless plating conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experiment (L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}) for Cu-Co-P coating as follows: CoSO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O addition of 0.08 M, pH value, plating temperature and time were set on 10.0, 35 °C and 25 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, copper

  7. Novel organocatalytic activation of unmodified Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols for the synthesis of bicyclic α-alkylidene-ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Julian; Kowalczyk, Dorota; Jiang, Hao; Jørgensen, Karl Anker; Albrecht, Łukasz

    2014-10-06

    The organocatalytic activation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols via H-bonding-iminium-ion formation is demonstrated for the first time. This activation strategy enables the Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols to undergo a formal SN2' reaction. In combination with the well-established enamine reactivity, this creates a new reactivity pattern. The application of this new activation mode for the synthesis of bicyclic α-alkylidene-ketones is demonstrated. The developed reaction sequence proceeds efficiently affording nature-inspired target products with four contiguous stereogenic centers in a highly stereoselective manner. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis of Monodispersed Gold Nanoparticles with Exceptional Colloidal Stability with Grafted Polyethylene Glycol-g-polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaaldin M. Alkilany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles with tunable core size (23–79 nm in the presence of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-g-PVA grafted copolymer as a reducing, capping, and stabilizing agent in a one-step protocol. The resulted PEG-g-PVA-capped gold nanoparticles are monodispersed with an exceptional colloidal stability against salt addition, repeated centrifugation, and extensive dialysis. The effect of various synthesis parameters and the kinetic/mechanism of the nanoparticle formation are discussed.

  9. Fabrication of CeO2–MOx (M = Cu, Co, Ni composite yolk–shell nanospheres with enhanced catalytic properties for CO oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available CeO2–MOx (M = Cu, Co, Ni composite yolk–shell nanospheres with uniform size were fabricated by a general wet-chemical approach. It involved a non-equilibrium heat-treatment of Ce coordination polymer colloidal spheres (Ce-CPCSs with a proper heating rate to produce CeO2 yolk–shell nanospheres, followed by a solvothermal treatment of as-synthesized CeO2 with M(CH3COO2 in ethanol solution. During the solvothermal process, highly dispersed MOx species were decorated on the surface of CeO2 yolk–shell nanospheres to form CeO2–MOx composites. As a CO oxidation catalyst, the CeO2–MOx composite yolk–shell nanospheres showed strikingly higher catalytic activity than naked CeO2 due to the strong synergistic interaction at the interface sites between MOx and CeO2. Cycling tests demonstrate the good cycle stability of these yolk–shell nanospheres. The initial concentration of M(CH3COO2·xH2O in the synthesis process played a significant role in catalytic performance for CO oxidation. Impressively, complete CO conversion as reached at a relatively low temperature of 145 °C over the CeO2–CuOx-2 sample. Furthermore, the CeO2–CuOx catalyst is more active than the CeO2–CoOx and CeO2–NiO catalysts, indicating that the catalytic activity is correlates with the metal oxide. Additionally, this versatile synthesis approach can be expected to create other ceria-based composite oxide systems with various structures for a broad range of technical applications.

  10. One-pot synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines using supported gold and base as catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol.......Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol....

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption in chronic form enhances the synthesis of cholesterol and C-21 steroid hormones, while treatment with Tinospora cordifolia modulate these events in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Suman; Mittal, Ashwani; Dabur, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption disrupts lipid metabolism and hormonal balance including testosterone levels. However, studies doubt the relationship between moderate alcohol intake and sex hormone levels. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to establish the direct impact of chronic and moderate alcohol intake on cholesterol homeostasis and steroid hormone synthesis. Asymptomatic chronic and moderate alcoholics (n=12) without chronic liver disease and healthy volunteers (n=14) were selected for the study. Furthermore, effects of standardized water extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Mier. (Menispermaceae) (TCJ), a well reported anti-alcoholic herbal drug, on urinary steroids was studied. This study included four groups, i.e. a) healthy; b) healthy+TCJ; c) alcoholic; d) alcoholic+TCJ. The blood and urine samples from each group were collected on day 0 and 14 of the post-treatment with TCJ and analyzed. Alcoholic blood samples showed the significantly higher values of traditional biomarkers γ-GT and MCV along with cholesterol, LDL, TGL and urinary methylglucuronide compared to healthy. Qualitative analysis of steroids showed that moderate alcohol intake in a chronic manner increased the cholesterol synthesis and directed its flow toward C-21 steroids; shown by increased levels of corticosterone (2.456 fold) and cortisol (3.7 fold). Moreover, alcohol intake also increased the synthesis of estradiol and clearance rate of other steroids through the formation of glucuronides. Therefore, it decreased the synthesis and increased the clearance rate of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A). Quantitative analysis confirmed decreased T/A ratio from 2.31 to 1.59 in plasma and 2.47 to 1.51 in urine samples of alcoholics. TCJ intervention normalized the levels of steroids and significantly improved the T:A ratio to 2.0 and 2.12 in plasma and urine. The study revealed that TCJ modulated lipid metabolism by inhibiting cholesterol and glucuronides

  12. Practical ruthenium-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation of allenyl alcohols in 2,4,6-collidine leading to alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones: concise stereoselective synthesis of (+)-isomintlactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Kazunori; Honda, Toshio

    2009-02-06

    We have found that ruthenium-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation of allenyl alcohols in 2,4,6-collidine under atmospheric pressure of carbon monoxide smoothly proceeds to afford alpha,beta-unsaturated five- and six-membered lactones in moderate to good yields. Furthermore, we have completed a highly stereoselective synthesis of (+)-isomintlactone by the cyclocarbonylation of allenyl alcohol using 2,4,6-collidine.

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sasipriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR. According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up.

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V.

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  16. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...... be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  17. Synthesis and use of an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation catalyst based on iron(II) for the synthesis of enantioenriched alcohols and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Weiwei; Morris, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of prochiral ketones and imines is an advantageous approach to the synthesis of enantioenriched alcohols and amines, respectively, which are two classes of compounds that are highly prized in pharmaceutical, fragrance and flavoring chemistry. This hydrogenation reaction is generally carried out using ruthenium-based catalysts. Our group has developed an alternative synthetic route that is based on the environmentally friendlier iron-based catalysis. This protocol describes the three-part synthesis of trans-[amine(imine)diphosphine]chlorocarbonyliron(II) tetrafluoroborate templated by iron salts and starting from commercially available chemicals, which provides the precatalyst for the efficient asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones and imines. The use of the enantiopure (S,S) catalyst to reduce prochiral ketones to the (R)-alcohol in good to excellent yields and enantioenrichment is also detailed, as well as the reduction to the amine in very high yield and enantiopurity of imines substituted at the nitrogen with the N-(diphenylphosphinoyl) group (-P(O)Ph2). Although the best ruthenium catalysts provide alcohols in higher enantiomeric excess (ee) than the iron complex catalyst used in this protocol, they do so on much longer time scales or at higher catalyst loadings. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks.

  18. Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health? An evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Petticrew, Mark; Durand, Mary Alison; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The English Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between industry, government and other actors in various areas including alcohol, and designed to improve public health. This paper reviews systematically the evidence underpinning four RD alcohol pledges. We conducted a systematic review of reviews of the evidence underpinning interventions proposed in four RD alcohol pledges, namely alcohol labelling, tackling underage alcohol sales, advertising and marketing alcohol, and alcohol unit reduction. In addition, we included relevant studies of interventions where these had not been covered by a recent review. We synthesized the evidence from 14 reviews published between 2002 and 2013. Overall, alcohol labelling is likely to be of limited effect on consumption: alcohol unit content labels can help consumers assess the alcohol content of drinks; however, labels promoting drinking guidelines and pregnancy warning labels are unlikely to influence drinking behaviour. Responsible drinking messages are found to be ambiguous, and industry-funded alcohol prevention campaigns can promote drinking instead of dissuading consumption. Removing advertising near schools can contribute to reducing underage drinking; however, community mobilization and law enforcement are most effective. Finally, reducing alcohol consumption is more likely to occur if there are incentives such as making lower-strength alcohol products cheaper. The most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm are not reflected consistently in the RD alcohol pledges. The evidence is clear that an alcohol control strategy should support effective interventions to make alcohol less available and more expensive. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Tf2NH-Catalyzed Amide Synthesis from Vinyl Azides and Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Lian; Zhu, Xu; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2015-06-19

    Triflimide (Tf2NH) specifically catalyzed reactions of alcohols and vinyl azides, enabling efficient construction of amides with C-C bond formation through nucleophilic attack of vinyl azides onto the putative carbocation intermediates derived from alcohols are described.

  20. Chitosan-based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effective catalyst systems for the selective oxidation of cyclic olefins under milder conditions. The oxidation of β-isophorone to ketoisophorone is one example of such chemistry, which is an industrially important reac- tion. Ketoisophorone is an important intermediate in the industrial synthesis of vitamin E. Ketoisophorone.

  1. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  2. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Aissa, Imen; Frikha, Fakher; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil

    2011-06-17

    Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil) and vegetables (jojoba) which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50 °C), the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL), the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol) and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL) on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30 °C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL) a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters. © 2011 Sellami et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  3. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil) and vegetables (jojoba) which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C), the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL), the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol) and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL) on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL) a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters. PMID:21682865

  4. Pine-Needle-Like Cu-Co Skeleton Composited with Li4Ti5O12Forming Core-Branch Arrays for High-Rate Lithium Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng-Ao; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Yao, Zhujun; Wu, Jianbo; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-03-24

    High-performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) rely largely on the scrupulous design of nanoarchitectures and smart hybridization of bespoke active materials. In this work, the pine-needle-like Cu-Co skeleton is reported to support highly active Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) forming Cu-Co/LTO core-branch arrays via a united hydrothermal-atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. ALD-formed LTO layer is uniformly anchored on the pine-needle-like heterostructured Cu-Co backbone, which consists of branched Co nanowires (diameters in 20 nm) and Cu nanowires (250-300 nm) core. The designed Cu-Co/LTO core-branch arrays show combined advantages of large porosity, high electrical conductivity, and good adhesion. Due to the unique positive features, the Cu-Co/LTO electrodes are demonstrated with enhanced electrochemical performance including excellent high-rate capacity (155 mAh g -1 at 20 C) and noticeable long-term cycles (144 mAh g -1 at 20 C after 3000 cycles). Additionally, the full cell assembled with activated carbon positive electrode and Cu-Co/LTO negative electrode exhibits high power/energy densities (41.6 Wh kg -1 at 7.5 kW kg -1 ). The design protocol combining binder-free characteristics and array configuration opens a new door for construction of advanced electrodes for application in high-rate electrochemical energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    -drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  6. A new class of amorphous cathode active material LixMyPOz (M = Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, Au, Ag, Pd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabi, Yuichi; Sato, Susumu; Hayashi, Saori; Furuya, Tatsuya; Kusanagi, Susumu

    2014-07-01

    A new class of amorphous cathode active material LixMyPOz (LiMPO) is proposed. The materials are sputter deposited to thin film form by Li3PO4 together with metal or metal oxide targets. Among several materials tested as thin-film battery, working material found are M = Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, Au, Ag, Pd. The property is intensively studied for LixCuyPOz (LiCuPO) and LixNiyPOz (LiNiPO). Those materials shows wide composition margin such as composition y between 1 and 3, and high capacity for LiNiPO with maximum value of 330 mAh g-1. The capability to charge and discharge at high rate is shown up to 30 C. This preliminary report reveals its high potentiality for further optimization.

  7. Reversal mode instability and magnetoresistance in perpendicular (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) pseudo-spin-valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. E.; Gilbert, D. A.; Mohseni, S. M.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.; Liu, Kai

    2013-07-01

    We have observed distinct temperature-dependent magnetization reversal modes in a perpendicular (Co/Pd)4/Co/Cu/(Co/Ni)4/Co pseudo-spin-valve, which are correlated with spin-transport properties. At 300 K, magnetization reversal occurs by vertically correlated domains. Below 200 K the hysteresis loop becomes bifurcated due to laterally correlated reversal of the individual stacks. The magnetic configuration change also leads to higher spin disorders and a significant increase in the giant magnetoresistance effect. First order reversal curve measurements reveal that the coupled state can be re-established through field cycling and allow direct determination of the interlayer coupling strength as a function of temperature.

  8. Depth profile distribution of Cr, Cu, Co, Ni and Pb in the sediment cores of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhuparna, D.; Hemalatha, P.; Raj, Sanu S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal sediments act as ultimate sink for trace metals that are discharged into the aquatic environment. Sources of environmental contaminants to the coastal system are numerous and may enter the estuarine environment via a number of pathways Mumbai Harbour Bay on the western coast of India, receives low level nuclear wastes and industrial and domestic sewage waste from the surrounding dwellings. Also, the bay is extensively exploited for various other local activities. The present study was carried out in the bay sediment cores to investigate the depth profile distribution of trace element concentration. Biologically significant toxic elements such as Cr, Cu, Co, Ni and Pb were estimated in the sediment cores to find out pattern of distribution in the sediment bed to follow the accumulation of elements with respect to depth

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CdxMn1-xS nanoparticles stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatkoski, Vanessa M.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Gonzalez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots, have attracted considerable attention due to their significant potential application. The doping of nanocrystalline semiconductors with divalent manganese ions results in new optical properties of these semimagnetic semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we report the synthesis and characterization Cd x Mn 1-x S nanoparticles using poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizing agent. Different fractions of Cd 2+ /Mn 2+ ions were investigated aiming the production of stable nanoparticles with different photoluminescence properties. (author)

  10. Iron-Catalyzed Reaction of Urea with Alcohols and Amines: A Safe Alternative for the Synthesis of Primary Carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-López, Miguel; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-08-23

    A general study of the iron-catalyzed reaction of urea with nucleophiles is here presented. The carbamoylation of alcohols allows for the synthesis of N-unsubstituted (primary) carbamates, including present drugs (Felbamate and Meprobamate), without the necessity to apply phosgene and related derivatives. Using amines as nucleophiles gave rise to the respective mono- and disubstituted ureas via selective transamidation reaction. These atom-economical transformations provide a direct and selective access to valuable compounds from cheap and readily available urea using a simple Lewis-acidic iron(II) catalyst. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis of acyl carbamates via four component Pd-catalyzed carbonylative coupling of aryl halides, potassium cyanate, and alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongfei; de Almeida, Angelina M; de Almeida, Mauro V; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2015-03-06

    A simple and mild method is demonstrated for assembling acyl carbamates through a base-free four-component Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl halides in the presence of potassium cyanate and alcohols in a two-chamber system. This approach produces a wide range of aryl acyl carbamates in good to excellent yields from the corresponding aryl bromides or iodides with near-stoichiometric carbon monoxide. In addition, the method can be extended to the synthesis of primary amides thereby expanding the usefulness of cyanate as an ammonia equivalent.

  12. Influence of the temperature on the synthesis of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly (vinil alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Andre L.B. de; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Gonzalez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) have been the subject of recent research by presenting quantum properties. This property has stimulated the study of these particles in biological applications such as bookmarks, which creates the necessity of using different synthesis routes resulting in biocompatible systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the properties of QDs cadmium sulfide, aqueous route using poly (vinyl alcohol), a biocompatible polymer, such as stabilizing agent. The characterization of particles produced was performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for obtaining the absorption and emission, respectively and Transmission microscopy (TEM) for analysis of the diameter of the nanocrystals. (author)

  13. Copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of N-aryl oxazolidinones from amino alcohol carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, William; Plucinski, Pawel K; Frost, Christopher G

    2014-10-03

    An efficient sequential intramolecular cyclization of amino alcohol carbamates followed by Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling with aryl iodides under mild conditions has been developed. The reaction occurred in good yields and tolerated aryl iodides containing functionalities such as nitriles, ketones, ethers, and halogens. Heteroaryl iodides and substituted amino alcohol carbamates were also well tolerated.

  14. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures....

  15. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  16. The effect of Maillard reaction products and yeast strain on the synthesis of key higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Rachael E; Black, Gary W; Koutsidis, Georgios; Usher, St John

    2017-10-01

    The effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), formed during the production of dark malts, on the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. Higher alcohol levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in dark malt fermentations, while the synthesis of esters was inhibited, due to possible suppression of enzyme activity and/or gene expression linked to ester synthesis. Yeast strain also affected flavour synthesis with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A01 producing considerably lower levels of higher alcohols and esters than S288c and L04. S288c produced approximately double the higher alcohol levels and around twenty times more esters compared to L04. Further investigations into malt type-yeast strain interactions in relation to flavour development are required to gain better understanding of flavour synthesis that could assist in the development of new products and reduce R&D costs for the industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A density functional theory study on the carbon chain growth of ethanol formation on Cu-Co (111) and (211) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Bohua; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Wen, Guobin [Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Minhua, E-mail: mhzhang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Calculations based on the first-principle density functional theory were carried out to study ethanol formation from syngas on Cu-Co surfaces. • The most controversial reactions in ethanol formation from syngas were researched: CO dissociation mechanism and the key reactions of carbon chain growth of ethanol formation (HCO insertion reactions (CHx + HCO → CHxCHO (x = 1–3))). • Four model surfaces (Cu-Co (111) and (211) with Cu-rich or Co-rich surfaces) were built to investigate the synergy of the Cu and Co components. • The PDOS of 4d orbitals and d-band center analysis of surface Cu and Co atoms of all surfaces were studied to reveal correlation between electronic property and catalytic performance. - Abstract: Calculations based on the first-principle density functional theory were carried out to study the most controversial reactions in ethanol formation from syngas on Cu-Co surfaces: CO dissociation mechanism and the key reactions of carbon chain growth of ethanol formation (HCO insertion reactions) on four model surfaces (Cu-Co (111) and (211) with Cu-rich or Co-rich surfaces) to investigate the synergy of the Cu and Co components since the complete reaction network of ethanol formation from syngas is a huge computational burden to calculate on four Cu-Co surface models. We investigated adsorption of important species involved in these reactions, activation barrier and reaction energy of H-assisted dissociation mechanism, directly dissociation of CO, and HCO insertion reactions (CH{sub x} + HCO → CH{sub x}CHO (x = 1–3)) on four Cu-Co surface models. It was found that reactions on Cu-rich (111) and (211) surfaces all have lower activation barrier in H-assisted dissociation and HCO insertion reactions, especially CH + HCO → CHCHO reaction. The PDOS of 4d orbitals of surface Cu and Co atoms of all surfaces were studied. Analysis of d-band center of Cu and Co atoms and the activation barrier data suggested the correlation between

  18. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  19. Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bhat et al 2000; ChungChen and Huang 2002; Lagashetty et al 2002). New Chimie–Douce routes for the synthesis of cobalt ferrite and other ceramics are being continuously investigated (Figlarz 1989; Lee et al 1998; Helen and. Kamath 2000). In our earlier work, we have reported the combustion synthesis of nanoparticles ...

  20. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  1. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  2. Short and Efficient Synthesis of Optically Active N-Tosyl Aziridines from 2-Amino Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. F. de Araújo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative and complementary one-pot procedures for the direct transformation of 2-amino alcohols to N-tosyl aziridines are presented. The unsubstituted parent compound and its less hindered homologues can be obtained in high yields by tosylation and in situ cyclisation effected by potassium hydroxide in water/dichloromethane. Higher substituted amino alcohols give better yields using potassium carbonate in acetonitrile. Both procedures use simple inorganic bases and produce only inorganic salts as byproducts.

  3. Desarrollo calorimétrico del proceso de precipitación en aleaciones Cu-Co-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso, E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC the precipitation processes of supersaturated solid solutions of three Cu-Co-Si alloys, with a constant cobalt composition, were studied. Thermograms, and previous studies, reveal that the decomposition begins with cobalt precipitation. Clustering of cobalt initiates the silicon precipitation, finally Co2Si stoichiometric particles are formed. Volume fractions are determined by the amount of cobalt present in these alloys. It is inferred that surplus silicon atoms retained in the solution increase the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters were calculated by a method based in the Mehl-Johnson-Avrami (MJA formalism. The lower activation energy obtained, associated with cobalt clustering is attributed to the contribution of quenched-in vacancies.

    Mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC se estudió el proceso de precipitación de soluciones sólidas supersaturadas de tres aleaciones de Cu-Co-Si, con composición de cobalto constante. Evaluaciones entalpimétricas y estudios previos, revelaron que la descomposición comienza con la precipitación de cobalto. El agrupamiento de átomos de cobalto inicia la precipitación del silicio, formándose finalmente partículas de composición estequiométricas de Co2Si. Las fracciones volumétricas fueron determinadas en función de la cantidad de cobalto presente en estas aleaciones. Se infiere que el superávit de átomos de silicio retenidos en la solución aumenta la velocidad de reacción. Los parámetros cinéticos fueron calculados a partir de un método basado en el formalismo de Mehl- Johnson-Avrami (MJA. La energía de activación más baja obtenida, asociada con el apilamiento de cobalto, se atribuyó a la contribución de las vacantes retenidas por temple.

  4. Effects of H2S and process conditions in the synthesis of mixed alcohols from syngas over alkali promoted cobalt-molybdenum sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Trane, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    The present work is an investigation of how the process conditions influence the synthesis of mixed alcohols from syngas over a K2CO3/Co/MoS2/C catalyst. The emphasis in the investigations is upon the effects of H2S in the syngas feed. However the effects of the temperature and of the partial pre...

  5. Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Barbara; MacLean, Sarah; Berends, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how "realist synthesis" methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002…

  6. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  7. Synthesis of metabolites of the insecticide Deltamethrine: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acids and 3-phenoxy (hydroxymethyl-14C) benzyl alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-Cao-Thang; Nguyen-Hoang-Nam; Hoellinger, H.; Pichat, L.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are described for the synthesis of the following metabolites of Deltamethrin, the pyrethroid insecticide: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl- 14 C) benzoic acid, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl- 14 C) benzoic acid, 3-(2'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl- 14 C) benzoic acid and the corresponding 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohols, specific activity = 47-57 mCi/mmol. (author)

  8. Differences in the Synthesis and Elimination of Phosphatidylethanol 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 after Acute Doses of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Dougherty, Donald M; Roache, John D; Karns-Wright, Tara E; Javors, Martin A

    2018-03-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine the synthesis and elimination of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 following the consumption of alcohol among 56 light and heavy drinkers. A transdermal alcohol monitor was used to promote alcohol absence 7 days prior, and 14 days after, alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Participants consumed a 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol in15 min. Blood and breath samples were collected before, at various times up to 360 min post-consumption, and 2, 4, 7, 11 and 14 days after alcohol consumption. Initial rates of PEth synthesis, 360 min area under the PEth pharmacokinetic curves (AUC), and elimination half-lives were determined. (1) Non-zero PEth levels were observed before alcohol dosing for most participants, despite 7 days of alcohol use monitoring; (2) 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg doses of alcohol produced proportional increases in PEth levels in all but 1 participant; (3) the initial rate of synthesis of both PEth homologues did not differ between the two doses, but was greater for PEth 16:0/18:2 than PEth 16:0/18:1 at both doses; (4) the mean AUC of both PEth homologues was higher at 0.8 g/kg than at 0.4 g/kg; (5) the mean AUC of 16:0/18:2 was greater than that of PEth 16:0/18:1 at both alcohol doses; (6) the mean half-life of PEth 16:0/18:1 was longer than that of PEth 16:0/18:2 [7.8 ± 3.3 (SD) days and 6.4 ± 5.0 (SD) days, respectively]; and (7) there were no sex differences in PEth 16:0/18:1 or 16:0/18:2 pharmacokinetics. The results of this study support the use of PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 as biomarkers for alcohol consumption. Because of consistent pharmacokinetic differences, the levels of these two PEth homologues may provide more information regarding the quantity and recentness of alcohol consumption than either alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of Degradable Poly(vinyl alcohol) by Radical Ring-Opening Copolymerization and Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedir, Guillaume; Stubbs, Christopher; Aston, Phillip; Dove, Andrew P; Gibson, Matthew I

    2017-12-19

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is the most active synthetic mimic of antifreeze proteins and has extremely high ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. Addition of PVA to cellular cryopreservation solutions increases the number of recovered viable cells due to its potent IRI, but it is intrinsically nondegradable in vivo . Here we report the synthesis, characterization, and IRI activity of PVA containing degradable ester linkages. Vinyl chloroacetate (VClAc) was copolymerized with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (MDO) which undergoes radical ring-opening polymerization to install main-chain ester units. The use of the chloroacetate monomer enabled selective deacetylation with retention of esters within the polymer backbone. Quantitative IRI assays revealed that the MDO content had to be finely tuned to retain IRI activity, with higher loadings (24 mol %) resulting in complete loss of IRI activity. These degradable materials will help translate PVA, which is nontoxic and biocompatible, into a range of biomedical applications.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenzim, Vinicius L.; Basso, Glaucia G.; Passos, Rodrigo A.; Nery, Jose G.; Agreli, Guilherme; Oliveira, Ana P.M.L.; Kawasaki-Oyama, Rosa S.; Braile, Domingo M.

    2009-01-01

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  11. Concise and stereocontrolled synthesis of pseudo-C2-symmetric diamino alcohols and triamines for use in HIV protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luca; Bonini, Bianca F; Dessole, Gabriella; Fochi, Mariafrancesca; Comes-Franchini, Mauro; Gavioli, Silvia; Ricci, Alfredo; Varchi, Greta

    2003-02-21

    A new protocol is described for the stereocontrolled synthesis of pseudo-C(2)-symmetric core units of interest as candidates for HIV protease inhibition. Addition of unbranched and branched organolithium reagents to cyanohydrins from l-phenylalaninal and l-isoleucinal, followed by in situ reduction of the intermediate imines and CHT deprotection under MW irradiation, led to 1,3-diamino alcohols 6a and 8a as the major products in satisfactory to good yields. The first preparation of a previously unreported pseudo-C(2)-symmetric triamino derivative was accomplished expeditiously via high-yielding nitro-Mannich addition of the silylnitronate, from 2-phenyl-1-nitroethane, to the PMP imine derived from l-phenylalaninal. Reduction of the nitro group in the moderately unstable nitro diamine adduct, followed by chromatographic separation of the required diastereoisomer and CHT debenzylation under MW irradiation, led to the 2-PMP-protected triamine 19 isolated as a bis(sulfonamide).

  12. Silver-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalehshahi, Hajar Golshadi; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    into the acid with HCl. The reaction can be applied to a variety of benzylic and aliphatic primary alcohols with alkyl and ether substituents, and in some cases halide, olefin, and ester functionalities are also compatible with the reaction conditions. The dehydrogenation is believed to be catalyzed by silver......A simple silver-catalyzed protocol has been developed for the acceptorless dehydrogenation of primary alcohols into carboxylic acids and hydrogen gas. The procedure uses 2.5 % Ag2 CO3 and 2.5-3 equiv of KOH in refluxing mesitylene to afford the potassium carboxylate which is then converted...

  13. Synthesis of acetate of isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil using immobilized candida antarctica lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, B.; Ali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Lipase catalyzed production of isoamyl acetate, the flavor and fragrance ester was carried out in n-hexane solvent. Isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil and acetic acid were used as reactants The favorable reaction conditions for maximum (92 %) ester production were amount of enzyme 9 %. acid:alcohol molar ratio 1:2 M, temperature 40 degree C and reaction time 6 hour. Enzyme could be reused six times before loss of activity started. Product was confirmed by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Effects of Amino-Modified Perillyl Alcohol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Hui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two series of amino-modified derivatives of (S-perillyl alcohol were designed and synthesized using (S-perillaldehyde as the starting material. These derivatives showed increased antiproliferative activity in human lung cancer A549 cells, human melanoma A375-S2 cells and human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells comparing with that of (S-perillyl alcohol. Among these derivatives, compounds VI5 and VI7 were the most potent agents, with the IC50s below 100 μM. It was demonstrated that the antiproliferative effect of VI5 was mediated through the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells.

  15. A practical one-pot synthesis of azides directly from alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkyl/benzyl azides can be readily synthesized in excellent yields from their corresponding alco- hols by stirring a solution of sodium azide in DMSO with a thoroughly ground equimolecular mixture of triphenylphosphine, iodine and imidazole. Keywords. Alcohol; azide; triphenylphosphine; iodine; imidazole; chemoselective.

  16. Evaluaciones calorimétricas de la precipitación en aleaciones Cu-Co-Si, ricas en Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso, Eduardo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation process of cobalt and silicon atoms from supersaturated solid solutions of Cu-Co-Si for two compositions was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Calorimetric traces analysis showed the presence of two overlapping exothermic reactions (stages 1 and 2, which can are attributed to two precipitation processes. First stage correspond to the preceding formation of a cobalt precipitate, while the second stage correspond to the formation of stoichiometric CO2Si composition which takes place by silicon diffusion to the first precipitate. Heat contents during the stages 1 and 2 are proportional to precipitates volume fractions. Activation energies of both precipitates, calculated from the Kissinger method, are consistent with those corresponding to diffussion of Co in Cu and Si in Cu. Both processes can be decribed by the Johnson-Mehl Avrami (JMA equation. Values of n are compatible with precipitate nucleation from the solid solution (stage 1 and with growth of paticles from preexisting Co precipitates. Furthermore,, the kinetic of the concentration decay of Co and Si in the matrix was estimated as function of the transformated fraction for each thermal event and from their respective volume fractions.

    Mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC se estudió el proceso de precipitación de átomos de cobalto y silicio a partir de dos soluciones sólidas supersaturadas de Cu-Co- Si. El análisis de las trazas calorimétricas muestra la presencia de dos reacciones exotérmicas traslapadas (etapas 1 y 2, que se interpretan como la formación de dos tipos de precipitados. La primera etapa corresponde a la formación precursora de un precipitado de cobalto, en tanto que la etapa 2 corresponde a la formación de un precipitado de composición estequiométrica CO2Si producido por difusión de silicio hacia la primera partícula. Los calores liberados durante las etapas 1 y 2 son proporcionales a

  17. A practical one-pot synthesis of azides directly from alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azide is one of the most versatile functional groups in organic synthesis owing to the fact that it is the most convenient source of amines, which are very common in natural products as well as pharmaceutical hete- rocycles.1 Additionally, the stability of azides under physiological conditions and their inimitable reacti-.

  18. The potential of photochemical transition metal reactions in prebiotic organic synthesis. I. Observed conversion of methanol into ethylene glycol as possible prototype for sugar alcohol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisch, John J; Munson, Peter R; Gitua, John N

    2004-10-01

    Photochemical processes involving redox reactions between metal ions and organic substrates possess the versatile potential for having harnessed solar energy for prebiotic organic synthesis. The present study in our Laboratory has shown that ultraviolet irradiation of transition metal ions such as of Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Ti dissolved in primary or secondary alcohols causes photoreduction of the metal ions with the concomitant oxidation of the alcohol to aldehyde or ketone. An observed accompaniment of this novel 'light' reaction has been the known 'dark' pinacol reaction, whereby the carbonyl derivative underwent bimolecular coupling to the diol by the photogenerated reduced transition metal reagent. These tandem 'light-dark' processes possess the potential for the stepwise synthesis of dimeric 1,2-diols from simpler alcohols under conditions that might have prevailed on the prebiotic earth. Experiments reported here have demonstrated that such a tandem 'light-dark' conversion of methanol into ethylene glycol, via formaldehyde, does in fact occur, when nickel(II) acetylacetonate solutions in methanol undergo prolonged irradiation at 185-254 nm. Since ethylene glycol can be considered as the simplest sugar alcohol, these findings may provide novel insight into the prebiotic oligomerization of formaldehyde into higher sugar alcohols or even sugars.

  19. The Potential of Photochemical Transition Metal Reactions in Prebiotic Organic Synthesis. I. Observed Conversion of Methanol into Ethylene Glycol as Possible Prototype for Sugar Alcohol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisch, John J.; Munson, Peter R.; Gitua, John N.

    2004-10-01

    Photochemical processes involving redox reactions between metal ions and organic substrates possess the versatile potential for having harnessed solar energy for prebiotic organic synthesis. The present study in our Laboratory has shown that ultraviolet irradiation of transition metal ions such as of Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Ti dissolved in primary or secondary alcohols causes photoreduction of the metal ions with the concomitant oxidation of the alcohol to aldehyde or ketone. An observed accompaniment of this novel `light' reaction has been the known `dark' pinacol reaction, whereby the carbonyl derivative underwent bimolecular coupling to the diol by the photogenerated reduced transition metal reagent. These tandem `light-dark' processes possess the potential for the stepwise synthesis of dimeric 1,2-diols from simpler alcohols under conditions that might have prevailed on the prebiotic earth. Experiments reported here have demonstrated that such a tandem `light-dark' conversion of methanol into ethylene glycol, via formaldehyde, does in fact occur, when nickel(II) acetylacetonate solutions in methanol undergo prolonged irradiation at 185-254 nm. Since ethylene glycol can be considered as the simplest sugar alcohol, these findings may provide novel insight into the prebiotic oligomerization of formaldehyde into higher sugar alcohols or even sugars.

  20. Synthesis of acyl analogues of coniferyl alcohol and their antimycobacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S.; Siddiqui, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    In search of new anti-mycobacterial agents seven acyl and one benzyl derivatives of coniferyl alcohol were synthesized and evaluated along with coniferyl alcohol for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) in vitro. Four compounds (3-6) showed greater activity than the parent compound and inhibited MTB with IC/sub 90/ 9.11, 8.92, 4.28 and 3.01 micro g/mL respectively. Compound 6, the most potent compound in vitro exhibited CC/sub 50/ 10.216 micro g/mL in VERO cells with selectivity index 3.394. Reference compounds used were rifampin and isoniazid and had IC/sub 90/ 0.0031 and 0.063 micro g/mL respectively. (author)

  1. Synthesis, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and E. coli DNA gyrase inhibitory activities of coumarinyl amino alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka; Singh, Vineeta; Ekta; Katiyar, Diksha

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the in vitro antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration) of fourteen coumarinyl amino alcohols 2-16 against eight bacterial strains and two fungi. Among these compounds 4, 8, 12, 15 and 16 showed moderate to good microbial inhibition with MIC values varied from 6.25 to 25μg/mL. The most promising compounds were also evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic and E. coli DNA gyrase inhibitory activities along with the two 7-oxy-4-methyl coumarinyl amino alcohol derivatives 17 and 18, which were found to be the most potent in in vitro antimicrobial screening in our previous study. All the active compounds, including 17 and 18, were also docked into the E. coli DNA gyrase ATP binding site (PDB ID: 1KZN) to investigate their binding interactions. Of these compound 17 has shown maximum binding energy value of -6.13kcal/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of β-methyl-γ- monofluoromethyl-substituted alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo

    2011-06-07

    Enanatiopure β-methyl-γ-monofluoromethyl alcohols were prepared from the allylic alkylation between fluorobis(phenylsulfonyl)methane with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates. The reaction was catalyzed by using the Cinchona alkaloid derivative, (DHQD)2AQN. The origin of the stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed stereoselectivity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels: their synthesis and steps towards control of electroendosmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purss, Helen K; Caulfield, Marcus J; Solomon, David H; Sommer-Knudsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) hydrogel networks cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were prepared and their properties as membranes examined using a variety of techniques including preparative electrophoresis. Electroendosmosis (EEO) was observed and shown to be the result of charges on the membrane and of complexation with borate buffer ions. Investigation of "glutaraldehyde" solutions showed acid entities in, or formed in "glutaraldehyde" were responsible for EEO. Techniques for using "glutaraldehyde" which minimize EEO are described.

  4. Synthesis of prostanoids; enantiomeric purity of alcohols by a /sup 31/P NMR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penning, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    The enone, 2,2-diemthyl-3a..beta.., 6a..beta..-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta-1,3-dioxol-4-one, has been synthesized in six steps from cyclopentadiene, resolved using sulfoximine chemistry, and converted into (-)-prostaglandin E/sub 2/ methyl ester in three steps. Introduction of the optically pure omega side-chain using a conjugate addition of a stabilized organocopper reagent, followed by direct alkylation of the enolate with the ..cap alpha.. side-chain allylic iodide in the presence of hexamethylphosphoramide, afforded a trans, vicinally disubstituted cyclopentanone. Deprotection of the C-15 alcohol, followed by aluminum amalgam reduction of the C-10/oxygen bond, provided (-)-PGE/sub 2/ methyl ester in 47% overall yield from the enone. In an extension of previously described work, 2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-sulfide, prepared from l-ephedrine and thiophosphoryl chloride, was used to determine the enantiomeric excess of chiral alcohols in conjunction with /sup 31/P NMR. Chiral primary and secondary alcohols added quantitatively to the phospholidine to give diastereomers which could be analyzed by /sup 31/P NMR and HPLC. A number of other phosphorus heterocycles were also explored as potential chiral derivatizing reagents.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of sulfolane-based amino alcohols: A combined experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykov, Vitalii A.; Zarovnaya, Iryna S.; Tretiakov, Serhii V.; Reshetnyak, Alyona V.; Omelchenko, Iryna V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.; Okovytyy, Sergiy I.

    2018-04-01

    Aminolysis of 3,4-epoxysulfolane in aqueous media leads to a very complex mixture of products with unresolved stereochemistry. Herein, we report a detailed theoretical and experimental mechanistic investigation of this reaction along with extensive spectroscopic characterization of the resulting amino alcohols, using 1D and 2D NMR techniques (1H, 13C, NOE, NOESY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC) as well as XRD analysis. In addition to simple amines such as ammonia and benzylamine, our study also employed the more sterically hindered endo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ylmethanamine. The mechanism of the aminolysis of 3,4-epoxysulfolane by aqueous ammonia was studied in more detail using quantum chemical calculations at the M06-2X/6-31++G** level of theory. The computational results led us to conclude that the most probable way of initial epoxide transformation is base-catalyzed rearrangement to a corresponding allylic alcohol. Subsequent formation of vicinal amino alcohols and diols proceeds via addition of ammonia or hydroxy-anions to activated double Cdbnd C bond with some preference of a cis-attack. Detailed analytical data obtained in the course of our work will be useful for the stereochemical identification of new sulfolane derivatives.

  6. Synthesis of prostanoids; enantiomeric purity of alcohols by a 31P NMR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    The enone, 2,2-diemthyl-3aβ, 6aβ-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta-1,3-dioxol-4-one, has been synthesized in six steps from cyclopentadiene, resolved using sulfoximine chemistry, and converted into (-)-prostaglandin E 2 methyl ester in three steps. Introduction of the optically pure omega side-chain using a conjugate addition of a stabilized organocopper reagent, followed by direct alkylation of the enolate with the α side-chain allylic iodide in the presence of hexamethylphosphoramide, afforded a trans, vicinally disubstituted cyclopentanone. Deprotection of the C-15 alcohol, followed by aluminum amalgam reduction of the C-10/oxygen bond, provided (-)-PGE 2 methyl ester in 47% overall yield from the enone. In an extension of previously described work, 2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-sulfide, prepared from l-ephedrine and thiophosphoryl chloride, was used to determine the enantiomeric excess of chiral alcohols in conjunction with 31 P NMR. Chiral primary and secondary alcohols added quantitatively to the phospholidine to give diastereomers which could be analyzed by 31 P NMR and HPLC. A number of other phosphorus heterocycles were also explored as potential chiral derivatizing reagents

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial properties of 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of terpene alcohols and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bound, D James; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2015-10-15

    Essential oils and their oxygenated terpene constituents possess potent antimicrobial properties. In the present study, a facile synthetic route to the 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of important phenols and terpene alcohols in excellent yields (85-96%) has been delineated. Studies on their antimicrobial action against four food-borne pathogens--Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica--demonstrated that the zone of inhibition, in general, was higher for the 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside derivatives (1b-6b) and the corresponding saturated glucosides (1c-5c) when compared to the parent alcohols/phenols (1-6). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for these derivatives too were generally lower than those of the parent compounds. Furthermore, the time-kill and bacteriolysis assays too demonstrated the greater antimicrobial potential of the derivatives. The 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of phenols and terpene alcohols were more effective in their antimicrobial action than the corresponding parent compounds. The study indicated that these novel derivatives can find useful application in control of food-related pathogenic microbes in foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of azide-alkyne fragments for "click" chemical applications. Part 2. Formation of oligomers from orthogonally protected chiral trialkylsilylhomopropargyl azides and homopropargyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnat, Oliver D; Lessene, Guillaume; Hughes, Andrew B

    2010-01-15

    A small library of chiral, beta(3)-substituted homopropargyl alcohols and chiral beta(3)-substituted trimethylsilylhomopropargyl azides were generated starting from natural l-amino acids. The free alkynes and azides were then coupled, using a Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, to provide chiral oligomeric 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles as potential peptidomimetic compounds. The work is an extension to the previous synthesis of racemic, orthogonally protected 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles from the corresponding alpha-substituted propargyl alcohols and alpha-substituted trialkylsilylpropargyl azides.

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol Silver Nanoparticles Gel for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hiep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to fabricate chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol/Ag nanoparticles (CPA gels with microwave-assistance for skin applications. Microwave irradiation was employed to reduce silver ions to silver nanoparticles and to crosslink chitosan (CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The presence of silver nanoparticles in CPA gels matrix was examined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The interaction of CS and PVA was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The release of silver ions was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The antimicrobial properties of CPA gels against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were investigated using agar diffusion method. Finally, the biocompatibility and wound-healing ability of the gels were studied using fibroblast cells (in vitro and mice models (in vivo. In conclusion, the results showed that CPA gels were successfully fabricated using microwave irradiation method. These gels can be applied to heal an open wound thanks to their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.

  12. Simple organic molecules as catalysts for enantioselective synthesis of amines and alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Daniel L; Torker, Sebastian; Pilyugina, Tatiana; Vieira, Erika M; Snapper, Marc L; Haeffner, Fredrik; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2013-02-14

    The discovery of catalysts that can be used to synthesize complex organic compounds by enantioselective transformations is central to advances in the life sciences; for this reason, many chemists aim to discover catalysts that allow for preparation of chiral molecules as predominantly one mirror-image isomer. The ideal catalyst should not contain precious elements and should bring reactions to completion in a few hours through operationally simple procedures. Here we introduce a set of small organic molecules that can catalyse reactions of unsaturated organoboron reagents with imines and carbonyls; the products of the reactions are enantiomerically pure amines and alcohols, which might serve as intermediates in the preparation of biologically active molecules. A distinguishing feature of this catalyst class is the presence of a 'key' proton embedded within their structure. Catalysts are derived from the abundant amino acid valine and are prepared in large quantities in four steps with inexpensive reagents. Reactions are scalable, do not demand stringent conditions, and can be performed with as little as 0.25 mole per cent catalyst in less than six hours at room temperature to generate products in more than 85 per cent yield and ≥97:3 enantiomeric ratio. The efficiency, selectivity and operational simplicity of the transformations and the range of boron-based reagents are expected to render this advance important for future progress in syntheses of amines and alcohols, which are useful in chemistry, biology and medicine.

  13. Synthesis of aspartame precursor with an immobilized thermolysin in tert-amyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayasu, T; Miyanaga, M; Tanaka, T; Sakiyama, T; Nakanishi, K

    1994-05-01

    N-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (Z-AspPheOMe), a precursor of the synthetic sweetner asparatame, was synthesized from N-(benzyloxycarbolyl)-L-aspartic acid (Z-Asp) and L-phenylalanine methyl ester (PheOMe) with an immobilized thermolysin in various organic solvents. We found that in tert-amyl alcohol containing a small amount of water the immobilized enzyme showed a high activity comparble to that in ethyl acetate with quite a high stability. The immobilized enzyme was fully stable up to 70 degrees C in tert-amyl alcohol in the absence of the subatrate, and up to 50 degrees C in the presence of the substrate. The high stability in the presence of the substrate was found due to the fact that the release of calcium ions, the stabilizing factor of thermolysin, is suppressed.The substrate concentration dependence of the initial synthetic rate with the immobilized enzyme was quite different from that with the free enzyme in the biphasic system, in contrast to that in ethyl acetate. Finally, Z-AspPheOMe was continuously synthesized in a column reactor using 200 mM PheOMe and 120 mM Z-Asp as the substrate for over 300 h at 45 degrees C and a space velocity of 1 h(-1) without any loss of acivity. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Transgalactosylation/Hydrolysis Ratios of Various β-Galactosidases Catalyzing Alkyl-β-Galactoside Synthesis in Single-Phased Alcohol Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Winkelhausen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three microbial galactosidases, Aspergillus oryzae, Escherichia coli and Kluyveromyces marxianus β-galactosidase, were used as catalysts for transgalactosylation synthesis of alkyl-β-galactosides in single-phased alcohol media. Their selectivity towards different alcohol nucleophiles was quantified by determining the transgalactosylation/hydrolysis ratio in the water/alcohol mixtures containing water in concentrations below the level of saturation. p-Nitrophenyl-β-galactoside was used as a glycosyl donor at a concentration of 10 mM. Both the total reaction rate (transgalactosylation+hydrolysis and the ratio between the transgalactosylation (alcoholysis and hydrolysis increased with the increase of water activity. Although the A. oryzae β-galactosidase showed relatively low total activity (3.13 μmol/(min·mg protein, it exhibited the highest selectivity towards the hexanol nucleophile among the examined enzymes (0.65. The selectivity values in all the examined cases were below one, which implies that the hydrolysis, and not the synthesis, was the dominating reaction. The total reaction rate (transgalactosylation+hydrolysis was strongly affected by the water activity, and for the specific water activity in the different alcohols, it increased in the following order: n-octanol, n-hexanol, n-butanol.

  15. Synthesis of boron carbide nano particles using polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fathi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study boron carbide nano particles were synthesized using polyvinyl alcohol and boric acid. First, initial samples with molar ratio of PVA : H3BO3 = 2.7:2.2 were prepared. Next, samples were pyrolyzed at 600, 700 and 800°C followed by heat treatment at 1400, 1500 and 1600°C. FTIR analysis was implemented before and after pyrolysis in order to study the reaction pathway. XRD technique was used to study the composition of produced specimens of boron carbide. Moreover, SEM and PSA analysis were also carried out to study the particle size and morphology of synthesized boron carbide. Finally, according to implemented tests and analyses, carbon-free boron carbide nano particles with an average size of 81 nm and mainly spherical morphology were successfully produced via this method.

  16. Understanding Uncertainties in the Economic Feasibility of Transportation Fuel Production using Biomass Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Longwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Li, Boyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Dang, Qi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Bioeconomy Institute, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50012 USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Brown, Robert [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Bioeconomy Institute, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50012 USA; Wright, Mark M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Bioeconomy Institute, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50012 USA

    2016-01-29

    This analysis evaluates uncertainties of previously conducted techno-economic analysis of transportation fuel production via biomass gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis. Two scenarios are considered: a state-of-technology scenario utilizing existing technologies and a target scenario representing future advancements in related technologies. Uncertainties of more than ten parameters are investigated, including feedstock price, internal rate of return (IRR), etc. Historical price data of these parameters are fitted with the most appropriate distribution and datasets are generated for each parameter accordingly. These data sets are then utilized to run a Monte-Carlo simulation. The results yield minimum fuel selling prices of $7.02/gal with a standard deviation of 0.49 for the state-of-technology scenario and $4.33/gal with a standard deviation of 0.42 for the target scenario respectively. Feedstock price and IRR have significant impact on the minimum fuel selling price in both scenarios. These findings are indicative of the reduction in biofuel cost and uncertainty achievable with increasing technology maturity.

  17. Study on the effect of the metal-support (Fe-MgO and Pt-MgO) interaction in alcohol-CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steplewska, Anna, E-mail: asteplewska@zut.edu.pl; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa [West Pomeranian University of Technology, Centre of Knowledge Based Nanomaterials and Technologies, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the effect of the metal-support interaction in two systems: (1) iron particle, and (2) platinum particles, being supported on magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowder in alcohol-CVD process for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth. The employment of the different metals but the same substrate (with equal molar ratio) resulted in the synthesis of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) or double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs), using iron and platinum, respectively. Furthermore, along with the prolongation of the process time, the decrease of the mean nanotubes diameter in case of iron-catalyzed materials was detected. Interestingly, the extention of the growth time in the synthesis using Pt/MgO resulted in the synthesis of the thicker mean nanotubes diameter. However, for both applied catalytic systems the reduction of the diameter distribution of the tubes and the increase of relative purity of the samples upon the growth time increase were detected.

  18. Isocyanate Reduction by Epoxide Substitution of Alcohols for Polyurethane Bioelastomer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold A. Lubguban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A phosphate ester-forming reaction was carried out by mixing epoxidized soybean oil with up to 1.5% o-phosphoric acid. In situ oligomerization took effect almost instantly producing a clear, homogeneous, highly viscous, and a low-acid product with a high average functionality. The resulting epoxide was used as a reactant for urethane bioelastomer synthesis and evaluated for rigid foam formulation. Results have shown that with a number of catalysts tested phosphoric acid significantly enhances a solvent-free oxirane ring cleavage and polymerization of the epoxidized soybean oil via phosphate-ester formation at room temperature. The resulting phosphoric acid-catalyzed epoxide-based bioelastomer showed an 80% decrease in extractable content and increased tensile strength at the same isocyanate loading relative to the noncatalyzed epoxide. The oligomerized epoxidized soybean oil materials exhibited ASTM hydroxyl values 40% less than the nonoligomerized starting material which translates to reduced isocyanate loadings in urethane applications.

  19. Structural characterization of two new quaternary chalcogenides: CuCo{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuNi{sub 2}InTe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Gerzon E.; Grima-Gallardo, Pedro; Nieves, Luis, E-mail: gerzon@ula.ve [Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cabrera, Humberto [Centro Multidisciplinario de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Glenn, Jennifer R.; Aitken, Jennifer A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The crystal structure of the chalcogenide compounds CuCo{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} and CuNi{sub 2}InTe{sub 4} , two new members of the I-II{sub 2}-III-VI{sub 4} family, were characterized by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data. Both materials crystallize in the tetragonal space group I4-bar 2m (No. 121), Z = 2, with a stannite-type structure, with the binaries CoTe and NiTe as secondary phases. (author)

  20. Probing the structure, stability and hydrogen adsorption of lithium functionalized isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn) by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-04-14

    Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen.

  1. Probing the Structure, Stability and Hydrogen Adsorption of Lithium Functionalized Isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn by Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of azo-guanidine based alcoholic media naked eye DNA sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmat, Uzma; Yousaf, Muhammad; Lal, Bhajan; Ullah, Shafiq; Holder, Alvin A.; Badshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    DNA sensing always has an open meadow of curiosity for biotechnologists and other researchers. Recently, in this field, we have introduced an emerging class of molecules containing azo and guanidine functionalities. In this study, we have synthesized three new compounds (UA1, UA6 and UA7) for potential application in DNA sensing in alcoholic medium. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their DNA sensing potential were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The insight of interaction with DNA was further investigated by electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) and hydrodynamic (viscosity) studies. The results showed that compounds have moderate DNA binding properties, with the binding constants range being 7.2 × 103, 2.4 × 103 and 0.2 × 103 M−1, for UA1, UA6 and UA7, respectively. Upon binding with DNA, there was a change in colour (a blue shift in the λmax value) which was observable with a naked eye. These results indicated the potential of synthesized compounds as DNA sensors with detection limit 1.8, 5.8 and 4.0 ng µl−1 for UA1, UA6 and UA7, respectively. PMID:28018613

  3. Synthesis, characterization, optical and antimicrobial studies of polyvinyl alcohol-silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) through sodium borohydride. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance band located at around 400 nm in the UV-Visible absorption spectrum confirmed the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Polyvinyl alcohol-silver (PVA-Ag) nanocomposite films were prepared by the casting technique. The morphology and interaction of PVA with Ag NPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Optical studies show that PVA exhibited indirect allowed optical transition with optical energy gap of 4.8 eV, which reduced to 4.45 eV under addition of Ag NPs. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant and their dispersions have been analyzed using Wemple and DiDomenco model. Color properties of the nanocomposites are discussed in the framework of CIE L∗u∗v∗ color space. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite samples was tested against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 7447 &Bacillus subtillis NCIB 3610), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, NTC10416 &Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIB 9016) and fungi (Aspergillus niger Ferm - BAM C-21) using the agar diffusion technique. The antimicrobial study showed that PVA has moderate antibacterial activity against B. subtillis and the 0.04 wt% Ag NPs composite sample effect was strong against S. aureus.

  4. Renewable Decyl-alcohol Templated Synthesis of Si-Cu Core-Shell Nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M A; Misran, H; Othman, S Z; Shah, N N H; Razak, N A A; Manap, A

    2013-01-01

    Monodispersed silica spheres with particles size of ca. 450 nm were successfully synthesized using a modified Stöber method. The synthesized monodispersed silica spheres were successfully coated with copper using modified sol-gel method employing nonsurfactant surface modifiers and catalyst. A renewable palm oil based decyl-alcohol (C10) as nonsurfactant surface modifiers and catalyst were used to modify the silica surfaces prior to coating with copper. The X-ray diffraction patterns of Si-Cu core-shell exhibited a broad peak corresponding to amorphous silica networks and monoclinic CuO phase. It was found that samples modified in the presence of 1 ml catalyst exhibited homogeneous deposition. The surface area of core materials (SiO2) was at ca. 7.04 m 2 /g and Si-Cu core-shell was at ca. 8.21 m 2 /g. The band gap of samples prepared with and without catalyst was calculated to be ca. 2.45 eV and ca. 3.90 eV respectively based on the UV-vis absorption spectrum of the product.

  5. Geochemistry, mineralogy and environmental impact of precipitated efflorescent salts at the Kabwe Cu-Co chemical leaching plant in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sracek, O.; Veselovsky, F.; Kribek, B.; Malec, J.; Jehlicka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Efflorescent salts of Cu and Co precipitate at Kabwe site in Zambia during long-term dry period. → They comprise an assemblage of Cu and Co minerals, some of them are very exotic in nature. → Evaporation experiment in laboratory gave more hydrated forms of minerals found in the field. → During rainy period, efflorescent salts dissolve with resulting high metals and acid pulse. → During on-going climatic change, environmental impact may become more serious. - Abstract: Precipitated efflorescent salts in Cu-Co chemical leaching plant wastes in Kabwe, Zambia, have been studied using XRF analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and evaporation experiments combined with geochemical modeling. Field samples of efflorescent salts contained up to 14.32 wt% Cu and 1.42 wt% Co. In the field, the principal minerals in the salts were gypsum (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O), moorhouseite (Co 0.6 Ni 0.3 Mn 0.1 2+ (SO 4 ).6H 2 O), bloedite (Na 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O), starkeyite (MgSO 4 .4H 2 O), chalcanthite (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) and kroehnkite (Na 2 Cu(SO 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O). In the evaporation experiment, gypsum precipitated in the first and second evaporation steps, chalcanthite and bieberite (CoSO 4 .7H 2 O), started to precipitate in Step 3, after evaporation of 60% of water, and maximum amounts of Cu and Co sulfate salts accumulated in Step 4 after precipitation of 80% of water. Epsomite (MgSO 4 .7H 2 O), and hexahydrite (MgSO 4 .6H 2 O), precipitated only after evaporation of 97.5% of water in Step 5. Presence of chalcanthite, bloedite, and kroehnkite in precipitates of Step 4 was also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Magnesium and Na content in Cu and Co-sulfate phases gradually increased with evaporation progress, e.g. bieberite was replaced by Co-bloedite and chalcanthite was replaced by kroehnkite in later stages of evaporation. The precipitation order was consistent with results of geochemical modeling. The

  6. Exploring the scope of new arylamino alcohol derivatives: Synthesis, antimalarial evaluation, toxicological studies, and target exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Quiliano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of new 1-aryl-3-substituted propanol derivatives followed by structure-activity relationship, in silico drug-likeness, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in silico metabolism, in silico pharmacophore modeling, and in vivo studies led to the identification of compounds 22 and 23 with significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity against drug sensitive (D6 IC50 ≤ 0.19 μM and multidrug resistant (FCR-3 IC50 ≤ 0.40 μM and C235 IC50 ≤ 0.28 μM strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Adequate selectivity index and absence of genotoxicity was also observed. Notably, compound 22 displays excellent parasitemia reduction (98 ± 1%, and complete cure with all treated mice surviving through the entire period with no signs of toxicity. One important factor is the agreement between in vitro potency and in vivo studies. Target exploration was performed; this chemotype series exhibits an alternative antimalarial mechanism.

  7. Charge defects and highly enhanced multiferroic properties in Mn and Cu co-doped BiFeO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

    2014-06-01

    Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and Mn, Cu co-doped BiFeO3 (BFMCO) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a chemical solution deposition method. Detailed investigations were made on the effects of Mn and Cu co-doping on the crystal structure, the defect chemistry, multiferroic properties of the BFO thin films. With the co-doping of Mn and Cu, a structural transition from the rhombohedral (R3c:H) to the biphasic structure (R3c:H + P1) is confirmed by XRD, Rietveld refinement and Raman analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the coexistence of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ ions in the co-doping films are demonstrated. Meanwhile, the way of the co-doping at B-sits is conducive to suppress Fe valence state of volatility and to decrease oxygen vacancies and leakage current. It's worth noting that the co-doping can induce the superior ferroelectric properties (a huge remanent polarization, 2Pr ∼ 220 μC/cm2 and a relatively low coercive field, 2Ec ∼ 614 kV/cm). The introduction of Mn2+ and Cu2+ ions optimizes the magnetic properties of BFO thin films by the biphasic structure and the destruction of spin cycloid.

  8. Socio-ecological influences on adolescent (aged 10-17) alcohol use and linked unhealthy eating behaviours: protocol for a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Reilly, Jessica; Giles, Emma L; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Ells, Louisa; Kaner, Eileen; Adamson, Ashley

    2017-09-02

    findings arising from our review. Qualitative synthesis will involve three core phases: line-by-line coding of findings; development of descriptive themes; and development of analytical themes. Findings from papers will be examined for overlaps, similarities and differences. This synthesis will interpret individual studies by identification of second-order constructs (interpretations offered by the original researchers) and third-order constructs (development of new interpretations beyond those offered in individual studies) by way of the development of a 'model structure' of shared influences upon both unhealthy eating behaviours and alcohol use. It is anticipated that this 'model structure' will aid subsequent co-design and piloting of a future intervention to help reduce health risk and social inequalities due to excess weight gain and alcohol consumption. CRD42017060624 .

  9. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  10. Novel synthesis of manganese and vanadium mixed oxide (V2O5/OMS-2) as an efficient and selective catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, Vahid; Soleimani, Shima

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Oxidation of various alcohols is studied in the liquid phase over new composite mixed oxide (V 2 O 5 /OMS-2) catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). The activity of V 2 O 5 /OMS-2 samples was considerably increased with respect to OMS-2 catalyst and these samples are found to be suitable for the selective oxidation of alcohols. - Highlights: • V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 with different V/Mn molar ratios prepared by the impregnation method. • Oxidation of alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 catalyst. • V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 catalyst had excellent activity for alcohol oxidation. • Benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. • The selected catalyst was reused without significant loss of activity. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis and characterization of mixed oxide vanadium–manganese V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 at various V/Mn molar ratios and prepared by the impregnation method. Characterization of these new composite materials was made by elemental analysis, BET, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and TEM techniques. Results of these analyses showed that vanadium impregnated samples contained mixed phases of cryptomelane and crystalline V 2 O 5 species. Oxidation of various alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over the V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and H 2 O 2 as the oxidant. Activity of the V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 samples was increased considerably with respect to K-OMS-2 catalyst due to the interaction of manganese oxide and V 2 O 5 . The kinetic of benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP over V 2 O 5 /K-OMS-2 catalyst was investigated at different temperatures and a pseudo-first order reaction was determined with respect to benzyl alcohol. The effects of reaction time, oxidant/alcohol molar ratio, reaction temperature, solvents, catalyst recycling potential and leaching were investigated

  11. Environmentally benign synthesis of amides and ureas via catalytic dehydrogenation coupling of volatile alcohols and amines in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2016-05-31

    In this study, we report the direct synthesis of amides and ureas via the catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines using the Milstein catalyst in a Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor. A series of amides and ureas, which could not be synthesized in an open system by catalytic dehydrogenation coupling, were obtained in moderate to high yields via catalytic dehydrogenation of volatile alcohols and amines. This process could be monitored by the hydrogen produced. Compared to the traditional method of condensation, this catalytic system avoids the stoichiometric pre-activation or in situ activation of reagents, and is a much cleaner process with high atom economy. This methodology, only possible by employing the Pd-Ag/ceramic membrane reactor, not only provides a new environmentally benign synthetic approach of amides and ureas, but is also a potential method for hydrogen storage.

  12. First DMAP-mediated direct conversion of Morita–Baylis–Hillman alcohols into γ-ketoallylphosphonates: Synthesis of γ-aminoallylphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ayadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of a series of γ-ketoallylphosphonates through a direct conversion of both primary and secondary Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH alcohols by trialkyl phosphites with or without DMAP, used as additive, and under solvent-free conditions, is described herein for the first time. Subsequently, a highly regioselective Luche reduction of the primary phosphonate 2a (R = H gave the corresponding γ-hydroxyallylphosphonate 5 that further reacted with tosylamines in the presence of diiodine (15 mol % as a catalyst, affording the corresponding SN2-type products 6a–d in 63 to 70% isolated yields. Alternatively, the alcohol 5 produced the corresponding acetate 7 which, mediated by Ce(III, was successfully converted into the corresponding γ-aminoallylphosphonates 8a–d.

  13. First DMAP-mediated direct conversion of Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols into γ-ketoallylphosphonates: Synthesis of γ-aminoallylphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Marwa; Elleuch, Haitham; Vrancken, Emmanuel; Rezgui, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of a series of γ-ketoallylphosphonates through a direct conversion of both primary and secondary Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols by trialkyl phosphites with or without DMAP, used as additive, and under solvent-free conditions, is described herein for the first time. Subsequently, a highly regioselective Luche reduction of the primary phosphonate 2a (R = H) gave the corresponding γ-hydroxyallylphosphonate 5 that further reacted with tosylamines in the presence of diiodine (15 mol %) as a catalyst, affording the corresponding S N 2-type products 6a-d in 63 to 70% isolated yields. Alternatively, the alcohol 5 produced the corresponding acetate 7 which, mediated by Ce(III), was successfully converted into the corresponding γ-aminoallylphosphonates 8a-d .

  14. One-pot Synthesis and Surface Modification of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Alcohol by Coprecipitation and Ultrasonication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Aditya D.; Wulandari, Ika O.; Hutami Rahayu, L. B.; Riva’i, Imam; Santojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    Among the various substances developed through nanoparticles, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle is one of the substances that have been widely used in various fields such as industry, agriculture, biotechnology and biomedicine. The synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticle can be carried out by two methods, consist of chemical and mechanical synthesis methods. Coprecipitation is one of the most commonly used methods for chemical synthesis. Fe3O4 compounds are easily oxidized because they are amphoteric. To avoid the continuous oxidation process, chemical modification process should be carried out with the addition of a solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In this study, PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by in-situ coprecipitation and ultrasonication methods through direct mixing (one-pot synthesis) of the iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl2.4H2O), iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O), and PVA under alkaline condition. The effects of addition amount of NH3solution (by adjusting its flow rate using automated syringe pump) and PVA concentration were gently studied. Interaction of PVA with Fe3O4 nanoparticle was identified by infrared spectroscopy whereas lattice parameters and crystallite sizes of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  15. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  16. Production of Renewable Hydrogen from Glycerol Steam Reforming over Bimetallic Ni-(Cu,Co,Cr Catalysts Supported on SBA-15 Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Carrero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol steam reforming (GSR is a promising alternative to obtain renewable hydrogen and help the economics of the biodiesel industry. Nickel-based catalysts are typically used in reforming reactions. However, the choice of the catalyst greatly influences the process, so the development of bimetallic catalysts is a research topic of relevant interest. In this work, the effect of adding Cu, Co, and Cr to the formulation of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrogen production by GSR has been studied, looking for an enhancement of its catalytic performance. Bimetallic Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr samples were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation to reach 15 wt % of Ni and 4 wt % of the second metal. Catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, N2-physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and tested in GSR at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. The addition of Cu, Co, and Cr to the Ni/SBA-15 catalyst helped to form smaller crystallites of the Ni phase, this effect being more pronounced in the case of the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 sample. This catalyst also showed a reduction profile shifted towards higher temperatures, indicating stronger metal-support interaction. As a consequence, the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited the best performance in GSR in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen production. Additionally, Ni-Cr/SBA-15 achieved a drastic reduction in coke formation compared to the Ni/SBA-15 material.

  17. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of β-Functionalized Ketones via Radical-Mediated 1,2-Rearrangement of Allylic Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei-Zhi; Zhang, Bo

    2018-02-22

    β-Functionalized ketones are a highly important and valuable class of compounds, which have gained increasing attention from organic chemists due to their intensive uses as versatile synthetic intermediates and building blocks in complex molecule assembly and natural product synthesis. Accordingly, there is continuing interest in the development of new approaches for the synthesis of β-functionalized ketones. In recent years, radical-mediated 1,2-rearrangement reactions of allylic alcohols, which proceed through cationic (semipinacol) rearrangements or radical (neophyl) rearrangements, have presented an attractive and powerful strategy to access various diversely β-functionalized ketones. Interestingly, this strategy allows directly installing a variety of valuable functional groups into the β-position of cyclic and acyclic ketones by employing different radical precursors. However, a review focusing on the preparation of β-functionalized ketones via radical-mediated 1,2-rearrangement reactions of allylic alcohols has not been summarized to date. This Minireview highlights recent progress made in this highly active and interesting research area, and the corresponding mechanism will be discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles using Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) as Capping Agent and Glutaraldehyde (GA) as Crosslinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Hutami Rahayu, Lale; Oktavia Wulandari, Ika; Herry Santjojo, Djoko; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker for a synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles is able to reduce agglomeration of produced Fe3O4. Additionally, oxidation of Fe3O4 by air could be avoided. The synthesis is carried out in two steps: first step, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared by dissolving the FeCl3.6H2O and FeCl2.4H2O in alkaline media (NH3.H2O). The second step, magnetite nanoparticles were coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain Fe3O4-PVA-GA. The latter material was then characterized by FTIR to determine the typical functional groups of magnetite coated with PVA-GA. X-ray Diffraction analysis was used to determine structure and size of crystal as well as the percentage of magnetite produced. It was found that the produced nanoparticles have crystal sizes around 4-9 nm with the cubic crystal structure. The percentage of magnetite phase increases when the amount of glutaraldehyde increased. SEM-EDX was employed to assess the surface morphology and elemental composition of the resulted nanoparticles. The magnetic character of the magnetite and Fe3O4- PVA-GA were studied using Electron Spin Resonance.

  19. In situ Generated Ruthenium Catalyst Systems Bearing Diverse N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precursors for Atom-Economic Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hua; Xiong, Mao-Qian; Cheng, Chuan-Xiang; Wang, Hua-Jing; Lu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Fu; Yao, Fu-Bin; Chen, Cheng; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-02-16

    The transition-metal-catalyzed direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is herein demonstrated as a highly environmentally benign and atom-economic process. Among various catalyst systems, in situ generated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based ruthenium (Ru) halide catalyst systems have been proven to be active for this transformation. However, these existing catalyst systems usually require an additional ligand to achieve satisfactory results. In this work, through extensive screening of a diverse variety of NHC precursors, we discovered an active in situ catalyst system for efficient amide synthesis without any additional ligand. Notably, this catalyst system was found to be insensitive to the electronic effects of the substrates, and various electron-deficient substrates, which were not highly reactive with our previous catalyst systems, could be employed to afford the corresponding amides efficiently. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations were performed to provide a rationale for the high activity of the optimized catalyst system. NMR-scale reactions indicated that the rapid formation of a Ru hydride intermediate (signal at δ=-7.8 ppm in the 1 H NMR spectrum) after the addition of the alcohol substrate should be pivotal in establishing the high catalyst activity. Besides, HRMS analysis provided possible structures of the in situ generated catalyst system. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inhibitory Role of Greatwall-Like Protein Kinase Rim15p in Alcoholic Fermentation via Upregulating the UDP-Glucose Synthesis Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Hirata, Aiko; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Takagi, Kenichi; Akao, Takeshi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The high fermentation rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains is attributable to a loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene, which encodes a Greatwall-family protein kinase that is conserved among eukaryotes. In the present study, we performed intracellular metabolic profiling analysis and revealed that deletion of the RIM15 gene in a laboratory strain impaired glucose-anabolic pathways through the synthesis of UDP-glucose (UDPG). Although Rim15p is required for the synthesis of trehalose and glycogen from UDPG upon entry of cells into the quiescent state, we found that Rim15p is also essential for the accumulation of cell wall β-glucans, which are also anabolic products of UDPG. Furthermore, the impairment of UDPG or 1,3-β-glucan synthesis contributed to an increase in the fermentation rate. Transcriptional induction of PGM2 (phosphoglucomutase) and UGP1 (UDPG pyrophosphorylase) was impaired in Rim15p-deficient cells in the early stage of fermentation. These findings demonstrate that the decreased anabolism of glucose into UDPG and 1,3-β-glucan triggered by a defect in the Rim15p-mediated upregulation of PGM2 and UGP1 redirects the glucose flux into glycolysis. Consistent with this, sake yeast strains with defective Rim15p exhibited impaired expression of PGM2 and UGP1 and decreased levels of β-glucans, trehalose, and glycogen during sake fermentation. We also identified a sake yeast-specific mutation in the glycogen synthesis-associated glycogenin gene GLG2, supporting the conclusion that the glucose-anabolic pathway is impaired in sake yeast. These findings demonstrate that downregulation of the UDPG synthesis pathway is a key mechanism accelerating alcoholic fermentation in industrially utilized S. cerevisiae sake strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  2. Effect of Ce and Cu co-doping on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystals and first principle investigation of their stability and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, J. Arul; Vijaya, J. Judith; Bououdina, M.; Kennedy, L. John; Dai, J. H.; Song, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Ce, Cu co-doped ZnO (Zn1-2xCexCuxO: x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05) nanocrystals were synthesized by a microwave combustion method. These nanocrystals were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability and magnetic properties of Ce and Cu co-doped ZnO were probed by first principle calculations. XRD results revealed that all the compositions are single crystalline. hexagonal wurtzite structure. The optical band gap of pure ZnO was found to be 3.22 eV, and it decreased from 3.15 to 3.10 eV with an increase in the concentration of Cu and Ce content. The morphologies of Ce and Cu co-doped ZnO samples confirmed the formation of nanocrystals with an average grain size ranging from 70 to 150 nm. The magnetization measurement results affirmed the antiferro and ferromagnetic state for Ce and Cu co-doped ZnO samples and this is in agreement with the first principles theoretical calculations.

  3. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols and Hydroxide Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Primary alcohols have been reacted with hydroxide and the ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] to afford carboxylic acids and dihydrogen. The dehydrogenative reaction is performed in toluene, which allows for a simple isolation of the products by precipitation and extraction. The transformat......Primary alcohols have been reacted with hydroxide and the ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] to afford carboxylic acids and dihydrogen. The dehydrogenative reaction is performed in toluene, which allows for a simple isolation of the products by precipitation and extraction....... The transformation can be applied to a range of benzylic and saturated aliphatic alcohols containing halide and (thio)ether substituents, while olefins and ester groups are not compatible with the reaction conditions. Benzylic alcohols undergo faster conversion than other substrates, and a competing Cannizzaro...

  4. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  5. Geologic setting, sedimentary architecture, and paragenesis of the Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Sheep Creek Cu-Co-Ag deposit, Helena embayment, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth; Hitzman, Murray W.; Zieg, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The northern margin of the Helena Embayment contains extensive syngenetic to diagenetic massive pyrite horizons that extend over 25 km along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone and extend up to 8 km basinward (south) within the Mesoproterozoic Newland Formation. The Sheep Creek Cu-Co deposit occurs within a structural block along a bend in the fault system, where replacement-style chalcopyrite mineralization is spatially associated mostly with the two stratigraphically lowest massive pyrite zones. These mineralized pyritic horizons are intercalated with debris flows derived from synsedimentary movement along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone. Cominco American Inc. delineated a geologic resource of 4.5 Mt at 2.5% Cu and 0.1% Co in the upper sulfide zone and 4 Mt at 4% Cu within the lower sulfide zone. More recently, Tintina Resources Inc. has delineated an inferred resource of 8.48 Mt at 2.96% Cu, 0.12% Co, and 16.4 g/t Ag in the upper sulfide zone. The more intact upper sulfide zone displays significant thickness variations along strike thought to represent formation in at least three separate subbasins. The largest accumulation of mineralized sulfide in the upper zone occurs as an N-S–trending body that thickens southward from the generally E trending Volcano Valley Fault and probably occupies a paleograben controlled by normal faults in the hanging wall of the Volcano Valley Fault. Early microcrystalline to framboidal pyrite was accompanied by abundant and local barite deposition in the upper and lower sulfide zones, respectively. The sulfide bodies underwent intense (lower sulfide zone) to localized (upper sulfide zone) recrystallization and overprinting by coarser-grained pyrite and minor marcasite that is intergrown with and replaces dolomite. Silicification and paragenetically late chalcopyrite, along with minor tennantite in the upper sulfide zone, replaces fine-grained pyrite, barite, and carbonate. The restriction of chalcopyrite to inferred

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance in the Selective Oxidation of Alcohols by Metallophthalocyanines Supported on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ebadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsubstituted phthalocyanines of Co, Fe and Mn supported on zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared and were well characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The oxidation of alcohols with tert-butylhydroperoxide, in the presence of metallophthalocyanines supported on zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated. These MPc/ZnO nanocomposites were effective catalysts for the oxidation of alcohols such as cyclohexanol (83.4% conversion; 100% selectivity, benzyl alcohol (70.5% conversion; 100% selectivity and hexanol (62.3% conversion; 100% selectivity. The influences of reaction time, various metals and type of substrates and oxidants on the oxidation of alcohols were also studied, and optimized conditions were investigated. Under these reaction conditions, the activity of the catalysts decreases in the following order:  CoPc/nano-ZnO > FePc/nano-ZnO > MnPc/nano-ZnO. It shows that TBHP is more efficient oxidant due to weaker O-O bond with respect to H2O2 and the following order has been observed for the percentage of conversions of alcohols: 2º > benzylic > 1º.

  7. Enzymatic Synthesis of Furfuryl Alcohol Ester with Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B and Its Kinetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Avery; Dey, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Mahua; Ghosh, Jaydip; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the successful enzymatic production of furfuryl oleate and its detailed kinetic study by Michaelis-Menten model. Esterification of oleic acid and furfuryl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation) in a solvent free system was studied in the present work at 1:1 molar ratio of furfuryl alcohol and oleic acid. About 99 % conversion (on the basis of oleic acid) has been achieved within 6 h at 5 % enzyme concentration. Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomenon taken into account) was applied to describe the ratios as a complex kinetic model. The kinetic parameters were determined using MATLAB language programme. The two initial rate constants KA and KB respectively were found out by different progress curves plotted with the help of MATLAB language programme. It was concluded from the results that furfuryl alcohol considerably inhibited the enzymatic reaction while oleic acid had negligible inhibitory effect. It was clearly seen that the initial rate was increased with the increase in the furfuryl alcohol concentration until 2 M/L after which there was a drop in the initial rate depicting the inhibitory effect of furfuryl alcohol. Surprisingly, it has been observed that addition of 0.1 mol of product activated the esterification reaction. Finally, the model was found to be statistically fitting well with the experimental data.

  8. Shape- and morphology-controlled sustainable synthesis of Cu, Co, and in metal organic frameworks with high CO2 capture capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2012-11-06

    We studied the effects of various surfactants on the shape and morphology of three metal organic frameworks (MOFs), i.e., Co-MOF, Cu-MOF, and In-MOF, which were synthesized under microwave irradiation. The as-synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen sorption. The effects of microwave irradiation time, temperature, and surfactant template were investigated. The synthetic parameters, including the type of surfactant template and the reaction temperature, played crucial roles in the size, shape, and morphology of the MOF microcrystals. We also evaluated these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2. Of the synthesized materials, Cu-MOF demonstrated the highest CO2 capture capacity, even at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vary Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 ± 23 vs 265 ± 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 ± 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E·eIF4G and inactive eIF4E·4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6

  10. High Performance Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with a Layered Perovskite GdBaCuCoO5+x Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhen; Jiang, Yuhua; Hu, Xuebing; Sun, Liangliang; Ling, Yihan

    2018-02-01

    Proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell (H-SOFC) based on layered perovskite type GdBaCuCoO5+x (GBCC) cathode was fabricated with in situ drop-coating BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-δ (BZCY) electrolyte membrane. The influences of Cu doping into Co sites of GdBaCo2O5+x on the electrical conductivity and conduction mechanism, thermal expansion property and electrochemical performance of cathode materials and corresponding single cell were investigated. Results show that the electrical conductivity decreased and the conduction mechanism would gradually transform to the semiconductor-like behavior. A high maximum power density of 480 mW cm-2 was obtained for the anode supported NiO-BZCY/NiO-BZCY/BZCY/GBCC single cells with wet H2 fuel at 700 °C. The corresponding polarization resistance was as low as 0.17 Ω cm2. The excellent electrochemical performance of as-prepared single cell indicates that GBCC is a good candidate of cathode materials for H-SOFCs.

  11. High Performance Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with a Layered Perovskite GdBaCuCoO5+ x Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhen; Jiang, Yuhua; Hu, Xuebing; Sun, Liangliang; Ling, Yihan

    2018-03-01

    Proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell (H-SOFC) based on layered perovskite type GdBaCuCoO5+x (GBCC) cathode was fabricated with in situ drop-coating BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-δ (BZCY) electrolyte membrane. The influences of Cu doping into Co sites of GdBaCo2O5+ x on the electrical conductivity and conduction mechanism, thermal expansion property and electrochemical performance of cathode materials and corresponding single cell were investigated. Results show that the electrical conductivity decreased and the conduction mechanism would gradually transform to the semiconductor-like behavior. A high maximum power density of 480 mW cm-2 was obtained for the anode supported NiO-BZCY/NiO-BZCY/BZCY/GBCC single cells with wet H2 fuel at 700 °C. The corresponding polarization resistance was as low as 0.17 Ω cm2. The excellent electrochemical performance of as-prepared single cell indicates that GBCC is a good candidate of cathode materials for H-SOFCs.

  12. Training and recovery behaviors of exchange bias in FeNi/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valves at high field sweep rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, D.Z. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Kapelrud, A.; Saxegaard, M. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Wahlstroem, E., E-mail: erik.wahlstrom@ntnu.no [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    Training and recovery of exchange bias in FeNi/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valves have been studied by magnetoresistance curves with field sweep rates from 1000 to 4800 Oe/s. It is found that training and recovery of exchange field are proportional to the logarithm of the training cycles and recovery time, respectively. These behaviors are explained within the model based on thermal activation. For the field sweep rates of 1000, 2000 and 4000 Oe/s, the relaxation time of antiferromagnet spins are 61.4, 27.6, and 11.5 in the unit of ms, respectively, much shorter than the long relaxation time ({approx}10{sup 2}s) in conventional magnetometry measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure antiferromagnet (AFM) spin dynamic behaviors at high field sweep rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the field sweep rates will reduce the AFM recovery and relaxation time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM spin is in millisecond timescale, shorter the conventional report ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}).

  13. Analysis of Cu, Co, V and Zn in coastal waters of the East China Sea by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rujun; Ning, Yutong; Zhang, Aibin; Li, Yan; Su, Han

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a simple method for the simultaneous determination of trace metals (Cu, V, Co, Zn) in coastal seawater using the Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed. This multi-element method enables the simultaneous extraction of four metals, particularly Co and V. The recoveries of Cu, Co, V and Zn after Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation were 73%, 96%, 94% and 92%, which means that our procedure was well-suited to the determination of these four trace metals. The detection limits were 3.81, 0.18, 6.09 and 1.91 nmol L-1, respectively. Then, applying this method to the simultaneous determination of these four metals in coastal water samples from the East China Sea revealed that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Co and V were higher in bottom waters compared to water at other depths, and higher concentrations were generally observed at the Yangtze River estuary. Additionally, example vertical profiles of dissolved trace metal concentrations for the East China Sea in spring and autumn are compared. These findings indicate that Zn had the greatest seasonal variation followed by Cu, V and Co. For Zn and Co, the concentrations were higher during spring than during autumn. For Cu and V, the seasonal variation in the concentrations was opposite.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of palladium(II) and nickel(II) alcoholate-functionalized NHC complexes and of mixed nickel(II)-lithium(I) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameury, Sophie; de Frémont, Pierre; Breuil, Pierre-Alain R; Olivier-Bourbigou, Hélène; Braunstein, Pierre

    2014-05-19

    The synthesis of Pd(II) and Ni(II) alcohol-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes was explored to examine the possible influence of the functional arm attached to the NHC backbone on their structure and reactivity and, in the case of a Ni(II) complex, on its catalytic properties in ethylene oligomerization. Starting from the alcohol-functionalized imidazolium salt [ImDiPP(C2OH)]Cl (2), the new functionalized NHC palladium(II) complex [PdCl(acac){ImDiPP(C2OH)-CNHC}] (3) was synthesized and fully characterized. Two byproducts, [PdCl{μ-ImDiPP(C2O)-CNHC,O}]2 (4) and trans-[PdCl2{ImDiPP(C2OH)-CNHC}2] (5), formed during the synthesis of 3, were also fully characterized. Acids promoted the transformation of 3 into the new CNHC-bound complex [PdCl(μ-Cl){ImDiPP(C2OH)-CNHC}]2 (6), unveiling the lability of the acac ligand and the resistance of the Pd-NHC bond to acids. Complex 6 reacted with a base to afford complex 4, in which alkoxide coordination to Pd(II) has occurred to generate a CNHC,O chelate. The stability of 3 was also assessed under basic conditions, and the new complex [Pd(acac){ImDiPP(C2O)-CNHC,O}] (7) was characterized. The new nickel(II) alcoholate-functionalized NHC complex [NiCl{μ-ImDiPP(C2O)-CNHC,O}]2 (8) was synthesized by the reaction of the imidazolium salt 2 with n-BuLi and [NiCl2(dme)]. The reaction of 8 with HCl regenerates the imidazolium and alcohol functions to give [ImDiPP(C2OH)]2[NiCl4] (9). The mixed-metal Ni(II)-Li(I) complexes [Ni2{μ-ImDiPP(C2O)-CNHC,μ-O}4Li]BF4 (10), [Ni2{μ-ImDiPP(C2O)-CNHC,μ-O}4Li]Cl (11), and [Ni{ImDiPP(C2O)-CNHC,μ-O}2LiBr] (12) were isolated and characterized. However, it was not possible to synthesize a Ni(II) alcohol-functionalized NHC complex in high yield. Small amounts of the square-planar complex [NiCl2{ImDiPP(C2OH)-CNHC}2] (13) could be isolated, and this complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In 13, only the CNHC atom of the alcohol-functionalized NHC ligand is bound

  15. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-10-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K2PtCl4 and InCl3.xH2O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt2In3 intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt2In3 catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be 3.2 and 2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt2In3 nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol proton exchange membranes modified with 4,4-diaminodiphenylether-2,2-disulfonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A proton-exchange membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell was prepared by modifying the chemical structure of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA by means of sulfonation. We report the synthesis of a new proton-conducting polymer membrane with poly (vinyl alcohol and diamine-containing organic molecules immobilized to PVA. The sulfonation was carried out by using 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2-disulfonic acid (ODADS. A sulfonated diamine monomer, ODADS, was successfully synthesized by direct sulfonation of a commercially available diamine, 4,4-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA, using fuming sulfuric acid as the sulfonating reagent. The chemical structure and thermal stability of the sulfonated PVA were studied by using FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis techniques, respectively. The proton conductivities of membranes were investigated as a function of ODADS content. The thermal decomposition of PVA-ODADS membranes started at 220°C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results indicated the homogeneity of the blends. Proton conductivity values of the sulfonated PVA membranes ranged between 8.25 and 16.53 mS/cm and the conductivities of PVA-ODADS membranes increased with the increasing ODADS content.

  17. Dual platinum and pyrrolidine catalysis in the direct alkylation of allylic alcohols: selective synthesis of monoallylation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Ryozo; Lin, Lu; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Mashima, Kazushi; Ohshima, Takashi

    2014-04-22

    A dual platinum- and pyrrolidine-catalyzed direct allylic alkylation of allylic alcohols with various active methylene compounds to produce products with high monoallylation selectivity was developed. The use of pyrrolidine and acetic acid was essential, not only for preventing undesirable side reactions, but also for obtaining high monoallylation selectivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A facile one-pot synthesis of (Z-α-chloro-α,β-unsaturated esters from alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karama

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of N-Chlorosuccinimide with (ethoxycarbonylmethylene-triphenylphosphorane followed by oxidation of alcohol using DMSO/SO3.Pyridine complex as a mild oxidant and trapping of the aldehydes constitutes a stereoselective single flask procedure for the preparation of Z-configured α-chloro-α,β-unsaturated esters.

  19. Green Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid organic aerogels were prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The resulting PVA/CNF aerogel was rendered both superhydrophobic and superoleophilic after being treated with methyltrichlorosilane via a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition process. Successful silanization...

  20. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in

    2016-10-15

    Ordered intermetallic Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} and InCl{sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be ~3.2 and ~2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell. - Graphical abstract: The ordered structure of Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal method has confirmed through XRD and TEM. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry showed improved catalytic activity and stability compared to commercial Pt/C. - Highlights: • Ordered Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method. • Electrooxidation of alcohols on Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst was investigated in acidic medium. • Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst has superior catalytic activity compared to commercial Pt/C. • Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst exhibited much higher stability than commercial Pt/C.

  1. Use of Industrial Waste (Al-Dross, Red Mud, Mill Scale) as Fluxing Agents in the Sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co Alloy by Carbothermic Reduction of Calcium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung Ho; Jeong, Eui Hyuk; Nam, Chul Woo; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Joo Hyun

    2018-03-01

    The use of industrial waste [mill scale (MS), red mud (RM), Al-dross (AD)] as fluxing agents in the sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy to matte (Fe-Ni-Cu-Co-S) by carbothermic reduction of CaSO4 was investigated at 1673 K (1400 °C). The sulfurization efficiency (SE) was 76 (± 2) pct at RM or AD single fluxing. However, SE drastically increased to approximately 89 pct at a `5AD + 5MS' combination, which was equivalent to reagent-grade chemical `5Al2O3 + 5Fe2O3' fluxing (SE = 88 pct). The present results can be used to improve the cost-effective recovery of rare metals (Ni and Co) from deep sea manganese nodules.

  2. Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysis of Acceptorless Dehydrogenative Alcohol Oxidation: Applications in Hydrogen Storage and to Heterocycle Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2017-07-12

    The different types of acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation (AAD) reactions are discussed, followed by the catalysts and mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is put on the common appearance in AAD of pincer ligands, of noninnocent ligands, and of outer sphere mechanisms. Early work emphasized precious metals, mainly Ru and Ir, but interest in nonprecious metal AAD catalysis is growing. Alcohol-amine combinations are discussed to the extent that net oxidation occurs by loss of H 2 . These reactions are of potential synthetic interest because they can lead to N heterocycles such as pyrroles and pyridines. AAD also has green chemistry credentials in that an oxidation occurs without the need for an oxidizing agent and hence without the waste formation that would result from its use.

  3. Barbier-type anti-Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of β-Trimethylsilyl, Fluorinated Methyl, Phenylthio Homoallylic Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Qin; Tian, Qinshan; Zhang, Guozhu

    2017-07-07

    Catalytic Asymmetric allylation of aldehydes with functionalized allylic reagents represents an important process in synthetic organic chemistry because the resulting chiral homoallylic alcohols are valuable building blocks in diverse research fields. Despite the obvious advantages of allyl halides as allylation reagent under Barbier-type conditions, catalytic asymmetric version using functionalized allyl halides remains largely underdeveloped. Here, we addressed this issue by employing a chromium-catalysis system. The use of readily available allyl bromides with γ substitutions including trimethylsilyl, fluorinated methyl and phenylthio groups provided an efficient and convenient method to introduce those privileged functionalities into homoallylic alcohols. Good yields, high anti-diastereo- and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved under mild reaction conditions.

  4. Gold & silver nanoparticles supported on manganese oxide: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic studies for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Alabbad, Saad; Adil, S.F.; Assal, M.E.; Khan, Mujeeb; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, M. Rafiq H.

    2014-01-01

    Nano-gold and silver particles supported on manganese oxide were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The catalytic properties of these materials were investigated for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol using molecular oxygen as a source of oxygen. The catalyst was calcined at 300, 400 and 500 °C. They were characterized by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area. It was observed that the calcination temperature affects the size of the nanoparticle, which play...

  5. Indium-mediated asymmetric Barbier-type allylation of aldimines in alcoholic solvents: synthesis of optically active homoallylic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaivan, Tirayut; Winotapan, Chutima; Banphavichit, Vorawit; Shinada, Tetsuro; Ohfune, Yasufumi

    2005-04-29

    [reaction: see text] Chiral aldimines derived from phenylglycinol were diastereoselectively allylated with indium powder/allyl bromide in alcoholic solvents. Both aliphatic and aromatic aldimines provided good yield of the desired products with high diastereoselectivity. A racemization-free protocol for removal of the phenylglycinol auxiliary was also developed. The stereochemical assignment of the homoallylic amine was made by NMR spectroscopy and a transition state model was proposed to explain the selectivity.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new polymer electrolytes to use in fuel cells fed with bio-alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ballester, Soraya Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based membranes have gathered significant interest because of their film forming ability and low cost. These films are usually crosslinked to provide a macromolecular network with high dimensional stability. PVA can be modified by introduction of sulfonic acid groups (sPVA) contributing to increase its proton conductivity. In addition, the preparation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite membranes by the addition of graphene oxide (GO) as nano-filler not only reinfo...

  7. Biogenetic studies in Syringa vulgaris L.: synthesis and bioconversion of deuterium-labeled precursors into lilac aldehydes and lilac alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreck, Mirjam; Püschel, Susen; Wüst, Matthias; Mosandl, Armin

    2003-01-15

    Syringa vulgaris L. inflorescences were fed with aqueous solutions of regioselectively deuterated compounds assumed to be precursors of lilac aldehyde and lilac alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were extracted by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and analyzed using enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC/MS); deuterium-labeled lilac aldehydes and lilac alcohols were separated from unlabeled stereoisomers on a fused silica capillary column, coated with heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DIME-beta-CD) (30%) in SE 52 (70%), as the chiral stationary phase. Feeding experiments with [5,5-(2)H(2)]mevalonic acid lactone 22 and [5,5-(2)H(2)]deoxy-d-xylose 23 indicate that the novel mevalonate independent 1-deoxy-d-xylose 5-phosphate/2C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway is the dominant metabolic route for biosynthesis in lilac flowers. Additionally, bioconversion of deuterium-labeled d(5)-(R/S)-linalool 3, d(6)-(R)-linalool 21, d(5)-(R/S)-8-hydroxylinalool 6, d(5)-(R/S)-8-oxolinalool 7, d(5)-lilac aldehydes 8-11 and d(5)-lilac alcohols 12-15 into lilac during in vivo feeding experiments was investigated and the metabolic pathway is discussed. Incubation of petals with an aqueous solution of deuterated d(5)-(R/S)-linalool 3 indicates an autonomic terpene biosynthesis of lilac flavor compounds in the flower petals of lilac.

  8. Controlled synthesis of novel 3D dendritic Bi2S3 /cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W-T; Shi Lei; Pang Wenmin; Wang Yusong; Zhu Qingren; Xu Guoyong

    2006-01-01

    Novel spherical three-dimensional (3D) dendritic Bi 2 S 3 /cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized in aqueous solution of amphiphilic polyvinylacetone (PVKA) (ketalization degree D H = 0.549), via one-step in situ decomposition of the complex [Bi(Tu) x ] 3+ under γ-ray irradiation, utilizing the controllable hydrolysis property of PVKA in acidic solution. Herein, PVA chains are obtained from the hydrolysed PVKA. These uniform 3D spherical nanocomposites have a structure similar to that found in the natural lotus leaf, where every microscale papilla on the leaf surface is covered by nanoscale papillae

  9. Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) Reaction Derived Nitroallylic Alcohols, Acetates and Amines as Synthons in Organocatalysis and Heterocycle Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Yun; Anwar, Shaik; Chen, Kwunmin

    2017-03-01

    The Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction is one of the most useful and efficient protocols for constructing new carbon-carbon bonds between an activated olefin and electrophiles in the presence of a tertiary amine/phosphine. Herein, we present the use of MBH alcohols, which are obtained from the reaction of nitrostyrenes with aldehydes, as well as acetates and amines derived thereof in several organocatalytic transformations. Densely functionalised MBH adducts can also be used to synthesise substituted heteroaromatic compounds, such as furan, pyrrole, pyrazole and imidazole derivatives. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol)-paclitaxel conjugate as a macromolecular prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinoki, Atsufumi; Kaneo, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Tetsuro; Hosokawa, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is an antitumor agent for the treatment of various human cancers. Cremophor EL and ethanol are used to formulate PTX in commercial injection solutions, because of its poor solubility in water. However, these agents cause severe allergic reaction upon intravenous administration. The aim of this study is to synthesize water-soluble macromolecular prodrugs of PTX for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA, 80 kDa), water-soluble synthetic polymer, was used as a drug carrier which is safe and stable in the body. The 2'-hydroxyl group of PTX was reacted with succinic anhydride and then carboxylic group of the succinyl spacer was coupled to PVA via ethylene diamine spacer, resulting the water-soluble prodrug of poly (vinyl alcohol)-paclitaxel conjugate (PVA-SPTX). The solubility of PTX was greatly enhanced by the conjugation to PVA. The release of PTX from the conjugate was accelerated at the neutral to basic conditions in in vitro release experiment. [ 125 I]-labeled PVA-SPTX was retained in the blood circulation for several days and was gradually distributed into the tumorous tissue after intravenous injection to the tumor-bearing mice. PVA-SPTX inhibited the growth of sarcoma 180 cells subcutaneously inoculated in mice. It was suggested that the water-solubility of PTX was markedly enhanced by the conjugation to PVA, and PVA-SPTX effectively delivered PTX to the tumorous tissue due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. (author)

  11. A formal, one-pot β-chlorination of primary alcohols and its utilization in the transformation of terpene feedstock and the synthesis of a C2-symmetrical terminal bis-epoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatschek, Jörg; Grothues, Lydia; Bauer, Jonathan O; Strohmann, Carsten; Christmann, Mathias

    2014-02-07

    A one-pot transformation of alkan-1-ols into 2-chloroalkan-1-ols is described. As a practical application, terpene-derived primary alcohols were converted into semiochemicals such as olfactory lactones (aerangis lactone, whisky lactone, and cognac lactone) and pheromones (cruentol and ferrugineol). Using heptane-1,7-diol as a bifunctional substrate, the corresponding bis-epoxide was synthesized by bidirectional synthesis in good yield and high enantioselectivity.

  12. Synthesis of Fatty Alcohols from Oil Palm Using a Catalyst of Ni-Cu Supported onto Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ni-Cu supported onto zeolite type ZSM-5 has been synthesized by direct hydrothermal method without template agent and characterized using XRD, FT-IR, NRM mass, SEM, CG and N2 adsorption techniques. The catalytic performance of the obtained materials was evaluated and utilized for the hydrogenation of palm oil at 453 K and 40 atmospheres of pressure. The results show that the samples exhibited typical hexagonal arrangement of mesoporous structure with high surface area and the heteroatoms were probably incorporated into the framework of ZSM-5. Catalytic tests show that the bimetallic incorporated materials were effective as catalysts in the hydrogenation of oil palm producing fatty alcohols typical.

  13. Gold & silver nanoparticles supported on manganese oxide: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic studies for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Alabbad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-gold and silver particles supported on manganese oxide were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The catalytic properties of these materials were investigated for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol using molecular oxygen as a source of oxygen. The catalyst was calcined at 300, 400 and 500 °C. They were characterized by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and surface area. It was observed that the calcination temperature affects the size of the nanoparticle, which plays a significant role in the catalytic process. The catalyst calcined at 400 °C, gave a 100% conversion and >99% selectivity, whereas catalysts calcined at 300 and 500 °C gave a conversion of 69.51% and 19.90% respectively, although the selectivity remains >99%.

  14. Lithium-Catalyzed Thiol Alkylation with Tertiary and Secondary Alcohols: Synthesis of 3-Sulfanyl-Oxetanes as Bioisosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rosemary A; Mousseau, James J; Choi, Chulho; Bull, James A

    2018-01-19

    3-Sulfanyl-oxetanes are presented as promising novel bioisosteric replacements for thioesters or benzyl sulfides. From oxetan-3-ols, a mild and inexpensive Li catalyst enables chemoselective C-OH activation and thiol alkylation. Oxetane sulfides are formed from various thiols providing novel motifs in new chemical space and specifically as bioisosteres for thioesters due to their similar shape and electronic properties. Under the same conditions, various π-activated secondary and tertiary alcohols are also successful. Derivatization of the oxetane sulfide linker provides further novel oxetane classes and building blocks. Comparisons of key physicochemical properties of the oxetane compounds to selected carbonyl and methylene analogues indicate that these motifs are suitable for incorporation into drug discovery efforts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ruthenium complexes with dendritic ferrocenyl phosphanes: synthesis, characterization, and application in the catalytic redox isomerization of allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul; Dib, Hanna; Sournia-Saquet, Alix; Grell, Toni; Handke, Marcel; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2015-04-20

    An efficient system for the catalytic redox isomerization of the allylic alcohol 1-octen-3-ol to 3-octanone is presented. The homogeneous ruthenium(II) catalyst contains a monodentate phosphane ligand with a ferrocene moiety in the backbone and provides 3-octanone in quantitative yields. The activity is increased by nearly 90 % with respect to the corresponding triphenyl phosphane ruthenium(II) complex. By grafting the catalyst at the surface of a dendrimer, the catalytic activity is further increased. By introducing different spacers between ferrocene and phosphorus, the influence on the electronic properties of the complexes is shown by evaluating the electrochemical behavior of the compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A Fast Method for Synthesis Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles, Thermal Stable and Flame Retardant Poly vinyl alcohol Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousefi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium hydroxide nanostructures as an effective flame retardant were synthesized by a facile and rapid microwave reaction. The effect of different surfactants such as cationic, anionic and polymeric on the morphology of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures was investigated. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures on the thermal stability and flame retardancy of the poly vinyl alcohol (PVA matrix was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and UL-94 respectively. Thermal decomposition of the nanocomposites shift towards higher temperature in the presence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures. The enhancement of thermal stability and flame retardancy of nanocomposites is due to the endothermic decomposition of Mg(OH2 and release of water which dilutes combustible gases.

  17. Rational Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of γ-CD-Containing Cross-Linked Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel as a Prednisone Delivery Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Marican

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the in-silico rational design, synthesis and evaluation of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels containing γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CDHSAs as platforms for the sustained release of prednisone (PDN. Through in-silico studies using semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculations, the effectiveness of 20 dicarboxylic acids to generate a specific cross-linked hydrogel capable of supporting different amounts of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD was evaluated. According to the interaction energies calculated with the in-silico studies, the hydrogel made from PVA cross-linked with succinic acids (SA was shown to be the best candidate for containing γ-CD. Later, molecular dynamics simulation studies were performed in order to evaluate the intermolecular interactions between PDN and three cross-linked hydrogel formulations with different proportions of γ-CD (2.44%, 4.76% and 9.1%. These three cross-linked hydrogels were synthesized and characterized. The loading and the subsequent release of PDN from the hydrogels were investigated. The in-silico and experimental results showed that the interaction between PDN and γ-CDHSA was mainly produced with the γ-CDs linked to the hydrogels. Thus, the unique structures and properties of γ-CDHSA demonstrated an interesting multiphasic profile that could be utilized as a promising drug carrier for controlled, sustained and localized release of PDN.

  18. One-Step Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles on Polydopamine-Coated Sericin/Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Films for Potential Antimicrobial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Tao, Gang; He, Huawei; Song, Kai; Zuo, Hua; Jiang, Wenchao; Wang, Yejing

    2017-04-30

    Silk sericin has great potential as a biomaterial for biomedical applications due to its good hydrophilicity, reactivity, and biodegradability. To develop multifunctional sericin materials for potential antibacterial application, a one-step synthesis method for preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) modified on polydopamine-coated sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films was developed. Polydopamine (PDA) acted as both metal ion chelating and reducing agent to synthesize AgNPs in situ on the sericin/PVA composite film. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed that polydopamine could effectively facilitate the high-density growth of AgNPs as a 3-D matrix. X-ray diffractometry studies suggested the synthesized AgNPs formed good face-centered cubic crystalline structures. Contact angle measurement and mechanical test indicated AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had good hydrophilicity and mechanical property. The bacterial growth curve and inhibition zone assays showed the AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had long-term antibacterial activities. This work develops a new method for the preparation of AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA film with good hydrophilicity, mechanical performance and antibacterial activities for the potential antimicrobial application in biomedicine.

  19. One-Step Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles on Polydopamine-Coated Sericin/Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Films for Potential Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin has great potential as a biomaterial for biomedical applications due to its good hydrophilicity, reactivity, and biodegradability. To develop multifunctional sericin materials for potential antibacterial application, a one-step synthesis method for preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs modified on polydopamine-coated sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite films was developed. Polydopamine (PDA acted as both metal ion chelating and reducing agent to synthesize AgNPs in situ on the sericin/PVA composite film. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed that polydopamine could effectively facilitate the high-density growth of AgNPs as a 3-D matrix. X-ray diffractometry studies suggested the synthesized AgNPs formed good face-centered cubic crystalline structures. Contact angle measurement and mechanical test indicated AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had good hydrophilicity and mechanical property. The bacterial growth curve and inhibition zone assays showed the AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had long-term antibacterial activities. This work develops a new method for the preparation of AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA film with good hydrophilicity, mechanical performance and antibacterial activities for the potential antimicrobial application in biomedicine.

  20. Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Özdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors.

  1. Engineered Hybrid Scaffolds of Poly(vinyl alcohol/Bioactive Glass for Potential Bone Engineering Applications: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytocompatibility, and Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, preliminary cytocompatibility, and degradation behavior of the hybrids based on 70% Poly(vinyl alcohol and 30% bioactive glass (58SiO2–33CaO–9P2O5, BaG with macroporous tridimensional structure is reported for the first time. The effect of glutaraldehyde covalent crosslinker in the organic-inorganic nanostructures produced and, as a consequence, tailoring the hybrids properties was investigated. The PVA/BaG hybrids scaffolds are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray Microcomputed tomography analysis (μCT. Cytotoxicity assessment is performed by the MTT method with VERO cell culture. Additionally, the hybrid in vitro degradation assay is conducted by measuring the mass loss by soaking in deionized water at 37°C for up to 21 days. The results have clearly shown that it is possible to modify the PVA/BaG hybrids properties and degradation behavior by engineering the structure using different concentrations of the chemical crosslinker. Moreover, these hybrid crosslinked nanostructures have presented 3D hierarchical pore size architecture varying within 10–450 μm and a suitable cytocompatibility for potential use in bone tissue engineering applications.

  2. Ex-Situ Synthesis of Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Coprecipitation-Ultrasonication Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva’i, Imam; Oktavia Wulandari, Ika; Sulistyarti, Hermin; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was done with surface modification using PVA with coprecipitation-ultrasonication method. Time variations and PVA concentrations were added to determine the effect on crystallite size and lattice parameters on the synthesis of Fe3O4-PVA nanoparticles. Fe3O4 characterization was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments. FTIR was employed to determine PVA coating on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The crystallite size and lattice parameters were analyzed using XRD. From the FTIR data, it is known that the interaction between PVA and Fe3O4 nanoparticles is characterized by Fe-O-C group at 1100 cm-1 region which is characteristic of Fe3O4-PVA nanoparticles, C-H groups of PVA in the range of 2950 cm-1 wave number, C-C of PVA regions of wave number 1405 cm-1, Fe3O4 and Fe3O4-PVA samples are in the range of 565 cm-1. In addition, the variation of ultrasonication time and the addition of PVA concentration have an effect on the crystallite size change and the lattice parameter observed from the XRD data. The use of ultrasonication time will affect the size of the crystallite become smaller and the grating lattice parameters obtained are wider. The effect of addition of PVA showed that higher concentration of PVA resulted in smaller crystallite size and larger lattice parameters. These results indicated that ultrasonication time and addition of PVA concentration greatly affect the characteristics of nanoparticles.

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose cryogels and their testing as carriers for a bioactive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduraru, Oana Maria; Ciolacu, Diana; Darie, Raluca Nicoleta; Vasile, Cornelia, E-mail: cvasile@icmpp.ro

    2012-12-01

    Novel physically cross-linked cryogels containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained by freezing/thawing technique. The main goal of this study was to improve the properties and the performances of the pure PVA cryogels. The morphological aspects of the cryogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to reveal the presence of the interactions between the two polymers. Changes in crystallinity of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The modification of the thermal behavior induced by cellulose was studied by thermogravimetry. Rheological analysis revealed higher values of storage modulus (G Prime ) for the cryogels containing higher amounts of cellulose. The degree and rate of swelling were controlled by the presence of the natural polymer in the network. The potential application as bioactive compound carriers was tested, using vanillin as an active agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PVA/microcrystalline cellulose cryogels were obtained by freezing/thawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main advantage of this technique is that no chemical crosslinker is being used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cellulose improves the swelling properties and the cryogels' strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential application as carriers for bioactive components was tested.

  5. Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol-hydroxyethyl starch blend hydrogel membranes: Synthesis and characterization for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol, PVA is a polymer of great importance because of its many appealing characteristics specifically for various pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes composed of different amounts of hydroxyethyl starch (HES in (PVA and ampicillin were prepared by applying freeze–thawing method. This freezing–thawing cycle was repeated for three consecutive cycles. Physicochemical properties of PVA–HES membrane gel such as gel fraction, swelling, morphology, elongation, tensile strength, and protein adsorption were investigated. Introducing HES into freeze–thawed PVA structure affected crystal size distribution of PVA; and hence physicochemical properties and morphological structure have been affected. Increased HES concentration decreased the gel fraction %, maximum strength and break elongation. Indeed it resulted into a significant incrementing of the swelling ability, amount of protein adsorption, broader pore size, and pore distribution of membrane morphological structure. Furthermore, an increase in HES concentration resulted in better and still lower thermal stability compared to virgin PVA and freeze–thawed PVA. The maximum weight loss of PVA–HES hydrogel membranes ranged between 18% and 60% according to HES content, after two days of degradation in phosphate buffer saline (PBS, which indicates they are biodegradable. Thus, PVA–HES hydrogel membranes containing ampicillin could be a novel approach for biomedical application e.g. wound dressing purposes.

  6. Synthesis of Highly Effective Novel Graphene Oxide-Polyethylene Glycol-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Hydrogel For Copper Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Serag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel Graphene oxide-polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol (GO-PEG-PVA triple network hydrogel were prepared to remove Copper(II ion from its aqueous solution. The structures, morphologies, and properties of graphene oxide (GO, the composite GO-PEG-PVA and PEG-PVA were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscope and Thermal Gravimetric analysis. A series of systematic batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption property of GO, GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel and PEG-PVA hydrogel under different conditions (e.g. pH, contact time and Cu2+ ions concentration. The high adsorption capacity, easy regeneration, and effective adsorption–desorption results proved that the prepared GO-PEG-PVA composite hydrogel could be an effective adsorbent in removing Cu2+ ion from its aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 917, 900 and 423 mg g–1 for GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel, GO and PEG-PVA hydrogel, respectively at pH 5, 25 °C and Cu2+ ions’ concentration 500 mg l–1. The removal efficiency of the recycled GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel were 83, 81, 80 and 79% for the first four times, which proved efficient reusability.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of a novel nanocomposite based on polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol/Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ghaffari-Moghaddam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel nanocomposite based on polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol/Ag (PANI/PVA/Ag has been successfully synthesized. The chemical reduction method was used to produce Ag nanoparticle colloidal solution from Ag+ ions. The polymerization of aniline occurred in situ for the preparation of polyaniline (PANI in the presence of ammonium persulfate. With exposure to Ag nanoparticles on the PANI/PVA composite, a new nanocomposite was obtained. The morphology and particle size of the novel nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analyses. According to XRD analysis, the size of nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 10–17 nm. SEM images showed the favored shape of nanoparticles as triangle which is a benign shape for antibacterial analysis. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposite was also evaluated against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli using the paper disk diffusion method. The antibacterial study showed that the PANI/PVA composite did not have a very good antibacterial activity but PANI/PVA/Ag nanocomposites were found to be effective against two bacteria.

  8. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  9. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  10. Radiation Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinyl alcohol/Acrylic acid Hydrogel and its Amoxicillin drug Delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El kelesh, N.A.; Ismail, S.A.; Abd El Wahab, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol /Acrylic acid based hydrogels can be synthesized by Gamma radiation technique using 60 Co irradiation cell at irradiation dose rate 1.8 Gray/second. The optimum conditions of hydrogel preparation takes place at different factors such as composition ratios of PVA/AAc, different comonomer concentration and different irradiation doses resulting in hydrogel with maximum gel percent as it obtained 98%. The structures of hydrogels were characterized by FTIR analysis. The results can be confirmed the expected structures as well as free radical copolymerization. According to the swelling studies, hydrogels with high content of AAc gave relatively high swelling percent. The hydrogel showed a super adsorbent with swelling capacity 10320 %. Water diffusion into such prepared hydrogel showed a non-Fickian type where a Fickian number was 0.77. This hydrogel was used for the adsorption of amoxicillin drug from their aqueous solutions. The factors affected on the uptake conditions such as ph, time and initial feed concentration on the amoxicillin adsorption capacity of hydrogel was studied depending on Freundlish model of adsorption isotherm.. It was observed that the interaction between drug and ionic comonomers was enhanced in alkaline medium and high initial feed concentration of the drug. The ability of the hydrogel and the affinity of the drug to be adsorbed can be cleared by determining the empirical constants n and k respectively from the logarithmic form of Freundlish equation. The recovery of drug was also investigated in different ph values to study the suitable condition of drug release as drug delivery system.

  11. Chimyl Alcohol Suppresses PGE2Synthesis by Human Epidermal Keratinocytes through the Activation of PPAR-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Mariko; Yahagi, Shoichi; Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2018-03-09

    Alkyl glyceryl ethers (AKGs) are widely used as emulsion stabilizers, and their anti-inflammatory effects are well known. Daily exposure to environmental stresses, such as chemicals, low humidity and ultraviolet light (UV), can initiate and promote the development of various skin problems. Among those stresses, it has been established that UV induces skin pigmentation and accelerates premature skin aging due to the inflammation that results. Here, we investigated whether chimyl alcohol (CA), which is an AKG, suppresses the inflammatory process. The suppression of cell damage and the reduction of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) after UVB exposure was evaluated using the Neutral red (NR) and the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assays, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins related to inflammation were evaluated by Realtime RT-PCR and ELISA assays, respectively. CA suppressed prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production in UVB-exposed NHEKs according to the down-regulated expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA. Furthermore, CA up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in NHEKs. Finally, we examined the effects of CA on siPPAR-γtransfected NHEKs. siPPAR-γ transfection of NHEKs abolished the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 and UVB-stimulated PGE 2 secretion that were regulated by CA. Hence, CA suppresses the UVB-induced COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE 2 production through PPAR-γ as an agonist. We conclude that CA provides useful protection and/or alleviation against UV damage.

  12. Binuclear ruthenium(III) bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: synthesis, spectral, electrochemical studies and catalytic oxidation of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Subarkhan, M; Ramesh, R

    2015-03-05

    A new series of binuclear ruthenium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes of general formula [(EPh3)2(X)2Ru-L-Ru(X)2(EPh3)2] (where E=P or As; X=Cl or Br; L=NS chelating bis(thiosemicarbazone ligands) has been synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vis and EPR). IR spectra show that the thiosemicarbazones behave as monoanionic bidentate ligands coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulphur. The electronic spectra of the complexes indicate that the presence of d-d and intense LMCT transitions in the visible region. The complexes are paramagnetic (low spin d(5)) in nature and all the complexes show rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion with three different 'g' values (gx≠gy≠gz) at 77K. All the complexes are redox active and exhibit an irreversible metal centered redox processes (Ru(III)-Ru(III)/Ru(IV)-Ru(IV); Ru(III)-Ru(III)/Ru(II)-Ru(II)) within the potential range of 0.38-0.86V and -0.39 to -0.66 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl. Further, the catalytic efficiency of one of the complexes [Ru2Cl2(AsPh3)4(L1)] (4) has been investigated in the case of oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide(NMO) as co-oxidant. The formation of high valent Ru(V)O species is proposed as catalytic intermediate for the catalytic cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  14. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  15. Synthesis of the metabolite of the insecticide Deltamethrine: deuterated and tritiated 5-hydroxy-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and its 5-methoxy derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-cao-thang; Nguyen-hoang-nam; Nguyen-ngoc-quang; Hoellinger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Partial hydrolysis of LiBH 4 with deuterated, tritiated water in THF solution provided a simple and cheap method for the preparation of deuterated, tritiated alcohols by reduction of esters : (α - 2 H) and (α - 3 H) 5-methoxy-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, 5-hydroxy 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (metabolite of deltamethrin), the pyrethroid insecticide. (author)

  16. Poly(furfuryl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that ...

  17. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its application as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bappi; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar, E-mail: ssd_iitg@hotmail.com

    2016-09-15

    A novel and facile approach for one-pot synthesis of spinel cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles (NPs) is presented here. The synthesis involves homogeneous chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal heating, using tributylamine (TBA) as a hydroxylating agent. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was used as surfactant. As-synthesized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). TEM image showed formation of spherical particles of sizes 2–30 nm. These NPs were used as magnetically recoverable catalyst in oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes by periodic acid. This oxidative procedure is found to be highly efficient affording products in very high yield and selectivity. The easy magnetic separation of the catalyst and efficient reusability are key features of this methodology. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs with (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 3}N as hydroxylating agent. • The TEM images showed the particles to be spherical in shape with sizes 2–30 nm. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was used as recyclable catalyst for oxidation of alcohols by periodic acid.

  18. One pot synthesis of new poly(vinyl alcohol) blended natural polymer based magnetic hydrogel beads: Controlled natural anticancer alkaloid delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Ayyanaar, Srinivasan; Lenin, Nayagam; Sankarganesh, Murugesan; Dhaveethu Raja, Jeyaraj; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban

    2018-02-01

    Facile one-pot synthesis has been demonstrated for new biocompatible and dual responsive magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended natural polymer chitosan (CS) based hydrogel beads (mCS-PVA) as a controlled natural anticancer alkaloid Luotonin A (LuA) delivery system. The prepared magnetic hydrogel beads were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction measurement, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic hydrogel beads are exhibited significant water retention and follow the second order kinetic model in swelling study. The swelling ratio of the magnetic gel beads increased by the addition of PVA and showed a maximum swelling ratio of 40.83 ± 1.01 g/g and follows non-Fickian water transport mechanism. Stimuli responsive mCS and mCS-PVA hydrogel beads functionalized with LuA is demonstrated for controlled release at physiological pH and under magnetic field. The magnetic hydrogel beads show highest LuA releasing efficacy at acidic medium (pH = 5.0) with maximum efficiency of 73.33 ± 1.44%. This efficacy may also be tuned by altering the external magnetic field as well as the weight percentage (wt %) of polyethylene glycol. It is clearly that the newly produced magnetic hydrogel beads can be served as an effective intestinal LuA delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 543-551, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inert Reassessment Document for Ethyl Alcohol - CAS No. 64-17-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main use of ethyl alcohol is in the consumption of alcoholic beverage and as a solvent in the laboratory and industry, and in the manufacture of denatured alcohol, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, and organic synthesis.

  20. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  1. Influence of the temperature on the synthesis of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly (vinil alcohol); Influencia da temperatura na sintese de pontos quanticos de sulfeto de cadmio estabilizados por poli (alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) have been the subject of recent research by presenting quantum properties. This property has stimulated the study of these particles in biological applications such as bookmarks, which creates the necessity of using different synthesis routes resulting in biocompatible systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the properties of QDs cadmium sulfide, aqueous route using poly (vinyl alcohol), a biocompatible polymer, such as stabilizing agent. The characterization of particles produced was performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for obtaining the absorption and emission, respectively and Transmission microscopy (TEM) for analysis of the diameter of the nanocrystals. (author)

  2. Synthesis de 1-dotriacotanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Gonzalez, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to prepare isotopic labeled long chain aliphatic primary alcohol's, the synthesis overall yielding and chemical purity of 1-dotriacotanol were 41% and 98%, respectively. This procedure is very useful for carbon-14 and tritium labeling at Beta position of saturated fatty alcohol's

  3. In-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni-Cu-Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Jien; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2010-12-01

    The timing and genesis of the major Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit in the Xiangshan intrusion have been studied based on newly obtained in-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses. The SIMS U-Pb zircon ages of the gabbro hosting the Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit indicate that the Xiangshan intrusion was emplaced at 279.6 ± 1.1 Ma (95% confidence level, MSWD = 1.30, n = 15). On the basis of combined geological and geochronological evidence, we suggest that the Xiangshan and other adjacent Ni-Cu deposits were formed in the same period. Sulphides have low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios, similar to sulphide ores from the Duluth, Sally Malay and Voisey Bay complexes. The Re-Os isotopic data from the disseminated and massive ores from the Xiangshan intrusion do not form a single isochron, as they have different initial Os ratios. The Hf and Os isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-Co mineralization were derived from crustally contaminated mantle melts. The geochemical data show a tholeiitic affinity and a strong suprasubduction zone signature with negative Nb, Sr, and Ti anomalies similar to N-MORB and E-MORB. We suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks and associated Ni-Cu mineralization of the Eastern Tianshan orogen formed in an Alaska-type subduction zone-arc setting. Some diagnostic features of ridge-trench interaction are present in the Chinese East Tianshan orogen (e.g. granites, adakites, high-Mg andesites, near-trench magmatism, Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes, high-temperature metamorphic belts that prograde rapidly from low-grade belts, and orogenic gold deposits). The above distinctive rock groups are probably related to the same thermal event, ridge subduction, as in the Cenozoic orogen of Alaska. We suggest that ridge subduction is the most plausible mechanism to provide the necessary heat. Ridge subduction provides an important promising model for understanding many aspects of the evolution of the Chinese

  4. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as

  5. Regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction of Morita–Baylis–Hillman alcohols: A facile and stereoselective synthesis of α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silong Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A highly regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction between Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH alcohols, azodicarboxylates, and triphenylphosphine is developed, which provides an easy access to α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives in high yields and good stereoselectivity. This reaction represents the first direct transformation of MBH alcohols into hydrazines.

  6. Regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols: A facile and stereoselective synthesis of α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Silong; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    A highly regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction between Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols, azodicarboxylates, and triphenylphosphine is developed, which provides an easy access to α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives in high yields and good stereoselectivity. This reaction represents the first direct transformation of MBH alcohols into hydrazines.

  7. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  8. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they can monitor you for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prevention Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should ... team. 02-05-18: Editorial update. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  10. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  11. The promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol synthesis from syngas over cesium-promoted Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jie; Cai, Qiuxia; Wan, Yan; Wan, Shaolong; Wang, Li; Lin, Jingdong; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the promotional effects of cesium promoter on higher alcohol (C2+OH) synthesis from syngas over Cs-Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated using a combined experimental and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculation method. In the presence of cesium, the C2+OH productivity increases from 77.1 g•kgcat-1•h-1 to 157.3 g•kgcat-1•h-1 at 583 K due to the enhancement of the initial C–C bond formation. Detailed analysis of chain growth probabilities (CGPs) confirms that initial C–C bond formation is the rate-determining step in the temperature range of 543-583 K. Addition of cesium promoter significantly increases the productivities of 2-methyl-1-propanol, while the CGPs values (C3* to 2-methyl-C3*) is almost unaffected. With the assistance of cesium promoter, the CGPs of the initial C–C bond formation step (C1* to C2*) could be increased from 0.13 to 0.25 at 583 K. DFT calculations indicate that the initial C–C bond formation is mainly contributed by the HCO+HCO coupling reaction over the ZnCu(211) model surface. In the presence of the Cs2O, the stabilities of key reaction intermediates such as HCO and H2CO are enhanced which facilitates both HCO+HCO and HCO+H2CO coupling reaction steps with lower activation barriers over the Cs2O-ZnCu(211) surface. The promotional effects of cesium on the C2+OH productivity are also benefited from the competitive CH+HCO coupling reaction over CH hydrogenation that leads to lower alkane formation. In addition, Bader charge analysis suggests that the presence of cesium ions would facilitate the nucleophilic reaction between HCO and H2CO for initial C–C bond formation. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91545114 and No. 91545203). We appreciate the joint PhD scholarship support from the China Scholarship Council. The authors would also like to thank the support from Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (2011-iChEM). DM

  12. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid all alcohol. Protect yourself from hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by a virus. Untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis. If you have hepatitis C and drink alcohol, you're far more likely ...

  13. Transferrin metabolism in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, B.J.; Chapman, R.W.; Nunes, R.M.; Sorrentino, D.; Sherlock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of transferrin was studied using purified 125 I-labeled transferrin in 11 alcoholic patients; six with fatty liver and five with cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects whose alcohol intake was les than 40 gm daily were studied as a control group. There were no significant differences in the mean fractional catabolic rate and plasma volume in the alcoholic groups when compared with control subjects. A significantly decreased mean serum transferrin concentration was found in the alcoholic cirrhotic patients (1.8 +/- 0.3 gm per liter vs. 2.9 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01), resulting from diminished total body synthesis (0.9 +/- 0.2 mg per kg per hr vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the patients with alcoholic fatty liver, the mean total body transferrin synthesis (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg per kg per hr) was significantly increased when compared with controls (p less than 0.05). For all the alcoholic patients, the serum transferrin correlated with transferrin synthesis (r = +0.70; p less than 0.01) but the serum iron did not. These results suggest that, in alcoholic cirrhosis, transferrin synthesis is decreased, probably reflecting diminished synthetic capacity by the liver. In contrast, in patients with alcoholic fatty liver, transferrin turnover is accelerated

  14. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization;Sintese e caracterizacao de particulas derivadas de poli(alcool vinilico) (PVA) para embolizacao e quimioembolizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzim, Vinicius L.; Basso, Glaucia G.; Passos, Rodrigo A.; Nery, Jose G. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Agreli, Guilherme; Oliveira, Ana P.M.L.; Kawasaki-Oyama, Rosa S.; Braile, Domingo M., E-mail: nery@ibilce.unesp.b [Braile Biomedica Industria e Comercio Representacoes S.A., Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  15. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcoholic beverage — such as chemicals, grains or preservatives. Combining alcohol with certain medications also can cause reactions. In rare instances, an unpleasant reaction to alcohol can be a sign of a serious underlying health problem that requires diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms Signs ...

  16. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top 5 risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  17. One-pot synthesis of 2,5-dihydropyrroles from terminal alkynes, azides, and propargylic alcohols by relay actions of copper, rhodium, and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoya; Tanaka, Takamasa; Matsumoto, Kohei; Murakami, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Relay actions of copper, rhodium, and gold formulate a one-pot multistep pathway, which directly gives 2,5-dihydropyrroles starting from terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and propargylic alcohols. Initially, copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes with sulfonyl azides affords 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles, which then react with propargylic alcohols under the catalysis of rhodium. The resulting alkenyl propargyl ethers subsequently undergo the thermal Claisen rearrangement to give α-allenyl-α-amino ketones. Finally, a gold catalyst prompts 5-endo cyclization to produce 2,5-dihydropyrroles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Mannich Reaction of 3-Hydroxyoxindoles/3-Aminooxindoles with in Situ Generated N-Boc-Protected Aldimines for the Synthesis of Vicinal Oxindole-Diamines/Amino Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Cui, Baodong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Chengli; Zhou, Xiaojian; Han, Wenyong; Chen, Yongzheng

    2016-07-01

    A highly efficient asymmetric Mannich reaction of 3-monosubstituted 3-aminooxindoles/3-hydroxyoxindoles with in situ generated N-Boc-protected aldimines catalyzed by the chiral bifunctional thiourea-tertiary amine catalyst has been developed. Under mild reaction conditions, a series of structurally diverse vicinal oxindole-diamines/amino alcohols were smoothly obtained in moderate to high yields (up to 99%) with good to excellent diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities (up to 95:5 dr and 96% ee). The synthetic application of this protocol was also demonstrated by the versatile transformation of chiral vicinal oxindole-diamine/amino alcohol into spirocyclic oxindoles.

  19. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  20. Stereocontrolled generation of nucleophilic (Z)- or (E)-α-fluoroalkenylchromium reagents via carbon-fluorine bond activation: highly stereoselective synthesis of (E)- or (Z)-β-fluoroallylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Takashi; Yokotani, Saya; Ishihara, Takashi; Konno, Tsutomu

    2014-02-14

    Highly nucleophilic (Z)- or (E)-α-fluoroalkenylchromium species could be generated in a stereoselective manner via C-F bond activation of CBrF2-containing molecules, and they reacted smoothly with various aldehydes to give (E)- or (Z)-β-fluoroallylic alcohol derivatives in high yields, respectively.

  1. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure C2-symmetric 4-pyrrolidinopyridine derivative as a chiral acyl transfer catalyst for the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraku; Shimomoto; Hanamoto; Inanaga

    2000-01-01

    The first chiral C2-symmetric 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (PPY) derivative was synthesized in an enantiomerically pure form and successfully utilized as a chiral nucleophilic catalyst for the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols leaving one enantiomer with high selectivity factors (up to s = 13.5).

  2. Asymmetric Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Substitution of Diaryl Methanols with Thiols and Alcohols for the Synthesis of Chiral Thioethers and Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Chatupheeraphat, Adisak

    2016-03-08

    An enantioselective addition of thiols and alcohols to aza-ortho-quinone methides, starting from diaryl methanols, was developed. The asymmetric additions occur under mild reaction conditions in the presence of chiral phosphoric acids and furnish the corresponding adducts with excellent yields and enantioselectivities.

  3. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G

    2010-01-01

    Chiral amino alcohols represent an important class of value-added biochemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Chemical routes to such compounds are generally step intensive, requiring environmentally unfriendly catalysts and solvents. This work describes a multidisciplinary approach to the rapid...... the bioconversions were subsequently scaled up to preparative scales in batch stirred-tank reactors. The microwell methods thus provide process chemists and engineers with a valuable tool for the rapid and early evaluation of potential synthetic strategies. Overall, this work describes a concise and efficient...... biocatalytic route to chiral amino alcohols and illustrates an integrated multidisciplinary approach to bioconversion process design and scale-up....

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  6. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health . Accessed March 18, 2016. National Institute on Alcohol ... Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders . Accessed March ...

  7. Effect on the structural, DC resistivity and magnetic properties of Zr and Cu co-SubstitutedNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4using sol-gel auto-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaiah, K.; Vijaya Babu, K.; Chandra mouli, K.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The Zr and Cu co-substituted Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the sol-gel auto combustion method. The XRD patterns confirmed single phase cubic spinel structure for present ferrite systems. The substitution of co-dopants in the spinel structure initially decreases the lattice parameter from x = 0.00 to 0.08 and thereafter increases and the same tendency reflecting in cell volume. The DC resistivity was initially increased later followed the decreasing trend; however the drift mobility of all ferrite samples appears to be in opposite phenomenon to DC resistivity. The saturation magnetization and net magnetic moments of all ferrite samples are decreasing with increasing dopant concentration. The coercive field and Y-K angles are increased with dopant concentration. The initial permeability of all samples is decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The Q-Factor for all samples shows the narrow frequency band with increasing frequency.

  8. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF [C-11] METHYL MAGNESIUM IODIDE AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE INTRODUCTION OF [C-11] N-TERT-BUTYL GROUPS AND [C-11]-SEC-ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELSINGA, PH; KELLER, E; DEGROOT, TJ; VISSER, GM; VAALBURG, W

    The C-11 labelled Grignard reagent methyl magnesium iodide was synthesized carrier and non-carrier added from [C-11]methyl iodide and magnesium. This new C-11-synthon was applied in the synthesis of a [C-11]-N-tert-butyl group by reaction with 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-phenyl-oxazolidine and in the

  10. One-pot combination of enzyme and Pd nanoparticle catalysis for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure 1,2-amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrittwieser, J.; Coccia, F.; Kara, S.; Grischek, B.; Kroutil, W.; d'Alessandro, N.; Hollmann, F.

    2013-01-01

    One-pot combinations of sequential catalytic reactions can offer practical and ecological advantages over classical multi-step synthesis schemes. In this context, the integration of enzymatic and chemo-catalytic transformations holds particular potential for efficient and selective reaction

  11. Diastereoselective Synthesis of 2-Phenylselenenyl-1,3-anti-Diols and 2-Phenylselenenyl-1,3-anti-Azido-Alcohols via Hydroxyand Azido-Selenenylation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Noto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A method to synthesize 2-phenylselenenyl-1,3-anti-diols and 2-phenyl- selenenyl-1,3-anti-azidoalcohols via hydroxy- or azido-selenenylation of trans-allylic alcohols is reported. Moreover, the first example of hydroxyl-selenenylation of an allylic azide is presented. Yields ranging from moderate to good and diastereomeric ratios up to 95:5 are achieved.

  12. Tandem Cu-catalyzed ketenimine formation and intramolecular nucleophile capture: Synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-2-iminoquinolines from 1-(o-acetamidophenylpropargyl alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Ranjith Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The copper-catalyzed ketenimine formation reaction of 1-(o-acetamidophenylpropargyl alcohols with various sulfonyl azides is found to undergo a concomitant intramolecular nucleophile attack to generate 1,2-dihydro-2-iminoquinolines after aromatization (via elimination of acetyl and hydroxy groups and tautomerization. The reaction produces 4-substituted and 3,4-unsubstituted title compounds in moderate to good yields under mild reaction conditions.

  13. Craving Alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2014-01-01

    Individuals involved in the treatment of alcoholism for decades have argued that men and women crave alcohol essentially because they enjoy the effect it offers. This effect is so mysterious that, while adults will confess that these cravings are potential dangerous to their health and well being, during consumption their reasoning and belief of these facts will alternate between the true and the false. In essence these individuals alcohol cravings life actually seems to them the only normal ...

  14. Direct Wittig Olefination of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang-Qiang; Shah, Zaher; Qu, Jian-Ping; Kang, Yan-Biao

    2018-01-05

    A base-promoted transition metal-free approach to substituted alkenes using alcohols under aerobic conditions using air as the inexpensive and clean oxidant is described. Aldehydes are relatively difficult to handle compared to corresponding alcohols due to their volatility and penchant to polymerize and autoxidize. Wittig ylides are easily oxidized to aldehydes and consequently form homo-olefination products. By the strategy of simultaneously in situ generation of ylides and aldehydes, for the first time, alcohols are directly transferred to olefins with no need of prepreparation of either aldehydes or ylides. Thus, the di/monocontrollable olefination of diols is accomplished. This synthetically practical method has been applied in the gram-scale synthesis of pharmaceuticals, such as DMU-212 and resveratrol from alcohols.

  15. Mixed alcohols production from syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.; Conway, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for selectively producing mixed alcohols from synthesis gas comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytic amount of a catalyst containing components of (1) a catalytically active metal of molybdenum or tungsten, in free or combined form; (2) a cocatalytic metal or cobalt or nickel in free or combined form; and (3) a Fischer-Tropsch promoter of an alkali or alkaline earth series metal, in free or combined form; the components combined by dry mixing, mixing as a wet paste, wet impregnation, and then sulfided, the catalyst excluding rhodium, ruthenium and copper, at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and under conditions sufficient to form the mixed alcohols in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the mixed alcohols containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  16. Alcoholism & depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  17. Comparative Studies on Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Homoallylic Alcohol Derivatives Linked to Sulfonyl Dibenzene Moiety in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Mady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel homoallylic alcohols incorporating sulfone moieties were synthesized by the treatment of different carbonyl compounds with allylic bromides in aqueous media via sonochemical Barbier-type reaction conditions. Sulfonation of α-bromoketones with sodium benzenesulfinate in presence of CuI/2,6-lutidine rapidly gave β-keto-sulfones in good yields. In general, ultrasound irradiation offered the advantages of high yields, short reaction times, and simplicity compared to the conventional methods. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral data.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol): effect of molar fraction of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanery, Fabio P.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Gonzalez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) with size lower than Bohr radius present quantum confinement effect, and properties dependent on particle diameter. The use of these nanoparticles for biological applications is highly promising, however this kind of use requires biocompatible systems. In this sense, the choice of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, as stabilizing agent has been investigated. The main goal of this work was synthesize and characterize CdS nanoparticles using PVA as capping agent varying the molar ratio of cadmium and sulfur precursors. The results revealed that absorption and emission properties, as well as nanoparticle size, were function of Cd/S ratio. (author)

  19. Evaluation de la contamination de la chaîne trophique par les éléments traces (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cd, U, V et As dans le bassin de la Lufira supérieure (Katanga/RD Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katemo Manda, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of Contamination of the Food Chain by Trace Elements (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cd, U, V and As in the Basin of the Upper Lufira (Katanga/DR Congo. Seven trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb, U, V and As were analyzed using a HR ICP-MS in samples of water, plankton, leaves of Phragmites australis, muscle and gills of three fish species (Oreochromis macrochir, Tilapia rendalli, Clarias gariepinus collected in the basin of the upper Lufira. The results indicate a high copper (70.9 ppm and cobalt (32.3 ppm content in the effluent of complex hydrometallurgical Shituru. If contamination of rivers decreases with distance from the pollution source, the values are very high in lake Tshangalele for plankton and leaves of P. australis. For fish, the results indicate that Pb, U, V, Cu, Co and Cd accumulates preferentially in the gills but Zn accumulates more in the muscles. As accumulates in the same order of magnitude in both organs. These results confirm the pollution of the basin by the effluents from Lufira complex hydrometallurgical Shituru.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  1. Carbonates-based noble metal-free lean NOx trap catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) with superior catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; You, Rui; Liu, Dongsheng; Liu, Cheng; Li, Xingang; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying; Zha, Yuqing; Meng, Ming

    2015-12-01

    A series of base metal-based lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) were synthesized by successive impregnations and employed for the storage and reduction of NOx in the emissions of lean-burn engines at 350 °C. The XRD and XANES/EXAFS results reveal that the active phases in the corresponding catalysts exist as CeO2, Fe2O3, CuO and Co3O4, respectively. Among all the catalysts, CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 exhibits the best performance, which cannot only trap the NOx quickly and completely at lean condition, giving the highest storage capacity (3.32 mmol/g) reported so far, but also reduce the NOx at rich condition, showing a NOx reduction percentage as high as 99.0%. Meanwhile, this catalyst displays an ultralow NOx to N2O selectivity (0.3%) during NOx reduction. The excellent performance of CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 results from its largest amount of surface active oxygen species as revealed by XPS, O2-TPD and NO-TPD. HRTEM, FT-IR and CO2-TPD results illustrate that several kinds of K species such as sbnd OK groups, K2O, surface carbonates and bulk or bulk-like carbonates coexist in the catalysts. Based upon the in situ DRIFTS results, the participation of K2CO3 in NOx storage is confirmed, and the predominant NOx storage species is revealed as bidentate nitrites formed via multiple kinetic pathways. The low cost and high catalytic performance of the CoOx-based LNT catalyst make it most promising for the substitution of noble metal-based LNT catalysts.

  2. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  3. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  4. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and the Liver: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is ... provider or contact a Substance Use Disorder program Alcohol Drinking Diary and Change Plan Alcohol Drinking Diary ...

  5. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, RHH; Fraaije, MW; Laane, C; van Berkel, WJH; Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated

  8. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using alcoholic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis and in vitro investigation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, Nayanmoni [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Mahanta, Chandan [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bora, Utpal, E-mail: ubora@iitg.ernet.in [Biotech Hub, Centre for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The present study depicts the green synthesis of AgNPs using Nyctanthes arbortristis. • AuNPs found to be biocompatible and can be used for biomedical applications. • The FTIR, TGA and DTA results showed that AgNPs are bounded by organic coating. • The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity on E. Coli MTCC 443. • We investigated the antioxidant activity for both EFE and AgNPs.

  9. Facile green synthesis of Pd/N-doped carbon nanotubes catalysts and their application in Heck reaction and oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-ling; Zhu, Lu-ping; Bing, Nai-ci; Wang, Li-jun

    2017-08-01

    Evenly dispersed Pd nanoparticles are facilely and successfully deposited on N-doped carbon nanotubes (Pd/N-CNTs) by employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a salt and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as both a surface modifier and a stabilizing agent. The presence of SDS and the amount of PVP have significant influences on the formation of evenly dispersed Pd/N-CNTs catalyst. No additional functionalization steps, reducing agents and stabilizers are required as usual to achieve the uniform deposition of Pd NPs over the N-CNTs surfaces. The as-synthesized Pd/N-CNTs catalyst is proved to be very active in the Heck reaction and can be reused at least for 5 times without significant loss of catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

  10. Sonochemical synthesis of silica and silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles from rice husk ash: a new and recyclable catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols under heterogeneous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Javidi, Jaber

    2012-11-01

    Silica nanoparticles were synthesized from rice husk ash at room temperature by sonochemical method. The feeding rate of percipiteting agent and time of sonication were investigated. The nanostructure of the synthesized powder was realized by the FE-SEM photomicrograph, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and XRF analyses. These analytical observations have revealed that the nano-sized amorphous silica particles are formed and they are spheroidal in shape. The average particle size of the silica powders is found to be around 50 nm. The as-synthesized silica nanoparticles were subsequently modified with chlorosulfonic acid and prepared silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles, which were employed as an efficient catalyst for the acylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride in excellent yields under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This reported method is simple, mild, and environmentally viable and catalyst can be simply recovered and reused over 9 times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity.

  11. Environmentally friendly synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and selective detection of nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamizhdurai, P.; Sakthinathan, Subramanian; Chen, Shen-Ming; Shanthi, K.; Sivasanker, S.; Sangeetha, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are favorable in nanotechnology based on some remarkable properties. In this study, the crystalline CeO2 NPs are successfully prepared by an efficient microwave combustion (MCM) and conventional route sol-gel (CRSGM) methods. The structural morphology of the as-prepared CeO2 NPs was investigated by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Moreover, the XRD pattern confirmed the formation of CeO2 NPs as a face centered cubic structure. The magnetometer studies indicated the low saturation magnetization (23.96 emu/g) of CeO2 NPs for weak paramagnetic and high saturation magnetization (32.13 emu/g) of CeO2 NPs for super paramagnetic. After that, the oxidation effect of benzyl alcohol was investigated which reveals good conversion and selectivity. Besides, the CeO2 NPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) used for the detection of nitrite with linear concentration range (0.02-1200 μM), low limit of detection (0.21 μM) and higher sensitivity (1.7238 μAμM-1 cm-2). However, the CeO2 NPs modified electrode has the fast response, high sensitivity and good selectivity. In addition, the fabricated electrode is applied for the determination of nitrite in various water samples. Eventually, the CeO2 NPs can be regarded as an effective way to enhance the catalytic activity towards the benzyl alcohol and nitrite.

  12. Environmentally friendly synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and selective detection of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamizhdurai, P; Sakthinathan, Subramanian; Chen, Shen-Ming; Shanthi, K; Sivasanker, S; Sangeetha, P

    2017-04-13

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) are favorable in nanotechnology based on some remarkable properties. In this study, the crystalline CeO 2 NPs are successfully prepared by an efficient microwave combustion (MCM) and conventional route sol-gel (CRSGM) methods. The structural morphology of the as-prepared CeO 2 NPs was investigated by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Moreover, the XRD pattern confirmed the formation of CeO 2 NPs as a face centered cubic structure. The magnetometer studies indicated the low saturation magnetization (23.96 emu/g) of CeO 2 NPs for weak paramagnetic and high saturation magnetization (32.13 emu/g) of CeO 2 NPs for super paramagnetic. After that, the oxidation effect of benzyl alcohol was investigated which reveals good conversion and selectivity. Besides, the CeO 2 NPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) used for the detection of nitrite with linear concentration range (0.02-1200 μM), low limit of detection (0.21 μM) and higher sensitivity (1.7238 μAμM -1 cm -2 ). However, the CeO 2 NPs modified electrode has the fast response, high sensitivity and good selectivity. In addition, the fabricated electrode is applied for the determination of nitrite in various water samples. Eventually, the CeO 2 NPs can be regarded as an effective way to enhance the catalytic activity towards the benzyl alcohol and nitrite.

  13. One-Pot Synthesis of Dialkyl Hexane-1,6-Dicarbamate from 1,6-Hexanediamine, Urea, and Alcohol over Zinc-Incorporated Berlinite (ZnAlPO4 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lei Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate was synthesized, for the first time, by a one-pot reaction of 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA, urea, and alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol, in a self-designed batch reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as a catalyst. The yield of dibutyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate (2 was systematically investigated as a function of Zn/Al molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst usage and urea/HDA/butanol molar ratio. Based on these studies, the optimized reaction conditions were as follows: molar ratio urea/HDA/butanol = 2.6:1:8.6, catalyst usage = 3.0 g, reaction temperature = 493 K, reaction time = 6 h and reaction pressure = 1.2 MPa; a yield of 2 of 89.7% was achieved over the ZnAlPO4 (molar ratio Zn/Al = 0.04 catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, based on these experimental results, it was also proposed that the catalysis recycle of the one-pot synthesis of 2 from urea, HDA, and butanol over the ZnAlPO4 catalyst.

  14. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read Peter's story Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery Does Drug Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the National Institute ...

  15. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2014-10-06

    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol content and after synthesis neutralization on structure, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of sol-gel derived hybrid foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Aline Rocha de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass/polymer hybrids are promising materials for biomedical applications because they combine the bioactivity of these glasses with the flexibility of polymers. In this work it was evaluated the effect of increasing the PVA content of the on structural characteristics and mechanical properties of hybrid. The hybrids were prepared with 70 wt. (% SiO2-30 wt. (% CaO and PVA fractions of 20 to 60 wt. (% by the sol-gel method. The structural and mechanical characterization was done by FTIR, SEM and compression tests. To reduce the acidic character of the hybrids due to the catalysts added, different neutralization solutions were tested. The calcium acetate alcoholic solution was the best neutralizing method, resulting in foams with final pH of about 7.0 and small sample contraction. The foams presented porosity of 60-85 wt. (% and pore diameters of 100-500 μm with interconnected structure. An increase of PVA fraction in the hybrids improved their mechanical properties. The scaffolds produced provided a good environment for the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol/phytic acid polymer film and its thermal stability, mechanical properties and surface resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihui; Li, Yongshen; Song, Yunna; Niu, Shuai; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, polyvinyl alcohol/phytic acid polymer (PVA/PA polymer) was synthesized through esterification reaction of PVA and PA in the case of acidity and ultrasound irradiation and characterized, and PVA/PA polymer film was prepared by PVA/PA polymer and characterized, and the influence of dosage of PA on the thermal stability, mechanical properties and surface resistivity of PVA/PA polymer film were researched, and the influence of sonication time on the mechanical properties of PVA/PA polymer film was investigated. Based on those, it was concluded that the hydroxyl group on the chain of PVA and the phosphonic group on PA were connected together in the form of phosphonate bond, and the hydroxyl group on the chain of PVA were connected together in the form of ether bond after the intermolecular dehydration; in the meantime, it was also confirmed that PVA/PA polymer film prepared from 1.20mL of PA not only had the high thermal stability and favorable ductility but also the low surface resistivity in comparison with PVA/PA polymer film with 0.00mL of PA, and the ductility of PVA/PA polymer film was very sensitive to the sonication time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Facile synthesis of glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (GFRGO)/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites for improving thermal and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Karshenas, Azam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GFRGO composites were synthesized and used for fabrication of PVA/GFRGO NCs. • Attached glucose on RGO enhances RGO interaction with PVA hydroxyl groups. • PVA/GFRGO NCs exhibited enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. • FE-SEM and TEM micrographs prove good dispersion of GFRGO into PVA matrix. - Abstract: In this work, we provided a facile pathway to the modification of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by glucose as a biologically active molecule through covalent functionalization. Then, flexible and smooth poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PVA/GFRGO) nanocomposite (NC) films were fabricated using 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% concentrations of RGO-glucose in water. As a reducing sugar, glucose can reduce graphene oxide. Thus, graphene oxide was converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by hydrazine hydrate. Then, RGO was functionalized with glucose to achieve good dispersion in the polymer matrix. Due to the increased interfacial interaction between GFRGO and PVA matrix, the prepared PVA/GFRGO NCs showed a 52% increase in tensile strength and a 47% improvement in Young’s modulus by adding of only 5 wt% of GFRGO. Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal stability of the PVA/GFRGO NCs increased compared to the neat PVA film.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  20. Synthesis and character investigation of new collagen Hydrolysate/polyvinyl alcohol/hydroxyapatite Polymer-Nano-Porous Membranes: I. Experimental design optimization in thermal and structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanieh, Hossein; Aghahosseini, Hamideh

    2013-12-01

    Development of bioorganic-inorganic composites has drawn eyes to extensive attention in biomedical fields and tissue engineering. So many attempts to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA), in conjunction with various binders including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and collagen has performed for late 20 years. We applied a method based on the phase separation for making of polymer porous membranes. This procedure is induced through the addition of a small quantity of water (polymer-rich phase) to a solution with HA precursors (polymer-poor phase). Thermal and structural composite properties of collagen Hydrolysate (CH)-PVA/HA Polymer-Nano-Porous Membranes were analyzed by Design of experiment that was undertaken using D-optimal approach, to select the optimal combination of nano composites precursor. The resulted composite characters were investigated by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis. Based on the SEM images, this new method could be clearly concluded to porous CH-PVA/HA hybrid materials. Finally the hemocompatibility of nanocomposite membranes were evaluated by the hemolysis study.

  1. Facile synthesis of glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (GFRGO)/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites for improving thermal and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir, E-mail: abdolmaleki@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Sensors and Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Sensors and Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karshenas, Azam [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • GFRGO composites were synthesized and used for fabrication of PVA/GFRGO NCs. • Attached glucose on RGO enhances RGO interaction with PVA hydroxyl groups. • PVA/GFRGO NCs exhibited enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. • FE-SEM and TEM micrographs prove good dispersion of GFRGO into PVA matrix. - Abstract: In this work, we provided a facile pathway to the modification of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by glucose as a biologically active molecule through covalent functionalization. Then, flexible and smooth poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PVA/GFRGO) nanocomposite (NC) films were fabricated using 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% concentrations of RGO-glucose in water. As a reducing sugar, glucose can reduce graphene oxide. Thus, graphene oxide was converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by hydrazine hydrate. Then, RGO was functionalized with glucose to achieve good dispersion in the polymer matrix. Due to the increased interfacial interaction between GFRGO and PVA matrix, the prepared PVA/GFRGO NCs showed a 52% increase in tensile strength and a 47% improvement in Young’s modulus by adding of only 5 wt% of GFRGO. Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal stability of the PVA/GFRGO NCs increased compared to the neat PVA film.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Uniform Spherical Nanoporous TiO2 Aerogel Templated by Cellulose Alcohol-Gel with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spherical nanoporous TiO2 aerogels were prepared by a simple ethanol-thermal method, using spherical cellulose alcohol-gel as the template. The morphology, crystalline structure, pore size, specific surface area, and the photocatalytic activity of obtained TiO2 aerogel were separately characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characteristics of TiO2 aerogels presented uniform sphere shape, good internal structural morphology, high specific surface area (ranging from 111.88 to 149.95 m2/g, and good crystalline anatase phase. Moreover, methyl orange dye was used as the target pollutant to characterize the photocatalytic activities and the adsorption performance. The photocatalytic experiment shows that the obtained spherical TiO2 aerogels had a higher degradation ratio of 92.9% on methyl orange dye compared with aspherical TiO2 aerogels prepared from other concentrations of tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT.

  3. Synthesis of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/zeolite composite for removal of methyl orange, Congo red and chromium(VI) by flocculation/adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Siddique, Tawsif A; Joo, Tan Chin; Salleh, Areisman; Ang, Bee Chin; Afifi, Amalina M

    2017-02-10

    A chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/zeolite composite was fabricated in this study. The composite was analyzed through field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, and weight loss test. FTIR and XRD results revealed a strong interaction among chitosan, PVA, and zeolite. Weight loss test results indicated that the composite was stable in acidic and basic media. Congo red was removed through flocculation, and the removal rate was 94% at an initial concentration of 100mg/L for a dose of 1g/L. The removal rate of methyl orange was controlled by adsorption at an initial concentration of less than 100mg/L. Flocculation occurred at high concentrations. The removal rate was also 94% at an initial concentration of 500mg/L for a dose of 5g/L. The adsorption behavior of the composite for the removal of methyl orange and Cr(VI) was described by using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of the composite for Cr(VI) was 450mg/g. Therefore, the synthesized composite exhibited versatility during the removal of dyes and heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoinduced synthesis of single-digit micrometer-size spheroidal calcite composites in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-06-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which was based on the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphyenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions of pH 8.4 and 10 was studied for preparation of CaCO3 composite particles in single-digit micrometer-sizes. In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol%) was used as a precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. After the UV irradiation for 50 min, calcite spheroids in single-digit micrometer-sizes were obtained as major products at pH 8.4. The obtained calcite spheroids contained organic components of about 10 wt%. The comparison of the characteristics of the CaCO3 obtained at pH 8.4 and 10 suggests that the nucleation and crystallization of both vaterite and calcite continuously took place in a moderated supersaturation owing to the CO2 hydration equilibrium as long as the photodecarboxylation of KP continued. Consequently, the aggregation-based crystal growth in the presence of PVAPS seemed to enable the formation of the spheroidal composites of calcite in single-digit micrometer-sizes.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of oil palm empty fruit bunch-grafted-polyvinyl alcohol (OPEFB-g-PVA) hydrogel for removal of copper ions from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Soh Jing; Rabat, Nurul Ekmi; Osman, Noridah

    2017-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a natural polymer which is potentially used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal cations. The main objective of this research is to synthesize OPEFB grafted polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator and gelatin as crosslinking agent. The grafting temperature, amounts of cross linking agent, initiator and concentration of OPEFB were manipulated in order to optimize the swelling capability of the hydrogel. Comparison of heavy metal adsorption performance between pure PVA hydrogel and optimized OPEFB-g-PVA hydrogel was evaluated by using copper ions solution. The characteristics and structure of the optimized OPEFB-g-PVA hydrogel was studied by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) while Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to study its thermal stability. The presence of band at 1088 and 1047cm-1 corresponds to C-O was observed as strong evidence of grafting. Water uptake capacity was evaluated and the maximum water absorption capacity was obtained at 180.67 g/g. PVA hydrogel with OPEFB proved to have better copper ion absorbency and thermal properties compared to pure PVA hydrogel.

  6. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydroxyphthalimide. 1. Introduction. The selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most important reac- tions in organic synthesis and fine chemical industries.1. Numerous methods have been developed for the ...

  7. Development of a Scalable, Chromatography-Free Synthesis of t-Bu-SMS-Phos and Application to the Synthesis of an Important Chiral CF3-Alcohol Derivative with High Enantioselectivity Using Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Joshua D; Rodriguez, Sonia; Frutos, Rogelio; Buono, Frederic; Zhang, Yongda; Li, Ning; Qu, Bo; Premasiri, Ajith; Li, Zhibin; Han, Zhengxu S; Xu, Yibo; Byrne, Denis; Haddad, Nizar; Lorenz, Jon; Grinberg, Nelu; Kurouski, Dmitry; Lee, Heewon; Narayanan, Bikshandarkoil; Nummy, Laurence; Mulder, Jason; Brown, Jack D; Granger, Alice; Gao, Joe; Krawiec, Mariusz; Williams, Zeena; Pennino, Scott; Song, Jinhua J; Hossain, Azad; Yee, Nathan K; Busacca, Carl; Roschangar, Frank; Xin, Yanchao; Mao, Zhantong; Zhang, Xinzhu; Hong, Yaping; Senanayake, Chris H

    2018-02-02

    A chromatography-free, asymmetric synthesis of the C2-symmetric P-chiral diphosphine t-Bu-SMS-Phos was developed using a chiral auxiliary-based approach in five steps from the chiral auxiliary in 36% overall yield. Separtion and recovery of the auxiliary were achieved with good yield (97%) to enable recycling of the chiral auxiliary. An air-stable crystalline form of the final ligand was identified to enable isolation of the final ligand by crystallization to avoid chromatography. This synthetic route was applied to prepare up to 4 kg of the final ligand. The utility of this material was demonstrated in the asymmetric hydrogenation of trifluoromethyl vinyl acetate at 0.1 mol % Rh loading to access a surrogate for the pharmaceutically relavent chiral trifluoroisopropanol fragment in excellent yield and enantiomeric excess (98.6%).

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    /1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence...

  9. Chemical synthesis of flower-like hybrid Cu(OH)2/CuO electrode: Application of polyvinyl alcohol and triton X-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S K; Fulari, V J; Kim, D-Y; Maile, N C; Koli, R R; Dhaygude, H D; Ghodake, G S

    2017-08-01

    In this research article, we report hybrid nanomaterials of copper hydroxide/copper oxide (Cu(OH) 2 /CuO). A thin films were prepared by using a facile and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As-synthesized and hybrid Cu(OH) 2 /CuO with two different surfactants polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triton-X 100 (TRX-100) was prepared having distinct morphological, structural, and supercapacitor properties. The surface of the thin film samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A nanoflower-like morphology of the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures arranged vertically was evidenced on the stainless steel substrate. The surface was well covered by nanoflake-like morphology and formed a uniform Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures after treating with surfactants. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the hybrid phase of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO materials. The electrochemical properties of the pristine Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, PVA:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, TRX-100:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO films were observed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The electrochemical examination reveals that the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode has excellent specific capacitance, 292, 533, and 443Fg -1 with pristine, PVA, and TRX-100, respectively in 1M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte solution. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode shows positive role of the PVA and TRX-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    national and international by ... Marketing restrictions, such as. Reducing availability of retailed alcohol. Bans on alcohol advertizing, ... relationships between alcohol consumption and household poverty (e.g. the opportunity costs of alcohol).

  11. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver disease and disrupts methionine and oxidative balances. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) acts as a methyl donor for methylation reactions and participates in the synthesis of glutathione, the main cellular antioxidant. Randomised clinical trials have addressed...... the question whether SAMe may benefit patients with alcoholic liver diseases....

  12. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  13. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  14. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    although sales promotions affected stu- dents from Australia and Germany, Welsh students were more likely to purchase alcohol during promotions, because of their intention to take advantage of price discounts. In the Philippines, Swahn et al. (2013) revealed that promotional ac- tivities offering free drinks to students.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds is one of the most pivotal functional group transformations in organic synthesis. Three important natural enzymes ..... 6. Benzyl alcohol. Benzaldehyde. 57. 1-Phenylethanol. Acetophenone. 65. Cyclohexanol. Cyclohexanone. 49 a Reaction time, 5 h. b Yields based on substrate.

  16. A Sustainable Multicomponent Pyrimidine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibl, Nicklas; Ament, Kevin; Kempe, Rhett

    2015-10-14

    Since alcohols are accessible from indigestible biomass (lignocellulose), the development of novel preferentially catalytic reactions in which alcohols are converted into important classes of fine chemicals is a central topic of sustainable synthesis. Multicomponent reactions are especially attractive in organic chemistry as they allow the synthesis of large libraries of diversely functionalized products in a short time when run in a combinatorial fashion. Herein, we report a novel, regioselective, iridium-catalyzed multicomponent synthesis of pyrimidines from amidines and up to three (different) alcohols. This reaction proceeds via a sequence of condensation and dehydrogenation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations. While the condensation steps deoxygenate the alcohol components, the dehydrogenations lead to aromatization. Two equiv of hydrogen and water are liberated in the course of the reactions. PN5P-Ir-pincer complexes, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyze this sustainable multicomponent process most efficiently. A total of 38 different pyrimidines were synthesized in isolated yields of up to 93%. Strong points of the new protocol are its regioselectivity and thus the immediate access to pyrimidines that are highly and unsymmetrically decorated with alkyl or aryl substituents. The combination of this novel protocol with established methods for converting alcohols to nitriles now allows to selectively assemble pyrimidines from four alcohol building blocks and 2 equiv of ammonia.

  17. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Cd{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}S nanoparticles stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol); Sintese e caracterizacao de pontos quanticos de Cd{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}S estabilizados com poli(alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Colloidal luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots, have attracted considerable attention due to their significant potential application. The doping of nanocrystalline semiconductors with divalent manganese ions results in new optical properties of these semimagnetic semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we report the synthesis and characterization Cd{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}S nanoparticles using poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizing agent. Different fractions of Cd{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+} ions were investigated aiming the production of stable nanoparticles with different photoluminescence properties. (author)

  19. Total synthesis of broussonetine F: the orthoamide Overman rearrangement of an allylic diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Naoto; Aoki, Toshihiro; Miwa, Shohei; Yamazaki, Miki; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2011-02-18

    A first total synthesis of broussonetine F from diethyl L-tartrate was achieved. The cornerstone of our synthesis was an orthoamide Overman rearrangement, which provided an allylic amino alcohol with complete diastereoselectivity.

  20. Breath alcohol test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breath alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in the blood by testing exhaled air. The test is performed by blowing ... breath machine 15 minutes after alcohol consumption. The test determines how much alcohol it takes to raise the blood-alcohol level ...

  1. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Alcohol and Cirrhosis for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and cirrhosis Alcohol and the Liver Cirrhosis is ... liver to a liver with cirrhosis. How does alcohol affect cirrhosis? Alcohol increases the damage done to ...

  2. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  3. Synthesis of [14C] alaproclate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawell, Lars

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of carbon-14 labelled alaproclate from [2- 14 C]acetone in three steps is described. The label is introduced by the reaction of a benzylic Grignard reagent with the ketone yielding a tertiary alcohol. Subsequent esterification with an α-bromocarboxylic acid chloride and amination produced the title compound in a 13% overall radiochemical yield. (author)

  4. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain ...

  5. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  6. Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bearer, Cynthia F.; Bailey, Shannon M.; Hoek, Jan B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled “Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders” in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation ...

  7. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD and alcohol dependence. 25 Such interventions include cognitive–behavioral therapies, such as exposure-based therapies, in which the ... et al. Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: Psychobiology and clinical considerations. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews ...

  8. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  10. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  11. Alcoholism and Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNitto, Diana

    1982-01-01

    Describes patterns of problem drinking in rural areas, suggests factors which may influence the comparatively lower rates of alcoholism among rural residents, discusses the types of alcohol treatment available in rural communities, and offers preliminary ideas for applying the alcoholism-reducing factors of rural life to preventing alcoholism in…

  12. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  13. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with about 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits with about 40 percent alcohol content The percent of pure alcohol varies ... glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  14. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  15. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  17. Biocatalytic synthesis and antioxidant capacities of ascorbyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    , 2009). Lipases, especially that from Candida antarctica, have been successfully used to catalyze the synthesis of ascorbyl esters in tertiary alcohols, acetone and even in ionic liquids, employing saturated and unsaturated ...

  18. Recent Developments in the Use of Organoboranes in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, G. M. L.

    1969-01-01

    Describes how the carbonylation of organoboranes in a suitable solvent can produce various alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and oxymethylation derivatives. The synthesis of alpha-alkylated ketone using alkylboranes is discussed. (RR)

  19. Synthesis of phenanthrenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.

    1983-01-01

    A new and improved synthesis of 7-methoxy-12-methyl-2-oxo-2,3,4,9,10,12-hexahydrophenanthrene has been described. The compound is an important intermediate for the synthesis of many di- and tri-terpenes, and was required in this work for the synthesis of 17-acetyl-5α-etiojerva-12,14,16-trien-3β-ol. This compound is a known starting material for the synthesis of the veratrum alkaloids jervine, veratramine and verarine. Two synthetic routes to the synthesis of 7-methoxy-12-methyl-2-oxo-2,3,4,9,10,12-hexahydrophenanthrene were investigated. The first route required preparation of the intermediate 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-3-(3'-methoxyphenyl)propane which, by simple manipulation involving mainly the furan ring, gave the desired compound in 33% yield. All of the reactions involved are suitable for both large and small scale preparations. The synthesis of 17-acetyl-5α-etiojerva-12,14,16-trien-3B-ol can be achieved by the hyde and 3-methoxyacetophenone, followed by hydrogeneration and Wolff-Kishner reduction. A less successful synthesis of the above compound was achieved by condensing the Grignard derivative of 2-(3'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl bromide with 5-methylfurfuraldehyde to form a furyl alcohol, which was oxidized and reduced to give 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-3-(3'-methoxyphenyl)propane in only 7% overall yield, but the starting materials are inexpensive and readily available. The compound was also prepared in 40% yield by condensing 2-lithio-5-methylfuran with 3-(3'methoxyphenyl)propyl bromide. An appendix describes the reaction of 3-ethoxy-cyclohex-2-en-1-one with ethylmagnesium bromide, followed by aromatization. A second appendix describes the reductive alkylation of 8-methoxy-12-methyl-2-oxo-2,3,4,9,10,12-hexahydrophenanthrene

  20. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  1. α,β-Unsaturated imines via Ru-catalyzed coupling of allylic alcohols and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Moyer, Sara A; Pearce, Simon D; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-03-07

    A convenient synthesis of α,β-unsaturated imines requiring only an allylic alcohol, an amine and a Ru catalyst has been developed. The use of large excesses of oxidant and the purification of sensitive intermediates can be avoided.

  2. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  3. A new method for the preparation of 1, 3-dilithium propyne and their applications in synthesis: I. Regioselective synthesis of mono and disubstituted homopropargylic alcohols. II. A new method of synthesis of ethyl (2E, 13Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl. Sex pheromone of the Zeuzera pyrine moth. III. A new method for the preparation of 1,5 diynes. Synthesis of (4E, 6Z, 10Z) -4,6,10-Hexadecatrien-1-ol, the pheromone component of the cocoa moth Conopomorpha cramellera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Badilla, Alban Roberto

    2002-01-01

    A new method for obtaining 1,3-dilithium propyne has developed from propargyl bromide and regioselective synthesis of mono and disubstituted homopropargylic alcohols by addition of the same dianion to carbonyl compounds. The procedure has shown high versatility and yields above 80%, being more economical to allene and propyne used in previous methods; both in drilling Sanninoidea tipuliformis as other common pests of timber and fruit trees, Zeuzera pyrine (Cossidea) and Vitacea polistiformis (Sesiidea). Acetate (2E, 13Z) octadecadienyl was synthesized, whose biological activity has been an alternative for the biological control of these insects. The (Z)-1-iodinetetraceden-9-ene has been approved with 1,3 dilithium propyne and paraformaldehyde followed by stereoselective reduction procedures and acetylation with a total performance of 31%. The predecessors synthesis were surpassed in the simplicity of chemical transformations, relative ease of purification stages, so as requirements for equipment, reagents and minimal skill. A new method was developed for the preparation of linear and functionalized 1,5-diynes by propargylation with acceptable yields (50-80%) of various propargylic halides with 1,3 dilithium propyne obtained by dilithiation of allene with n-BuLi at low temperature. Also certain experimental cares were identified for the purification and isolation of 1,5 diynes not functionalized, compounds considerably volatile and sensitive to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. The 1,5 undecadiyne has been used as precursor in a synthesis of new route for the (4E, 6Z, 10Z)-4, 6, 10-hexadecatrien-1-ol, the main component of the sex pheromone of cocoa moth Conopomorpha cramellera (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae). The same was prepared in a total yield of 51% in just 5 steps, through a strategy of coupling C11 + C5 to generate the precursor enin. Two different approaches have yielded to get such enin in yields close to 90%: the first has been the coupling of 1

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Relative Study on the Catalytic Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Doped MnCO3, –MnO2, and –Mn2O3 Nanocomposites for Aerial Oxidation of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Assal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles doped manganese carbonate catalysts [X% ZnOx–MnCO3] (where X = 0–7 were prepared via a facile and straightforward coprecipitation procedure, which upon different calcination treatments yields different manganese oxides, that is, [X% ZnOx–MnO2] and [X% ZnOx–Mn2O3]. A comparative catalytic study was conducted to evaluate the catalytic efficiency between carbonates and oxides for the selective oxidation of secondary alcohols to corresponding ketones using molecular oxygen as a green oxidizing agent without using any additives or bases. The prepared catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as SEM, EDX, XRD, TEM, TGA, BET, and FTIR spectroscopy. The 1% ZnOx–MnCO3 calcined at 300°C exhibited the best catalytic performance and possessed highest surface area, suggesting that the calcination temperature and surface area play a significant role in the alcohol oxidation. The 1% ZnOx–MnCO3 catalyst exhibited superior catalytic performance and selectivity in the aerial oxidation of 1-phenylethanol, where 100% alcohol conversion and more than 99% product selectivity were obtained in only 5 min with superior specific activity (48 mmol·g−1·h−1 and 390.6 turnover frequency (TOF. The specific activity obtained is the highest so far (to the best of our knowledge compared to the catalysts already reported in the literatures used for the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol. It was found that ZnOx nanoparticles play an essential role in enhancing the catalytic efficiency for the selective oxidation of alcohols. The scope of the oxidation process is extended to different types of alcohols. A variety of primary, benzylic, aliphatic, allylic, and heteroaromatic alcohols were selectively oxidized into their corresponding carbonyls with 100% convertibility without overoxidation to the carboxylic acids under base-free conditions.

  5. Effects of alcohol compounds on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available The inhibitors present in dilute acid-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates would show great effect on the growth and product formation of microorganisms. To understand their inhibitory law and mechanism on oleaginous microorganism could help improving the efficiency of lignocellulose hydrolysis, detoxification, and lipid fermentation. The effects of four representative alcohol compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including furfuryl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, catechol, hydroquinone on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of Trichosporon fermentans were systematically investigated in this work. The toxicity of selected alcohol compounds was well related to their log P value except furfuryl alcohol, whose log P value was the minimum but with the highest toxicity to T. fermentans. The inhibition of all the alcohol compounds on the growth of T. fermentans was more serious than on the lipid synthesis. Also, the growth of T. fermentans was more sensitive to the variation of inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than lipid synthesis in the presence of alcohol compounds. Initial pH had more profound influence on the lipid fermentation than inoculum size and cultural temperature did. Careful control of fermentation conditions could be helpful for improving lipid yield of T. fermentans in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Among the four alcohol compounds tested, most alcohol compounds showed inhibition on both sugar consumption and malic enzyme activity of T. fermentans. However, vanillyl alcohol had little influence on the malic enzyme activity. Similarly, all alcohol compounds except vanillyl alcohol exerted damage on the cell membrane of T. fermentans.

  6. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  7. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  8. Alcohol, Wine and Platelet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-CLAUDE RUF

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse correlation between moderate wine and alcohol consumption and morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. The protective effect has been associated with an increase in the plasma level of HDL cholesterol, as it is well recognized that plasma HDL is inversely correlated with CHD. In addition, it has become evident that blood platelets contribute to the rate of development of atherosclerosis and CHD through several mechanisms. In recent studies it has been shown that the level of HDL cholesterol can explain only 50 % of the protective effect of alcoholic beverages; the other 50 % may be partly related to a decrease in platelet activity. This anti-platelet activity of wine is explained by ethanol but also by the polyphenolic components with which red wines are richly endowed. Several studies carried out on humans and animals have shown that wine phenolics could exert their effects by reducing prostanoid synthesis from arachidonate. In addition, it has been suggested that wine phenolics could reduce platelet activity mediated by nitric oxide. Moreover, wine phenolics increase vitamin E levels while decreasing the oxidation of platelets submitted to oxidative stress. However, a rebound phenomenon of hyperaggregability is observed after an acute alcohol consumption which is not observed with wine consumption. This protection afforded by wine has been duplicated in animals with grape phenolics added to alcohol. The rebound phenomenon may explain ischemic strokes or sudden deaths known to occur after episodes of drunkenness. It appears that wine, and wine phenolics in particular, could have a more significant inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and could explain, in part, the hypothesis that red wine is more protective against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

  9. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  10. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  11. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2017-08-01

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery. Three hundred and forty-one people (34% women) in the Paris area were questioned on their trajectories with a biographical questionnaire. Some open questions were aimed to understand the connection they made between events in their lives, how recovered they felt and what they considered strengths or obstacles. All the participants had stopped at least one product. Their mean age was 43, and 26% were over 50. How can the differences between one substance addicts and dual abusers be explained? Can we hypothesize a better result for the patients with a single dependence to alcohol in their lives for the following two reasons? (1) They could really be taken in charge for their alcoholism whereas the dual abusers mostly receive cared for their illicit drug problems with an under estimation of their problem with alcohol. In this case, they turn to alcohol after weaning themselves from their drug dependence so as to return to a social consumption, especially when they are given an opiate treatment. (2) Conversely could we suggest that the dual substance abusers had different trajectories from their childhood (more adverse events, more social difficulties, mental health problems), and that this accumulation explains their skipping from one substance or behaviour to another without any real recovery for decades? All respondents were polydrug users. Eighty-two had been dependent mainly on alcohol. One hundred and twenty-one people had been drug addicts (mostly heroin), which they had stopped on average ten years before the survey. The last group included 138 persons who had been heroin or cocaine addicts and alcoholics in their lives, a third of whom had been dependent on alcohol before their drug addiction (35%), a tenth on both at the same time (10

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kids and Alcohol KidsHealth / For Parents / Kids and Alcohol What's in ... it as they grow up. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of ...

  14. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  15. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas are blocked, you feel less need to drink alcohol. You don’t feel the “high” sensation that ... does not make you feel sick if you drink alcohol while taking it. How long will I take ...

  16. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  17. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the concern? Why is it bad to mix antidepressants and alcohol? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. It's best to avoid combining antidepressants and alcohol. It may worsen your symptoms, and ...

  18. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  20. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  1. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  2. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  3. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    directly to diesel fuel in a one pot reaction consisting of: conversion of glycerol to synthesis gas over a Pt-Re/C catalyst followed by conversion of the produced synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a Ru/TiO2 catalyst. Oxidation of aqueous solutions of ethanol over gold......, and it is significantly more environmentally friendly. A final type of reactions examined in this thesis is the dehydration of different renewable alcohols over solid acid catalysts to yield olefins or aromatic compounds. It is shown that ethanol can be dehydrated into ethylene with high selectivity at temperatures below...... 200 °C. This reaction also seems to have potential for competing with the present non-catalytic production of ethylene from steam cracking of naphtha carried out at temperatures around 800 °C. The price of ethylene is about twice that of fuel grade bioethanol, and this reaction is another example...

  4. Alcohols inhibit translation to regulate morphogenesis in C. albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Nkechi E; Paget, Caroline M; Wang, Hui; Ashe, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Many molecules are secreted into the growth media by microorganisms to modulate the metabolic and physiological processes of the organism. For instance, alcohols like butanol, ethanol and isoamyl alcohol are produced by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans and induce morphological differentiation. Here we show that these same alcohols cause a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. More specifically, the alcohols target translation initiation, a complex stage of the gene expression process. Using molecular techniques, we have identified the likely translational target of these alcohols in C. albicans as the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, which supports the exchange reaction where eIF2.GDP is converted to eIF2.GTP. Even minimal regulation at this step will lead to alterations in the levels of specific proteins that may allow the exigencies of the fungus to be realised. Indeed, similar to the effects of alcohols, a minimal inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide also causes an induction of filamentous growth. These results suggest a molecular basis for the effect of various alcohols on morphological differentiation in C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of lactic acid with straight-chain alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Xu, Xuebing; Tan, Tianwei

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of esters of lactic acid and straight-chain alcohols with different chain lengths (C6–C18) were investigated in batch reactions with hexadecanol (C16) as the model alcohol. Cyclohexane was the best solvent for higher ester yields, and the best biocatalyst was the immobilized...

  6. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  7. 147 ONE POT METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ARYLIDENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactivity of condensing aldehyde is an important factor in the synthesis. Presence of alcohol enhances the formation of products. This fact have been utilized for alkali catalyzed synthesis of many arylidene flavanones been reported by them. The special feature of long conjugation with 4-keto group of flavanone moiety.

  8. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  9. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attributable to alcohol consumption. 12 In 2014, the World Health Organization reported that alcohol contributed to more than 200 ... Medicine 49(5):e73– e79, 2015. PMID: 26477807 World Health Organization (WHO). Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. ...

  10. (HCV) among alcoholics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... and seventy (270) alcoholics and fifty (50) control subjects at selected locations in Jos South local ... subjects. Overall, the prevalence of HCV infection was found to be 45(16.7%) in response to alcoholics while the non-alcoholic (control) subjects recorded 3 (6.0%) positivity, [(x2 ... the family Flaviviridae.

  11. Alcohol and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  12. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  13. SYNTHESIS OF SAFRYL KETONE FROM SAFROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoch J Sohilait

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of safryl ketone from safrole has been achieved through conversion of allyl group to secondary alcohol, followed by oxidation with PCC-Al2O3. The oxymecuration-demercuration reaction of safrole with HgSO4-NaBH4 yields safryl alcohol (66.38% and the oxidation of safryl alcohol with PCC-Al2O3 yields safryl ketone (62.92%. The structure elucidation of these products was conducted using Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR, Proton-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR and Mass Spectroscopy (MS.   Keywords: safryl ketone, safrole

  14. Alcohol and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-02-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5-6% of the weight-adjusted maternal dose, and even in a theoretical case of binge drinking, the children would not be subjected to clinically relevant amounts of alcohol. Newborns metabolize alcohol at approximately half the rate of adults. Minute behavioural changes in infants exposed to alcohol-containing milk have been reported, but the literature is contradictory. Any long-term consequences for the children of alcohol-abusing mothers are yet unknown, but occasional drinking while breastfeeding has not been convincingly shown to adversely affect nursing infants. In conclusion, special recommendations aimed at lactating women are not warranted. Instead, lactating women should simply follow standard recommendations on alcohol consumption. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Links of gut microbiota composition with alcohol dependence syndrome and alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinkina, Veronika B; Tyakht, Alexander V; Odintsova, Vera Y; Yarygin, Konstantin S; Kovarsky, Boris A; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Popenko, Anna S; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Taraskina, Anastasiya Y; Nasyrova, Regina F; Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Shalikiani, Nino V; Bakulin, Igor G; Shcherbakov, Petr L; Skorodumova, Lyubov O; Larin, Andrei K; Kostryukova, Elena S; Abdulkhakov, Rustam A; Abdulkhakov, Sayar R; Malanin, Sergey Y; Ismagilova, Ruzilya K; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ilina, Elena N; Govorun, Vadim M

    2017-10-17

    functional potential, the patients showed different patterns of increase in functions related to alcohol metabolism and virulence factors, as well as pathways related to inflammation. Multiple shifts in the community structure and metabolic potential suggest strong negative influence of alcohol dependence and associated liver dysfunction on gut microbiota. The identified differences in patterns of impact between these two factors are important for planning of personalized treatment and prevention of these pathologies via microbiota modulation. Particularly, the expansion of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus suggests that probiotic interventions for patients with alcohol-related disorders using representatives of the same taxa should be considered with caution. Taxonomic and functional analysis shows an increased propensity of the gut microbiota to synthesis of the toxic acetaldehyde, suggesting higher risk of colorectal cancer and other pathologies in alcoholics.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Relative Study on the Catalytic Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Doped MnCO3, –MnO2, and –Mn2O3 Nanocomposites for Aerial Oxidation of Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Assal, Mohamed E.; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.; Adil, Syed Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles doped manganese carbonate catalysts [X% ZnOx–MnCO3] (where X = 0–7) were prepared via a facile and straightforward coprecipitation procedure, which upon different calcination treatments yields different manganese oxides, that is, [X% ZnOx–MnO2] and [X% ZnOx–Mn2O3]. A comparative catalytic study was conducted to evaluate the catalytic efficiency between carbonates and oxides for the selective oxidation of secondary alcohols to corresponding ketones using molecular oxyg...

  17. Folate, alcohol, and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H

    2013-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of ALD with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism, which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of ALD based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  19. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  20. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  1. A mild and highly chemoselective iodination of alcohol using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 11. A mild and highly chemoselective iodination of alcohol using polymer supported DMAP ... The synthesis of organic compounds using polymer supported catalysts and reagents, where the required product is always in solution, has been of great interest ...

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  3. Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Alleviation of Alcoholic Fatty Liver by Polyphenols Contained in Alcoholic Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Ushiama, Shota; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of the polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages on the metabolic stress induced by ethanol consumption, four groups of mice were fed for five weeks on Lieber's diet with or without ethanol, with ethanol plus ellagic acid, and with ethanol plus trans-resveratrol. Alcoholic fatty liver was observed in the group fed the ethanol diet but not in those fed the ethanol plus polyphenol diets. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that the addition of the polyphenols suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell stress that were up-regulated by ethanol alone. Conversely, the polyphenols up-regulated the genes involved in bile acid synthesis, unsaturated fatty acid elongation, and tetrahydrofolate synthesis that were down-regulated by ethanol alone. Because parts of these genes were known to be regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), we performed the same experiment in the CAR-deficient mice. As a result, fatty liver was observed not only in the ethanol group but also with the ethanol plus polyphenol groups. In addition, there was no segregation of the gene expression profiles among these groups. These results provide a molecular basis for the prevention of alcohol-induced stress by the polyphenols in alcoholic beverages. PMID:24498295

  4. Nuclear receptor-mediated alleviation of alcoholic fatty liver by polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Yao

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effect of the polyphenols contained in alcoholic beverages on the metabolic stress induced by ethanol consumption, four groups of mice were fed for five weeks on Lieber's diet with or without ethanol, with ethanol plus ellagic acid, and with ethanol plus trans-resveratrol. Alcoholic fatty liver was observed in the group fed the ethanol diet but not in those fed the ethanol plus polyphenol diets. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that the addition of the polyphenols suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell stress that were up-regulated by ethanol alone. Conversely, the polyphenols up-regulated the genes involved in bile acid synthesis, unsaturated fatty acid elongation, and tetrahydrofolate synthesis that were down-regulated by ethanol alone. Because parts of these genes were known to be regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, we performed the same experiment in the CAR-deficient mice. As a result, fatty liver was observed not only in the ethanol group but also with the ethanol plus polyphenol groups. In addition, there was no segregation of the gene expression profiles among these groups. These results provide a molecular basis for the prevention of alcohol-induced stress by the polyphenols in alcoholic beverages.

  5. Synthesis of a new selective borotritide: [3H]lithium 9-boratabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane. Some applications to the preparation of secondary and primary [3H] alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasset, C.; Rousseau, B.

    1994-01-01

    [ 3 H]lithium 9-boratabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, at specific activity of 52-55 Ci/mmol, was synthesized by reduction of B-OMe-9-BBN with lithium tritide. Its reducing characteristics were illustrated by the synthesis of [17- 3 H] estradiol, [2- 3 H] dihydrotetrabenazine and 1-(hydroxy[ 3 H]methyl)naphtalene, with good radiochemical yields and high specific activities. (Author)

  6. Green Synthesis of a Fluorescent Natural Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas M.; Welker, Jacob J. C.; Doxsee, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferone via the acid-catalyzed Pechmann condensation introduces students to several types of organic reactions: transesterification, electrophilic aromatic substitution, and alcohol dehydration. Performed with a recyclable, solid catalyst and under solvent-free conditions, the experiment illustrates many of the…

  7. Synthesis of pterostilbene by Julie Olefination

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, stereoselective route for the synthesis of the biologically active compounds trans-pterostilbene and tetramethoxy stilbene from the readily available starting materials 3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde was developed using Julia olefination as a key reaction....

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and catalytic oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion in the development of catalysis, magnetism, molec- ular architectures and materials chemistry. Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds is one of the most pivotal functional group transformations in organic synthesis. Three important natural enzymes used for oxidation reactions are cytochrome P-450, per- oxidases ...

  9. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is among the top ten consumers of alcohol worldwide though there is little data on alcohol related liver disease. We describe alcohol use, alcohol misuse, and alcoholic liver disease among adults at the emergency admission service of a large urban hospital in Uganda. Methods: All adults who ...

  10. Free radicals in alcoholic myopathy: indices of damage and preventive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preedy, Victor R; Adachi, Junko; Asano, Migiwa; Koll, Michael; Mantle, David; Niemela, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Paice, Alistair G; Peters, Timothy; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Seitz, Helmut; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Worrall, Simon

    2002-04-15

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects up to two-thirds of all alcohol misusers and is characterized by selective atrophy of Type II (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic) fibers. In contrast, the Type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. Alcohol increases the concentration of cholesterol hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde-protein adducts, though protein-carbonyl concentration levels do not appear to be overtly increased and may actually decrease in some studies. In alcoholics, plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol may be reduced in myopathic patients. However, alpha-tocopherol supplementation has failed to prevent either the loss of skeletal muscle protein or the reductions in protein synthesis in alcohol-dosed animals. The evidence for increased oxidative stress in alcohol-exposed skeletal muscle is thus inconsistent. Further work into the role of ROS in alcoholic myopathy is clearly warranted.

  11. Alcohol use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

    1998-01-01

    Several ongoing national surveys, including the Monitoring the Future study, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, are investigating the drinking behaviors of adolescents in the United States. These studies have found that the majority of adolescents under the age of 18 have consumed alcohol, although the minimum legal drinking age is 21. Drinking rates may even have increased in recent years in some age groups. No substantial differences exist among various sociodemographic subgroups with respect to drinking rates, although alcohol consumption generally is lowest among African-Americans and highest among whites. Moreover, alcohol consumption increases sharply throughout adolescence. Various attitudinal and behavioral factors, such as religious involvement, truancy, and average grade level, also influence adolescents' drinking behaviors. Almost two-thirds of 12th graders who report consuming alcohol experience at least one alcohol-related problem. Most adolescents drink to experience the pleasurable effects of alcohol, such as having a good time with friends.

  12. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  13. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  14. Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P; Clark, Melissa

    2010-06-01

    To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but the number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  16. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  17. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  18. Synthetic Applications of Chiral Unsaturated Epoxy Alcohols Prepared by Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the synthesis and applications of chiral 2,3-epoxy alcohols containing unsaturated chains is presented. One of the fundamental synthetic routes to these compounds is Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which is reliable, highly chemoselective and enables easy prediction of the product enantioselectivity. Thus, unsaturated epoxy alcohols are readily obtained by selective oxidation of the allylic double bond in the presence of other carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The wide availability of epoxy alcohols with unsaturated chains, the versatility of the epoxy alcohol functionality (e.g. regio- and stereo-selective ring opening; oxidation; and reduction, and the arsenal of established alkene chemistries, make unsaturated epoxy alcohols powerful starting materials for the synthesis of complex targets such as biologically active molecules. The popularization of ring-closing metathesis has further increased their value, making them excellent precursors to cyclic compounds.

  19. Organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on reactions of organoboranes. Organoboron routes to unsaturated hydrocarbons. Boronic ester homologation. Properties of organosilicon compounds. Alkene synthesis (Peterson olefination). Allylsilanes and acylsilanes.

  20. A room temperature copper catalyzed N-selective arylation of β-amino alcohols with iodoanilines and aryl iodides

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Priyabrata; De Brabander, Jef K.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient method is described for the synthesis of N-(2-aminophenyl)-2-hydroxyethylamines via a copper catalyzed N-selective arylation of β-amino alcohols with iodoanilines. The corresponding coupling products are useful intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of N-2-hydroxyethyl-substituted benzimidazoles, benzimidazolones, and iminobenzimidazoles. We found that 2-iodoaniline only arylates certain amino alcohols but not amines lacking a hydroxyl group. We also demonstrate the arylati...

  1. Síntese de esteres terpenóides por via enzimática: influência do tamanho da cadeia alifática do ácido graxo e da estrutura do álcool de terpeno Synthesis of terpen esters by enzymatic route: influence of the fatty acid size chain and alcohol structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heizir F. CASTRO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A especificidade de uma preparação comercial de lipase imobilizada, com relação a molécula ácida e alcoólica do substrato, foi estudada através da síntese de diversos ésteres de terpenóides. Na série de reações do citronelol e ácidos graxos com diferentes tamanho de cadeia alifática (C2 a C18, altas taxas de esterificação (95 a 98% foram alcançadas para ácidos contendo 4 ou mais carbonos. Numa segunda série de experimentos, diferentes álcoois terpenos foram esterificados com ácido butírico, sendo constatado uma influência marcante da estrutura do álcool de terpeno no desempenho desta preparação enzimática. Graus de esterificação maiores que 95% somente foram obtidos para os álcoois primários como citronelol, geraniol e nerol. Álcoois secundários (mentol e terciários (linalol não foram esterificados, sob as condições testadas.The selectivity of a commercial immobilized lipase preparation was tested in two set of esterification reactions. In the first group, synthesis were carried out with citronellol and different organic acids (C2 to C18. For this case, with the exception of acetic acid, the size of the carbon chain showed no significant alteration in the esterification rates. Acids containing four or more carbons, were considered to be excellent acyl donors, resulting in the esterification rates in the range of 95% to 98%. Alternatively, the esterification reactions were carried out with different terpen alcohols and butyric acid. The alcohol structure showed to have great influence on the performance of this enzyme preparation. Esterification degree over 95% were attained for primary alcohols such as citronellol, geraniol and nerol. Secondary (menthol and tertiary (linallol were not esterified under the tested conditions.

  2. Efficient synthesis of α,β-unsaturated alkylimines performed with allyl cations and azides: application to the synthesis of an ant venom alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kyohei; Tanimoto, Hiroki; Zhang, Huan; Morimoto, Tsumoru; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi

    2012-11-16

    An efficient synthesis of α,β-unsaturated alkylimines at low temperature using azides has been developed. Carbocations generated from allyl alcohols helped achieve a rapid conversion under mild conditions with azides to afford reactive α,β-unsaturated imines. Hydroxy or alkoxy groups are essential for these transformations, and utilizing readily accessible allyl alcohols gave a wide extension of substrates. The efficiency of this novel method is demonstrated in the total synthesis of an iminium ant venom alkaloid.

  3. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 21,028 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 33,171 ...

  4. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  5. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  6. Synthesis of enantiopure (alphaS,betaS)- or (alphaR,betaS)-beta-amino alcohols by complete regioselective opening of aminoepoxides by organolithium reagents LiAlH4 or LiAlD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; del Solar, Virginia; Suárez, José Ramón; García-Granda, Santiago; Díaz, M Rosario

    2006-08-18

    The reaction of chiral (2R,1'S)- or (2S,1'S)-2-(1-aminoalkyl)epoxides, 1 or 2 with a variety of organolithium compounds to obtain the corresponding (alphaS,betaS)- or (alphaR,betaS)- beta-amino alcohols in enantiopure form is reported. In both cases, the opening of the oxirane ring at C-3 proceeded with total regioselectivity. Moreover, the ring opening of aminoepoxides 1 or 2 by hydride (utilizing LiAlH4) to obtain the corresponding (2S,3S)- or (2R,3S)-3-aminoalkan-2-ols is also described. The reaction of 1 or 2 with LiAlD4 in place of LiAlH4 gave the corresponding (2S,3S)- or (2R,3S)-3-amino-1-deuterioalkan-2-ols.

  7. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Ikonen, Risto; Keinonen, Tuula; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Rising trends in alcohol consumption and early drinking initiation pose serious health risks especially for adolescents. Learner's prior knowledge about alcohol gained from the social surroundings and the media are important sources that can impact the learning outcomes in health education. The purpose of this paper is to map adolescents'…

  9. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  10. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Prevention Avoiding alcohol during pregnancy prevents FAS. Counseling can help women ... the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  12. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  13. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  14. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  15. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause you to get hurt, such as driving, using machinery, or having unsafe sex Keep drinking, even though you know it is making a health problem caused by alcohol worse Need more and more alcohol to feel its effects or to get drunk You get withdrawal symptoms when the effects of ...

  16. Radiation-chemical preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot, Anastasia V.; Kitaeva, Natalia K.; Duflot, Vladimir R.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the usage of method of radiation-chemical synthesis to prepare cross-linked hydrogels from poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with glycidyl methacrylate. Synthesis kinetics of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and properties of hydrogels were studied. The gel fraction, swelling, mechanical properties, and water content of the hydrogels were measured. It was found that gel fraction increases with increasing radiation dose, concentration of modified poly(vinyl alcohol), and reaches 60%. It was established by differential scanning calorimetry that a fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is 50–70% and independent of gel fraction content. In addition to “bound” and “free” states, water in hydrogels is also present in the intermediate state. - Highlights: • The synthesis and the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels were studied. • PVA was modified by glycidyl methacrylate before gamma cross-linking. • The modification results in decreasing of PVA cross-linking dose by 3 orders lower. • The gel fraction and water content of the hydrogels were measured. • A fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is independent of gel fraction content

  17. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  18. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...... alcohol consumption and limited alcohol control policies are associated with high levels of alcohol use among adolescents....

  19. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-01-14

    We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

  20. THE SHEFFIELD ALCOHOL POLICY MODEL - A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John

    2014-09-30

    This methodology paper sets out a mathematical description of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.0, a model to evaluate public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction in the UK. Policies that can be appraised include a minimum price per unit of alcohol, restrictions on price discounting, and broader public health measures. The model estimates the impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers, retailers and government tax revenues. The synthesis of public and commercial data sources to inform the model structure is described. A detailed algebraic description of the model is provided. This involves quantifying baseline levels of alcohol purchasing and consumption by age and gender subgroups, estimating the impact of policies on consumption, for example, using evidence on price elasticities of demand for alcohol, quantification of risk functions relating alcohol consumption to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and finally monetary valuation of the consequences. The results framework, shown for a minimum price per unit of alcohol, has been used to provide policy appraisals for the UK government policy-makers. In discussion and online appendix, we explore issues around valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions, and ongoing plans for further development. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  2. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescen...

  3. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of...

  4. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

    1999-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  5. Lipase-catalysed ester synthesis in solvent-free oil system: is it esterification or transesterification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingcan; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-12-01

    Ester synthesis was carried out in a solvent-free system of lipase, coconut oil and ethanol or fusel alcohols to ascertain the reaction mechanism. During ester formation, octanoic and decanoic acids increased initially and then decreased gradually, indicating that ester production was a two-step reaction consisting of hydrolysis and esterification, rather than alcoholysis. With ethanol as the alcohol substrate, added butyric acid inhibited ester synthesis. However, when fusel alcohols were used as the alcohol substrate, no significant inhibitory effect by butyric acid was observed. Added octanoic acid did not show any adverse effect on the synthesis of corresponding esters. The results suggest that polarity of the reactants determines lipase activity. This study provides the first evidence on the mechanism of immobilised lipase-catalysed ester synthesis in a solvent-free system involving both hydrolysis and esterification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of uniformly labelled organic compounds by polymerization of 14C ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, J.-F.

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of 14 C uniformly labelled compounds is described. By polymerization of 14 C ethylene, linear olefins with a double bond at α position were obtained. From these olefins, uniformly labelled alkanes, alcohols and acids were prepared [fr

  7. Alcohol industry involvement in policy making: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Mialon, Melissa; Hawkins, Ben

    2018-03-15

    To summarise the substantive findings of studies of alcohol industry involvement in national or supra-national policy-making, and to produce a new synthesis of current evidence. This study examined peer-reviewed journal reports published in the English language between 1980-2016 of studies of alcohol industry involvement in policy making. Included studies were required to provide information on data collection and analysis and to have sought explicitly to investigate interventions by alcohol industry actors within the process of public policy making. Eight electronic databases were searched on 27/02/17. The methodological strengths and limitations of individual studies and the literature as a whole were examined. A thematic synthesis using an inductive approach to the generation of themes was guided by the research aims and objectives. Twenty reports drawn from 15 documentary and interview studies identify pervasive influence of alcohol industry actors in policy making. This evidence synthesis indicates that industry actors seek to influence policy in two principal ways: 1) by framing policy debates in a cogent and internally consistent manner, which excludes from policy agendas issues that are contrary to commercial interests; and 2) by adopting short and long term approaches to managing threats to commercial interests within the policy arena, by building relationships with key actors using a variety of different organisational forms. This review pools findings from existing studies on the range of observed impacts on national alcohol policy decision-making across the world. Alcohol industry actors are highly strategic, rhetorically sophisticated and well organised in influencing national policy-making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of radium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A; Agayev, T.N; Mansimov, Z.A

    2010-01-01

    Full text :One of the possible ways of implementation of the processes of molecular hydrogen radiologic of the elements in the differential heat of water as a catalyst for the collapse of the creation of a special nuclear reactors. A chemical process in radiation-4-oxide-silicon compounds, which is one of the radium, is of great importance. Research in the silicon-oxide-radiumun different activity-4 has been synthesized. As initial substances for the synthesis of tetra etiolate silicate and radium chloride solutions were used. At the same time to remove reaction products from the reaction intermediate in acetate acid was used. The intermediate product was reacted with ethyl alcohol ethyl acetate ether acetate acid that forms from the reaction of the temperature effect is broken. As a result, 4-oxide was initially pure silicon.

  9. Dislocations in decagonal Al-Cu-Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Urban, K.

    1990-01-01

    Dislocations have been observed for the first time in a decagonal quasicrystalline structure. The lattice defects found in Al 65 Cu 20 Co 15 decagonal phase give electron diffraction contrast similar to that found in normal-crystalline materials. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  10. Undercooling and demixing in rapidly solidified Cu-Co alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battezzati, L.; Curiotto, S.; Johnson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    competition of transformation phenomena, the mechanisms have not been fully disclosed. This contribution reviews such findings with the help of a computer calculation of the phase diagram and extends the present knowledge by presenting new results obtained by rapidly solidifying various Cu–Co compositions...

  11. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  12. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  13. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  14. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...

  15. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  16. [Alcoholism in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Osterkamp, S

    1976-02-01

    The present survey of empirical studies of female alcholism considers firstly questions concerning the prevalence of female alcoholism. Empirical findings on the psychopathology, the development and course of female alcoholism, partner relationships and problems in female identification of these patients are described and discussed with regard to their informative value. It is shown that most of the present empirical results contribute little to a more refined understanding of female alcoholism and that they also have little relevance to the development of special therapeutic approaches. Finally basic reasons for this state of affairs are discussed together with suggestions for further research.

  17. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  18. Synthesis and characterization of water-dispersed CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots prepared via Layer-by-layer Method capped with carboxylic-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanery, Fabio Pereira; Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander, E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia dos Materiais. Centro de Nanociencia, Nanotecnologia e Inovacao

    2014-08-15

    The main goal of this work was to synthesize CdSe/CdS (core-shell) nanoparticles stabilized by polymer ligand using entirely aqueous colloidal chemistry at room temperature. First, the CdSe core was prepared using precursors and acid-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) as the capping ligand. Next, a CdS shell was grown onto the CdSe core via the layer-by-layer technique. The CdS shell was formed by two consecutive monolayers, as estimated by empirical mathematical functions. The nucleation and growth of CdSe quantum dots followed by CdS shell deposition were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated a systematic red-shift of the absorption and emission spectra after the deposition of CdS, indicating the shell growth onto the CdSe core. TEM coupled with electron diffraction analysis revealed the presence of CdSe/CdS with an epitaxial shell growth. Therefore, it may be concluded that CdSe/CdS quantum dots with core-shell nanostructure were effectively synthesized.(author)

  19. Study on single step solid state synthesis of WC@C nanocomposite and electrochemical stability of synthesized WC@C & Pt/WC@C for alcohol oxidation (methanol/ethanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Gourav, E-mail: gsinghla@gmail.com; Singh, K., E-mail: kusingh@thapar.edu; Pandey, O.P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu

    2016-04-25

    WC@C nano composite was prepared by a single step solid–state reaction through in situ reduction and carburization of WO{sub 3} in the presence of Mg and activated charcoal. The XRD results and thermodynamics analysis showed that the optimization of reaction temperature facilitates the reduction as well as carburization of tungsten oxide(s) at different reaction temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis of the product was done to assess the thermal stability in air. The Raman spectroscopy was used to find out the nature (amorphous/graphitic) of carbon in the obtained phase. The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement showed a narrow pore size distribution from 3 to 4 nm with BET surface area of up to 522.5 m{sup 2}/g. TEM/HRTEM images confirmed formation of the WC nano particles with spherical morphology. Electrochemical stability of pure and platinized carbide sample (Pt/WC) has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry in acidic media for alcohol (methanol and ethanol) oxidation. - Highlights: • Tungsten carbide nano powder was synthesized using charcoal as carbon source. • Formation of WC occurs through the formation of lower tungsten oxide. • CO{sub 2}/CO ratio effect the formation of WC. • Mesoporous tungsten carbide with surface areas 522.5 m{sup 2}/g obtained by using charcoal. • Pt modified WC powder showed higher electrochemical stability.

  20. Design of geometry, synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV/Vis, excited state, polarization) and anisotropy (thermal conductivity and electrical) properties of new synthesized derivatives of (E,E)-azomethines in colored stretched poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Sheikhi, Masoome; Filippovich, Liudmila; Dikusar, Evgenij; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Kumar, Rakesh; Khaleghian, Mehrnoosh

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, the molecular structures of two new azomethine dyes: have been predicted and investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The geometries of the azomethine dyes were optimized by B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory. The electronic spectra of these azomethine dyes in a DMF solvent was carried out by using TD-B3LYP/6-31+G* method. After quantum-chemical calculations two new azomethine dyes for optoelectronic applications were synthesized. FT-IR spectra of the title compounds are recorded and discussed. The computed absorption spectral data of the azomethine dyes are in good agreement with the experimental data, thus allowing an assignment of the UV/Vis spectra. On the basis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the new synthesized azomethine dyes polarizing films for visible region of spectrum were developed. The main optical parameters of the polarizing PVA-films (Transmittance, Polarization Efficiency and Dichroic Ratio) have been measured and discussed. Anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of the PVA-films have been studied and explained.

  1. Improved Automated Classification of Alcoholics and Non-alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy Palaniappan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, several improvements are proposed to previous work of automated classification of alcoholics and nonalcoholics. In the previous paper, multiplayer-perceptron neural network classifying energy of gamma band Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals gave the best classification performance using 800 VEP signals from 10 alcoholics and 10 non-alcoholics. Here, the dataset is extended to include 3560 VEP signals from 102 subjects: 62 alcoholics and 40 non-alcoholics...

  2. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  3. Exon microarray analysis of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Wang, Kun; Butler, Merlin G

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with cellular and biochemical disturbances that impact upon protein and nucleic acid synthesis, brain development, function, and behavioral responses. To further characterize the genetic influences in alcoholism and the effects of alcohol consumption on gene expression, we used a highly sensitive exon microarray to examine mRNA expression in human frontal cortex of alcoholics and control males. Messenger RNA was isolated from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC; Brodmann area 9) of 7 adult alcoholic (6 males, 1 female, mean age 49 years) and 7 matched controls. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array was performed according to standard procedures and the results analyzed at the gene level. Microarray findings were validated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the ontology of disturbed genes characterized using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Decreased mRNA expression was observed for genes involved in cellular adhesion (e.g., CTNNA3, ITGA2), transport (e.g., TF, ABCA8), nervous system development (e.g., LRP2, UGT8, GLDN), and signaling (e.g., RASGRP3, LGR5) with influence over lipid and myelin synthesis (e.g., ASPA, ENPP2, KLK6). IPA identified disturbances in network functions associated with neurological disease and development including cellular assembly and organization impacting on psychological disorders. Our data in alcoholism support a reduction in expression of dlPFC mRNA for genes involved with neuronal growth, differentiation, and signaling that targets white matter of the brain. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Caffeinated alcohol use and expectancies for caffeine versus alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-08-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is related to alcohol-related risk. Limited research has examined outcome expectancies and CAB consumption. This study tested the predictive utility of caffeine and alcohol expectancies in CAB use outcomes (i.e. quantity, frequency, and alcohol-related harms). Participants were 419 (302 women) alcohol and caffeine users from a mid-sized urban university. Data collection occurred between August 2010 and December 2011. Participants completed measures of caffeine and alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, alcohol use, and CAB use. Caffeine and alcohol expectancies contributed uniquely to approximately 12% of the variability in quantity, 8% in frequency, and 16% in problems. When examined separately, alcohol expectancies explained approximately 10% to 11% of the variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 6% of the variance in CAB use quantity. For CAB use frequency, alcohol and caffeine expectancies accounted for about 8% and 4%, respectively. Alcohol expectancies accounted for 12% to 14% of variance, whereas caffeine expectancies accounted for 4% to 6% in alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSIONS/ IMPORTANCE: The present study sought to address a gap in the literature regarding the contributions of expectancies in the prediction of CAB use. Our findings provide support for the predictive utility of both caffeine and alcohol expectancies in accounting for individual variability in CAB use but alcohol expectancies may exert greater impact on use patterns. Inclusion of both types of expectancies in larger theoretical frameworks may be beneficial in gaining a more complete and deeper conceptualization of this risky behavior.

  5. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  6. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  7. Consumo de alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo del Sol Padrón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se emite una definición clasificatoria de los individuos que consumen alcohol, según supuestos establecidos por Manconi. Se estratifican las personas atendiendo a los diferentes riesgos para este consumo. Se describen las afectaciones a la salud que produce el consumo de alcohol, y además se plantean las medidas estratégicas para propiciar una conducta efectiva antialcohólica. Por último, se presenta un flujograma para la intervención individual en las personas clasificadas como bebedoras en riesgo.This article provides a definition that classifies individuals who consume alcohol and establishes a Manconi classification chart. Individuals are stratified by different consumption risk levels. Alcohol’s effects on health are described as well as strategies to promote effective anti-alcoholic conducts. Finally, a flow chart for individual intervention in patients considered to be at risk is presented.

  8. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  9. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  10. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...

  11. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcoholism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J; Silva, J A; Sasao, T; Wang, C; Nguyen, L

    1993-07-01

    Alcoholism is a problem of worldwide concern. Full appreciation of this international problem requires that adequate diagnostic measures be constructed and that comparable measures for different cultures be available so that valid differences in prevalence across cultures can be detected. A Spanish-language version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) has been used for epidemiologic studies of alcohol abuse and dependence in Los Angeles Mexican-Americans and mainland Puerto Ricans, and the authors used the same instrument to conduct a similar study in Peru. A population sample (N = 815) from the Independencia district of Lima, Peru, was chosen for interviews with a revised form of the Spanish translation of the DIS. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcoholism and other DSM-III diagnoses were determined. The prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence was higher among the men (34.80%) than among the women (2.46%), but the onset for women was earlier. Alcoholism was strongly associated with antisocial personality disorder and with drug abuse or dependence. The prevalence of alcoholism for the Peruvian men is higher than prevalences for men in U.S. studies, but the prevalence among the Peruvian women is one of the lowest reported. The high prevalence among men is likely due to cultural mores but may also be linked to the stresses found in impoverished societies undergoing rapid social, cultural, and economic change.

  13. Copper oxide as efficient catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols with air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Engelbrekt, Christian; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds was studied using CuO nanoparticle catalysts prepared by solution synthesis in buffered media. CuO nanoparticles synthesized in N-cyclohexyl- 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid buffer showed high catalytic activity for the oxidation of benz...... dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohols to be proposed. The use of CuO as an inexpensive and efficient heterogeneous catalyst under aerobic conditions provides a new noble metal-free and green reaction protocol for carbonyl compound synthesis....... of benzylic, alicyclic and unsaturated alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds with excellent selectivities. The observed trend in activity for conversion of substituted alcohols suggested a β-H elimination step to be involved, thus enabling a possible reaction mechanism for oxidative...

  14. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  15. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  16. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  18. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cycling injuries and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Noora K; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S; Kataja, J Matti; Kröger, Heikki P J; Lüthje, Peter M J

    2018-03-03

    Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of ≥ 1.2 g/L was measured in nearly 90% of all alcohol-related cases. A positive BAC result was more common among males than females (p < 0.001), and head injuries were more common among cyclists where alcohol was involved (AI) (60%) than among sober cyclists (29%) (p < 0.001). Two thirds (64%) of the cyclists with AI were not wearing a bicycle helmet. The figure for serious injuries (MAIS ≥ 3) was similar in both groups. Intoxication with an alcohol level of more than 1.5 g/L and the age of 15 to 24 years were found to be risk factors for head injuries. The mean cost of treatment was higher among sober cyclists than among cyclists with AI (€2143 vs. €1629), whereas in respect of the cost of work absence, the situation was the opposite (€1348 vs. €1770, respectively). Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve

  20. Polymorphisms in early neurodevelopmental genes affect natural variation in alcohol sensitivity in adult drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Tatiana V; Huang, Wen; Pray, Victoria A; Whitham, Thomas; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-10-26

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are significant public health problems, but the genetic basis for individual variation in alcohol sensitivity remains poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster presents a powerful model system for dissecting the genetic underpinnings that determine individual variation in alcohol-related phenotypes. We performed genome wide association analyses for alcohol sensitivity using the sequenced, inbred lines of the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) together with extreme QTL mapping in an advanced intercross population derived from sensitive and resistant DGRP lines. The DGRP harbors substantial genetic variation for alcohol sensitivity and tolerance. We identified 247 candidate genes affecting alcohol sensitivity in the DGRP or the DGRP-derived advanced intercross population, some of which met a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold, while others occurred among the top candidate genes associated with variation in alcohol sensitivity in multiple analyses. Among these were candidate genes associated with development and function of the nervous system, including several genes in the Dopamine decarboxylase (Ddc) cluster involved in catecholamine synthesis. We found that 58 of these genes formed a genetic interaction network. We verified candidate genes using mutational analysis, targeted gene disruption through RNAi knock-down and transcriptional profiling. Two-thirds of the candidate genes have been implicated in previous Drosophila, mouse and human studies of alcohol-related phenotypes. Individual variation in alcohol sensitivity in Drosophila is highly polygenic and in part determined by variation in evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways that are associated with catecholamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis and early development of the nervous system.

  1. An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Synthesis of Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Sangeeta; Goyal, Samta

    1998-06-01

    The synthesis of aspirin is a part of many undergraduate organic synthesis labs and is frequently used in qualitative organic analysis laboratory for the identification of salicylic acid. We have found that aspirin can be synthesized on microscale by a simple and efficient procedure that eliminates the heating step employed in literature procedures and gives a pure, ferric-negative product (no purple color with alcoholic ferric chloride solution).

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of N-Aryl Carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Park, Nathaniel H.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of aryl carbamates was achieved by introducing alcohols into the reaction of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of ArX (X = Cl, OTf) with sodium cyanate. The use of aryl triflates as electrophilic components in this transformation allowed for an expanded substrate scope for direct synthesis of aryl isocyanates. This methodology provides direct access to major carbamate protecting groups, S-thiocarbamates, and diisocyanate precursors to polyurethane materials. PMID:23441814

  3. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C?H functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage 1 . One of the core principles that underlies DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimnation of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of ?spin-center shift? (SCS) 2 , during which an alcohol C?O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centered radical intermediate. While SCS is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underutilize...

  4. The Association Between Alcohol-Flavoured Non-Alcoholic Beverages and Alcohol Use in Japanese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Aya; Imamoto, Aya; Ikeda, Maki; Itani, Osamu; Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Kanda, Hideyuki; Tanihata, Takeo; Higuchi, Susumu; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2017-05-01

    There are no legal regulations in Japan governing minors' consumption of alcohol-flavoured non-alcoholic beverages (AFNAB); therefore, we examined if their consumption could lead to increased alcohol use among adolescents in Japan. This cross-sectional study used a nonclinical, nationally representative sample of 38,494 junior (19,662 boys) and 61,556 senior (31,925 boys) high school students recruited in 2012. We measured AFNAB consumption rates and the order that adolescents first consumed AFNAB and alcohol. The AFNAB consumption was strongly associated with alcohol use in high school students. Among all age groups, alcohol was more commonly consumed before AFNAB for both males and females. Consumption of AFNAB is more prevalent among minors than alcohol consumption and it has a strong association with alcohol consumption. However, concerns that AFNAB use would lead to increased alcohol use were not supported because AFNAB consumption usually started after adolescents began consuming alcohol. Consumption of AFNAB is more prevalent among high school students than alcohol consumption and it has a strong association with alcohol consumption. However, concerns that AFNAB use would lead to increased alcohol use were not supported because AFNAB consumption usually started after adolescents began consuming alcohol. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient synthesis of fluorophosphonylated alkyles by ring-opening reaction of cyclic sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Sonia Amel; Sene, Aboubacary; Pfund, Emmanuel; Lequeux, Thierry

    2008-09-04

    Ring-opening reactions of functionalized 1,2-cyclic sulfates and oxetanes with the phosphonodifluoromethyl carbanion are reported. This approach allows an easy access to fluorinated beta-hydroxyphosphonates that are building blocks in the synthesis of acyclic nucleosides. Synthesis of precursors of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors from these alcohols is described.

  6. Reduced Cu–Co–Al Mixed Metal Oxides for the Ring-Opening of Furfuryl Alcohol to Produce Renewable Diols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulmonetti, Taylor P. [School; amp, Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States; Hu, Bo [School; amp, Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States; Lee, Sungsik [Advanced; Agrawal, Pradeep K. [School; amp, Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States; Jones, Christopher W. [School; amp, Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States

    2017-08-29

    The ring-opening of furfuryl alcohol to diol products, including 1,2-pentanediol and 1,5- pentanediol, is investigated over reduced Cu-Co-Al mixed metal oxides in a liquid phase batch reactor under H2 pressure. These catalysts are synthesized through the calcination of layered double hydroxides (LDH) to yield well-dispersed, porous mixed metal oxides, which upon reduction displayed activity towards diols, mainly the valuable monomer 1,5-pentanediol. The addition of Cu facilitated the reduction of Co oxide species at lower temperatures, and under optimized conditions a yield towards 1,5-pentanediol of 44% (total diol yield of 62%) was achieved. Various characterization techniques including TPR, XPS, and XAS are employed to elucidate the structure of the catalysts, suggesting the formation of both metallic (Co and Cu) and oxide (CoO) species after reduction and passivation. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the promising characteristics that non-precious multi-metal catalysts have for the conversion of biomass derived platform molecules to plastic precursors

  7. College-Related Alcohol Beliefs and Problematic Alcohol Consumption: Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-07-03

    College-related alcohol beliefs, or beliefs that drinking alcohol is central to the college experience, have been shown to robustly predict alcohol-related outcomes among college students. Given the strength of these associations, it is imperative to understand more proximal factors (i.e., closer in a causal chain leading to alcohol-related outcomes) that can explain these associations. The current research examined alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a potential mediator of the association between college-related alcohol beliefs and alcohol outcomes among college student drinkers. Participants were undergraduate students from a large southeastern university (Sample 1; n = 561) and a large southwestern university (Sample 2; n = 563) in the United States that consumed alcohol at least once in the previous month. Path analysis was conducted examining the concurrent associations between college-related alcohol beliefs, PBS use (both as a single facet and multidimensionally), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences (i.e., double mediation). In both samples, there was a significant double-mediated association that suggested that higher college-related alcohol beliefs is associated with lower PBS use (single facet), which is associated with higher alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Multidimensionally, only one double-mediation effect (in Sample 2 only) was significant (i.e., college-related alcohol beliefs → manner of drinking PBS → alcohol consumption → alcohol-related consequences). Conclusions/Importance: These results suggest that targeting these college-related alcohol beliefs as well as PBS use are promising targets for college alcohol interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  8. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  9. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  10. [Etiopathogenic elements of alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, I

    1980-01-01

    Various factors contribute to a predisposition towards the excessive consumption of alcohol: socio-demographic factors, a disturbed family background or certain neurological disorders in childhood, a family background of heavy drinking or total abstinence, or a genetic predisposition towards the biochemical reactions of excessive drinking. Alcohol dependence is the last of several stages which begin with drinking on "social occasions" during adolescence or even childhood, which may lead to certain people drinking excessively in certain social surroundings; this may easily become a habit if the subject moreover suffers from psychological problems inducing him to consume greater quantities more frequently to overcome inhibitions or to escape. This increased consumption leads in turn to psychological dependence, and toxicomania becomes apparent since if drinking is suddenly stopped, giving rise to neuro-vegetative disorders, these only disappear when further alcohol is consumed. This vicious circle is completed by psychological problems affecting personal relationships and professional activities. Thus for the alcoholic, for whom at the outset drinking was usually merely a social habit, the consumption of alcohol has become an escape from the reality of his situation, often drinking solely to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and therefore the appropriate therapy in these cases is detoxication.

  11. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  12. Distribution of motor-alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1996-10-01

    The study is made on the assumption that Sweden, as a first step, will substitute alcohol fuels for five percent of the gasoline and diesel consumption, i.e. 700-900,000 m 3 alcohol/year, and later increase the alcohol share. Alcohol will be mixed into all gasoline, and one new fuel quality (85 percent alcohol) will be introduced during a ten year period. The cost for adapting the distribution system to alcohol fuels, and for building new service stations etc are also estimated. 15 refs

  13. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-09-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage. One of the core principles underlying DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimination of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of `spin-centre shift', during which an alcohol C-O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centred radical intermediate. Although spin-centre shift is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underused by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylation reactions using alcohols as radical precursors. Because conventional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, increased temperatures or peroxides, a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have considerable use in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. Here we describe the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes, using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first, to our knowledge, broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. The value of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone.

  14. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C–H functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage1. One of the core principles that underlies DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimnation of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of ‘spin-center shift’ (SCS)2, during which an alcohol C–O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centered radical intermediate. While SCS is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underutilized by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylations using alcohols as radical precursors. Considering traditional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, elevated temperatures, or peroxides3–7, the development of a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have significant utility in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. In this manuscript, we describe the successful execution of this idea via the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) catalysis. The utility of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone. PMID:26308895

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  16. Commercial Alcohols Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, M.

    1998-01-01

    The production of ethanol from corn, and the growth of ethanol production in Canada were discussed, along with the environmental advantages and the role it plays in supporting the rural economy. Commercial Alcohols Inc. is the largest ethanol producer in Canada. Its plant in Chatham, Ontario, which opened in December 1997, is one of the largest in the world. Since 1990, sales of ethanol have increased ten fold. Total sales exceed $100 million. The company has five plants in Canada which produce ethanol fuel, industrial alcohol, grain neutral spirits, packaged alcohol, distillers grains, and carbon dioxide for use in carbonization of beverages. Plans are underway for construction of a new plant in Varennes, Quebec. The company is also working with the Ukraine for development of an ethanol facility in that country. 3 figs

  17. Family, alcohol, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L A

    1989-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s a small but rich tradition of anthropological and sociological studies of family culture, cultural context, and alcohol has developed. Ideally, ethnographic analysis of a cultural group and in-depth holistic examination of family process are incorporated in such research. In conducting family, culture, and alcohol investigations, researchers are encouraged to reexamine some conceptual assumptions: (1) their working definition of culture; (2) their relative emphasis on family culture or cultural context; (3) their attention to socialization as an active process in the transmission of culture within and across generations; and (4) their adoption of a holistic and cross-generational perspective. To apply this line of research to preventive and intervention strategies, two questions are especially relevant: Why are particular alcohol traditions established and maintained within families? What incentives and constraints from the family's cultural context help create, preserve, and/or terminate particular drinking practices?

  18. Cerebrovascular Alterations in Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-19

    Introduction For most people who drink, alcohol is a pleasant accompaniment to social activities. Moderate alcohol use - for most adults , two drinks...anxi- ety-2 vs. risk factors (r=0.538, p=0.036). Alcoholic -drug-depression groups: Significant differences were found for age between the drug...Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption seemed to decrease the risk of isehemic stroke by reducing atherothrombotic events, but the underlying mechanism

  19. Alcohol?s Effects on the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Piano, Mariann R.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use has complex effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Low-to-moderate alcohol use ...

  20. Primary Alcohols from Terminal Olefins: Formal Anti-Markovnikov Hydration via Triple Relay Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, G.

    2011-09-15

    Alcohol synthesis is critical to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The addition of water across olefins to form primary alcohols (anti-Markovnikov olefin hydration) would be a broadly useful reaction but has largely proven elusive; an indirect hydroboration/oxidation sequence requiring stoichiometric borane and oxidant is currently the most practical methodology. Here, we report a more direct approach with the use of a triple relay catalysis system that couples palladium-catalyzed oxidation, acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, and ruthenium-catalyzed reduction cycles. Aryl-substituted terminal olefins are converted to primary alcohols by net reaction with water in good yield and excellent regioselectivity.

  1. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of lactic acid with straight-chain alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Xu, Xuebing; Tan, Tianwei

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of esters of lactic acid and straight-chain alcohols with different chain lengths (C6–C18) were investigated in batch reactions with hexadecanol (C16) as the model alcohol. Cyclohexane was the best solvent for higher ester yields, and the best biocatalyst was the immobilized......% of Novozym 435. The immobilized Candida sp. lipase prepared in the laboratory also could be used to produce esters of lactic acid and straight-chain alcohols, but it had a much lower activity than Novozym 435 with a temperature optimum of 40°C....

  2. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  3. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  4. Alcoholic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podratz, K C

    1978-07-01

    The presence of severe ketoacidosis in the absence of hyperglycemia and glucosuria is reported in a young pregnant chronic alcohol abuser. The clinical presentation included an arterial pH of 7.15, a base deficit of 23 mEq/liter, a bicarbonate of less than 10 m Eq/liter, larger serum and urinary ketone levels, and hyperpnea with Kussmual-type respiration. Corrective therapy consisted of rapid fluid, electrolyte, bicarbonate, and glucose replacement with insulin supplementation. The ability of the fetus to tolerate the maternal metabolic derangements of "alcoholic ketoacidosis" as well as the stress of uterine contractions is discussed and contrasted with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  5. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  6. Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use Print Version Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use Drinking alcohol undoubtedly ... drunk at least once by 12th grade. 1 Parenting Style Accumulating evidence suggests that alcohol use—and ...

  7. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    her PhD degree from. Bangalore University. She is currently working as a Research Associate at the Department of. Inorganic and Physical. Chemistry, Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore, on the synthesis of .... This method uses the experiences of propellant chemistry in making the redox mixture. The . stoichiometry or ...

  8. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  9. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332 ...

  10. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  11. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Follow Get Updates Donations Share ...

  12. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is a medical condition in which you Drink alcohol compulsively Can't control how much you drink ... such as nausea and skin flushing whenever you drink alcohol. Knowing that drinking will cause these unpleasant effects ...

  13. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  15. Bioinspired design of a hybrid bifunctional enzymatic/organic electrocatalyst for site selective alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Louis; Hickey, David P; Sigman, Matthew S; Minteer, Shelley D; Wheeldon, Ian

    2018-01-11

    This work combines the thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase D (AdhD) from Pyrococcus furiosus and the organic electrocatalyst TEMPO to create a bifunctional catalyst that selectively oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols. The active sites function independently, can be switched on by changing reaction conditions, and can selectively oxidize a mixture of 1- and 2-butanol. The NAD + -dependent enzyme catalyses the secondary alcohol oxidation at a rate 3-fold faster than the primary alcohol, while the covalently attached 4-glycidyl-TEMPO oxidizes 1-butanol and has negligible activity toward 2-butanol. This hybrid catalytic approach has potential value for selective alcohol oxidations as well as other electrochemical and enzymatic multistep processes in energy conversion and chemical synthesis.

  16. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  17. [Alcohol intoxication in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Rotheval, Loetita

    Acute alcohol intoxication occurs in elderly subjects. Drunkenness appears in banal clinical forms in geriatrics: falls, dizziness or confusion. Elderly people are more vulnerable to alcohol and need less alcohol to become intoxicated. Age does not exclude the possibility of receiving alcohol addiction treatment. Broaching the subject with an elderly person, the day after a drunken episode, is useful and recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  19. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Coping With an Alcoholic Parent KidsHealth / For Teens / Coping With an Alcoholic Parent What's in this article? Why Do People Drink Too Much? How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? What If a Parent Doesn't ...

  20. The Biochemistry of Alcohol Toxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    moralizing erosion of self esteem. The following discussion highlights some of the harmful effects of alcohol. How Alcohol Enters the System from the moment an alcoholic drink is swallowed the body pays special attention to it. Unlike foods which require digestion before they can be absorbed, the tiny ethanol molecules can.