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Sample records for alcohol spectrum disorder

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  4. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic T. Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure have the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  5. Epigenetic medicine and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz, Marisol; Chen, Yuanyuan; Öztürk, Nail C; Zhou, Feng C

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic medicine is still in its infancy. To date, only a handful of diseases have documented epigenetic correlates upstream of gene regulation including cancer, developmental syndromes and late-onset diseases. The finding that epigenetic markers are dynamic and heterogeneous at tissue and cellular levels, combined with recent identification of a new form of functionally distinct DNA methylation has opened a wider window for investigators to pry into the epigenetic world. It is anticipated that many diseases will be elucidated through this epigenetic inquiry. In this review, we discuss the normal course of DNA methylation during development, taking alcohol as a demonstrator of the epigenetic impact of environmental factors in disease etiology, particularly the growth retardation and neurodevelopmental deficits of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23414322

  6. GLIA AND NEURODEVELOPMENT: FOCUS ON FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Marina eGuizzetti; Marina eGuizzetti; Marina eGuizzetti; Xiaolu eZhang; Xiaolu eZhang; Calla eGoeke; Calla eGoeke; David P. Gavin; David P. Gavin

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the develop...

  7. Glia and Neurodevelopment: Focus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Guizzetti, Marina; Zhang, Xiaolu; Goeke, Calla; Gavin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years, new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the devel...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of

  9. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to...

  11. Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Alterations in Brain and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Guerri, Consuelo; Bazinet, Alissa; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The term ‘Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)’ refers to the range of disabilities that may result from prenatal alcohol exposure. This article reviews the effects of ethanol on the developing brain and its long-term structural and neurobehavioural consequences. Brain imaging, neurobehavioural and experimental studies demonstrate the devastating consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system (CNS), identifying specific brain regions affected, the range...

  12. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: experimental treatments and strategies for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol-induced damage, protecting against alcohol's teratogenic effects, whereas other treatments may enhance central nervous system plasticity either during alcohol exposure or long after alcohol exposure has ceased. The insights gained to date from experimental models offer several candidates for attenuating the deficits associated with FASD.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  15. Facts About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  16. Epigenetic mechanisms: A possible link between autism spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadinova, Miroslava; Boyadjieva, Nadka

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) still remains unclear and seems to involve a considerable overlap between polygenic, epigenetic and environmental factors. We have summarized the current understanding of the interplay between gene expression dysregulation via epigenetic modifications and the potential epigenetic impact of environmental factors in neurodevelopmental deficits. Furthermore, we discuss the scientific controversies of the relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and alcohol-induced epigenetic dysregulations, and gene expression alterations which are associated with disrupted neural plasticity and causal pathways for ASDs. The review of the literature suggests that a better understanding of developmental epigenetics should contribute to furthering our comprehension of the etiology and pathogenesis of ASDs and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Special Education of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Nam, Seungree; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the cost associated with special education among children (5 to 14 years) with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in elementary and middle school by sex, age group, and province and territory in Canada. It was estimated that there were 6,520 students with FASD receiving special education in Canada in…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: an overview from the glia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J. Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the

  1. Nutrition Implications for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer K.; Giesbrecht, Heather E.; Eskin, Michael N.; Aliani, Michel; Suh, Miyoung

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure produces a multitude of detrimental alcohol-induced defects in children collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASD often exhibit delayed or abnormal mental, neural, and physical growth. Socioeconomic status, race, genetics, parity, gravidity, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption patterns are all factors that may influence FASD. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of utmost importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol consumption. It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. Because there is a lack of information on the role of nutrients and prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD, the focus of this review is to provide an overview of nutrients (vitamin A, docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, zinc, choline, vitamin E, and selenium) that may prevent or alleviate the development of FASD. Results from various nutrient supplementation studies in animal models and FASD-related research conducted in humans provide insight into the plausibility of prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of multiple-nutrient supplementation. PMID:25398731

  2. College students' knowledge about fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E; Metzger, Jesse S; Dewane, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are the leading known preventable birth defects in North America. Knowledge surveys about FASD have been conducted with various health and allied healthcare providers and have proven useful in identifying gaps in knowledge and differences among provider groups to support prevention efforts. To date, no research has been conducted exploring FASD knowledge among college students. This study explored FASD knowledge in a sample of college students, a group at particularly high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Findings are compared to professionals in several healthcare and affiliated professional groups who were previously surveyed with the same FASD-related items. Surveys from 1,035 college students at a northwestern university were analyzed. Included with the ACHA-National College Health Assessment II were questions regarding FASD. College students' knowledge was compared with that of professionals in key healthcare and affiliated positions to define their relative awareness of FASD risk. Overall, findings revealed adequate FASD knowledge among college students. Although minor differences emerged when comparing students and professionals' responses, most respondent groups answered with an 85% accuracy rate or higher. College students demonstrated adequate knowledgeable about FASD. Future research must explore whether such knowledge translates into lower risk behavior and consequent reduction in alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

  3. The Knowledge of Rehabilitation Professionals Concerning Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephanie M; Carpenter, Heidi A; Marsh, Anna M; McClung, Kimberly A; Doll, Joy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' knowledge regarding signs and symptoms, prevention, and intervention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Participants were 111 rehabilitation practitioners (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology practitioners) recruited through email using a quantitative online survey design with purposive, snowball sampling. Results showed the majority of participants' demonstrated accurate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of FASD. Since professionals who received formal education on FASD reported significantly higher feelings of preparedness to identify children with FASD and manage/coordinate intervention plans, this study suggests rehabilitation professionals may be better prepared to treat individuals with FASD if they participate in formal training.

  4. Mechanisms of influence: Alcohol industry submissions to the inquiry into fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Michelle Rose; Droste, Nicolas; Giorgi, Caterina; Ferguson, Amy; Martino, Florentine; Coomber, Kerri; Miller, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Industry groups with vested interests in policy regularly work to protect their profits via the endorsement of ineffective voluntary regulation and interventions, extensive lobbying activity and minimising the health impact of consumption behaviours. This study aims to examine all alcohol industry submissions to the Australian House of Representatives Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs into Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), to assist in understanding how those with vested interests contribute to policy development. The analysis aims to document the strategies and arguments used by alcohol industry bodies in their submissions and to compare these with known strategies of vested-interest groups. All 92 submissions to the Inquiry were screened to include only those submitted by alcohol industry bodies (five submissions). Content domains were derived based on the major themes emerging from the industry submissions and on common vested-interest behaviours identified in previous literature. The following content categories were identified: Concerns about FASD; Current industry activities and FASD prevention; Value of mandatory warning labels; and Credibility of independent public health researchers and organisations. Alcohol industry submissions sought to undermine community concern, debate the evidence, promote ineffective measure which are no threat to the profit margins and attack independent health professionals and researchers. In doing so, their behaviour is entirely consistent with their responses to other issues, such as violence and chronic health, and copies the tactics employed by the tobacco industry. [Avery MR, Droste N, Giorgi C, Ferguson A, Martino F, Coomber K, Miller P. Mechanisms of influence: Alcohol industry submissions to the inquiry into fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:665-672]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  6. Sensory processing and ADHD in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Webster, Lynne A; Magill-Evans, Joyce E; Pei, Jacqueline R

    2012-02-01

    Sensory processing problems are prevalent in children who have fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It is unclear to what degree these problems are distinct from attention deficits as measured during the diagnostic process in these children. To understand sensory processing in these children, which may assist with early identification and intervention. The relationship between attention and sensory processing was studied in a retrospective sample of 26 Canadian children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. A very low correlation (r = .02) between Short Sensory Profile scores and the attention deficit hyperactivity index of the Conners' Parent Rating Scales was found for the five- to ten-year-old children. Sensory processing problems were found in 81% of the children, similar to other studies of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. These findings can guide modifications of the environments, tasks, and approaches to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

  7. Neurodevelopmental profile of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Shannon; Rovet, Joanne; Rehm, Jürgen; Popova, Svetlana

    2017-06-23

    In an effort to improve the screening and diagnosis of individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), research has focused on the identification of a unique neurodevelopmental profile characteristic of this population. The objective of this review was to identify any existing neurodevelopmental profiles of FASD and review their classification function in order to identify gaps and limitations of the current literature. A systematic search for studies published up to the end of December 2016 reporting an identified neurodevelopmental profile of FASD was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search was not limited geographically or by language of publication. Original research published in a peer-reviewed journal that involved the evaluation of the classification function of an identified neurodevelopmental profile of FASD was included. Two approaches have been taken to determine the pathognomonic neurodevelopmental features of FASD, namely the utilization of i) behavioral observations/ratings by parents/caregivers and ii) subtest scores from standardized test batteries assessing a variety of neurodevelopmental domains. Both approaches show some promise, with the former approach (which is dominated by research on the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool) having good sensitivity (63% to 98%), but varying specificity (42% to 100%), and the latter approach having good specificity (72% to 96%), but varying sensitivity (60% to 88%). The current review revealed that research in this area remains limited and a definitive neurodevelopmental profile of FASD has not been established. However, the identification of a neurodevelopmental profile will aid in the accurate identification of individuals with FASD, by adding to the armamentarium of clinicians. The full review protocol is available in PROSPERO ( http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ); registration number CRD42016039326; registered 20 May 2016.

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic...... facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect...

  9. Resilience in the Face of Adversity: Stories from Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Lyndsay; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the school and life experiences of four adults diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from an urban area in western Canada. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into the lives of these adults, including their experiences with this disorder as it related to their social interactions and peer relationships…

  10. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect......The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving Underage Drinking Alcohol & Pregnancy Learn more about the FASD Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice CDC Vital Signs – Alcohol and Pregnancy ...

  12. Proceedings of the 2009 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Kane, Cynthia J M; Smith, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    The annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was held on June 20, 2009 in San Diego, CA, as a satellite of the Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting. The FASDSG membership includes clinical, basic, and social scientists who meet to discuss recent advances and issues in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders research. The main theme of the meeting was "Epigenetics and Development." Two keynote speakers, Dr. Randy Jirtle and Dr. Michael Skinner, addressed the role of epigenetics and environmental inputs, including alcohol, during critical stages of development and their potential critical and long-lasting effects. Members of the FASDSG provided new findings through brief "FASt" data reports, and national agency representatives provided updates on activities and funding priorities. Scientific presentations were made by recipients of the Student Research Merit Award and Rosett Award. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: rcgonc@hotmail.com; Cruz Junior, Luiz Celso Hygino da; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6{+-}3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1{+-}3,4 years). An 8 cm{sup 3} single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  14. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6±3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1±3,4 years). An 8 cm 3 single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  15. Supporting Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders:a Summary of Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer; Xu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong condition that significantly affects the individual's learning, development, behavior, family, and quality of life. Diagnosing children with this condition and providing effective supports is challenging for professionals because little intervention research has been performed with the…

  16. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Woods

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD, effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task.

  17. Maternal nutritional status as a contributing factor for the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Compare nutritional status of 57 South African mothers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with 148 mothers of controls. Dietary data were analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and fats via estimated average requirements (EAR) and adequate intakes (AI) for pregnant women. Virtually all mothers were likely deficient on most micronutrients by either EAR (Maternal BMI is more significant for positive child outcomes than any individual nutrient. Most mothers have inadequate dietary intake. Minor advantages in nutrient intake are overpowered by teratogenic effects of alcohol. Further study is needed of the interaction of alcohol, maternal nutrition, and metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Building Strengths, Creating Hope. Programming for Students with Special Needs. Book 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarren, Sandra G. Bernstein

    2004-01-01

    "Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Building Strengths, Creating Hope" is Book 10 in the Programming for Students with Special Needs series; a revision and expansion of the 1997 Alberta Learning teacher resource, "Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Possible Prenatal Alcohol-Related Effects."…

  19. Diving into the world of alcohol teratogenesis: a review of zebrafish models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Buckley, Desire M; Eberhart, Johann K

    2017-08-17

    The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic exposure to alcohol. Along with other reviews in this special issue, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish, have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart, and craniofacial skeleton. We provide insights into how zebrafish research has aided in our understanding of the mechanisms of ethanol teratogenesis. We end by providing some relatively recent advances that zebrafish has provided in characterizing gene-ethanol interactions that may underlie FASD.

  20. Glycosylation defects underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a novel pathogenetic model. "When the wine goes in, strange things come out" - S.T. Coleridge, The Piccolomini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, M.; Wortmann, S.B.; Funke, S.; Kozicz, L.T.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the craniofacial dysmorphic features, malformations, and disturbances in growth, neurodevelopment and behavior occurring in individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) represents the severe end of

  1. Postnatal nutritional treatment of neurocognitive deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons-Compta, A; Astals, M; Andreu-Fernandez, V; Navarro-Tapia, E; Garcia-Algar, O

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is the most important teratogen agent in humans. Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects, which are broadly termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The most severe consequence of maternal alcohol abuse is the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, defined by growth retardation, facial malformations, and central nervous system impairment expressed as microcephaly and neurodevelopment abnormalities. These alterations generate a broad range of cognitive abnormalities such as learning disabilities and hyperactivity and behavioural problems. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, differences in genetic susceptibility related to ethanol metabolism, alcohol consumption patterns, obstetric problems, and environmental influences like maternal nutrition, stress, and other co-administered drugs are all factors that may influence FASD manifestations. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of nutrition as a protective factor against alcohol teratogenicity. There are a great number of papers related to nutritional treatment of nutritional deficits due to several factors associated with maternal consumption of alcohol and with eating and social disorders in FASD children. Although research showed the clinical benefits of nutritional interventions, most of work was in animal models, in a preclinical phase, or in the prenatal period. However, a minimum number of studies refer to postnatal nutrition treatment of neurodevelopmental deficits. Nutritional supplementation in children with FASD has a dual objective: to overcome nutritional deficiencies and to reverse or improve the cognitive deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of simultaneous multiple-nutrient supplementation.

  2. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  3. Comparing Attentional Networks in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.

  4. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  5. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  6. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  7. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia--the future is prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-03-30

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia. Other welcome developments include the formation of Parliamentarians for the Prevention of FASD (2011), revision of guidelines regarding alcohol use in pregnancy by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC; 2009) and provision of targeted funding for FASD research by the NHMRC (2013). Initiatives by Indigenous communities to restrict access to alcohol and diagnose and prevent FASD have had a significant impact in high-risk communities. The National Organisation for FASD has an important ongoing advocacy and educational remit. Nongovernment organisations such as the Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education have contributed to prevention by developing resources to assist health professionals to advise women about the harms of alcohol use in pregnancy; encouraging men to abstain from alcohol during the pregnancy; drafting a national plan; and advocating for pregnancy warning labels on alcohol. Internationally, in 2014, a charter on prevention of FASD was published in The Lancet Global Health, and the World Health Organization released guidelines for identification and management of substance use in pregnancy. Early recognition and support for individuals with FASD is crucial to prevent adverse secondary outcomes; however, primary prevention of alcohol use in pregnancy, and

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children residing in Russian orphanages: a phenotypic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie C; Chan, Wilma; Litvinova, Aina; Rubin, Arkady; Comfort, Kathleen; Tirella, Linda; Cermak, Sharon; Morse, Barbara; Kovalev, Igor

    2006-03-01

    Alcohol use in Russia is among the highest in the world. Over 600,000 children reside in institutional care in Russia, most of them in baby homes and orphanages. The actual prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among these children is unknown. Therefore, we performed a systematic survey of phenotypic features associated with prenatal alcohol exposure among institutionalized Russian children and related these findings to their growth, development, medical, and social histories. Phenotypic screening was conducted of all 234 baby home residents in the Murmansk region of Russia (mean age 21+12.6 months). Phenotypic expression scores were devised based on facial dysmorphology and other readily observable physical findings. Growth measurements from birth, time of placement in the baby home, and at present were analyzed. In addition, the charts of 64% of the children were randomly selected for retrospective review. Information collected included maternal, medical, developmental, and social histories. Thirteen percent of children had facial phenotype scores highly compatible with prenatal alcohol exposure and 45% had intermediate facial phenotype scores. These scores correlated with maternal gravidity and age. At least 40% of mothers in whom history was available ingested alcohol during pregnancy; some also used illicit drugs and tobacco. Z scores for growth measurements corresponded to phenotypic score, as did the degree of developmental delay. Children with no or mild delay had significantly lower phenotypic scores than those with moderate or severe delay (p = 0.04); more than 70% of children with high phenotypic scores were moderately or severely delayed. More than half of residents of the baby homes in Murmansk, Russia, have intermediate (45%) or high (13%) phenotypic expression scores suggesting prenatal exposure to alcohol. Despite good physical care, stable daily routine, availability of well-trained specialists, and access to medical care, these

  9. Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Boys, Christopher J; Chang, Pi-Nian; Miller, Bradley S; Eckerle, Judith K; Deling, Lindsay; Fink, Birgit A; Hoecker, Heather L; Hickey, Marie K; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    Because prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with growth deficiency, little attention has been paid to the potential for overweight and obesity in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI]) in a large clinical sample of children with FASD. Children, aged 2 to 19 years, who were evaluated for FASD at University Clinics, included 445 with an FASD diagnosis and 171 with No-FASD diagnosis. Prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85 percentile) was compared to national and state prevalence. BMI was examined in relation to FASD diagnosis, gender, and age. Dietary intake data were examined for a young subsample (n = 42). Thirty-four percent with any FASD diagnosis were overweight or obese, which did not differ from the No-FASD group or U.S. prevalence. Underweight was prevalent in those with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (17%). However, increased rates of overweight/obesity were seen in those with partial FAS (40%). Among adolescents, those with any FASD diagnosis had increased overweight/obesity (42%), particularly among females (50%). The rate in adolescent females with FASD (50%) was nearly 3 times higher than state prevalence for adolescent females (17 to 18%), p overweight/obese consumed more calories, protein, and total fat per day than those who were not overweight or obese. Rates of overweight/obesity are increased in children with partial FAS. In adolescents, rates are increased for any FASD diagnosis (particularly in females). Results are suggestive of possible metabolic/endocrine disruption in FASD-a hypothesis for which there is evidence from animal models. These data suggest that clinicians may consider prenatal alcohol exposure as a risk factor for metabolic/endocrine disruption, should evaluate diet as a risk in this population, and may need to target interventions to females prior to puberty to effect changes in overweight-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 by

  10. Sympathy, shame, and few solutions: News media portrayals of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiagaray, Ines; Scholz, Brett; Giorgi, Caterina

    2016-09-01

    there is a lack of public understanding about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and many countries lack policies to deal with FASD concerns. Given the role of news media in disseminating a range of health information, the aim of the current study was to explore the media coverage on alcohol use during pregnancy and FASD, and to identify ways to improve associated health messages. the current study uses a framing analysis of news media reports about FASD over a 1-year period. Framing analysis seeks to better understand how media messages serve to shape the thoughts, feelings, and decisions of readers. two frames dominated the media coverage of FASD: a frame of sympathy, and a frame of shame. Some news media encouraged feelings of sympathy for children with FASD, while others encouraged sympathy towards mothers of these children. At the same time, mothers were also portrayed as deserving of shame. the interrelated frames of sympathy and shame may confuse readers, as they inconsistently hold different parties responsible for the impact of FASD. Media portrayals that encourage women to refrain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy might be more useful than stigmatising and isolating those who do. practitioners should be aware that conflicting messages about alcohol consumption during pregnancy might lead to shame and confusion, and should encourage openness with mothers to challenge stigma. Guidelines for media reporting should discourage stigmatising frames, and media articles should also consider the role that government, non-government organisations, and the alcohol industry could play for improving FASD shame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Education, safe drinking practices and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Payne, Jennifer S

    2014-09-01

    There are alarming rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia despite numerous international studies demonstrating the links between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and FASD. The aim of this research was to help determine factors that may be associated with correct knowledge about safe drinking practices during pregnancy, with these factors used to help inform future interventions. Ninety-nine residents (40 males, 59 females, 39% of which self-identified as Indigenous) from the Kimberley region (Broome and smaller remote communities) completed a survey examining knowledge of currently recommended safe drinking practices during pregnancy and knowledge of the outcomes for children with FASD over a period of approximately 2 months. The results revealed that education level (i.e. not completing high school through to completing university) is the biggest predictor (β = 0.44, P knowledge of safe drinking practices during pregnancy, and having heard of FASD (β = 0.67, P knowledge of outcomes for children with FASD. Other variables such as age, sex, Indigenous status and income level were not as important. These findings suggest that early education regarding the consequences of alcohol consumption for women of childbearing age should be paramount in this or similar communities. Suggestions for targeted interventions are discussed in light of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  13. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Poole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.

  14. Mapping White Matter Integrity and Neurobehavioral Correlates in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Johnson, Arianne; Kan, Eric; Lu, Lisa H.; Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction have been observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Little is known about how white matter integrity is related to these functional and morphological deficits. We used a combination of diffusion tensor and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate white matter integrity in individuals with FASDs and related these findings to neurocognitive deficits. Seventeen children and adolescents with FASDs were compared with 19 typically developing age-and gender-matched controls. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in individuals with FASDs relative to controls in the right lateral temporal lobe and bilaterally in the lateral aspects of the splenium of the corpus callosum. White matter density was also lower in some, but not all regions in which FA was lower. FA abnormalities were confirmed to be in areas of white matter in post hoc region of interest analyses, further supporting that less myelin or disorganized fiber tracts are associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Significant correlations between performance on a test of visuomotor integration and FA in bilateral splenium, but not temporal regions were observed within the FASD group. Correlations between the visuomotor task and FA within the splenium were not significant with in the control group, and were not significant for measures of reading ability. This suggests that this region of white matter is particularly susceptible to damage from prenatal alcohol exposure and that disruption of splenial fibers in this group is associated with poorer visuomotor integration. PMID:18256251

  15. Is it time for Newborn Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Commentary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A PASS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is one of the most common causes of acquired mental retardation in the United States and worldwide. The fetal brain is highly susceptible to the teratogenic effects of alcohol from maternal consumption during pregnancy resulting in newborns with mental deficits and congenital malformations. FAS diagnosis is difficult to diagnose in newborns where distinct anatomical defects are not apparent from mothers of moderate to light alcohol use. Hence, medical diagnoses are often not ascertained until mid-childhood after irreparable brain damage has already occurred. Such infants will have been deprived of available socioclinical interventions, trainings, measures, and future treatments that may someday be implemented soon after birth. Presently, there are no FASD newborn biomarker screening programs in place despite cost benefit analyses revealing an annual societal cost of $1.3 million per FASD incident case. Since newborn biomarkers have been reported in the biomedical literature, can we afford not to implement newborn screening for FASD?

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of criminal justice professionals in relation to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lori Vitale; Clairmont, Donald; Cox, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    Results of a provincial survey of Judges and Crown Prosecutors to determine specifically, their attitudes, knowledge, behaviors and training needs related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. In general, the survey results suggest that while aware of some aspects of FASD, Judges and Prosecutors both desire and need more education and training to support them in their work with individuals with FASD who come into conflict with the law. The findings also suggest that access to accurate and timely assessment and diagnoses of FASD would be beneficial. Survey findings point to the need for specific action to improve the ability of Judges and Prosecutors to recognize and to work with people affected by FASD in the Criminal Justice System. The results further indicate the need for changes and improvements in several areas regarding legal policy issues, research, and professional education and practice.

  17. Virtual Sensorimotor Training for Balance: Pilot Study Results for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Westcott McCoy, Sarah; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Kartin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction. Significant effects were group and session for MABC-2 Balance and interaction for MABC-2 Total Motor and P-CTSIB-2. Preliminary results support improved sensory adaptation, balance, and motor performance post-STABEL, which warrant further study with a larger, randomized sample.

  18. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union: are they at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-10-01

    One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy.

  19. Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goril, Shery; Zalai, Dora; Scott, Louise; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures. Children and adolescents (N = 36, 6-18 years) with FASD participated in clinical assessments by sleep specialists, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) test in a pediatric sleep laboratory. PSG was analyzed according to standardized scoring guidelines and sleep architecture was compared with normative data. DLMOs were determined and melatonin secretion curves were evaluated qualitatively to classify melatonin profiles. Sleep disorders were evaluated according to international diagnostic criteria. There was a high prevalence (58%) of sleep disorders. The most common sleep problems were parasomnias (27.9%) and insomnia (16.8%). The sleep studies showed lower than normal sleep efficiency and high rates of sleep fragmentation. Most participants (79%) had an abnormal melatonin profile. This study led to the recognition that both sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities are present in children with FASD. Therefore, to be effective in managing the sleep problems in children with FASD, one needs to consider both the sleep per se and a possible malfunction of the circadian regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability in Classroom Social Communication: Performance of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…

  1. Theory of Mind in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Nadine M; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Thomas, Kevin G F; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-02-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to understand and make inferences about other people's intentions, feelings, and beliefs. Although children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are known to have deficits in social-cognitive function, little is known about ToM in FASD. ToM ability was assessed using a developmentally sensitive ToM battery, including the reading the mind in the eyes (RME) test, a measure of mental inferential ability that has been found to be impaired in other clinical populations. IQ and executive function (EF) were assessed as potential mediating variables. The battery was administered to 63 children (aged 9 to 11 years) from Cape Town, South Africa, whose mothers had been prospectively recruited during pregnancy. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS; n = 8) and partial FAS (PFAS; n = 19), as well as nonsyndromal heavily exposed children (n = 17), were compared to children born to abstaining or light drinkers (n = 19) from the same community. No FASD group differences were found on the less challenging ToM tasks. By contrast, children with FAS and PFAS performed more poorly than controls on a more challenging ToM task, the RME test. A continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis in that it was related to 4 higher-order ToM measures, particularly the ability to attribute mental states assessed on RME. IQ only partially mediated the effect of exposure on RME performance, and these effects were not mediated by EF. Hence, the data suggest that these ToM measures tap into a specific alcohol-related social-cognitive deficit that does not merely reflect poorer EF. FASD diagnosis and PAE were each also related to RME after control for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These findings suggest that deficits in higher-order ToM function may play a significant role in the social-cognitive behavioral impairment in FASD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. The Marulu Strategy 2008-2012: overcoming Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Wright, Edie; Boulton, John

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley, remote north-western Australia, introduced restrictions on access to take-away full-strength alcohol. Following this, Aboriginal leaders engaged strategic partners in a broader strategy to address FASD in the region. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a community-led, researcher-supported, FASD strategy. A review of literature focusing on community-led FASD strategies identified key components that informed the Marulu FASD strategy. These included strategy ownership, leadership, and governance by participating communities, and a research framework. Community meetings and workshops led to the development of The Marulu FASD Strategy (2008). Feasibility and community consent to conduct a FASD prevalence study (the Lililwan Project) was confirmed, and implementation was progressed (2010-2013). Concurrent FASD prevention activities were conducted. In 2012, the Marulu FASD Unit was established within a local Aboriginal organisation to sustain and coordinate ongoing strategy activities. Community control of public health initiatives can be achieved when Aboriginal communities prioritise issues of significant concern, and engage strategic partners to overcome them. Implications for public health: The Marulu Strategy forms a template for action to address FASD and other public health issues in Aboriginal communities in Australia and internationally. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  4. Deficits in response inhibition correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-02-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R.; Watkins, Rochelle E.; Tsang, Tracey W.; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P.; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor ski...

  6. Exploring the complexity of intellectual disability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddho eChokroborty-Hoque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain development in mammals is long lasting. It begins early during embryonic growth and is finalized in early adulthood. This progression represents a delicate choreography of molecular, cellular and physiological processes initiated and directed by the fetal genotype in close interaction with environment. Not surprisingly, most aberrations in brain functioning including mental retardation are attributed to either gene(s, or environment or the interaction of the two. The ensuing complexity has made the assessment of this choreography, ever challenging. A model to assess this complexity has used a mouse model (C57BL/6J or B6 that is subjected to prenatal alcohol exposure. The resulting pups show learning and memory deficits similar to patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, which is associated with life-long changes in gene expression. Interestingly, this change in gene expression underlies epigenetic processes including DNA methylation and miRNAs. This paradigm is applicable to ethanol exposure at different developmental times (binge at trimesters 1, 2 and 3 as well as continuous preference drinking (70% of 10% alcohol by B6 females during pregnancy. The exposure leads to life-long changes in neural epigenetic marks, gene expression, and a variety of defects in neurodevelopment and CNS function. We argue that this cascade may be reversed postnatally via drugs, chemicals and environment including maternal care. Such conclusions are supported by two sets of results. First, antipsychotic drugs that are used to treat mental disability including psychosis function via changes in DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mark. Second, post-natal environment may improve (with enriched environments or worsen (with negative and maternal separation stress the cognitive ability of pups that were prenatally exposed to ethanol as well as their matched controls. In this review, we will discuss operational epigenetic mechanisms involved in the

  7. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  8. The relation between theory of mind and executive functions in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Wyper, Katy; Talwar, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are faced with a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and/or learning deficits, as well as poor executive functioning and social skills. Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand that one's own perspective may differ from the perspective of another individual. ToM develops around age 4 and is correlated with performance on executive functioning tasks. The goals of this study were to examine ToM performance in young children with FASD, how age was related to ToM performance, and whether ToM abilities were related to underlying executive function difficulties. Fifty-three children (aged 4 to 8 years) participated: 25 children with FASD and 28 control children. All children were tested on measures of ToM, executive functioning, and receptive vocabulary. More children in the FASD group (44%) failed one or both ToM measures than in the control group (25%). Older children with FASD performed worse on ToM than younger children, but this was not the case for the control group. For the FASD group, ToM performance was correlated with a measure of inhibition, but for the control group, ToM was correlated with visual-spatial working memory. Children with FASD have difficulty on ToM tasks, and this difficulty may be related to underlying deficits in inhibition.

  9. A modified Delphi study of screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little reliable information on the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD in Australia and no coordinated national approach to facilitate case detection. The aim of this study was to identify health professionals’ perceptions about screening for FASD in Australia. Method A modified Delphi process was used to assess perceptions of the need for, and the process of, screening for FASD in Australia. We recruited a panel of 130 Australian health professionals with experience or expertise in FASD screening or diagnosis. A systematic review of the literature was used to develop Likert statements on screening coverage, components and assessment methods which were administered using an online survey over two survey rounds. Results Of the panel members surveyed, 95 (73% responded to the questions on screening in the first survey round and, of these, 81 (85% responded to the second round. Following two rounds there was consensus agreement on the need for targeted screening at birth (76% and in childhood (84%. Participants did not reach consensus agreement on the need for universal screening at birth (55% or in childhood (40%. Support for targeted screening was linked to perceived constraints on service provision and the need to examine the performance, costs and benefits of screening. For targeted screening of high risk groups, we found highest agreement for siblings of known cases of FASD (96% and children of mothers attending alcohol treatment services (93%. Participants agreed that screening for FASD primarily requires assessment of prenatal alcohol exposure at birth (86% and in childhood (88%, and that a checklist is needed to identify the components of screening and criteria for referral at birth (84% and in childhood (90%. Conclusions There is an agreed need for targeted but not universal screening for FASD in Australia, and sufficient consensus among health professionals to warrant development and

  10. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Evidence-Based Prevention Program for Adolescent and Adult Hispanic Females in the South Texas Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd T.; Craddock, Christopher S.; Kodatt, Stephanie A.; Ramirez, Dora Maria

    2017-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) present serious problems for the twenty-first century. These disorders describe a variety of neurological and behavioral deficits that result from exposure of an unborn child to alcohol during pregnancy. While thousands of children are diagnosed with FASD annually, FASD is completely preventable if women…

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  12. Virtual Sensorimotor Balance Training for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Jirikowic, Tracy; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Dellon, Brian; Kartin, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Diminished sensory adaptation has been associated with poor balance control for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A virtual reality system, Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement and Learning (STABEL), was developed to train sensory control for balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the STABEL system in children with FASD and children with typical development (TD) to (1) determine the feasibility of the STABEL system and (2) explore the immediate effects of the STABEL system on sensory attention and postural control. This is a technical report with observational study data. Eleven children with FASD and 11 children with TD, aged 8 to 16 years, completed 30 minutes of STABEL training. The children answered questions about their experience using STABEL. Sensory attention and postural control were measured pre- and post-STABEL training with the Multimodal Balance Entrainment Response system and compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All children engaged in game play and tolerated controlled sensory input during the STABEL protocol. Immediate effects post-STABEL training in both groups were increased postural sway velocity and some changes in entrainment gain. Children with FASD showed higher entrainment gain to vestibular stimuli. There were no significant changes in sensory attention fractions. The small sample size, dose of STABEL training, and exploratory statistical analyses are study limitations, but findings warrant larger systematic study to examine therapeutic effects. Children completed the training protocol, demonstrating the feasibility of the STABEL system. Differences in postural sway velocity post-STABEL training may have been affected by fatigue, warranting further investigation. Limited immediate effects suggest more practice is needed to affect sensory attention; however, entrainment gain changes suggest the STABEL system provoked vestibular responses during balance practice. © 2015

  13. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bower Carol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for clinical studies (Randomized controlled trials (RCT, quasi RCT, controlled trials and pre- and post-intervention studies which evaluated pharmacological, behavioural, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychosocial and educational interventions and early intervention programs. Participants were aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of a FASD. Selection of studies for inclusion and assessment of study quality was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was not possible due to diversity in the interventions and outcome measures. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological weaknesses were common, including small sample sizes; inadequate study design and short term follow up. Pharmacological interventions, evaluated in two studies (both RCT showed some benefit from stimulant medications. Educational and learning strategies (three RCT were evaluated in seven studies. There was some evidence to suggest that virtual reality training, cognitive control therapy, language and literacy therapy, mathematics intervention and rehearsal training for memory may be beneficial strategies. Three studies evaluating social communication and behavioural strategies (two RCT suggested that social skills training may improve social skills and behaviour at home and Attention Process Training may improve attention. Conclusion There is limited good

  14. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  15. Out of sight, out of mind? A national survey of paediatricians in Ireland regarding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  16. Use of health, education, and social services by individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D; de B Hanlon Dearman, Ana C; Macwilliam, Leonard R; Chudley, Albert E; Roos, Noralou P; Yallop, Lauren P; A Longstaffe, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of intellectual disability in western society, presenting a significant burden on health, education and social services. Quantifying the burden of FASD is important for service planning and policy and program development. To describe the health, education and social service use of individuals with FASD to provide an indication of the burden of service use of the disorder. Using a matched-cohort design health, education and social service data were linked with clinical records on individuals 6+ years diagnosed with FASD between 1999/2000-2009/10 (N=717). Matching was 2:1 with a general population (gPop) and asthma group by age, sex and area-level income. Adjusted rates and relative risks were calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Hospitalizations were higher in the FASD compared to gPop (adjusted relative risk=3.44 (95% confidence interval=2.29, 5.17)) and asthma (2.87 (1.94, 4.25)) groups, whereas for physician visits and overall prescriptions, the FASD group differed from only the gPop group (1.58 (1.34, 1.84); 1.44 (1.22, 1.72), respectively). Antibiotics, pain killers and anti-psychotics were similar across groups whereas antidepressants and psychostimulants were higher in the FASD group (antidepressants: FASD vs. gPop 8.76 (2.82, 27.21); FASD vs. asthma 2.10 (1.15, 3.83); psychostimulants: FASD vs. gPop 5.78 (2.89, 11.57); FASD vs. asthma 2.47 (1.37, 4.47)). Attention-deficit\\hyperactivity disorder was higher in the FASD than the gPop and asthma groups (6.41 (3.29, 12.49); 3.12 (1.97, 4.93), respectively). Education and social service use was higher for the FASD than either of the other groups for all measures (FASD vs. gPop and FASD vs. asthma, respectively for: grade repetition 3.06 (1.58, 5.94); 3.48 (1.79, 6.78); receipt of any special education funding 9.22 (6.23, 13.64); 6.10 (4.14, 8.99); family receipt of income assistance 1.74 (1.33, 2.27); 1.89 (1.45, 2.47); child in care 13.19 (5

  17. THE PREVENTION OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER: THE NEED FOR A COORDINATED SERVICE BY ROLE PLAYERS IN THE WINE PRODUCING AREAS IN THE BREEDE RIVER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries, Marlene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS is seen as the leading preventable birth defect in the western world (May, Miller, Goodhart, Maestas, Buckley, Trujillo & Gossage, 2007. FAS is the severe end of a spectrum of effects caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy and is characterised by unique facial features, growth retardation and developmental delays (May, Gossage, Marais, Adnams, Hoyme, Jones, Robinson, Khaole, Snell, Kalberg, Hendricks, Brooke, Stellavato & Viljoen, 2007; Urban, Chersich, Fourie, Chetty, Olivier & Viljoen, 2008. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has physical, behavioural and mental consequences for the developing fetus. These effects last throughout the lifespan of the individual with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD

  18. The Use of Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning to Assess Hippocampal Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan D; Amin, Aenia; Jones, Keith G; Sheffer, Ellen M; Ortega, Lidia; Dolman, Keith

    2017-08-05

    Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring. At 90 days of age, rodents were surgically prepared with recording and stimulating electrodes, which measured electromyographic (EMG) blink activity from the left eyelid muscle and delivered mild shock posterior to the left eye, respectively. After a 5 day recovery period, they underwent 6 sessions of trace ECC to determine associative learning differences between alcohol-exposed and control rats. Trace ECC is one of many possible ECC procedures that can be easily modified using the same equipment and software, so that different neural systems can be assessed. ECC procedures in general, can be used as diagnostic tools for detecting neural pathology in different brain systems and different conditions that insult the brain.

  19. Sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits of children across the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua L; Agnihotri, Sabrina; Keightley, Michelle

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have detrimental effects on a child's development of adaptive behaviors necessary for success in the areas of academic achievement, socialization, and self-care. Sensory processing abilities have been found to affect a child's ability to successfully perform adaptive behaviors. The current study explored whether significant differences in sensory processing abilities, adaptive behavior, and neurocognitive functioning are observed between children diagnosed with partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS), Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND), or children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol (PEA), but did not meet criteria for an FASD diagnosis. The influence of IQ on adaptive behavior as well as further exploration of the relationship between sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits among these children was also examined. A secondary analysis was conducted on some of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) scores, Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II) scores, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition/Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Third Edition (WISC- IV/WPPSI-III) scores of 46 children between 3 and 14 years of age with pFAS, ARND, or who were PEA. Greater sensory processing deficits were found in children with a diagnosis of pFAS and ARND compared to those in the PEA group. Children with an ARND diagnosis scored significantly worse on measures of adaptive behavior than the PEA group. Children with pFAS scored significantly lower than children with ARND or PEA on perceptual/performance IQ. No correlation was found between IQ scores and adaptive behaviors across the FASD diagnostic categories. A significant positive correlation was found between SSP and ABAS-II scores. Regardless of the diagnosis received under the FASD umbrella, functional difficulties that could not be observed using traditional measures of intelligence were found, supporting guidelines that a broad

  20. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain ...

  1. Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attantional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly et al., 1998. The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean CA of 11.7 years and a mean MA of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8.4 years and a mean MA of 9.6 years. The children with FASD were rated by their caregivers as having clinically significant attention difficulties for their developmental age. The reported symptomatology for the majority of the children with FASD were consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD, combined type, and only one child had a score within the average range. These reports are consistent with the finding here that the children with FASD demonstrated difficulties on the Creature Counting subtest of attentional control/shifting, but inconsistent with the finding that they outperformed the TD children on the Map Mission subtest of selective attention. These findings are considered within the context of the complexity in understanding attentional functioning among children with FASD and discrepancies across sources of information and components of attention.

  2. Research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: revealing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, S; Benzies, K; Serrett, K; Hayden, K A

    2007-07-01

    Alcohol use during pregnancy can result in a continuum of effects including growth deficits, dysmorphology and/or complex patterns of behavioural and cognitive difficulties that influence an individual's functioning throughout their lifespan. We conducted a systematic review to identify research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and areas for future study. We identified the substantive literature by searching 40 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature databases, as well as reference lists. We hand-searched eight relevant journals, and undertook a systematic search of Internet sites and review of reports and documents received from key stakeholders. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality, and extracted data. Given the small number of studies that met all inclusion criteria, both experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included. Ten intervention studies were identified, of which three were experimental or quasi-experimental, and four were non-experimental. Despite multiple attempts, three studies (two in foreign languages and one unpublished) could not be acquired. A meta-analysis could not be undertaken because the included studies examined different interventions or outcomes. Interventions targeted in the included studies were as follows: (i) psychostimulant medications (methyphenidate, pemoline and dextroamphetamine); and (ii) Cognitive Control Therapy. The identified studies were limited by very small sample sizes and weak designs. There is limited scientific evidence upon which to draw recommendations regarding efficacious interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Clinicians, researchers, service providers, educators, policy makers, affected children and youth and their families, and others need to urgently collaborate to develop a comprehensive research agenda for this population.

  3. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Tesche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz “standard” tone bursts (80% randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz “target” tone bursts (10% and “novel” digital sounds (10%. Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time–frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  4. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Claudia D; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W; Garcia, Christopher M; Houck, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz "standard" tone bursts (80%) randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz "target" tone bursts (10%) and "novel" digital sounds (10%). Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females) ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time-frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  5. Diagnostic outcomes of 27 children referred by pediatricians to a genetics clinic in the Netherlands with suspicion of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmalik, Nadia; van Haelst, Mieke; Mancini, Grazia; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Hennekam, Raoul; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) constitute a specific facial phenotype, growth failure and neurodevelopmental defects. Reported FASD prevalences vary widely from 0.08 per 1,000 up to 68.0-89.2 per 1,000. We aimed to evaluate to which extent children referred with a

  6. Accentuate the Negative: Grammatical Errors during Narrative Production as a Clinical Marker of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate…

  7. Cost of speech-language interventions for children and youth with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Shield, Kevin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study, which is part of a large economic project on the overall burden and cost associated with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in Canada, estimated the cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD for Canada in 2011. The number of children and youth with FASD and speech-language disorder(s) (SLD), the distribution of the level of severity, and the number of hours needed to treat were estimated using data from the available literature. 1:1 speech-language interventions were computed using the average cost per hour for speech-language pathologists. It was estimated that ˜ 37,928 children and youth with FASD had SLD in Canada in 2011. Using the most conservative approach, the annual cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD is substantial, ranging from $72.5 million to $144.1 million Canadian dollars. Speech-language pathologists should be aware of the disproportionate number of children and youth with FASD who have SLD and the need for early identification to improve access to early intervention. Early identification and access to high quality services may have a role in decreasing the risk of developing the secondary disabilities and in reducing the economic burden of FASD on society.

  8. A School Curriculum for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Advice from a Young Adult with FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Beverley; Burles, Meridith; Holtslander, Lorraine; Bocking, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    While a significant number of individuals in Canada and globally are affected by prenatal fetal alcohol exposure, scant research exists that focuses specifically on the subjective experiences of this population. Based on a single case study exploring through Photovoice methodology the life experiences of a young adult with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum…

  9. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  10. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  11. Findings from the Families on Track Intervention Pilot Trial for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Pandolfino, Mary E; Robinson, Luther K

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multicomponent intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Families were randomized to either the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention or an active control of neuropsychological assessment and personalized community referrals. The 30-week intervention integrates scientifically validated bimonthly, in-home parent behavioral consultation, and weekly child skills groups. Outcomes measured at baseline and follow-up postintervention included intervention satisfaction, child emotional and behavioral functioning, child self-esteem, caregiver knowledge of FASD and advocacy, caregiver attitudes, use of targeted parenting practices, perceived family needs met, social support, and self-care. Data analysis emphasized calculation of effect sizes and was supplemented with analysis of variance techniques. Analyses indicated that families participating in the intervention reported high program satisfaction. Relative to comparison group outcomes, the intervention was associated with medium-to-large effects for child emotion regulation, self-esteem, and anxiety. Medium-sized improvements in disruptive behavior were observed for both groups. Medium and large effects were seen for important caregiver outcomes: knowledge of FASD and advocacy, attributions of behavior, use of antecedent strategies, parenting efficacy, family needs met, social support, and self-care. This pilot study yielded promising findings from the multicomponent Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention for child and caregiver outcomes. An important next step is to

  12. Heterogeneity of p53 dependent genomic responses following ethanol exposure in a developmental mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Middleton, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure. In the present study we examined the effect of ethanol-induced cellular and molecular responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and hippocampus of 7-day-old wild-type (WT) and p53-knockout (KO) mice. We quantified apoptosis by active caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and ApopTag™ labeling, then determined total RNA expression levels in laminae of SI and hippocampal subregions. Immunohistochemical results confirmed increased incidence of apoptotic cells in both regions in WT and KO mice following ethanol exposure. The lack of p53 was not protective in these brain regions. Molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous response to ethanol exposure that varied depending on the subregion, and which may go undetected using a global approach. Gene network analyses suggest that the presence or absence of p53 alters neuronal function and synaptic modifications following ethanol exposure, in addition to playing a classic role in cell cycle signaling. Thus, p53 may function in a way that underlies the intellectual and behavioral deficits observed in FASD. PMID:28723918

  13. TLR4 response mediates ethanol-induced neurodevelopment alterations in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Montesinos, Jorge; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Forteza, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Guerri, Consuelo

    2017-07-24

    Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects

  14. Adaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with specific learning disability and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kalland, Mirjam; Santtila, Pekka; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Mattson, Sarah N.; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD. PMID:22358422

  15. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go unrecognized or are misdiagnosed as a mental illness or brain injury. Individuals with an FASD may also receive multiple diagnoses, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety disorder. Therefore, it is important to determine whether ...

  17. Cognitive and Adaptive Skill Profile Differences in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Comorbid Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseck, Justin J; Davis, Andrew S; Cassady, Jerrell C; Finch, W Holmes; Gelder, Barbara C

    2015-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) often present with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can complicate diagnosis and treatment planning. This study investigated the cognitive and adaptive profiles of 81 children with ADHD/FASD and 147 children with ADHD. Multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups had similar profiles on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, although the children with comorbid ADHD/FASD demonstrated significantly more impairment in verbal ability, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and overall adaptive skills. The results suggested that when compared with children with ADHD alone, children with ADHD/FASD exhibit significantly more impaired cognitive processing and adaptive skill deficits that are essential for school success and healthy social, behavioral, and emotional functioning. Research evaluating the profiles of these groups is likely to facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis and intervention.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press Release Learn the Signs. ...

  19. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan L Kleiber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioural and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term ‘footprint’ of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder.

  20. Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Among Children and Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Gmel, Gerrit; Rehm, Jürgen; Burd, Larry; Popova, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    Prevalence estimates are essential to effectively prioritize, plan, and deliver health care to high-needs populations such as children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, most countries do not have population-level prevalence data for FASD. To obtain prevalence estimates of FASD among children and youth in the general population by country, by World Health Organization (WHO) region, and globally. MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Education Resource Information Center, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies published from November 1, 1973, through June 30, 2015, without geographic or language restrictions. Original quantitative studies that reported the prevalence of FASD among children and youth in the general population, used active case ascertainment or clinic-based methods, and specified the diagnostic guideline or case definition used were included. Individual study characteristics and prevalence of FASD were extracted. Country-specific random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. For countries with 1 or no empirical study on the prevalence of FASD, this indicator was estimated based on the proportion of women who consumed alcohol during pregnancy per 1 case of FASD. Finally, WHO regional and global mean prevalence of FASD weighted by the number of live births in each country was estimated. Prevalence of FASD. A total of 24 unique studies including 1416 unique children and youth diagnosed with FASD (age range, 0-16.4 years) were retained for data extraction. The global prevalence of FASD among children and youth in the general population was estimated to be 7.7 per 1000 population (95% CI, 4.9-11.7 per 1000 population). The WHO European Region had the highest prevalence (19.8 per 1000 population; 95% CI, 14.1-28.0 per 1000 population), and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region had the lowest (0.1 per 1000 population; 95% CI, 0

  1. Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Bertilsson, Göran; Domeij, Helena; Fahlström, Gunilla; Heintz, Emelie; Hjern, Anders; Nehlin Gordh, Christina; Nordin, Viviann; Rangmar, Jenny; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin; Hultcrantz, Monica

    2018-01-05

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists. Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the social services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.

  2. Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Loriann; Jackson, Carl P T; Choe, Noreen; Pelland, Lucie; Scott, Stephen H; Reynolds, James N

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is associated with a large number of cognitive and sensory-motor deficits. In particular, the accurate assessment of sensory-motor deficits in children with FASD is not always simple and relies on clinical assessment tools that may be coarse and subjective. Here we present a new approach: using robotic technology to accurately and objectively assess motor deficits of children with FASD in a center-out reaching task. A total of 152 typically developing children and 31 children with FASD, all aged between 5 and 18 were assessed using a robotic exoskeleton device coupled with a virtual reality projection system. Children made reaching movements to 8 peripheral targets in a random order. Reach trajectories were subsequently analyzed to extract 12 parameters that had been previously determined to be good descriptors of a reaching movement, and these parameters were compared for each child with FASD to a normative model derived from the performance of the typically developing population. Compared with typically developing children, the children with FASD were found to be significantly impaired on most of the parameters measured, with the greatest deficits found in initial movement direction error. Also, children with FASD tended to fail more parameters than typically developing children: 95% of typically developing children failed fewer than 3 parameters compared with 69% of children with FASD. These results were particularly pronounced for younger children. The current study has shown that robotic technology is a sensitive and powerful tool that provides increased specificity regarding the type of motor problems exhibited by children with FASD. The high frequency of motor deficits in children with FASD suggests that interventions aimed at stimulating and/or improving motor development should routinely be considered for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  4. A qualitative assessment of program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted.

  5. Potential impacts of the Alberta fetal alcohol spectrum disorder service networks on secondary disabilities: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Moffatt, Jessica; Jacobs, Philip; Chuck, Anderson W; Jonsson, Egon

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the break-even effectiveness of the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Service Networks in reducing occurrences of secondary disabilities associated with FASD. The secondary disabilities addressed within this study include crime, homelessness, mental health problems, and school disruption (for children) or unemployment (for adults). We used a cost-benefit analysis approach where benefits of the service networks were the cost difference between the two approaches: having the 12 service networks and having no service network in place, across Alberta. We used a threshold analysis to estimate the break-even effectiveness (i.e. the effectiveness level at which the service networks became cost-saving). If no network was in place throughout the province, the secondary disabilities would cost $22.85 million (including $8.62 million for adults and $14.24 million for children) per year. Given the cost of network was $6.12 million per year, the break-even effectiveness was estimated at 28% (range: 25% to 32%). Although not all benefits associated with the service networks are included, such as the exclusion of the primary benefit to those experiencing FASD, the benefits to FASD caregivers, and the preventative benefits, the economic and social burden associated with secondary disabilities will "pay-off" if the effectiveness of the program in reducing secondary disabilities is 28%.

  6. Preliminary Findings that a Targeted Intervention Leads to Altered Brain Function in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8–12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10 or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11 conditions. They were assessed with a Go-NoGo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm before and after training or the wait-out period. Groups initially performed equivalently and showed no fMRI differences. At post-test, TXT outperformed WL on NoGo trials while fMRI in uncorrected results with a small-volume correction showed less activation in prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. Groups also demonstrated different patterns of change over time reflecting reduced signal at post-test in selective prefrontal and parietal regions in TXT and increased in WL. In light of previous evidence indicating TXT at post-test perform similar to non-exposed children on the Go-NoGo fMRI paradigm, our findings suggest Alert® does improve functional integrity in the neural circuitry for behavioral regulation in children with FASD.

  7. Variability in classroom social communication: performance of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.

  8. Frequent behavioural challenges in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a needs-based assessment reported by caregivers and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Courtney R; Roane, Jessica; Hewitt, Amy; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Mushquash, Christopher; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick; Reynolds, James N

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial research characterizing the brain injury, a significant gap still exists in providing timely and effective care for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The objective of this study was to conduct a needs assessment that could help inform intervention programs and appropriate strategies to manage challenging behaviours targeted to families impacted by FASD. Sixty caregivers and 26 clinicians from across Canada completed a semi-structured telephone interview. Caregivers reported that the most challenging behaviour categories were "Externalizing Behaviours", "Cognitive Difficulties", and "Social Difficulties/Maladjustment", whereas the most successful parenting strategies were "Parental Reflection", "Routine/Structure/Consistency", and "Environmental Modification". Clinicians reported that "Insufficient Support/Knowledge from Health and Social Professionals and Agencies" and "Behavioural Difficulties/Challenges" were the most common concerns from caregivers of children with FASD. The number and extent of challenges reported make it evident that there are many unmet needs that compromise the quality of life for these caregivers, their children, and their families. These data will be used to inform the development of an intervention program that will provide a family-centered approach to training, education, and support for children with FASD and their families.

  9. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect...

  10. Effectiveness of evidence-based treatments of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Deepa; Menard, Chantalle; Neilson, Christine J; Brownell, Marni; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Chudley, Albert; Zarychanski, Ryan; Abou-Setta, Ahmed

    2018-03-09

    The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo/dummy interventions or usual standards of care in children and adolescents (EBSCO), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library-Wiley), PsycINFO (ProQuest) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses will be searched from inception to March 2017 for relevant citations of published trials using individualised search strategies prepared for database. We will also search the reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings. Two reviewers will independently assess each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria and extract data including population characteristics, types and duration of interventions and outcomes from included trials. Internal validity will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Primary outcome measures will be improvements in symptoms, including: hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention as measured by standard rating scales. Secondary outcome measures will include improvements in physical and mental health domains, as well as cognitive, behavioural, social and educational skills as measured by rating scales, standardised psychometric tests of IQ and memory, grade repetition, literacy tests and diagnosis of mental health disorder. Ethical approval will not be obtained since it is not required for systematic reviews as there are no concerns regarding patient privacy. The results of this review will be disseminated through publication in a peer-review journal and presented at relevant conferences. CRD42013005996. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ceccanti; Sara De Nicolò; Rosanna Mancinelli; George Chaldakov; Valentina Carito; Marco Ceccanti; Giovanni Laviola; Paola Tirassa; Marco Fiore

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA an...

  12. Neurocognitive habilitation therapy for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an adaptation of the Alert Program®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Anne M; Chasnoff, Ira J; Schmidt, Christine A; Telford, Erin; Schwartz, Linda D

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of neurocognitive habilitation, a group therapy intervention for foster and adoptive caregivers and their children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol. Participants were recruited from clients seeking evaluation for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and were randomly assigned to treatment and no-treatment control groups. Forty children participated in the treatment program and were compared with 38 control participants using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC). Significant differences between the treatment and control groups were demonstrated on the BRIEF and on the RATC, suggesting that the intervention improved executive functioning and emotional problem-solving skills. These findings yield promising evidence of the effectiveness of the neurocognitive habilitation intervention in improving executive functioning and emotional problem solving in children with FAS or ARND. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-21

    Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment. Children (n = 108, 7 to 9 years) were participants in a population-prevalence study of FASD in Western Australia. Fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, which provided a Fine Motor Composite score, and evaluated Fine Manual Control (Fine Motor Precision; Fine Motor Integration) and Manual Coordination (Manual Dexterity; Upper-Limb Coordination). Descriptive statistics were reported for the overall cohort; and comparisons made between children with and without PAE and/or FASD. The prevalence of severe (≤ 2nd percentile) and moderate (≤16th percentile) impairments was determined. Overall, Fine Motor Composite scores were 'average' (M = 48.6 ± 7.4), as were Manual Coordination (M = 55.7 ± 7.9) and Fine Manual Control scores (M = 42.5 ± 6.2). Children with FASD had significantly lower Fine Motor Composite (M = 45.2 ± 7.7 p = 0.046) and Manual Coordination scores (M = 51.8 ± 7.3, p = 0.027) than children without PAE (Fine Motor Composite M = 49.8 ± 7.2; Manual Coordination M = 57.0 ± 7.7). Few children had severe impairment, but rates of moderate impairment were very high. Different types of fine motor skills should be evaluated in children with PAE or FASD. The high prevalence of fine motor impairment in our

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  15. Research Review: Executive function deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Cardoso, Christopher; McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972–2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups. FASD groups included those with and without dysmorphy (i.e., FAS, pFAS, ARND, and other FASD diagnoses). Effect sizes (Hedges’ g, standardized mean difference) were calculated. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for R. Results Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria (FASD N = 2,115; ADHD N = 453; controls N = 1,990). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits in planning, fluency, and set-shifting compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.94, −0.78) and children with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −0.72, −0.32). FASD was associated with moderate to large impairments in working memory, compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −.84, −.58) and small impairments relative to groups with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −.26). Smaller and less consistent deficits were found on measures of inhibition and vigilance relative to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.52, −0.31); FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderator analyses indicated executive dysfunction was associated with older age, dysmorphy, and larger group differences in IQ. Sex and diagnostic system were not consistently related to effect size. Conclusions While FASD is associated with global executive impairments, executive function weaknesses are most consistent for measures of planning, fluency, and set-shifting. Neuropsychological measures assessing these executive function domains may improve differential diagnosis

  16. Health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Rochelle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of five guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD, there is no national endorsement for their use in diagnosis in Australia. In this study we aimed to describe health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of FASD in Australia and identify implications for the development of national guidelines. Methods We surveyed 130 Australian and 9 international health professionals with expertise or involvement in the screening or diagnosis of FASD. An online questionnaire was used to evaluate participants’ familiarity with and use of five existing diagnostic guidelines for FASD, and to assess their perceptions about the adoption of these guidelines in Australia. Results Of the 139 participants surveyed, 84 Australian and 8 international health professionals (66.2% responded to the questions on existing diagnostic guidelines. Participants most frequently reported using the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code (27.2% and the Canadian guidelines (18.5% for diagnosis. These two guidelines were also most frequently recommended for adoption in Australia: 32.5% of the 40 participants who were familiar with the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code recommended adoption of this guideline in Australia, and 30.8% of the 26 participants who were familiar with the Canadian guidelines recommended adoption of this guideline in Australia. However, for the majority of guidelines examined, most participants were unsure whether they should be adopted in Australia. The adoption of existing guidelines in Australia was perceived to be limited by: their lack of evidence base, including the appropriateness of established reference standards for the Australian population; their complexity; the need for training and support to use the guidelines; and the lack of an interdisciplinary and interagency model to support service delivery in

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  18. Cohesive Referencing Errors During Narrative Production as Clinical Evidence of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-11-01

    Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender. Group performance was compared. The associations between measures of cohesive referencing and clinically gathered indices of the degree of central nervous system abnormality were examined. Results show clear associations between elevated rates of cohesive referencing errors and central nervous system abnormality. Elevated error rates were more common in children with FASD than those without, and prevalence increased predictably across groups with more severe central nervous system abnormality. Risk is particularly elevated for those with microcephaly or a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Cohesive referencing errors during narrative are a viable behavioral marker of the kinds of central nervous system abnormality associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, having significant potential to become a valuable diagnostic and research tool.

  19. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  20. [Autism spectrum disorders and substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J.M. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So far, little is known about the comorbidity of substance use disorders (sud) and autism spectrum disorders (asd). AIM: To increase our knowledge of sud in

  1. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Gene-specific of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1a) by ethanol probably leads to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental ethanol exposure is able to induce Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes). This study investigated possible differential expression of cannabinoid receptor (cnr) mRNAs during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis and variability to ethanol-...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - English MP4 Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  4. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus...

  5. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  6. The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Lucas, Barbara; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Peadon, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Genevieve; Hand, Marmingee

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed 'fetal alcohol spectrum disorders' (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management. This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies. Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Country Health Service Board Research Ethics

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... known single gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. ...

  8. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  9. Development of children adopted from Poland : The role of early life risk factors, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Annually, 300 to 400 Polish children are adopted internationally. Prior to adoption, most of these children were exposed to circumstances that could harm their development, for example, neglect or prenatal exposure to alcohol. Our study was initiated because the Dutch adoption agency that placed

  10. Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    小国, 美也子

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and intellectual disability (ID) has received worldwide attention, in order to determine the mechanism of these disorders. Recently, in some papers have argued whether epilepsy causes ASD, and whether ASD worsens the seizures in epilepsy. Several causal relationships between the three disorders have been speculated. This paper reviewed and analyzed the studies that have evaluated the relationship between the disorders for de...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russ

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it.

  12. "They silently live in terror…" why sleep problems and night-time related quality-of-life are missed in children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; McKellin, William H; Carey, Norma; Loock, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs. We used narrative schema and therapeutic emplotment in conjunction with analyzes of medical records to appropriately diagnose SPs and develop treatment strategies. The research was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver (Canada) between 2008 and 2011. In the QIs, parents and HCPs exhibited awareness of the significance of SPs and the effects of an SP on the daytime behaviors of the child and the associated burdens on the parents. HCPs' systemic inattention to the sequelae of SPs and the affected family's wellbeing appears due to an insufficient understanding of the various factors that contribute to nighttime SPs and their daytime sequelae. In the CCSAs, we found that the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs in children and adolescents was impaired by the exclusive focus on daytime presentations. Daytime behavioral and emotional problems were targets of pharmacological treatment rather than the underlying SP. Consequently, SPs were also targeted with medications, without investigating the underlying problem. Our study highlights deficits in the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs among children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities and proposes a clinical practice strategy, based on therapeutic

  13. Visual-motor integration, visual perception, and fine motor coordination in a population of children with high levels of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills are essential for successful academic performance, but to date no studies have assessed these skills in a population-based cohort of Australian Aboriginal children who, like many children in other remote, disadvantaged communities, consistently underperform academically. Furthermore, many children in remote areas of Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which are often associated with VMI deficits. VMI, visual perception, and fine motor coordination were assessed using The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, including its associated subtests of Visual Perception and Fine Motor Coordination, in a cohort of predominantly Australian Aboriginal children (7.5-9.6 years, n=108) in remote Western Australia to explore whether PAE adversely affected test performance. Cohort results were reported, and comparisons made between children i) without PAE; ii) with PAE (no FASD); and iii) FASD. The prevalence of moderate (≤16th percentile) and severe (≤2nd percentile) impairment was established. Mean VMI scores were 'below average' (M=87.8±9.6), and visual perception scores were 'average' (M=97.6±12.5), with no differences between groups. Few children had severe VMI impairment (1.9%), but moderate impairment rates were high (47.2%). Children with FASD had significantly lower fine motor coordination scores and higher moderate impairment rates (M=87.9±12.5; 66.7%) than children without PAE (M=95.1±10.7; 23.3%) and PAE (no FASD) (M=96.1±10.9; 15.4%). Aboriginal children living in remote Western Australia have poor VMI skills regardless of PAE or FASD. Children with FASD additionally had fine motor coordination problems. VMI and fine motor coordination should be assessed in children with PAE, and included in FASD diagnostic assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD. To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle. Participants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD. The identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  15. Observation of classroom social communication: do children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders spend their time differently than their typically developing peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders documented classroom social communication by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (L. B. Olswang, L. Svensson, T. E. Coggins, J. Beilinson, & A. L. Donaldson, 2006). The Social Communication Coding System consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking) that account for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified timeframe. The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension (as measured by proportion of time and average length of time spent performing each dimension) were recorded. Children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of passive/disengaged and irrelevant behavior, and the proportion and average length of time in these behaviors were larger and longer than those of their peers. Further, children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of prosocial/engaged behavior; however, the proportion and average length of time that they spent being prosocial were smaller and shorter than those of their peers. Implications Results suggest children with mild FASD performed differently than their peers in regard to classroom social communication, which was consistent with parent and teacher behavioral reports.

  16. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  17. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  18. Clinical neurogenetics: autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sunil Q; Golshani, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication, and repetitive or restricted interests. There is strong evidence that de novo or inherited genetic alterations play a critical role in causing Autism Spectrum Disorders, but non-genetic causes, such as in utero infections, may also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging based and autopsy studies indicate that early rapid increase in brain size during infancy could underlie the deficits in a large subset of subjects. Clinical studies show benefits for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies. Genotype-specific treatments have the potential for improving outcome in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  20. Immediate Neural Plasticity Involving Reaction Time in a Saccadic Eye Movement Task is Intact in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Munoz, Douglas P; Brien, Donald; Reynolds, James N

    2016-11-01

    Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures. We therefore investigated these previous trial effects in typically developing children and children with FASD to measure sensory neural plasticity and how these effects vary with age and pathology. Both typically developing control children (n = 102; mean age = 10.54 ± 3.25; 48 males) and children with FASD (n = 66; mean age = 11.85 ± 3.42; 35 males) were recruited from 5 sites across Canada. Each child performed a visually guided saccade task. Reaction time and saccade amplitude were analyzed and then assessed based on the previous trial. There was a robust previous trial effect for both reaction time and amplitude, with both the control and FASD groups displaying faster reaction times and smaller saccades during alternation trials (visual target presented on the opposite side to the previous trial). Children with FASD exhibited smaller overall mean amplitude and smaller amplitude selectively on alternation trials compared with controls. The effect of the previous trial on reaction time and amplitude did not differ across childhood and adolescent development. Children with FASD did not display any significant reaction time differences, despite exhibiting numerous deficits in motor and higher level cognitive control over saccades in other studies. These results suggest that this form of immediate neural plasticity in response to sensory information before saccade initiation remains intact in children with FASD. In contrast, the previous trial effect on

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5 ) , a guide created by the American Psychiatric Association ... the current revised version of the DSM (the DSM-5 ), these separate conditions have been combined into one ...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the guidelines health care providers use to diagnose different mental health conditions, was released. The DSM-5 made significant changes to how autism is classified ...

  3. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Paolozza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  4. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra W. Soh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX or delayed-treatment control group (DTC. Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT. All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM. Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1 At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2 Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, right frontal pole (BA11, and right anterior cingulate (BA32 in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3 At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9, which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children.

  5. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Treit, Sarah; Beaulieu, Christian; Reynolds, James N

    2014-01-01

    Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old) and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old) both aged 7-18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  6. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  7. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  9. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHOICES is an evidence-based intervention that increases motivation and commitment to reduce or stop drinking and/ ... Research Training & Education Online Training Past Activities Articles & Key Findings Materials & Multimedia Fact Sheets & Brochures Posters & Print ...

  11. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  12. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause you to get hurt, such as driving, using machinery, or having unsafe sex Keep drinking, even though you know it is making a health problem caused by alcohol worse Need more and more alcohol to feel its effects or to get drunk You get withdrawal symptoms when the effects of ...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  15. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  16. Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanen, N Carolyn

    2006-10-15

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a complex group of behaviorally related disorders that are primarily genetic in origin. Involvement of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ASD has been suggested by the occurrence of ASD in patients with disorders arising from epigenetic mutations (fragile X syndrome) or that involve key epigenetic regulatory factors (Rett syndrome). Moreover, the most common recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in ASD involve maternally derived duplications of the imprinted domain on chromosome 15q11-13. Thus, parent of origin effects on sharing and linkage to imprinted regions on chromosomes 15q and 7q suggest that these regions warrant specific examination from an epigenetic perspective, particularly because epigenetic modifications do not change the primary genomic sequence, allowing risk epialleles to evade detection using standard screening strategies. This review examines the potential role of epigenetic factors in the etiology of ASD.

  17. Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua P.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is relatively common and is associated with a complex clinical presentation. Sound diagnosis and treatment planning requires that clinicians have an integrated understanding of the developmental pathways and course of this comorbidity. Moreover, standard interventions for anxiety disorders or AUDs may need to be modified and combined in targeted ways to accommodate the unique needs of people who have both disorders. Optimal combination of evidence-based treatments should be based on a comparative balance that considers the advantages and disadvantages of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches. PMID:23584108

  18. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association between bipolar ...

  19. Epigenetics of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is diagnosed in 1 of every 68 children. ASD is incredibly heterogeneous both clinically and aetiologically. The etiopathogenesis of ASD is known to be complex, including genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Normal epigenetic marks modifiable by both genetics and environmental exposures can result in epigenetic alterations that disrupt the regulation of gene expression, negatively impacting biological pathways important for brain development. In this chapter we aim to summarize some of the important literature that supports a role for epigenetics in the underlying molecular mechanism of ASD. We provide evidence from work in genetics, from environmental exposures and finally from more recent studies aimed at directly determining ASD-specific epigenetic patterns, focusing mainly on DNA methylation (DNAm). Finally, we briefly discuss some of the implications of current research on potential epigenetic targets for therapeutics and novel avenues for future work.

  20. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum ... is done while the child is sleeping. Otoacoustic emission (OAE): This test measures how well the outer ...

  1. Alcohol use disorders among Nigerian University students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environments and encounter new social and institutional factors that may foster heavy alcohol use. Little is known about alcohol use disorders in non-western cultures. Aims This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use disorders among students in Nigerian ...

  2. Alcohol use in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conason, Alexis H; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, in particular bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are associated with co-morbid alcohol and drug abuse. School-based studies have shown significant associations between bulimic behaviors and various measures of alcohol, cigarette and other drug use and abuse. Amongst bulimic adolescents, substance use is related to an increased likeliness of high risk behaviors such as attempted suicide, stealing and sexual intercourse. In contrast with bulimics and binge eaters, restricting anorexics have low rates of co-morbid substance abuse. It appears that restricting anorexics, binge eaters and bulimics represent distinct subgroups within the eating disordered population and binge eaters and bulimics are more prone to alcohol use. It is possible that individuals with eating disorders turn to alcohol use/abuse as a way of coping with the problems caused by their eating disorder. Researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait, which predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Eating disorders are often conceptualized as an addictive disorder. Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may be useful in treating both eating and alcohol use disorders. There is also evidence that serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are traditionally used to treat major depression, may be an effective treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been effective in treating alcohol use and eating disorders individually and may be an effective combined treatment for co-morbid eating disorders and alcohol use. Teaching healthy ways to cope with the stressful situations may also help decrease alcohol use and disordered eating behaviors.

  3. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  4. Autism spectrum disorders in eating disorder populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Vanessa; Turk, Jeremy; Saeidi, Saeideh; Kent, Andy; Morgan, John F

    2013-09-01

    Empirical research addressing cognitive processing deficits in eating disorders has noted an overlap with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic review investigating the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in its entirety in eating disordered populations. A comprehensive search for relevant studies was performed on five electronic databases. Studies were not included if solely focused on specific traits of autism spectrum disorders, for instance, theory of mind, set shifting or central coherence. Titles, abstracts and full texts were screened by two members of the research team independently. Quantitative studies published in English were included. A total of eight studies were found to fit the inclusion criteria. Results showed significantly raised prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder in eating disorder populations compared with those in healthy control participants. This discovery has clinical implications and may assist in deciphering poor responses to conventional treatment, facilitating new psychological interventions for eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks t...

  6. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be classified as one of the anxiety disorders, or should rather be categorized with obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions. The question of where OCD should be located in the diagnostic system was addressed by investigating the relationship of OCD, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs), and anxiety disorders. We administered a structured diagnostic interview (the SCID-OCSD) for assessing putative OCSDs in patients who presented with a primary diagnosis of OCD, panic disorder with/out agoraphobia (PD) or social anxiety disorder (SAD) in an attempt to address the proposed differentiation of OCD from the other DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Patients with OCD were significantly more likely to have multiple comorbid putative OCSDs than patients with PD or SAD. Some OCSDs, i.e. any tic disorder/Tourette's disorder as well as body-focused repetitive behaviors (self-injury, trichotillomania), and certain impulsive/reward-focused disorders (kleptomania, hypersexual disorder) were more common in OCD. Some of the putative OCSDs (e.g. hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder) were more common in PD and SAD, respectively. Depression had equally high comorbidity with OCD, PD, and SAD, while generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence were particularly associated with SAD. These findings suggest that some putative OCSDs may be related to OCD, while some may have a closer relationship to other anxiety disorders. From a nosological perspective, it may be useful to include OCD and certain OCSDs under the rubric of an enlarged category of anxiety and OCSDs. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders: Implications for the Clinical Toxicologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McDonough

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are a health problem of high prevalence in most communities and such problems account for 5% of the total burden of disease worldwide. Clinical toxicologists are commonly required to treat patients having AUDs and associated drug/alcohol-related harm. There have been recent changes to some of the diagnostic criteria (notably in DSM V relevant to AUDs, with older terms “alcohol abuse” and “alcohol dependence” no longer being classified. AUDs may sometimes not be clearly recognizable and use of evidence-based screening interventions can help identify such conditions and lead to effective brief interventions (e.g. SBIRT programs in emergency departments. AUDs are viewed as chronic disorders of alcohol consumption occurring across a spectrum of severity. While most AUDs are mild to moderate in severity and usually self-limiting conditions, more severe presentations are more commonly encountered by physicians in emergency settings. Hence, clinical toxicologists are more likely to see patients within the more severe form of disorder, at end of the spectrum of AUDs. Among this group of patients, multi-morbidity and particularly high mortality risk exists, and thus they usually require management collaboration with specialist services. Patients with AUDs are most likely to be recognized by a clinical toxicologist in the following scenarios: following acute heavy alcohol ingestion and subsequently developing acute alcohol intoxication (ethanol toxidrome, following accidental or intentional drug overdosage where alcohol has also been consumed, following acute alcohol consumption that has been associated with behavioral risk-taking and/or self-harming (e.g. poisoning, envenomation, etc., when alcohol withdrawal reactions are severe requiring hospitalization and possibly following an adverse drug reaction.

  9. Adolescent alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence, sex, age distribution, and socio-demographic correlates of any alcohol use, consumption patterns, and any alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of Mexican adolescents. 3005 youth (52.1% female) aged 12-17 from a stratified multistage area probability sample were representative of adolescents residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Alcohol use and disorder and their socio-demographic correlates were evaluated with the World Mental Health adolescent version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data were post-stratified to the total Mexico City adolescent population. 59% has used alcohol, this proportion increasing significantly with age. By age 17, 82.5% has used alcohol. Consumption patterns are mostly of low/moderate quantity or infrequent high quantity. Lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder criteria are met by 3.8%, reaching 8.1% for 16-17 years-olds. While males have greater frequency and quantity of drinking, there are no gender differences for alcohol use disorders. Non-school attending youth have twice the odds of a lifetime (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13-3.53) and 12-month disorder (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.10-4.15). Low parental monitoring is associated with 1.72 times the odds of a lifetime disorder (95% CI=1.10-2.68). Over a third of 12 year-olds had ever drunk an alcoholic beverage in their lifetime suggesting that the prevention of alcohol use and disorders must begin in late childhood. Initiatives to foment parental monitoring and to prevent, identify, and treat alcohol use problems in non-school attending youth in particular should be a priority for the wellbeing of Mexico City adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0306 TITLE: Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Sept 2013-31Aug2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a... antidepressants (ADs) during pregnancy. We are testing this hypothesis in rodents. The study is a 2-year long experiment to be decoded and

  11. Employment of people with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrlová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with adult people with Autism Spectrum Disorders, especially Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, in connection with their employment in the Czech Republic. The goal of this thesis is to find out the labour opportunities and the support for these people. The thesis consists of a theoretical part and a case study. Introductory chapter describes Autism in general and defines all of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The second chapter is already focused on adults a...

  12. Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchack, Kristian E; Thomas, Craig A

    2016-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Prognosis is heavily affected by the severity of diagnosis and the presence of intellectual disability. Children with optimal outcomes receive earlier, more intensive behavioral interventions and less pharmacologic treatment.

  14. Parental alcohol use disorders and alcohol use and disorders in offspring: a community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Roselind; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; Isensee, Barbara; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background. We examined the association between parental alcohol use disorders and patterns of alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders in their offspring in a community-based sample of young adults. Methods. Data are based on baseline and 4-year follow-up data of 2427 respondents aged 14–24 at baseline. Alcohol use and disorders in respondents were assessed using the Munich-Composite-International-Diagnostic-Interview with DSM-IV algorithms. Diagnostic information about parent...

  15. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context--the Brightening Our Home Fires Project, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel 'ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  16. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context – the brightening our home fires project, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. Methods The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. Results This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel ‘ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues. PMID:23984290

  17. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context – the brightening our home fires project, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Badry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD from a women’s health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT. While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH perspective informed this research. Methods. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women’s health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. Results. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel ‘ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women’s health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  18. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  19. Vulnerability for Alcohol Use Disorder and Rate of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Joshua L; Sloan, Matthew E; Stangl, Bethany L; Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-11-01

    Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session. This cross-sectional study included 159 young social drinkers who completed a laboratory session in which they self-administered alcohol intravenously. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine whether risk factors for alcohol use disorder were associated with the rate of achieving a binge-level exposure. A greater percentage of relatives with alcoholism (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% CI=1.02-1.07), male sex (hazard ratio: 1.74, 95% CI=1.03-2.93), and higher impulsivity (hazard ratio: 1.17, 95% CI=1.00 to 1.37) were associated with a higher rate of binging throughout the session. Participants with all three risk factors had the highest rate of binging throughout the session compared with the lowest risk group (hazard ratio: 5.27, 95% CI=1.81-15.30). Binge drinking may be an early indicator of vulnerability to alcohol use disorder and should be carefully assessed as part of a thorough clinical evaluation.

  20. Self-disorders in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk; Sæbye, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Self-disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a certain degree of temporal stability of self-disorders would therefore be expected. The aim of the study was to examine the persistence of self-disorders measured...... by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences over a time span of 5 years. 48 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology at baseline and 5 years later. Self-disorders were assessed by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences. The level of self-disorders...... was same at the two occasions for the full Examination of Anomalous Self Disorders and for four out of the five domains. For one domain, the level of self-disorders increased slightly from baseline to follow-up. The correlations between baseline and follow-up were moderate. 9 out of the 13 most...

  1. Autism spectrum disorders in propionic acidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Bâtie, Caroline Dejean; Barbier, Valérie; Roda, Célina; Brassier, Anaïs; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Guemann, Anne-Sophie; Pontoizeau, Clément; Gobin, Stéphanie; Habarou, Florence; Lacaille, Florence; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Canouï, Pierre; Ottolenghi, Chris; De Lonlay, Pascale; Ouss, Lisa

    2017-08-30

    Propionic acidemia is the result of a deficiency in propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Chronic neurologic and cognitive complications frequently occur, but the psychiatric evolution of the disorder is not well documented. We conducted a pedopsychiatric evaluation of 19 children, adolescents and young adults, aged between 2 and 25 years, using ADI-R, CARS-T, as well as ADOS when autism spectrum disorder was suspected. Previous psychometric examinations were also taken into consideration. Thirteen patients had an IQ propionic acidemia. These patients should undergo in-depth psychiatric evaluation and be screened for autism spectrum disorder. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  2. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  3. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  4. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  5. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    ), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...

  6. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...... in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...

  7. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is a medical condition in which you Drink alcohol compulsively Can't control how much you drink ... such as nausea and skin flushing whenever you drink alcohol. Knowing that drinking will cause these unpleasant effects ...

  8. Rotational Spectrum of Propargyl Alcohol Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.

    2013-06-01

    Propargyl alcohol is a molecule of interest to astrophysics as well as combustion studies. Rotational-tunneling spectra of propargyl alcohol monomer is well known and shows that the molecule exists in gauche form. Recently we reported microwave spectra of Ar...propargyl alcohol complex. Propargyl alcochol exists in gauche form in the complex as well. In this study we have recorded pure rotational spectra of propargyl alcohol dimer between 4-13 GHz range.A total of 47 transitions, 24 a-type, 16 b-type and 7 c-type, have been observed and fitted with semi rigid rotor asymmetric top hamiltonian. The fitted rotational constants are: A = 2321.83323(47) MHz, B = 1150.47726(24) MHz and C = 1124.89000(20) MHz. The standard deviation for the fit is 2.5 kHz. The experimental rotational constants are very close to the structure predicted by ab-initio calculations in which two gauche-propargyl alcohol moieties are in three point contact stabilized by O-H...O, O-H...pi and C-H...pi interactions. Few transitions for duterated isotopologues of the dimer have also been observed and search for the remaining transitions is in progress. Details will be presented in the talk. E. Hirota,J. Mol. Spectrosc. 26 (1968) 335-350. J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234 (2005) 149-156. D. Mani, E. Arunan, ChemPhysChem 14 (2013) 754-763.

  9. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  10. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; De Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  11. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  12. Supporting University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum…

  13. Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim

  14. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  15. Interleukin-18 modulation in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Businaro, R.; Corsi, M.; Azzara, G.; Di Raimo, T.; Laviola, G.; Romano, E.; Ricci, L.; Maccarrone, M.; Aronica, E.; Fuso, A.; Ricci, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which affects 1 in 88 children. Its etiology remains basically unknown, but it is apparent that neuroinflammation is involved in disease development. Great attention has been focused on pro-inflammatory cytokines, and several

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Implications for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaniz, Crystal; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), possible causes of ASD, current demographic information, the effects on the individual with ASD and the family, as well as diversity and multicultural issues related to autism. Additionally, the paper provides pertinent information about students with ASD for both general…

  17. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; Benvenuto, Arianna; Galasso, Cinzia; Porfirio, Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions with complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology. Despite high estimates of heritability, genetic causes of ASDs remain elusive, due to a high degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. So far, several "monogenic" forms of autism have been…

  19. Gaze Direction Detection in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Delorme, Richard; Zalla, Tiziana; Lefebvre, Aline; Amsellem, Frédérique; Moukawane, Sanaa; Letellier, Laurence; Leboyer, Marion; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Detecting where our partners direct their gaze is an important aspect of social interaction. An atypical gaze processing has been reported in autism. However, it remains controversial whether children and adults with autism spectrum disorder interpret indirect gaze direction with typical accuracy. This study investigated whether the detection of…

  20. Time Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Duration judgment has not been comprehensively examined in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), despite reports of perceptual idiosyncrasies in these individuals. Time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 25 individuals with ASD and 25 controls matched group-wise on age and IQ. Individuals with ASD performed comparably to matched…

  1. Picture Exchange Communication System for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that manifests itself within an individual through cognitive, social, and academic deficits. As is true for all spectrum disorders, each individual may experience a range of deficits with varying severity. Many students with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty in some area of…

  2. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  3. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  4. Counting Sheep: Sleep Disorders in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    This article will discuss the prevalence and types of sleep disorders experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the risk factors for the development of sleep disorders among children with ASDs, the impact of sleep disorders on children with ASDs, and the role of the primary care provider (PCP) in diagnosing and treating sleep disorders among children with ASDs. Review of published literature on the topic. Children with ASDs are at risk for the development of chronic sleep disorders, which can have a negative impact on behavior. Both behavioral and pharmacological interventions exist for the treatment of sleep disorders among children with ASDs, with supplemental melatonin being the most widely studied and proven treatment. PCPs will care for children with ASDs. Therefore, it is vital for PCPs to be knowledgeable about this topic and to promptly assess for and manage sleep disorders among children with ASDs. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  6. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  7. [Alcohol dependence and anxious disorders: dangerous liaisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwood, Philip

    2010-06-20

    Anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence have a higher co-occurence than expected by chance only. This association has a double origin, as the presence of alcohol dependence increases by 6 the risk of any anxious disorder, and the presence of an anxious disorder multiply by 3 the risk of alcohol-dependence. Interestingly, a large population-based epidemiological study performed 10 years apart clearly showed that anxiety disorders moderatly increase the risk of regular consumption in non-consumers or irregular drinkers (by 70%), does not increase ther risk of abuse in regular drinkers, but has a strong impact on the risk of alcohol dependence while already an abuser (OR = 2.7). Assessing the kinetic of symptoms of anxiety and focusing on some symptoms that are more specific than others (for example nausea, vomiting and/or shaking hands in the morning, all being relieved by the first drink) is helpful. Treating anxiety symptoms in alcohol dependence means, whatever the type of relationship they have, to begin with a detoxification program. Indeed, antidepresants have a larger liver-toxicity in alcohol dependence, and benzodiazepine loose most of their benefits with high level of alcohol consumption. Furthermore, when benzodiazepines are taken with large doses of alcohol, the risk of severe withdrawal symptoms is increased (such as seizures). The same trend could be proposed for psychotherapy, as cognitive behavioural therapy sollicitates a lot executive functions. The neurotoxicity of alcohol explains the damages on executive functions, CBT therefore should have larger efficacy after the detoxification program, helping to reduce the risk of relapse.

  8. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...... of schizophrenia. Although the notion of a disordered self has continued to appear occasionally over the years-mainly in the phenomenologically or psychodynamically oriented literature-this notion was usually considered as a theoretical construct rather than as referring to concretely lived anomalous experiences....... Empirical research on the disorders of self-experience in schizophrenia can be traced back to the US-Denmark psychopathological collaboration in the well-known adoption and high-risk studies, which aimed at identifying trait or phenotypic vulnerability features. This research was later followed by clinical...

  9. Epigenetics, autism spectrum, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; D'Mello, Santosh R; Narayanan, Vinodh

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic marks are modifications of DNA and histones. They are considered to be permanent within a single cell during development, and are heritable across cell division. Programming of neurons through epigenetic mechanisms is believed to be critical in neural development. Disruption or alteration in this process causes an array of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent studies have provided evidence for an altered epigenetic landscape in ASDs and demonstrated the central role of epigenetic mechanisms in their pathogenesis. Many of the genes linked to the ASDs encode proteins that are involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. In this review we highlight selected neurodevelopmental disorders in which epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role. These include Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Kabuki syndrome. For each of these disorders, we discuss how advances in our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches.

  10. Subthreshold autism spectrum disorder in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carpita, B; Gesi, C; Cremone, I M; Corsi, M; Massimetti, E; Muti, D; Calderani, E; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Ricca, V; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2018-02-01

    Increasingly data suggest a possible overlap between psychopathological manifestations of eating disorders (EDs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of subthreshold autism spectrum symptoms, by means of a recently validated instrument, in a sample of participants with EDs, particularly comparing participants with or without binge eating behaviours. 138 participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for EDs and 160 healthy control participants (HCs), were recruited at 3 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and assessed by the SCID-5, the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) and the Eating Disorders Inventory, version 2 (EDI-2). ED participants included: 46 with restrictive anorexia (AN-R); 24 with binge-purging type of Anorexia Nervosa (AN-BP); 34 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and 34 with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was split in two groups: participants with binge eating behaviours (BEB), in which were included participants with AN-BP, BN and BED, and participants with restrictive behaviours (AN-R). participants with EDs showed significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than HCs. Moreover, EDs participants showed significantly higher scores on all AdAS Spectrum domains with the exception of Non verbal communication and Hyper-Hypo reactivity to sensory input for AN-BP participants, and Childhood/Adolescence domain for AN-BP and BED participants. Participants with AN-R scored significantly higher than participants with BEB on the AdAS Spectrum total score, and on the Inflexibility and adherence to routine and Restricted interest/rumination AdAS Spectrum domain scores. Significant correlations emerged between the Interpersonal distrust EDI-2 sub-scale and the Non verbal communication and the Restricted interest and rumination AdAS Spectrum domains; as well as between the Social insecurity EDI-2 sub-scale and the Inflexibility and adherence to routine and Restricted interest and rumination

  11. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaigenbaum, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AND (infant OR child, preschool). Articles were selected based on relevance to developmental surveillance in primary care and on experimental design, with emphasis on prospective studies with systematic measurement procedures using up-to-date diagnostic criteria. MAIN MESSAGE: Autistic spectrum disorders are characterized by impairments in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication, and by preferences for repetitive interests and behaviours. Early signs that distinguish ASD from other atypical patterns of development include poor use of eye gaze, lack of gestures to direct other people's attention (particularly to show things of interest), diminished social responsiveness, and lack of age-appropriate play with toys (especially imaginative use of toys). Careful attention to parents' concerns and specific inquiry into and observation of how children interact, communicate, and play will help ensure that early signs are detected during regular health maintenance visits. CONCLUSION: Family physicians have an important role in early identification of children with ASD. Early diagnosis of these disorders is essential to ensure timely access to interventions known to improve outcomes for these children. PMID:11723598

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  13. Acupuncture for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Leisure of children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martincová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the games of the children with autism spectrum disorder as their most common activity. Furthermore, it describes the particularities and conditions of their games. Some methods of working with these children are mentioned as well, particularly the structured learning method. The goal of the thesis is to highlight the importance of games for the autistic children and to propose several different ways of improving their individual skills required cooperative games. The pr...

  15. Multisensory Temporal Integration in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include sensory disturbances in addition to the well-established language, communication, and social deficits. One sensory disturbance seen in ASD is an impaired ability to integrate multisensory information into a unified percept. This may arise from an underlying impairment in which individuals with ASD have difficulty perceiving the temporal relationship between cross-modal inputs, an important cue for multisensory inte...

  16. Structural MRI in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rong; Jiao, Yun; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic-resonance (MR) examination provides a powerful tool for investigating brain structural changes in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We review recent advances in the understanding of structural-MR correlates of ASD. We summarize findings from studies based on voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and tensor-based morphometry, and diffusion-tensor imaging. Finally, we discuss diagnostic models of ASD, based on MR-derived features.

  17. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qinrui; Han, Ying; Dy, Angel Belle C.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases...

  18. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Rich, J; Martin, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), a term that comprises both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Over 50% of treated AUD patients also suffer from other psychiatric disorder(s). Detailed study has revealed disorders across multiple psychiatric domains with rates of co-occurrence far greater than chance, suggesting a synergistic relationship. The basis of this synergy is explored along with its multiple forms, including behavioral and neurobiologic. Specific topics include the predisposition to both AUD and co-occurring psychopathology, the vulnerability to environmental risk factors that exacerbate these predispositions, and the nature of reinforcement in acute intoxication. Co-occurrence can also modify and exacerbate the neuroadaptations underpinning chronic dependence and relapse, the manifestations of acute and protracted withdrawal, emergence of medical and psychiatric complications, and ultimately the potential for relapse. The outcomes of co-occurrence as well as the unique impact it has on proper treatment are also discussed. Throughout, the significance of recognizing co-occurrence is emphasized since, both neurobiologically and clinically, the synergies between co-occurring disorders yield a result far more complex than a mere sum of the component disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  20. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  2. ADHD and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Malley, Kieran D

    2007-01-01

    ... Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of in...

  3. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  4. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  5. Problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kubásková, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on problem behavior, its manifestations and causes of origin in children with autism spectrum disorders. The thesis is divided into two parts, the theoretical and empirical. The theoretical part focuses on introduction to issues of autism spectrum disorders and problem behavior. Mentioned here is history and etiology of disorders, also the part deals with autistic triad of disability. Among others I try briefly characterize various autism spectrum disorders focusing on inf...

  6. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [ 11 C]MP4A and [ 11 C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [ 123 I]5IA SPECT for the α 4 β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [ 123 I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  7. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  8. Involvement of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities in Multiple Public Service Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stahmer, Aubyn; Mandell, David; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) among youths active in at least one of five public service systems: mental health (MH), educational services for youth with serious emotional disturbance (SED), child welfare (CW), juvenile justice (JJ), and alcohol and…

  9. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1857–1865....

  10. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  11. [Pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder: recent developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissine, Mikhail; Clin, Elise; de Villiers, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by primary pragmatic difficulties, out of step with verbal and non-verbal developmental level. This selective survey paper addresses three recent domains of research on pragmatic functions in autism. First, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how lack of sensitivity to social cues impacts early acquisition of words. Second, we review recent findings on the comprehension of non-literal language, pointing to a more refined clinical reality. Third, we describe recent developments in the study of conversation skills in autism. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  12. Delusions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: diagnostic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladis, M M; Levinson, D F; Mowry, B J

    1994-01-01

    Family studies of schizophrenia frequently include relatives of schizophrenia probands with diagnoses falling within the schizophrenia spectrum. As part of an ongoing genetic linkage study of schizophrenia, the authors examined case material from 50 relatives (of schizophrenia probands) who received a DSM-III-R diagnosis of a nonaffective psychotic disorder or schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder. Eleven exhibited episodic or chronic delusions that resulted in diagnostic dilemmas, often arising from issues pertaining to the classification of delusional phenomena. Four of these cases are presented here. Unusual beliefs were often difficult to classify as odd beliefs versus full delusions, brief/transient versus persistent delusions, bizarre versus non-bizarre delusions. It is suggested that these might be considered continuous rather than dichotomous dimensions. Several possible implications for genetic studies of schizophrenia are discussed.

  13. Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles.

  14. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinrui; Han, Ying; Dy, Angel Belle C; Hagerman, Randi J

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders. Here, we review the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (brain-gut axis) and the role of the gut microbiota in the central nervous system (CNS) and ASD. Microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD.

  15. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ASD and mood disorders. Here, we review the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (brain-gut axis and the role of the gut microbiota in the central nervous system (CNS and ASD. Microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD.

  16. Study protocol for a self-controlled cluster randomised trial of the Alert Program to improve self-regulation and executive function in Australian Aboriginal children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bree; Fitzpatrick, James P; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Symons, Martyn; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Jirikowic, Tracy; Cross, Donna; Wright, Edie; Adams, Emma; Carter, Maureen; Bruce, Kaashifah; Latimer, Jane

    2018-03-25

    While research highlights the benefits of early diagnosis and intervention for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), there are limited data documenting effective interventions for Australian children living in remote communities. This self-controlled cluster randomised trial is evaluating the effectiveness of an 8-week Alert Program school curriculum for improving self-regulation and executive function in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Children in grades 1-6 attending any of the eight participating schools across the Fitzroy Valley in remote North-West Australia ( N ≈ 363) were invited to participate. Each school was assigned to one of four clusters with clusters randomly assigned to receive the intervention at one of four time points. Clusters two, three and four had extended control conditions where students received regular schooling before later receiving the intervention. Trained classroom teachers delivered the Alert Program to students in discrete, weekly, 1-hour lessons. Student outcomes were assessed at three time points. For the intervention condition, data collection occurred 2 weeks immediately before and after the intervention, with a follow-up 8 weeks later. For control conditions in clusters two to four, the control data collection matched that of the data collection for the intervention condition in the preceding cluster. The primary outcome is change in self-regulation. FASD diagnoses will be determined via medical record review after the completion of data collection. The results will be analysed using generalised linear mixed modelling and reported in accordance with Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Western Australia (WA) (RA/4/1/7234), WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee (601) and WA Country Health Service (2015:04). The Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-Committee and WA Department of

  17. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  18. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environment factors affect to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Aim. To develop recommendations for the prevention schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the influence of environmental factors on the clinical pathomorphosis of the disease. Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environmental factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental

  19. Sex Differences in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common and disabling mental disorder associated with a significant burden of medical consequences and high socioeconomic costs. Although a growing number of studies support the existence of sex differences in several aspects of alcohol consumption and AUD, the majority of investigations have been conducted in men. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in AUD, focusing on epidemiology, neurobiology, pharmacokinetics, susceptibility to medical consequences, and treatment. Although AUD is more prevalent in men, the number of women with AUD is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents. Women show a higher vulnerability to medical consequences induced by alcohol consumption, including alcohol-related liver disease, cardiomyopathy, and breast cancer. This observation is only partly explained by the sex differences observed in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Women also show an accelerated progression from the first use of alcohol to the onset of AUD and appear to be at higher risk of alcohol- medication interactions. Although AUD women are less likely to seek treatment than men, they achieve better results through dedicated programs taking into account the special needs of female patients. However, findings on the efficacy and safety of medications used to treat AUD mostly come from studies in which women were largely underrepresented. The sex differences observed suggest the urgent need to conduct studies recruiting adequate numbers of female subjects, to increase knowledge of sex differences in AUD, and to develop personalized and evidence-based approaches of prevention and treatment of AUD in women. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.

  1. Epigenetic regulation in Autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraboni Chaudhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an impaired social communication skill and often results in repetitive, stereotyped behavior which is observed in children during the first few years of life. Other characteristic of this disorder includes language disabilities, difficulties in sensory integration, lack of reciprocal interactions and in some cases, cognitive delays. One percentage of the general population is affected by ASD and is four times more common in boys than girls. There are hundreds of genes, which has been identified to be associated with ASD etiology. However it remains difficult to comprehend our understanding in defining the genetic architecture necessary for complete exposition of its pathophysiology. Seeing the complexity of the disease, it is important to adopt a multidisciplinary approach which should not only focus on the “genetics” of autism but also on epigenetics, transcriptomics, immune system disruption and environmental factors that could all impact the pathogenesis of the disease. As environmental factors also play a key role in regulating the trigger of ASD, the role of chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation has started to emerge. Such epigenetic modifications directly link molecular regulatory pathways and environmental factors, which might be able to explain some aspects of complex disorders like ASD. The present review will focus on the role of epigenetic regulation in defining the underlying cause for ASD

  2. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2018-01-01

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  3. Sexual Orientation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R; Stokes, M A

    2018-01-01

    Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29.82 years, SD = 11.85). Findings suggested that sexual orientation was contingent on diagnosis (N = 570, χ 2 (9) =104.05, P Autism Res 2018, 11: 133-141. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Research suggests that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report increased homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality, but decreased heterosexuality. It is important to increase awareness about increased non-heterosexuality in ASD among autistic populations, medical professionals and care-takers, so as to provide specialized care, if needed and increase support and inclusion for non-heterosexual autistic individuals. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clinical Genetic Aspects of ASD Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bradley Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early presumptions opined that autism spectrum disorder (ASD was related to the rearing of these children by emotionally-distant mothers. Advances in the 1960s and 1970s clearly demonstrated the biologic basis of autism with a high heritability. Recent advances have demonstrated that specific etiologic factors in autism spectrum disorders can be identified in 30%–40% of cases. Based on early reports newer, emerging genomic technologies are likely to increase this diagnostic yield to over 50%. To date these investigations have focused on etiologic factors that are largely mono-factorial. The currently undiagnosed causes of ASDs will likely be found to have causes that are more complex. Epigenetic, multiple interacting loci, and four dimensional causes (with timing as a variable are likely to be associated with the currently unidentifiable cases. Today, the “Why” is more important than ever. Understanding the causes of ASDs help inform families of important issues such as recurrence risk, prognosis, natural history, and predicting associated co-morbid medical conditions. In the current era of emerging efforts in “personalized medicine”, identifying an etiology will be critical in identifying endo-phenotypic groups and individual variations that will allow for tailored treatment for persons with ASD.

  5. Auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Erissandra; Pedroso, Fleming Salvador; Wagner, Mário Bernardes

    2008-01-01

    auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder has been described in the literature since the very first reports. However, this symptom has not been sufficiently explored, especially regarding possible causes, diagnosis and consequences. to study sensory-perceptual abnormalities in the autistic spectrum disorder, emphasizing auditory hypersensitivity and to discuss their effects in speech therapy based on the literature found until September 2007 in the following database: Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Medline. sensory-perceptual abnormalities are present in approximately 90% of individuals with autism; no theory has been found to explain this fact. Although the cause of auditory hypersensitivity remains unknown, it is the most common sensory-perceptual abnormality--its prevalence ranges between 15% to 100%. A few rare studies exist on behavioral, electroacoustic and electrophysiological hearing evaluation of autistic children; these studies discuss auditory hypersensitivity. The early diagnosis of this alteration is considered relevant for the possible identification of atypical sensorial markers, especially in hearing and for the better understanding of their impact on the development of communication in autistic individuals.

  6. Fractionation of Social Brain Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…

  7. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks the epistemological and phenomenological framework to address such questions. Using the resources of phenomenology and philosophy of mind, we articulate the structure of imagination and describe its distinctive modifications in the SSDs. Drawing on pilot data with patients' self-descriptions, we present the notion of perceptualized imagery. The anomalous imagery acquires spatialization, spatiotemporal constancy, explorability, autonomy and a sense of experiential distance between the subject and the image. As a quasi-perceptual, stable object, such imagery often evokes an intense affective response, whereas the normal sense of 'irreality' of the fantasy may become compromised. We articulate these anomalies of imagination as being entailed by the underlying generative disorder of schizophrenia, namely the disorder of minimal self (unstable ipseity or first-person perspective). We propose that pathology of imagination is an important psychopathological aspect of the schizophrenia spectrum, with significant relevance for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  9. [Sleep disturbances in children with autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I A

    2015-01-01

    An association between sleep disorders and autistic spectrum disorders in children is considered. Characteristic variants of sleep disorders, including resistance to going to bed, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, changes in sleep structure, primarily, the decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, are presented. Attention is focused on the possibility of the direct relationship between sleep disturbance and the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. A role of pathological alterations in the production of neuromediators and morphological changes in the brain structures characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders in the genesis of sleep disorders in children is discussed. Possible non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches are suggested.

  10. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Chou, S. Patricia; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Smith, Sharon M.; Huang, Boji; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE National epidemiologic information from recently collected data on the new DSM-5 classification of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using a reliable, valid, and uniform data source is needed. OBJECTIVE To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, associated disability, and treatment of DSM-5 AUD diagnoses overall and according to severity level (mild, moderate, or severe). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted face-to-face interviews with a representative US noninstitutionalized civilian adult (≥18 years) sample (N = 36 309) as the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III). Data were collected from April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed in October 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Twelve-month and lifetime prevalences of AUD. RESULTS Twelve-month and lifetime prevalences of AUD were 13.9% and 29.1%, respectively. Prevalence was generally highest for men (17.6% and 36.0%, respectively), white (14.0% and 32.6%, respectively) and Native American (19.2% and 43.4%, respectively), respondents, and younger (26.7% and 37.0%, respectively) and previously married (11.4% and 27.1%, respectively) or never married (25.0% and 35.5%, respectively) adults. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime severe AUD was greatest among respondents with the lowest income level (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively). Significant disability was associated with 12-month and lifetime AUD and increased with the severity of AUD. Only 19.8% of respondents with lifetime AUD were ever treated. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime AUD and other substance use disorders, major depressive and bipolar I disorders, and antisocial and borderline personality disorders across all levels of AUD severity, with odds ratios ranging from 1.2 (95% CI, 1.08-1.36) to 6.4 (95% CI, 5.76-7.22). Associations between AUD and panic disorder, specific phobia, and generalized anxiety

  11. Specifies of teaching swimming to children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Title: Specifics of teaching swimming to children with autism spectrum disorder. Objectives: Creation and implementation of the concept of preparatory and basic swimming lessons for children with autism spectrum disorder. Evaluation of information on continuing education and the achieved level of swimming skills and swimming locomotion observed in children with autism spectrum disorder. Presentation and qualitative assessment of the four case studies and subsequent design of guidelines for sw...

  12. Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0369 TITLE: Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Betty Diamond...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1...to approximately 5% of cases of ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fetal brain; Autism spectrum disorder ; antibody; B cells; Caspr2 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  13. Genetic testing for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sarah C; Msall, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play a pivotal role in the etiology of ASD. However, ASD appear to be influenced by complex genetic and environmental factors, and evidence suggests that this is not a single gene disorder. In particular, ASD has a complex behavioral phenotype, and this variation reflects complex genotypes under the influence of external factors. With these considerations in mind, it is important to recognize that genetic testing is a vital component of the diagnostic evaluation of children with ASD. For example, children with ASD who have definitive etiologies may be able to access more specific resources, they may be spared long, emotionally and financially exhausting diagnostic journeys, and associated medical conditions and comorbidities can be managed proactively. Most importantly, children with disabilities of unknown origin should have an ongoing evaluation of potential etiologies for their symptoms (Crocker, 1987). Our purpose is to describe current trends in genetic testing for ASD, potential genetic etiologies of ASD, known genetic disorders associated with ASD, and recommendations for genetic testing in ASD. We will also emphasize the importance of access to informed health professionals, especially in the contexts of stigma and community supports. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sleep in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Ivanenko, Anna; Johnson, Kyle

    2010-08-01

    Children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) suffer from sleep problems, particularly insomnia, at a higher rate than typically developing children, ranging from 40% to 80%. Sleep problems in ASD might occur as a result of complex interactions between biological, psychological, social/environmental, and family factors, including child rearing practices that are not conducive to good sleep. Interestingly, children with a history of developmental regression have a more disturbed sleep pattern than children without regression. Even though regulation of sleep in children with ASD is still poorly understood, circadian abnormalities in autism might be the result of genetic abnormalities related to melatonin synthesis and melatonin's role in modulating synaptic transmission. Recently a bifurcation of the sleep/wake cycle with increased sensitivity to external noise and short sleep duration causing irregular sleep onset and wake up times has been suggested. Identifying and treating sleep disorders may result not only in improved sleep, but also impact favorably on daytime behavior and family functioning. Several studies have also demonstrated effectiveness of behavioral interventions for sleep onset and maintenance problems in these populations. When behavioral interventions are not effective or lead only to a partial response, pharmacological treatment options should be considered. Studies of melatonin use in children with ASD provide evidence for its effectiveness and safety in the long run. The clinician assessing a child with an ASD should screen carefully for sleep disorders and make referrals as indicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic research in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Hyman, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The recent explosion of genetic findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research has improved knowledge of the disorder's underlying biology and etiologic architecture. This review introduces concepts and results from recent genetic studies and discusses the manner in which those findings can influence the trajectory of ASD research. Recent findings Large consortium studies have associated ASDs with many types of genetic risk factors, including common polygenic risk, de novo single nucleotide variants, copy number variants, and rare inherited variants. In aggregate, these results confirm the heterogeneity and complexity of ASDs. The rare variant findings in particular point to genes and pathways that begin to bridge the gap between behavior and biology. Summary Genetic studies have the potential to identify the biological underpinnings of ASDs and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The data they generate are already being used to examine disease pathways and pathogenesis. The results also speak to ASD heterogeneity and, in the future, may be used to stratify research studies and treatment trials. PMID:26371945

  16. [Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, S S

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders commonly co-occur with substance use disorders. It is known that alcohol-dependent patients are at greater risk of a relapse if they have a comorbid anxiety disorder. There is a lot of literature reporting on the efficacy of treatments that target anxiety or alcohol addiction separately but less research has examined treatments that address these disorders when they co-occur. Anxiety treatment for alcohol-dependent patients with a co-occuring anxiety disorder can alleviate anxiety symptoms but has no significant effect on the outcomes of alcohol treatment. Efficient combinations of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy can improve outcomes of comorbid disorders.

  17. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Manuela; Rohr, Christiane S; Dewey, Deborah; McCrimmon, Adam; Bray, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact) and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases). However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewertsen, Caitlin M; French, Emma D; Teramoto, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide range of social and mental afflictions that are difficult to treat. Due to a lack of established treatments for ASD, alternative therapies have been the primary form of intervention. One of these alternatives is pet therapy, a field that has experienced growing interest and has recently accumulated studies that investigate its efficacy. This article reviews and summarizes that effectiveness as well as the findings and limitations associated with pet therapy for ASD. The majority of research on ASD and pet therapy has examined children and has primarily used dogs and horses for therapy. Studies have shown positive effects for the therapy, including high satisfaction rates among the participants' families. Major limitations of studies in the current literature include the lack of control groups and small sample sizes. Future research should incorporate better study designs and large samples to validate pet therapy as an appropriate treatment for ASD.

  19. Autism spectrum disorders: from genes to neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; State, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Advances in genome-wide technology, coupled with the availability of large cohorts, are finally yielding a steady stream of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes carrying mutations of large effect. These findings represent important molecular clues, but at the same time present notable challenges to traditional strategies for moving from genes to neurobiology. A remarkable degree of genetic heterogeneity, the biological pleiotropy of ASD genes, and the tremendous complexity of the human brain are prompting the development of new strategies for translating genetic discoveries into therapeutic targets. Recent developments in systems biology approaches that 'contextualize' these genetic findings along spatial, temporal, and cellular axes of human brain development are beginning to bridge the gap between high-throughput gene discovery and testable pathophysiological hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa; Daniels, Julie; Fallin, M Daniele; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Lee, Brian K; Park, Bo Y; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Schendel, Diana; Volk, Heather; Windham, Gayle C; Newschaffer, Craig

    2017-03-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction. Epidemiologic investigations focused on nongenetic factors have established advanced parental age and preterm birth as ASD risk factors, indicated that prenatal exposure to air pollution and short interpregnancy interval are potential risk factors, and suggested the need for further exploration of certain prenatal nutrients, metabolic conditions, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss future challenges and goals for ASD epidemiology as well as public health implications.

  1. Gastrointestinal issues in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Elaine Y

    2014-01-01

    While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by communication impairments, social abnormalities, and stereotypic behaviors, several medical comorbidities are observed in autistic individuals. Of these, gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities are of particular interest given their reported prevalence and correlation with the severity of core autism-related behavioral abnormalities. This review discusses the GI pathologies seen in ASD individuals and the association of particular GI conditions with known genetic and environmental risk factors for autism. It further addresses how GI abnormalities can affect the neuropathological and behavioral features of ASD, as well as the development of autism-related endophenotypes such as immune dysregulation, hyperserotonemia, and metabolic dysfunction. Finally, it presents emerging evidence for a gut-brain connection in autism, wherein GI dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis or severity of ASD symptoms.

  2. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Han, Summer S.; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Leng, Lin; Mizue, Yuka; Anderson, George M.; Mulder, Erik J.; de Bildt, Annelies; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Chang, Joseph T.; Bucala, Richard

    OBJECTIVE. Autistic spectrum disorders are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communicative impairment and repetitive and stereotypical behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity that promotes

  3. Prenatal neurogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.

  4. The branched chain amino acids in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlungeanu, Dora

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. Despite the remarkable number of scientific breakthroughs of the last 100 years, the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, epilepsy) remains a great challenge. Recent advancements in genomics, like whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, have enabled scientists to identify numerous mutations underlying neurodevelopm...

  5. On the issue of intellectual disability in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov S.A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At the stage of school education in the framework of comprehensive support for children with autism spectrum dis¬order it is important to adequately access their educational needs while taking all aspects of autistic disorders into consideration including intellectual disorders. This article examines some moments of interconnection between autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. It demonstrates that such interconnection can be treated as chronological comorbidity; it depicts dynamics and structure of connection between autism spectrum disorders and intellectual dis¬ability, different variants of qualitative characteristics of this connection; specifics of assessment of the level of intellect in autism spectrum disorders. The article provides practical recommendations for intellect assessment in children with autism spectrum disorder that allow avoiding mistakes in decision-making in educational trajectory of the child.

  6. Educational and Behavioral Interventions in Management of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Koyeli; Lobo, Leera; Krishnamurthy, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) makes early recognition, evaluation and management an important task for pediatricians, physicians and other professionals caring for children. Educational interventions form the mainstay of management for children with autism spectrum disorder. Such interventions focus on improving social interaction, communication and challenging behaviors, thereby promoting learning and independence in children. This article provides an overview of educational and behavioral interventions in autism spectrum disorder, with special reference to challenges and feasible solutions in the Indian context. Articles were retrieved from various databases including Google Scholar, Medscape, Cochrane, PubMed using the search terms 'autism spectrum disorder OR autism AND educational interventions'; 'autism spectrum disorder OR autism, educational interventions AND India' and 'autism spectrum disorder OR autism AND India'. Reference lists from retrieved articles as well as websites of organizations working in this space in India were also searched. Extracted manuscripts were analysed for content related to various aspects of educational and behavioral interventions in autism spectrum disorder. Intervention models for autism spectrum disorder are based on various theoretical orientations and target specific deficits associated with the disorder. In addition, evidence-based principles for effective intervention are highlighted. In developing countries like India, access to interventions is a challenge and resources are limited. In such settings, the pediatrician's or physician's role is vital in supporting families choose programs that are evidence-based, target individual needs and result in improved outcomes.

  7. Injuries among children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Spencer, Donna; Yang, Wenya; Kelly, Jonathan P; Newschaffer, Craig J; Johnson, Jonathan; Marshall, Jaclyn; Azocar, Francisca; Tabb, Loni Philip; Dennen, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    We compared risk of injury among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to those without ASD, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We used claims data from 2001 to 2009 from a commercial health plan in the United States. A validated ASD case identification algorithm identified 33,565 children (ages 0-20 years) with ASD and 138,876 children without. Counting process models tested the association between ASD status and injury episodes with separate regressions run for children during different age periods. Unadjusted results demonstrated that children with ASD had a 12% greater injury risk than children without ASD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.119; P Children with ASD have more injuries than children without ASD. After controlling for demographic factors and co-occurring conditions, children with ASD are at lower risk of injury, suggesting that co-occurring conditions or the ways these conditions interact with ASD is related to injuries. Clinicians should understand that injury risk in children with ASD may be driven by co-occurring conditions. Treating these conditions could thus decrease injury risk as well as have other benefits. Injury prevention interventions are especially warranted for younger children with ASD and those with seizures, depression, visual impairment, or attention-deficit disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Diagnostic Odyssey of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappé, Martine; Lau, Lynette; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Nelson, Bergen B; Karp, Elizabeth A; Kuo, Alice A

    2018-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by challenges in social communication and interaction and restricted or repetitive behavior, interests, or activities. Although ASD symptoms generally manifest in early childhood, many individuals experience delays accessing an autism diagnosis and related services. In this study, we identify the individual, social, and structural factors that influence parents' experiences of children's ASD diagnosis. Parents of 25 children with autism participated in 60- to 90-minute semistructured in-person interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using the method of grounded theory. This inductive method allowed analysts to identify key themes related to participants' experiences of children's ASD diagnosis. The process of ASD diagnosis reflects an odyssey that includes 3 key phases: the prediagnosis phase, in which "Making Sense of Child Difference" is a primary characteristic of participants' experiences; the during-diagnosis phase, when "Navigating Diagnosis" suggests systematic barriers that influence the timing of ASD diagnosis; and the postdiagnosis phase, when participants' experiences of "Connecting to Services" point to the important role that personal efforts play in gaining access to care. In this study, we highlight individual, social, and structural factors that influence parent experiences before, during, and after their child's autism diagnosis. Our findings indicate the need for more consistent and continuous support for autistic individuals and their families during the diagnostic odyssey, as well as resources that better represent the diversity of experiences and symptoms associated with autism across the life course. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kristen; Anderson, Bryan; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Forness, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Although comorbid or co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and oppositional defiant or conduct disorders have been well studied in children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very little research is available on preschool samples. The current study…

  10. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  11. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  12. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism

  13. Quantifying the Use of Gestures in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechts, Anna; Yarrow, K.; Maras, Katie

    Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in communication and social interaction. In the absence of a biomarker, a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is reached in settings such as the ADOS (Lord et al., 2000) by observing disturbances of social...

  14. Quantifying the use of gestures in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechts, Anna; Yarrow, Kielan; Maras, Katie

    Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in communication and social interaction. In the absence of a biomarker, a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is reached in settings such as the ADOS (Lord et al., 2000) by observing disturbances of social...

  15. No Evidence of Reaction Time Slowing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richard

    2016-01-01

    A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…

  16. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  17. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  18. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  19. Zellweger spectrum disorders: clinical overview and management approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klouwer, Femke C. C.; Berendse, Kevin; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2015-01-01

    Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) represent the major subgroup within the peroxisomal biogenesis disorders caused by defects in PEX genes. The Zellweger spectrum is a clinical and biochemical continuum which can roughly be divided into three clinical phenotypes. Patients can present in the

  20. Coexistence of 9p Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Ekinci, Nuran; Toros, Fevziye

    2017-01-01

    Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    research and clinical care. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder, structural connectivity , functional connectivity , resting-state, restrictive... Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...pipeline. This will enable us to better understand the nature of disrupted connectivity in autism and its relation to core symptoms. The state-of-the

  2. Priorities for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Communication and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…

  3. Pediatric epilepsy and comorbid reading disorders, math disorders, or autism spectrum disorders: Impact of epilepsy on cognitive patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iterson, L.; de Jong, P.F.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In pediatric epilepsy, comorbidities are reported to be frequent. The present study focusedon the cognitive patterns of children with isolated epilepsy, children with isolated neurodevelopmental disorders (reading disorders, math disorders, autism spectrum disorders), and children with

  4. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  5. Alcohol-use disorder severity predicts first-incidence of depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Wall, M. M.; Hasin, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted

  6. Alcohol-use disorder severity predicts first-incidence of depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Wall, M.M.; Hasin, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted

  7. Enhancing Work Outcomes of Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Leadership: Leadership for Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success.…

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  9. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  10. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (sulforaphane showed substantial declines (improvement of behavior): 34% for ABC (P sulforaphane had improvement in social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation.

  11. Emotional prosody processing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblau, Gabriela; Kliemann, Dorit; Dziobek, Isabel; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by severe deficits in social communication, whereby the nature of their impairments in emotional prosody processing have yet to be specified. Here, we investigated emotional prosody processing in individuals with ASD and controls with novel, lifelike behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Compared to controls, individuals with ASD showed reduced emotional prosody recognition accuracy on a behavioral task. On the neural level, individuals with ASD displayed reduced activity of the STS, insula and amygdala for complex vs basic emotions compared to controls. Moreover, the coupling between the STS and amygdala for complex vs basic emotions was reduced in the ASD group. Finally, groups differed with respect to the relationship between brain activity and behavioral performance. Brain activity during emotional prosody processing was more strongly related to prosody recognition accuracy in ASD participants. In contrast, the coupling between STS and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity predicted behavioral task performance more strongly in the control group. These results provide evidence for aberrant emotional prosody processing of individuals with ASD. They suggest that the differences in the relationship between the neural and behavioral level of individuals with ASD may account for their observed deficits in social communication. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Emotional prosody processing in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemann, Dorit; Dziobek, Isabel; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by severe deficits in social communication, whereby the nature of their impairments in emotional prosody processing have yet to be specified. Here, we investigated emotional prosody processing in individuals with ASD and controls with novel, lifelike behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Compared to controls, individuals with ASD showed reduced emotional prosody recognition accuracy on a behavioral task. On the neural level, individuals with ASD displayed reduced activity of the STS, insula and amygdala for complex vs basic emotions compared to controls. Moreover, the coupling between the STS and amygdala for complex vs basic emotions was reduced in the ASD group. Finally, groups differed with respect to the relationship between brain activity and behavioral performance. Brain activity during emotional prosody processing was more strongly related to prosody recognition accuracy in ASD participants. In contrast, the coupling between STS and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity predicted behavioral task performance more strongly in the control group. These results provide evidence for aberrant emotional prosody processing of individuals with ASD. They suggest that the differences in the relationship between the neural and behavioral level of individuals with ASD may account for their observed deficits in social communication. PMID:27531389

  13. Attention deficit disorder, alcoholism, and drug abuse: MMPI correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, J M; Horton, A M; Ahadpour, M

    1992-03-01

    Earlier research had demonstrated that alcoholics with attention deficit disorder residual type (ADDRT) differ from other alcoholics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of drug abuse on the relationship of ADDRT and alcoholism as reflected on the MMPI. Groups of 48 male alcoholics, 28 ADDRT alcoholics, 25 ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers and 18 alcohol and drug abusers were all administered the MMPI. Significant differences were found between the alcoholic and ADDRT alcoholic groups on scales Pd, Sc, Si, F, and K. For the ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers versus the alcohol and drug abuser groups, they differed on scales K, Hs, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, F, K, and L.

  14. Progress in mind: focus on alcohol use disorders, an elsevier resource centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, D J; Rehm, J; van den Brink, W; Gorwood, P; Buchsbaum, M S

    2015-04-30

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the top five risks for burden of disease globally and in Europe; in 2012, 3.3 million net deaths (approximately 6% of all global deaths) were attributable to this risk factor. It is also linked to the development of a wide spectrum of alcohol use disorders, ranging from mild manifestations to a severe disease known as alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence is a progressive, chronic, and relapsing brain disease resulting from the prolonged effects of alcohol on the brain. Alcohol dependence imposes a significant societal burden, with indirect societal costs reaching up to 0.64% of European countries׳ annual gross domestic product. With these facts in mind, it is important to recognize and manage alcohol dependence. Although the biological mechanisms behind the development of alcohol dependence are not fully known, factors that have been shown to influence its development include genetic predisposition, psychological problems, and social interactions. Alcohol use has also been linked to the development of hypertension, liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, multiple types of cancer, and psychiatric comorbidities such as depression and anxiety disorders. With such severe effects on both individuals and society, it is important to recognize the characteristic signs and symptoms of alcohol dependence and explore new ways to better manage patients with this brain disease. Effective treatment approaches for alcohol dependence include biological, behavioral, and social components addressing the multiple aspects of this disease. Comprehensive, educational platforms in which to explore the many facets of this disease such as the Progress in Mind: Focus on Alcohol Use Disorders Resource Centre, will provide clinicians with the tools necessary for recognizing patients with alcohol dependence and managing their disease along with related comorbidities. Online Access: http://progressinmind.elsevierresource.com. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  15. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. The Implications of Brain MRI in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alison S; Friedlaender, Eron; Levy, Susan E; Shekdar, Karuna V; Bradford, Andrea Bennett; Wells, Kimberly E; Mollen, Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to describe the types of providers who refer children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the referral reason, and MRI results. The most common referral reasons were autism spectrum disorder with seizures (33.7%), autism spectrum disorder alone (26.3%), and autism spectrum disorder with abnormal neurologic examination or preexisting finding (24%). Neurology (62.5%), general pediatric (22.3%), and developmental/behavioral practitioners (8.9%) referred the most patients. The prevalence of definite pathology was highest in children referred for autism spectrum disorder with abnormal neurologic examination/preexisting finding (26.2%, 95% CI: 16.8%-36%), headaches (25.7%, 95% CI: 11.2%-40.2%), or seizures (22%, 95% CI: 14.6%-29.5%), and was lowest in children referred for autism spectrum disorder alone (6.5%, 95% CI: 1.5%-11.6%). We concluded that there is a low prevalence of definite pathology in children with autism spectrum disorder undergoing brain MRI. In children with abnormal neurologic examination or preexisting finding, seizures, or headaches, one may consider performing brain MRI given the higher prevalence of pathology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey  of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environment factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental factors influence in high risk individuals would postpone early manifestation, reduce disability in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, as evidenced by the statement of leading health experts.

  18. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay H. Brodersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a

  19. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  20. Tics and Tourette Syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more frequently associated with tic disorders than expected by chance. Variable rates of comorbidity have been reported and common genetic and neurobiological factors are probably involved. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of tic disorders in a clinical sample (n = 105) of children and…

  1. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  2. Understanding visual consciousness in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatziv, Tal; Jacobson, Hilla

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the question of what the (visual) perceptual differences are between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals. We argue against the view that autistic subjects have a deficiency in the most basic form of perceptual consciousness-namely, phenomenal consciousness. Instead, we maintain, the perceptual atypicality of individuals with autism is of a more conceptual and cognitive sort-their perceptual experiences share crucial aspects with TD individuals. Our starting point is Ben Shalom's (2005, 2009) three-level processing framework for explaining atypicality in several domains of processing among autistics, which we compare with two other tripartite models of perception-Jackendoff's (1987) and Prinz's (2000, 2005a, 2007) Intermediate Level Hypothesis and Lamme's (2004, 2006, 2010) neural account of consciousness. According to these models, whereas the second level of processing is concerned with viewer-centered visual representations of basic visual properties and incorporates some early forms of integration, the third level is more cognitive and conceptual. We argue that the data suggest that the atypicality in autism is restricted mainly to the third level. More specifically, second-level integration, which is the mark of phenomenal consciousness, is typical, yet third-level integration of perceptual objects and concepts is atypical. Thus, the basic experiences of individuals with autism are likely to be similar to typical subjects' experiences; the main difference lies in the sort of cognitive access the subjects have to their experiences. We conclude by discussing implications of the suggested analysis of experience in autism for conceptions of phenomenal consciousness.

  3. The cost of autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Horlin

    Full Text Available A diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorders is usually associated with substantial lifetime costs to an individual, their family and the community. However, there remains an elusive factor in any cost-benefit analysis of ASD diagnosis, namely the cost of not obtaining a diagnosis. Given the infeasibility of estimating the costs of a population that, by its nature, is inaccessible, the current study compares expenses between families whose children received a formal ASD diagnosis immediately upon suspecting developmental atypicality and seeking advice, with families that experienced a delay between first suspicion and formal diagnosis.A register based questionnaire study covering all families with a child with ASD in Western Australia.Families with one or more children diagnosed with an ASD, totalling 521 children diagnosed with an ASD; 317 records were able to be included in the final analysis.The median family cost of ASD was estimated to be AUD $34,900 per annum with almost 90% of the sum ($29,200 due to loss of income from employment. For each additional symptom reported, approximately $1,400 cost for the family per annum was added. While there was little direct influence on costs associated with a delay in the diagnosis, the delay was associated with a modest increase in the number of ASD symptoms, indirectly impacting the cost of ASD.A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families. Early and appropriate access to early intervention is known to improve a child's long-term outcomes and reduce lifetime costs to the individual, family and society. Consequently, a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation, as is the case in Western Australia.

  4. Multisensory temporal integration in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Siemann, Justin K; Schneider, Brittany C; Eberly, Haley E; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Camarata, Stephen M; Wallace, Mark T

    2014-01-15

    The new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include sensory disturbances in addition to the well-established language, communication, and social deficits. One sensory disturbance seen in ASD is an impaired ability to integrate multisensory information into a unified percept. This may arise from an underlying impairment in which individuals with ASD have difficulty perceiving the temporal relationship between cross-modal inputs, an important cue for multisensory integration. Such impairments in multisensory processing may cascade into higher-level deficits, impairing day-to-day functioning on tasks, such as speech perception. To investigate multisensory temporal processing deficits in ASD and their links to speech processing, the current study mapped performance on a number of multisensory temporal tasks (with both simple and complex stimuli) onto the ability of individuals with ASD to perceptually bind audiovisual speech signals. High-functioning children with ASD were compared with a group of typically developing children. Performance on the multisensory temporal tasks varied with stimulus complexity for both groups; less precise temporal processing was observed with increasing stimulus complexity. Notably, individuals with ASD showed a speech-specific deficit in multisensory temporal processing. Most importantly, the strength of perceptual binding of audiovisual speech observed in individuals with ASD was strongly related to their low-level multisensory temporal processing abilities. Collectively, the results represent the first to illustrate links between multisensory temporal function and speech processing in ASD, strongly suggesting that deficits in low-level sensory processing may cascade into higher-order domains, such as language and communication.

  5. Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SOR can also have an impact on oral care , both in the home and dental office. Similarly, the presence of an anxiety disorder has been shown to...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0526 TITLE: Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  6. Alcohol consumption and symptoms as predictors for relapse of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms may serve as easily quantifiable markers for AUD relapse after remission and might help prevention workers identify at-risk individuals. We investigated the predictive value of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms on

  7. Enhancing work outcomes of employees with autism spectrum disorder through leadership: leadership for employees with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Hunter, Samuel T

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success. Through a series of interviews with 54 employees with autism spectrum disorder, results indicated that leadership has a great effect on employee attitudes and performance, and that the notion of leadership preferences is quite complex culminating in several important behaviors rather than one superior leadership theory. Implications and future research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder co-morbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneier, F R; Foose, T E; Hasin, D S; Heimberg, R G; Liu, S-M; Grant, B F; Blanco, C

    2010-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001-2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version. Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.

  9. The prevalence and causes of autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Terry

    Autism and autistic spectrum disorders are still relatively poorly understood. This article outlines the results of new research into the prevalence of autism and into the causes of the condition and highlights implications for nurses from the findings.

  10. Coagulopathy in Zellweger spectrum disorders: a role for vitamin K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeynelabidin, S. (Sara); Klouwer, F.C.C. (Femke C. C.); J.C.M. Meijers; Suijker, M.H. (Monique H.); M. Engelen (Marc); B.T. Poll-The; C.H. van Ommen (Heleen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are caused by an impairment of peroxisome biogenesis, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities. This leads to a range of symptoms, including hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of

  11. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi...

  12. Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Lee, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although alcohol abstinence is the crucial therapeutic goal for patients with alcoholic liver disease, these patients have less access to psychosocial, behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder. Psychosocial and behavioral therapies include 12-step facilitation, brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy. In addition to medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for alcohol use disorder (disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate), recent efforts to identify potential new treatments have yielded promising candidate pharmacotherapies. Finally, more efforts are needed to integrate treatments across disciplines toward patient-centered approaches in the management of patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease. PMID:27984008

  13. Special educational needs of students with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Education of children with autism spectrum disorders is possible only if their special educational needs are taken into account. Special educational needs of children form the demand for special educational conditions. On the basis of the existing primary list of special educational needs in the approximate adapted basic general education program for students with autism spectrum disorders and with consideration of contemporary scientific data about particularities of their develo...

  14. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-H?bsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  15. Pitch perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Williams, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (Mage=9.34, SDage=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (Mage=9.13,

  16. Practical outpatient pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjung; Hack, Laura M; Ahn, Elizabeth S

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population. Herein, we provide practical pharmacotherapy strategies to improve treatment outcome for AUD. We review the efficacy and side effects of both on- and off-label agents with a particular focus on clinical applicability. Recommendations are supported by findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses selected to be representative, where possible, of current treatment guidelines. The goal of this paper is to help readers use pharmacotherapy with greater confidence when treating patients with AUD. PMID:29445407

  17. Practical outpatient pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population. Herein, we provide practical pharmacotherapy strategies to improve treatment outcome for AUD. We review the efficacy and side effects of both on- and off-label agents with a particular focus on clinical applicability. Recommendations are supported by findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT and meta-analyses selected to be representative, where possible, of current treatment guidelines. The goal of this paper is to help readers use pharmacotherapy with greater confidence when treating patients with AUD.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Martina; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-05-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e., nociceptin and dynorphin) are involved in the interaction of stress and alcohol. In fact, alterations in the expression and function of these molecules have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. In recent years, various studies have focused on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate chromatin architecture, thereby modifying gene expression. Interestingly, epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions have been shown to be associated with the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism and stress. In particular, the enzymes responsible for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases) have been identified as common molecular mechanisms for the interaction of stress and alcohol and have become promising therapeutic targets to treat or prevent alcoholism and associated emotional disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Autism spectrum disorder and interoception: Abnormalities in global integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Timothy R; Brown, Rhonda F; Giummarra, Melita J; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2017-11-01

    Research over the past three decades has seen a revived interest in the way the human body-and the way in which it is perceived-interacts with aspects of our experience. Consequently, interoception (i.e. the perception of physiological feedback from the body) has recently been shown to be associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional, and affective functions, making it broadly relevant to the study of autism spectrum disorder. Although limited qualitative accounts and empirical studies suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorder encounter abnormalities when perceiving and integrating physiological feedback from their bodies, other studies have suggested that people with/without autism spectrum disorder do not differ in interoceptive ability after accounting for alexithymia. In this article, we discuss the newly recognized importance of interoception in autism spectrum disorder with a focus on how deficits in the perception of bodily feedback might relate to the core features and co-occuring psychopathology of autism spectrum disorder. Finally, a new integrated theory is advanced which posits that people with autism spectrum disorder may experience a reduced capacity to integrate interoceptive information that may result in a narrow attentional bodily focus and reduced motivational and behavioral drives.

  20. Autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xue; Walters, Arthur S

    2009-11-01

    There is increased awareness of sleep disorders and their complexity in developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review is focused on the latest reports of research on sleep disorders in these two developmental disorders. Sleep disruptions such as prolonged sleep onset latency, sleep fragmentation, and increased daytime sleepiness are repeatedly described in both ASD and ADHD. Parasomnias are common in ASD, but rarely studied in ADHD. Sleep disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome have been consistently associated with ADHD. Abnormal sleep architectures, including sleep fragmentation and rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, are reported in both ASD and ADHD. The impact of psychiatric comorbidity on sleep disorders is considered in recent studies. Sleep disorders are common in both ASD and ADHD. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders should improve daytime behaviors and well being of these individuals and their families. Further research on clinical characteristics and sleep architecture using well characterized and better-selected patient populations are warranted for both ASD and ADHD. Longitudinal study of sleep disorders and the treatment effects will provide a better understanding of the relationship between sleep disorders and the developmental disorders.

  1. Aripiprazole for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lauren E; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-06-26

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Antipsychotics have been used as a medication intervention for irritability related to ASD. Aripiprazole, a third-generation, atypical antipsychotic, is a relatively new drug that has a unique mechanism of action different from that of other antipsychotics. This review updates a previous Cochrane review on the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for individuals with ASD, published in 2011 (Ching 2011). To assess the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole as medication treatment for individuals with ASD. In October 2015, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and seven other databases as well as two trial registers. We searched for records published in 1990 or later, as this was the year aripiprazole became available. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of aripiprazole (administered orally and at any dosage) versus placebo for treatment of individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. Two review authors independently collected, evaluated and analysed data. We performed meta-analysis for primary and secondary outcomes, when possible. We used the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to rate the overall quality of the evidence. We included three trials in this review. Two were included in the previous published review, and the results of one, placebo-controlled discontinuation study were added to this review. Although we searched for studies across age groups, we found only studies conducted in children and youth. Included trials had low risk of bias across most domains. High risk of bias was seen in only one trial with incomplete outcome data. We judged the overall quality of the evidence for most outcomes to be moderate.Two RCTs with similar methods evaluated

  2. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  3. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.J.C.; Arntz, A.R.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  4. Autism Spectrum Symptoms in a Tourette's Disorder Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Grados, Marco A; Sandor, Paul; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Dion, Yves; King, Robert A; Pauls, David L; Budman, Cathy L; Cath, Danielle C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J; McMahon, William M; Lee, Paul C; Delucchi, Kevin L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD,

  5. Temporal Dynamics of Speech and Gesture in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechts, Anna; Gaigg, Sebastian; Yarrow, Kielan

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in communication and social interaction. Abnormalities in the use of gestures or flow of conversation are frequently reported in clinical observations and contribute to a diagnosis of the disorder but the mechanisms underlying...

  6. Amniotic Fluid MMP-9 and Neurotrophins in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder Profile in Neurofibromatosis Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D. Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study…

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Noens, I.L.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Only case reports have described the co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this co-occurrence using a systematic approach. Children and adolescents (115 boys and 89 girls, mean age 10.8, SD = 3.58) referred to a gender identity

  10. Sleep Disturbances and Correlates of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Adam, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a…

  11. Autism Spectrum Symptoms in a Tourette's Disorder Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Dion, Yves; King, Robert; Pauls, David; Budman, Cathy L.; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J.; McMahon, William M.; Lee, Paul C.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    Objective: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD,

  12. Conducting research with minimally verbal participants with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Plesa Skwerer, Daniela; Joseph, Robert M; Brukilacchio, Brianna; Decker, Jessica; Eggleston, Brady; Meyer, Steven; Yoder, Anne

    2017-10-01

    A growing number of research groups are now including older minimally verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder in their studies to encompass the full range of heterogeneity in the population. There are numerous barriers that prevent researchers from collecting high-quality data from these individuals, in part because of the challenging behaviors with which they present alongside their very limited means for communication. In this article, we summarize the practices that we have developed, based on applied behavioral analysis techniques, and have used in our ongoing research on behavioral, eye-tracking, and electrophysiological studies of minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Our goal is to provide the field with useful guidelines that will promote the inclusion of the entire spectrum of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in future research investigations.

  13. A sleep habits questionnaire for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A; Crowe, Crystal; Henderson, Lynnette; McGrew, Susan G; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Stone, Wendy L

    2009-01-01

    Sleep difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorders are common, with poor sleep hygiene a contributing factor. We developed the Family Inventory of Sleep Habits to measure sleep hygiene in this population. Its validity and reliability in 2 groups of children aged 4 to 10 years, those with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, and those who are typically developing are described. In both groups, total and modified (reflecting insomnia subscales) scores on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire showed significant negative correlations with the total score. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III was significantly correlated with total score in the autism spectrum group but not in the typically developing group. Age and socioeconomic status were not correlated with total score in either group. This preliminary work suggests that the Family Inventory of Sleep Habits is a valid and reliable measure of sleep hygiene in autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions as a Risk Factor for Sleep Disorders in Children with Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Lena M.; Flick, Louise H.; Twyman, Kimberly A.; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders often co-occur with autism spectrum disorder. They further exacerbate autism spectrum disorder symptoms and interfere with children's and parental quality of life. This study examines whether gastrointestinal dysfunctions increase the odds of having sleep disorders in 610 children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder, aged 2-18…

  15. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.

  16. PROVIDING DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana MURARU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, it is realistic to assume that dental professionals are likely to treat individuals with this diagnosis. Understanding the complexities of this disorder and its behavioral manifestations is indispensable for dentists. The present article presents several characteristics of autism spectrum disorder that impact dental interventions, along with medical and behavioral alternatives to better manage the dental problems of children with autism spectrum disorder. A multidisciplinary approach and family support are important for planning a dental intervention for these patients in order to avoid anxiety. Knowledge on autism, the dentist-patient relationship and the individual preparation for dental interventions is useful for constructing a controllable medical experience

  17. Relationship between Alcohol Purchasing Time and Alcohol Use Disorder in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun

    2017-12-01

    Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and certain psychological traits, including impulsivity and low self-esteem. Stress, associating with others who abuse alcohol, and ... to 2012-2013: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 ...

  19. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  20. Social Network as predictor for onset of alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne; Becker, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Social network has been linked to alcohol use disorder in several studies. However, since the majority of such findings are crosssectional, causal interpretation is difficult. The aim of the present study was to test if social network characteristics predict alcohol use disorder...... in a prospective design. Methods: Information on social network and covariates was obtained from 9589 men and women aged 21–99 years in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, followed for registration of alcohol use disorder in the Danish National Patient Registry and the WINALCO database. Results: Men who lived alone......, were separated or divorced or widowers had a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder: HR among men living alone vs. men not living alone was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.59–3.27), and HR among separated/divorced men vs. married men was 2.55 (95% CI: 1.33–4.89). No such associations were found among women...

  1. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The MR spectrum of peroxisomal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaap, M.S. van der (Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis, Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Child Neurology); Valk, J. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neuroradiology)

    1991-02-01

    In the last decade an increasing number of peroxisomal disorders has been recognized. Almost all peroxisomal disorders affect the central nervous system. Many of them lead to demyelination, some of them lead to migrational disturbances. The MR pattern of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is well known, but the pattern of the other peroxisomal disorders is less well known. We evaluated the gray and white matter abnormalities of 20 patients on 32 occasions. We compared the results with histological data and in this way came to the description of a number of characteristic MR patterns occurring in peroxisomal disorders: (1) Neuronal migrational disturbances in combination with hypomyelination, dysmyelination or demyelination. (2) Symmetrical demyelination of posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebellar white matter and brain stem tracts with a variable affection of cerebral hemispheres. (3) Symmetrical demyelination, exhibiting two zones, starting in the occipital area and spreading outwards and forwards; affection of brain stem tracts. (4) Less characteristic patterns of demyelination. The patterns are illustrated and differentiation from other disorders is discussed. (orig.).

  3. Prevalence of Alcohol use Disorders among Medical and Surgical in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reasons include inadequate medical school and residency training in addictions and a lack of adequate faculty role models who intervene and diagnose alcohol dependence (30). The likelihood that a physician will detect and address alcohol use disorders in patients varies according to the physician's field of training (8).

  4. What are symptoms of an alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinkers in this group has an alcohol use disorder. A U.S. "standard" drink contains about 0.6 fluid ounces or 14 grams of "pure" alcohol. That's the amount in 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of table wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled ...

  5. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  6. Predicting an Alcohol Use Disorder in Urban American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale

    2014-01-01

    This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…

  7. Alcohol use disorder and tuberculosis treatment: A longitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out ...

  8. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...

  9. [Neurolinguistic aspects in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroanatomical and functional relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau-Baduell, M; Valls-Santasusana, A; Salvadó-Salvadó, B

    2010-03-03

    Impairments in language and communication are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorders. There is significant variability in linguistic abilities in autism spectrum disorders. They have difficulties with certain aspects of language such as semantics functions, syntax, prosody and phonology, although the most evident language deficits concern to pragmatics functioning. These language difficulties can cause serious problems in social interaction. The neural bases underlying this failure to develop language are unknown. Several functional and structural imaging studies have identified irregularities in language-related regions in autism spectrum disorders, such as morphometric differences in Broca's area and Wernicke's area, and patterns of reduced or reversed laterality in frontal and temporal cortex. There is also decreased functional connectivity between anterior and posterior language regions.

  10. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  11. Defining crisis in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-11-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can serve as a guide in delivering service to at-risk families. This study investigated the subjective experience of crisis in 155 mothers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Thematic analysis revealed that crisis is characterized by factors influencing four major areas: demands, internal capabilities, external resources, and subjective appraisal. Understanding what crisis means to families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder can help inform effective preventative and crisis services. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Comorbidity and temporal ordering of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Knop, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other psychiatric disorders may have important implications for treatment and preventive interventions. However, information on the epidemiology of this comorbidity is lacking. The objective of this study was to present ...

  13. Sensory abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola

    2017-11-04

    The clinical picture of children with autism spectrum disorder is characterized by deficits of social interaction and communication, as well as by repetitive interests and activities. Sensory abnormalities are a very frequent feature that often go unnoticed due to the communication difficulties of these patients. This narrative review summarizes the main features of sensory abnormalities and the respective implications for the interpretation of several signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and therefore for its management. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the sensory abnormalities in subjects (particularly children) with autism spectrum disorder. Sensory symptoms are common and often disabling in children with autism spectrum disorder, but are not specific for autism, being a feature frequently described also in subjects with intellectual disability. Three main sensory patterns have been described in autism spectrum disorder: hypo-responsiveness, hyper-responsiveness, and sensory seeking; to these, some authors have added a fourth pattern: enhanced perception. Sensory abnormalities may negatively impact the life of these individuals and their families. An impairment not only of unisensory modalities but also of multisensory integration is hypothesized. Atypical sensory reactivity of subjects with autism spectrum disorder may be the key to understand many of their abnormal behaviors, and thus it is a relevant aspect to be taken into account in their daily management in all the contexts in which they live. A formal evaluation of sensory function should be always performed in these children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Autism Spectrum Disorder Initiatives, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  15. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system.

  16. Premorbid multivariate prediction of adult psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children...... whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured when participants were 10-13years of age, were combined to predict psychosis-spectrum disorders...

  17. The discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder in well-functioning men with hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, H.; Korzec, A.; Arndt, T.; van den Brink, W.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses within a population of well-functioning male heavy drinkers. A group of 57 subjects with a consumption of at least 28 alcoholic units (AU)/week was recruited from wine-tasting clubs. Within

  18. Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Merete Juul Sørensen,1 Therese Koops Grønborg,2 Jakob Christensen,3,4 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Mogens Vestergaard,5,6 Diana Schendel,7 Lars Henning Pedersen8,9 1Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 5Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, 6Research unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8Danish Epidemiological Science Centre, Institute of Public Health, 9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Both the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have increased during recent years. A causal link has recently been suggested, but the association may be confounded by the underlying indication for antidepressant use. We investigated the association between maternal use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy and autism, controlling for potential confounding factors. Methods: We identified all children born alive in Denmark 1996–2006 (n=668,468 and their parents in the Danish Civil Registration System. We obtained information on the mother's prescriptions filled during pregnancy from the Danish National Prescription Registry, and on diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in the children and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders in the parents from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. In a cohort analysis, we estimated hazard ratios of autism spectrum disorders in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy compared with children who were not exposed, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Furthermore, we estimated the risk

  19. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  20. [Autism spectrum disorder. Contemporary experimental researches review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschekina, E A; Strelets, V B

    2014-01-01

    Autism, like schizophrenia, are heterogeneous diseases, which are directed by both genetic factors and external influences in the early stages of development. Knowledge about the similarities and differences of these disorders can help early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with autism have specific cognitive difficulties in social relations. They are characterized by impairment of social interaction, communication and behavioral flexibility. The severity of the delay the development of autistic children, clinical and psychological indicators is correlated with an increase in the high frequency of spontaneous EEG activity. Cognitive task in autistic children, unlike normal persons, does not lead to a significant restructuring of high-frequency EEG activity, which may be a violation of the reaction mechanism to external stimuli and behavioral disorders. Abnormality in high-frequency components of EEG reactivity on cognitive task, the perception of human faces and visual illusions as well as the inadequate system of mirror neurons, can be considered common mechanisms underlying disorders of autism and schizophrenia. These general mechanisms may be considered as related to violation of the inhibition-exitation balance, controlled via GABA-transmission and NMDA-receptors. A multidimensional study of patterns of disontogenesis in autism, in addition to detailing the clinical picture of disease and rehabilitation activities, allows us to clear the fundamental understanding of the brain.

  1. The effect of comorbid alcoholism on recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of comorbid alcoholism on the risk of recurrence in affective disorder have given contradictory results. METHOD: Using survival analysis, the rate of recurrence was calculated in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective...... an auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients with a current auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism had increased rate of recurrence following the first three affective episodes but not following subsequent episodes compared with patients without auxiliary diagnoses. The effect of alcoholism declined...... with the number of episodes. In contrast, no effect was found of other auxiliary diagnoses on the rate of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Rehospitalisation data suggest that concurrent alcoholism increases the risk of recurrence of affective episodes during the initial course of unipolar and bipolar disorder but has...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder and High Confidence Gene Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, MOCHIZUKI

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological developmental disorder whose mechanism isyet unclear. However, recent ASD studies, which employ exome- and genome-wide sequencing,have identified some high-confidence ASD genes. Those ASD studies have revealed that CHD8is likely associated with ASD. In this article, we highlight that CHD8 may regulate othercandidate ASD risk genes. Current research indicates that there exist some thousand autismsusceptibility candidate genes. Moreover, we sugge...

  3. Visual Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    DR Simmons; AE Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are common developmental disorders thought to affect more than 1% of the UK population (Baird et al, 2006, The Lancet 368, 210). Whilst the current official diagnostic criteria for ASD concentrate on signs and symptoms associated with social behaviour, it is also well known that sensory difficulties are a major factor in the presentation of this condition (Simmons et al, 2009, Vision Research 49, 2705). Over the past few years we have been investigating these ...

  4. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavi...

  5. Cbt for anxiety disorders in children with and without autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was examined, and compared with children without ASD. Method: Children with ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (n = 79, 58 boys; Mage = 11.76) and children with

  6. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic

  7. Fronto-striatal glutamate in autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaijen, Jilly; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Amiri, Houshang; Williams, Steven C R; Durston, Sarah; Oranje, Bob; Brandeis, Daniel; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Ruf, Matthias; Wolf, Isabella; Banaschewski, Tobias; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Lythgoe, David J

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid with the overlap based on compulsive behaviors. Although previous studies suggest glutamatergic deficits in fronto-striatal brain areas in both disorders, this is the first study to directly compare the

  8. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  9. Etiology of Sleep Disorders in ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders): Role for Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    similar symptoms. Thus, it is plausible to suspect that sleep disturbances in ASD may contribute to its pathology . In fact, because sustained states of...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0251 TITLE: Etiology of Sleep Disorders in ASD...2009 - 30 Apr 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Etiology of Sleep Disorders in ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders): Role for Inflammatory Cytokines

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Alcohol Use Relapse Among Adults in Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-10-01

    Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 (2004 to 2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N = 9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (nonsmoker, daily cigarette smoker, and nondaily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Both daily and nondaily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 nonsmoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and nondaily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence 3 years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. [Genetic and neuroendocrine aspects in autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Norma; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; de la Chesnaye, Elsa; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was described in 1943 and is defined as a developmental disorder that affects social interaction and communication. It is usually identified in early stages of development from 18 months of age. Currently, autism is considered a neurological disorder with a spectrum covering cases of different degrees, which is associated with genetic factors, not genetic and environmental. Among the genetic factors, various syndromes have been described that are associated with this disorder. Also, the neurobiology of autism has been studied at the genetic, neurophysiological, neurochemical and neuropathological levels. Neuroimaging techniques have shown multiple structural abnormalities in these patients. There have also been changes in the serotonergic, GABAergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems related to this disorder. This paper presents an update of the information presented in the genetic and neuroendocrine aspects of autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal Brain Connectivity Spectrum Disorders Following Thimerosal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, tic disorder (TD, and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (attention deficit disorder [ADD]/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] are disorders recently defined as abnormal connectivity spectrum disorders (ACSDs because they show a similar pattern of abnormal brain connectivity. This study examines whether these disorders are associated with exposure to thimerosal, a mercury (Hg-based preservative. Methods: A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated the Vaccine Safety Datalink for the potential dose-dependent odds ratios (ORs for diagnoses of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD compared to controls, following exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administrated within the first 15 months of life. Febrile seizures, cerebral degeneration, and unspecified disorders of metabolism, which are not biologically plausibly linked to thimerosal, were examined as control outcomes. Results: On a per 25 μg Hg basis, cases diagnosed with ASD (OR = 1.493, TD (OR = 1.428, or ADD/ADHD (OR = 1.503 were significantly (P < .001 more likely than controls to have received increased Hg exposure. Similar relationships were observed when separated by gender. Cases diagnosed with control outcomes were no more likely than controls to have received increased Hg exposure. Conclusion: The results suggest that Hg exposure from thimerosal is significantly associated with the ACSDs of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD.

  13. Cue exposure therapy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Skøt, Lotte; Nielsen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Cue Exposure Therapy (CET) is a behavioristic psychological approach to treating substance use disorders (SUD). Prior systematic reviews have found CET to be ineffective when targeting SUDs. The effect of this approach on alcohol use disorders (AUD) seems more promising at trial level but has yet...

  14. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  15. Sexual Knowledge and Victimization in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Lavoie, S. M.; Viecili, M. A.; Weiss, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant gap in understanding the risk of sexual victimization in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the variables that contribute to risk. Age appropriate sexual interest, limited sexual knowledge and experiences, and social deficits, may place adults with ASD at increased risk. Ninety-five adults with ASD and 117…

  16. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder : Mismatch negativity deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413985679; Oranje, Bob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217177409; Madsen, Gitte Falcher; Møllegaard Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Durston, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/243083912; Cantio, Cathriona; Glenthøj, Birte; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are

  17. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  18. Sensory and Attention Abnormalities in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Miriam; Saulnier, Celine; Fein, Deborah; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, "sensory overreactivity",…

  19. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  20. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  1. Metaperception in Adolescents with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Lauren V.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) evaluated unfamiliar peers (i.e., perceptions), as well as how adolescents believed they were evaluated by peers (i.e., metaperceptions). The Perceptions and Metaperceptions Questionnaire was designed to quantify perceptions and metaperceptions following a live…

  2. Theory of Mind, linguistic recursion and autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyanskaya, Irina; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Braüner, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we give the motivation for and discuss the design of an experiment investigating whether the acquisition of linguistic recur-sion helps children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) develop second-order false belief skills. We first present the relevant psycho-logical concepts (in...

  3. Neonatal levels of cytokines and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Luminex...

  4. Measuring Theory of Mind in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn L.; Barnett, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to interpret others' beliefs, intentions and emotions--undermine the ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to interact in socially normative ways. This study provides psychometric data for the Adult-Theory of Mind (A-ToM) measure using video-scenarios based in part on Happé's…

  5. Group Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachie, Helen; McLaughlin, Eleanor; Grahame, Victoria; Taylor, Helen; Honey, Emma; Tavernor, Laura; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark; Hemm, Cahley; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the acceptability and feasibility of adapted group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Method: A total of 32 children aged 9-13 years were randomised to immediate or delayed therapy using the "Exploring Feelings" manual (Attwood, 2004). Child and parent…

  6. Attentional Shifts between Audition and Vision in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence on neurotypical adults shows that the presentation of a stimulus allocates the attention to its modality, resulting in faster responses to a subsequent target presented in the same (vs. different) modality. People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often fail to detect a (visual or auditory) target in a stream of stimuli after…

  7. Feeding Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Gast, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Many parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) report that their children have feeding problems. A body of literature targeted toward parents of children with ASD includes information about possible interventions for this problem. Most intervention suggestions within this literature have been only anecdotally reported to be…

  8. Sensory Responsiveness in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Babb-Keeble, Alison; Westover, Erin Eitzmann; Zhang, Yi; Adams, Claire; Collins, Diane M.; Karmarkar, Amol; Reistetter, Timothy A.; Constantino, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sensory responsiveness in unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associations between sensory responsiveness and social severity. Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaires and Social Responsiveness Scales were completed by parents of 185 children between age 4 and 10.95 years. Significant…

  9. Evidence for Diminished Multisensory Integration in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit alterations in sensory processing, including changes in the integration of information across the different sensory modalities. In the current study, we used the sound-induced flash illusion to assess multisensory integration in children with ASD and typically-developing (TD) controls.…

  10. An Ecosystem Approach to Employment and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B.; Mitchell, Wendy; Dudley, Carolyn; Clarke, Margaret; Zulla, Rosslynn

    2018-01-01

    Relatively little is yet known about employment readiness and elements that promote access to, and the retention of, employment for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper posits elements within the ecosystem of employment and ASD. The ecosystem approach locates employment among persons with ASD as inextricably linked with broader…

  11. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  12. Developing Mirror Self Awareness in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Christine K.; Flattery, J. J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    A teaching methodology and curriculum was designed to develop and increase positive self-awareness in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Joint attention (JA) strategies were first utilized to directly teach students about reflected mirror images, and then subsequently, to indirectly teach students about their reflected image.…

  13. Bullying Prevalence in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marilyn; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Whiteford, Chrystal; Dillon-Wallace, Julie; Ashburner, Jill; Saggers, Beth; Carrington, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    All forms of bullying, physical, verbal, social, and cyber, are prevalent among youth worldwide. An especially vulnerable population for involvement in bullying is students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there are some studies that have investigated bullying in these students, many of these are beset by methodological issues. We…

  14. Maternal Infection during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Yoshida, Cathleen; Grether, Judith K.; Van de Water, Judy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study including 407 cases and 2,075 frequency matched controls to investigate the association between maternal infections during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cases, controls, and maternal infections were ascertained from Kaiser Permanente Northern California clinical databases. No…

  15. Rural Trends in Diagnosis and Services for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Antezana; Ligia Antezana; Angela Scarpa; Angela Scarpa; Andrew Valdespino; Jordan Albright; Jordan Albright; John A. Richey; John A. Richey

    2017-01-01

    Rural communities face significant challenges regarding the adequate availability of diagnostic-, treatment-, and support-services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, a variety of factors, including geographic distance between families and service providers, low reliance on health care professionals, and cultural characteristics, contribute to the diminished availability and utilization of services. Together, these factors lead to risks for delayed ASD screening...

  16. Changes in Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Linda G.; Curtin, Carol; Phillips, Sarah; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Must, Aviva

    2017-01-01

    Food selectivity is a common problem in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and has an adverse impact on nutrient adequacy and family mealtimes. Despite recent research in this area, few studies have addressed whether food selectivity present in children with ASD persists into adolescence. In this study, we assessed food selectivity in 18…

  17. Anger in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Anger related behaviours such as aggression are known to be an area of difficulty for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A national internet forum for parents of children with ASD was selected out of other similar forums from six English speaking countries. Information about the angry episodes of 121 children with ASD as described by…

  18. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  19. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  20. Coherent versus component motion perception in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, M.W.G.; Scholte, H.S.; van Engeland, H.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Kemner, C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on visual perception in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) tries to reveal the underlying mechanisms of aberrant local and global processing. Global motion perception is one way to study this aspect of ASD. We used plaid motion stimuli, which can be perceived as a coherently moving pattern,

  1. MRI characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder An international update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, H. J.; Paul, F.; Lana-Peixoto, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement. Thus, characteristics of brain abnormalities in such patients have become of increased interest. In this regard, MRI has an increasingly important role in the differential diagnosis of NMO and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD), particularly from...

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  3. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple…

  4. Neural Correlates of Pragmatic Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesink, C. M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Petersson, K. M.; van der Gaag, R. J.; Kan, C. C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from the voice with the content of a message. Using…

  5. Detecting autism spectrum disorders in the general practitioner's practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongerloo, M.A. van; Bor, H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    It takes considerable time before Autism Spectrum Disorders are diagnosed. Validated diagnostic instruments are available, but not applicable to primary healthcare. By means of a case-control study we investigated whether there were differences in presented complaints and referral patterns between

  6. Cradling bias is absent in children with autism spectrum disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study investigated relations among empathy and cradling bias in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Twenty children with ASDs and 20 typically developing (TD) children, aged 5–15 years old, cradled a doll as if it were an infant s/he was putting to sleep on three separate ...

  7. Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Kujala, Teija; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research studying comprehensive neurocognitive profiles of adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compared the neurocognitive profiles of higher functioning adolescents with ASD (n = 30, mean age 13.5) with that of typically developing adolescents (n = 30; mean age 13.7). Adolescents…

  8. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  9. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  10. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  11. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  12. Reduced Mimicry to Virtual Reality Avatars in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul A. G.; Pan, Xueni; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicry involves unconsciously copying the actions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that autistic people can copy the goal of an observed action but show differences in their mimicry. We investigated mimicry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a two-dimensional virtual reality environment. Participants played an imitation game with a…

  13. Children with autism spectrum disorder show pronoun reversals in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overweg, Jessica; Hartman, C.A.; Hendriks, Petra

    Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6–12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children

  14. Executive Functions in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Danielle I.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Schwean, Vicki L.; Montgomery, Janine M.; Thorne, Keoma J.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized, at least in part, by executive function (EF) difficulties associated with the integrity of the frontal lobe. Given the paucity of research regarding EFs in young adults with high functioning ASD (HF-ASD), this research involves an examination of various indices of EF…

  15. Phenomenology and Measurement of Circumscribed Interests in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Circumscribed interests (CI) are important and understudied symptoms that affect individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study sought to develop quantitative measures of the content, intensity and functional impairment of CI in 50 children with high-functioning ASD compared to an age-, IQ-, and gender-matched sample of 50…

  16. Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Derserri Y.; Lee, Hoe C.; Patomella, Ann-Helen; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder: FRAXE Mutation, a Rare Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, F.; Café, C.; Almeida, J.; Mouga, S.; Oliveira, G.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Fragile X E is associated with X-linked non-specific mild intellectual disability (ID) and with behavioral problems. Most of the known genetic causes of ASD are also causes of ID, implying that these two…

  18. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  19. Accessing and Selecting Word Meaning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…

  20. Pediatricians' Perspectives on Identification and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Erinn H.; Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Ash, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative interview methodology was used to investigate the perspectives and experiences of five general pediatricians who had diagnosed children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Information was obtained from the participants in the following areas: a) training; b) signs/symptoms of ASD; c) causes of ASD; d) well-child exams; e) first…

  1. Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…

  2. What's the Scoop on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2009-01-01

    There is much discussion among families about the relationship between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are claims of diets that will "cure" ASD: gluten-free, casein-free, specific carbohydrate diet (SCD). There are claims of benefits by adding nutrients to the diet, such as vitamin B-6 and magnesium, vitamin B-12, or essential…

  3. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  4. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic…

  5. DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Fictional Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jane E.; Cardon, Teresa A.; Algeo-Nichols, Dana

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, schools have seen an increasing number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the current estimated average of children in the United States who are diagnosed with an ASD is one out of 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). One way for educators and elementary students to learn about ASD is through…

  6. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Schmitz-Hübsch, M.; Kliegel, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with

  7. Assessment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of school children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These children may be referred for assessments for a variety of reasons, including to assess for intellectual impairments, eligibility for support, or to monitor progress. Characteristics of ASD, such as social communication difficulties, as well as common…

  8. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Petersson, K.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Kan, C.C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from

  9. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Petersson, K.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Kan, C.C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from

  10. Neonatal chemokine levels and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD...

  11. Characterizing Sleep in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S. E.; Alder, M. L.; Burgess, H. J.; Corbett, B. A.; Hundley, R.; Wofford, D.; Fawkes, D. B.; Wang, L.; Laudenslager, M. L.; Malow, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied 28 adolescents/young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 13 age/sex matched individuals of typical development (TD). Structured sleep histories, validated questionnaires, actigraphy (4 weeks), and salivary cortisol and melatonin (4 days each) were collected. Compared to those with TD, adolescents/young adults with ASD had…

  12. College Students' Perceptions of Attributes Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jaimie L.; Wood, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine college students' perceptions of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify contributing factors that influence perceptions and reactions to students with ASD. Participants included 1,185 college students who responded to a survey in class or online. Trends in responses suggested that…

  13. Individualized Education Programs for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Menousek, Kathryn; Hunter, Melissa; Mudgal, Dipti

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present with a broad array of deficits and excesses that require educational intervention. The Individualized Education Program (IEP) serves as the blueprint for educational intervention but it can sometimes be difficult to identify which goals and objectives should be addressed with this population.…

  14. What Do Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine Creighton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to better understand the perspectives of parents with children who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders regarding the Individualized Education Program (IEP) process, and interventions implemented to help their child meet IEP goals. The web-based survey included both closed and open-ended items.…

  15. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  16. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  17. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  18. Coagulopathy in Zellweger spectrum disorders: a role for vitamin K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeynelabidin, Sara; Klouwer, Femke C. C.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Suijker, Monique H.; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van Ommen, C. Heleen

    2017-01-01

    Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are caused by an impairment of peroxisome biogenesis, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities. This leads to a range of symptoms, including hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of coagulopathy and the effect

  19. Assessment Considerations for College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    As more students identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) graduate high school and aspire to a college education, the need for intervention and support targeted to their needs has become apparent. Designing effective programs of support rests on comprehensive and appropriate assessment. This article provides a critical review of areas to…

  20. Narrative Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Hartzheim, Daphne; Studenka, Breanna; Simonsmeier, Vicki; Gillam, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether a narrative intervention program that targeted the use of mental state and causal language resulted in positive gains in narrative production for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Five children (2 girls and 3 boys) who had been diagnosed with ASD participated in the study.…

  1. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  2. Emotion Recognition in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Haapsamo, Helena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Hurtig, Tuula; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Bolte, Sven; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    We examined upper facial basic emotion recognition in 57 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (M = 13.5 years) and 33 typically developing controls (M = 14.3 years) by using a standardized computer-aided measure (The Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition, FEFA). The ASD group scored lower than controls on the total…

  3. Is Emotion Recognition Impaired in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Schriber, Roberta A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) use an effortful "systematizing" process to recognize emotion expressions, whereas typically developing (TD) individuals use a more holistic process. If this is the case, individuals with ASDs should show slower and less efficient emotion recognition, particularly for…

  4. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P.; Soriano, M. F.; Paredes, N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and…

  5. Association of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maunoo; Krishnamurthy, Jayasree; Susi, Apryl; Sullivan, Carolyn; Gorman, Gregory H.; Hisle-Gorman, Elizabeth; Erdie-Lalena, Christine R.; Nylund, Cade M.

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both have multifactorial pathogenesis with an increasing number of studies demonstrating gut-brain associations. We aim to examine the association between ASD and IBD using strict classification criteria for IBD. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study using records from…

  6. Sign Language Echolalia in Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron; Cooley, Frances; Meier, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We present the first study of echolalia in deaf, signing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigate the nature and prevalence of sign echolalia in native-signing children with ASD, the relationship between sign echolalia and receptive language, and potential modality differences between sign and speech. Method: Seventeen…

  7. Emotion Regulation in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Lauren; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2017-01-01

    There has been little research connecting underlying emotion processes (e.g., emotion regulation) to frequent behavior problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the stability of emotion regulation and its relationship with other aspects of child functioning. Participants included 108 children with ASD,…

  8. Eyewitness Testimony in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Katie L.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect around 1% of the population, and is characterised by impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavioural flexibility. A number of risk factors indicate that individuals with ASD may become victims or witnesses of crimes. In addition to their social and communication deficits,…

  9. Mathematical Abilities in Elementary School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeca, Daisy; Roeyers, Herbert; Loeys, Tom; Ceulemans, Annelies; Desoete, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    Although clinical practitioners often express concerns about the mathematical functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the field of mathematics remains a relatively unexplored topic in individuals with ASD. Moreover, research findings are fragmentary and hold inconclusive results. The present study aimed to examine whether…

  10. Reduced Chromatic Discrimination in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Notman, Leslie; Gonzalez-Dixon, Melissa; West, Dorotea; Alexander, Iona; Loveday, Stephen; White, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley,…

  11. Current Issues in Teaching Bilingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amelia M.; Salamon, Judy T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a narrative review of the literature at the intersection of bilingualism and practices for teaching children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We highlight the gap in the empirical literature about instructional practices for young bilinguals with ASD. Special attention is given to the monolingual ASD and multicultural…

  12. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Itzchak, E. Ben

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on maternal and pregnancy risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), found conflicting results. This study included the following aims: to assess frequencies of ART in a large ASD group; to examine confounding birth and familial risk factors in the ASD with ART…

  13. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  14. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Africa: a perspective | Bakare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The universal occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was queried about twenty-six years ago. It was thought to occur only in western industrialized countries with high technological development. Over the last decade, knowledge about ASD and its prevalence has been documented as being on the ...

  15. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  16. Transcendental meditation for autism spectrum disorders? A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Black

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports suggest that Transcendental Meditation (TM may be helpful for some children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. In this perspective piece, we present six carefully evaluated individuals with diagnosed ASDs, who appear to have benefitted from TM, and offer some thoughts as to how this technique might help such individuals.

  17. Moral and Social Reasoning in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Cory; Guberman, Ainat; Shiling, Noa; Bauminger, Nirit

    2012-01-01

    This study compared moral and social reasoning in individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Ten familiar schoolyard transgressions were shown to 18 participants with and 18 participants without ASD. They judged the appropriateness of the behavior and explained their judgments. Analysis of the rationales revealed that…

  18. Perspectives of University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anastasia H.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at heightened risk of post-secondary educational failure and account for approximately 1% of students in post-secondary education. Findings from an on-line survey of students with ASD attending university in Australian are reported in this study. Respondents indicated high rates of academic and…

  19. Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jo; Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Oliver, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology is comparatively high in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). However, the profile and developmental trajectories of these ASD characteristics are potentially different to those observed in individuals with idiopathic ASD. In this study we examine the ASD profile in CdLS in…

  20. Teaching Physical Education to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Smith, Shannon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) estimates that one in every 110 children is affected by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prevalence of ASDs makes it very likely that every physical education teacher is teaching at least one student with an ASD. This article will provide physical educators with a brief overview of…

  1. Assessment of Fear in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Laura B.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2012-01-01

    Although intense fears have been reported in up to 64% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the phenomenology of fear in this population. This study assessed the relationship between fear and core symptoms of autism in children with an ASD. In Phase I of this study, parents of 41 children with an ASD completed…

  2. Psychophysiological Associations with Gastrointestinal Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Bradley J.; Marler, Sarah; Altstein, Lily L.; Lee, Evon Batey; Akers, Jill; Sohl, Kristin; McLaughlin, Aaron; Hartnett, Kaitlyn; Kille, Briana; Mazurek, Micah; Macklin, Eric A.; McDonnell, Erin; Barstow, Mariah; Bauman, Margaret L.; Margolis, Kara Gross

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disturbances, which also may impact behavior. Alterations in autonomic nervous system functioning are also frequently observed in ASD. The relationship between these findings in ASD is not known. We examined the relationship between gastrointestinal symptomatology, examining upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptomatology separately, and autonomic nervous system functioning, as assessed by heart rate variability and...

  3. Perception of Mirror Symmetry in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christine M.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt grouping in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is selectively impaired for certain organization principles but for not others. Symmetry is a fundamental Gestalt principle characterizing many biological shapes. Sensitivity to symmetry was tested using the Picture Symmetry Test, which requires finding symmetry lines on pictures. Individuals…

  4. Feeding and Sleep Difficulties in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present with a variety of comorbid difficulties, some of which relate to seemingly simply activities of daily living. Feeding and sleep difficulties are purportedly common within the ASD population, although the association between these problems and ASD symptomatology has rarely been addressed. The…

  5. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi......‐ineffable changes in the structure of subjective experience. A cluster of such anomalous subjective experiences, namely basic anomalies of self‐awareness (Self‐Disorders, SDs), were emphasized in classic literature and in phenomenological psychiatry as an essential clinical feature of schizophrenia, anchoring...... the coherence of its symptoms as well as of its spectrum manifestations. However, the potential topicality of SDs for the delineation of phenotypic vulnerability traits, as well as for the construct validity of the concept of schizophrenia spectrum has remained relatively neglected. The current research project...

  6. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  7. Prevalence of Maternal Affective Disorders in Chinese Mothers of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y W; Chung, K H; Lee, Y K; Lam, W C; Yiu, M Gc

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of affective disorders and identify their associated factors among Chinese mothers of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Autism Spectrum Disorders Multidisciplinary Clinic of the United Christian Hospital from August 2012 to June 2013. All mothers of a consecutive series of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at their first visit to the clinic were recruited. Information regarding the child-related, maternal, and environmental factors was collected. Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to the Chinese-Bilingual Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Independent factors associated with maternal affective disorders were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 121 subjects, the point prevalence of affective disorders as a group was 29.8%. The point prevalence of major depressive disorders, adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar affective disorders was 14.9%, 10.7%, 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively. A higher level of disruptive and self-absorbed behaviours in the children (as assessed by the Developmental Behaviour Checklist), a higher level of affiliate stigma (as assessed by 22-item Affiliate Stigma Scale), and a history of psychiatric disorders were independently associated with current affective disorders. Psychiatric disorders, predominantly affective disorders, are common among Chinese mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders. Identification of independent factors associated with maternal affective disorders can aid in the early detection of cases and planning of early intervention programmes to address both child and maternal psychological needs.

  8. Psychiatric interventions for AIDS-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S W; Markowitz, J

    1986-10-01

    Although the medical and psychosocial problems posed by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are unique, interventions to treat AIDS-related psychiatric disorders are currently available. The depression, delirium, and denial that occur in medically hospitalized patients with AIDS respond to standard psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological approaches. Outpatients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex benefit from clarification, abreaction, and support if the therapist accepts the regression associated with the sick role, focuses initially on somatic rather than on psychological concerns, and overcomes unwarranted fears of contagion. Patients with AIDS-related dementia are helped considerably by early diagnosis and planning, and patients with antibodies to the AIDS virus require a psycho-educational approach that includes stress inoculation and problem-solving techniques. The authors describe the above interventions as well as common countertransference responses that impede their implementation.

  9. Physical activity and risk of alcohol use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen Ejsing, Louise; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohortstudy with focus on leisure-time physical activity. Methods: Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City HeartStudy (CCHS), performed in 1976–1978, 1981...... and cohabitationstatus) including updated time-dependent variables whenever possible. Results: A low or moderate/high leisure-time physicalactivity was associated with almost half the risk of developing alcohol use disorder compared with a sedentary leisure-time physicalactivity. This translates into a 1.5- to 2-fold...... increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder (Hazard ratios for men 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.10 and women 1.45; 1.01–2.09) in individuals with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity, compared with a moderate to high level.However, when stratifying by presence of other psychiatric disorders...

  10. Clinical Spectrum of Disorders of Sexual Differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, U. L.; Ahsan, T.; Jabeen, R.; Zehra, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the mode of presentation and causes of the disorders of sexual differentiation in patients presenting in the Endocrine Clinic. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from July 2012 to July 2014. Methodology: Patients with phenotypic, psychosocial gender confusion or absence of gender appropriate secondary sexual maturation were enrolled in the study. Patients having chronic systemic disease, as cause of delayed puberty, were excluded from the study. SPSS 13 was used to evaluate the data. Results: A total of 48 patients registered in the study with mean age of 19.9 ± 8 years. Female gender was assigned to 28 (58.3 percentage) of which 8 (28.57 percentage) had genital ambiguity. Male gender was assigned to 20 (41.66 percentage) patients at the time of birth and 7 (35 percentage) of them had ambiguous genitalia. Karyotyping could be done in 36 (75 percentage) patients of which 17 (47.2 percentage) were females and 19 (52.7 percentage) were males. Karyotypic gender of the 19 (48.57 percentage) male patients was 46 XX, 46 XY and 47 XXY; in 4 (21.05 percentage), 5 (26.3 percentage) and 10 (52.6 percentage) patients, respectively with 9 Klinfelter syndrome. Karyotypic gender of 17 (47.42 percentage) female patients were 46 XX, 46 XY and 45 X0; in 5 (29.4 percentage), 3 (17.64 percentage) and 9 (52.9 percentage) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Disorder of sexual development constitutes a small but difficult area of endocrinology with disastrous consequences, especially if assigned wrong sex at birth. Mode of presentation of these cases was diverse ranging from delayed puberty, to gender confusion, to pregnancy in a male. Eventually in an adult patient assignment or reassignment of gender identity was primarily the patient's prerogative. (author)

  11. Help across the spectrum: a developmental pediatrician's perspective on diagnosing and treating autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by marked deficits in social interaction and communication with unusually restricted interests, have a tremendous impact on society and are increasingly being diagnosed. Increased developmental screening, use of standardized diagnostic tests, and a broadening of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria might account for the increased incidence. Evidence-based treatments for children with ASD, reviewed by the National Standards Project, are primarily behavioral interventions with foundations in the sciences of applied behavior analysis and developmental psychology and emphasize improved functional communication and social reciprocity.

  12. Anxiety symptoms in a major mood and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, B; Joffe, G; Aaltonen, K; Suvisaari, J; Baryshnikov, I; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Melartin, T; Oksanen, J; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Paunio, T; Isometsä, E

    2016-09-01

    Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders are present in many psychiatric disorders, but methodological variations render comparisons of their frequency and intensity difficult. Furthermore, whether risk factors for comorbid anxiety symptoms are similar in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) was used to measure anxiety symptoms in psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n=113), bipolar disorder (BD, n=99), or depressive disorder (DD, n=188) in the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, early psychological trauma and distress, self-efficacy, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and attachment style with anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups. Frequent or constant anxiety was reported by 40.2% of SSA, 51.5% of BD, and 55.6% of DD patients; it was described as severe or extreme by 43.8%, 41.4%, and 41.2% of these patients, respectively. SSA patients were significantly less anxious (P=0.010) and less often avoided anxiety-provoking situations (P=0.009) than the other patients. In regression analyses, OASIS was associated with high neuroticism, symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder and low self-efficacy in all patients, and with early trauma in patients with mood disorders. Comorbid anxiety symptoms are ubiquitous among psychiatric patients with mood or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in almost half of them, reportedly severe. Anxiety symptoms appear to be strongly related to both concurrent depressive symptoms and personality characteristics, regardless of principal diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  14. Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-07-01

    Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol

  15. Voice Patterns in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Cantio, Cathriona; Bilenberg, Niels

    Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have atypical modulation of speech, often described as awkward, monotone, or sing-songy [1-3]. The patterns may be one of the most robust and fast signals of social communication deficits in ASD [4, 5]. However, it has proven...... spectrum disorders, Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 35 (2005) 861–869. [5] R.B. Grossman, H. Tager-Flusberg, Quality matters! Differences between expressive and receptive non-verbal communication skills in children with ASD, Res Autism Spect Dis, 6 (2012) 1150-1155. [6] R. Fusaroli, D. Bang......’s syndrome. Objectives: We systematically quantify and explore speech patterns in Danish children (8-12 years) with and without autism. We employ traditional and non-linear techniques measuring the structure (regularity and complexity) of speech behavior (i.e. fundamental frequency, use of pauses, speech...

  16. Lessons learned from studying syndromic autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2016-10-26

    Syndromic autism spectrum disorders represent a group of childhood neurological conditions, typically associated with chromosomal abnormalities or mutations in a single gene. The discovery of their genetic causes has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways critical for normal cognitive and social development. Human studies have revealed that the brain is particularly sensitive to changes in dosage of various proteins from transcriptional and translational regulators to synaptic proteins. Investigations of these disorders in animals have shed light on previously unknown pathogenic mechanisms leading to the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The demonstration of reversibility of several phenotypes in adult mice is encouraging, and brings hope that with novel therapies, skills and functionality might improve in affected children and young adults. As new research reveals points of convergence between syndromic and nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorders, we believe there will be opportunities for shared therapeutics for this class of conditions.

  17. Sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances in autism spectrum disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowski, Mark; Wasilewska, Jolanta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers. Sleep-related problems have been shown to affect overall autism scores, social skills decits, stereotypic behavior, and cognitive performance. Additionally, problematic sleep in children with ASD has been associated with higher levels of parental stress. Underlying causes specically related to sleep disorders are not fully known. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with sleep problems in these patients. Children with ASD and GI symptoms have been found to have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with typically developing peers who do not have GI symptoms. Treatment approaches to children with sleep disorders are varied and range from lifestyle modications and behavioral interventions to drug therapies and surgical interventions. Physicians should take into account GI disorders as possible underlying causes of sleep-related problems in children with ASD. Therapeutic interventions should begin with less invasive methods before progressing to more invasive options such as pharmacotherapy and should be based on medical indications in order to provide effective care while minimizing potential adverse health effects. Evidence-based studies concerning GI and sleep disorders in children with ASD are limited and further studies are warranted.

  18. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Ricardo A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar Disorder (BD is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED. The Bipolar Spectrum (BS remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis.

  19. Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public payers such as States are willing to finance. 49 One thing, however, that influences payers is ... Research & Health 33(4):389–394, 2011. Resources Source material for this Alcohol Alert originally appeared in ...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Genetic Syndromes: Implications for Diagnosis, Intervention and Understanding the Wider Autism Spectrum Disorder Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.; Howlin, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: An emerging literature on behavioural phenotypes has highlighted apparent associations between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) or ASD-related phenomenology and a number of different genetically determined syndromes. Method: A systematic review of the current literature regarding the association with ASD and ASD characteristics was…

  1. Association of attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder with alcohol use disorders in fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.

  2. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. Rett syndrome will be excluded from autism spectrum disorder due to its genetic basis. In addition, severity of symptoms will be measured among individuals with autism spectrum disorder based on the support level required due to the impairment in their lives. The basic rationale behind this revision is that it is better to conceptualize autism as a spectrum including various individuals whose symptoms in different developmental areas range from mild to severe. It is aimed to increase the specificity of autism diagnosis by using one single diagnostic category with its specified severity rather than differentiating several subtypes. The major concern raised over the DSM-5 proposal has been the possibility that some of the individuals who were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR might not get a diagnosis in this new system. After the DSM-5 is released, clinical, legal, and educational rearrengements regarding the use of new autism spectrum disorder diagnostic criteria are expected to accelerate worldwide and in Turkey. This paper aims to review briefly the upcoming autism spectrum disorder diagnosis planned to appear in the DSM-5, the rationale of the proposed revision, main critics to the DSM-5 draft that has been publicized, and some of the regulations expected to occur in practice after the changes.

  3. Why MDMA therapy for alcohol use disorder? And why now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Ben

    2017-11-07

    Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. Current treatments, both psychological and pharmacological are poor, with high rates of relapse after medical detoxification and dedicated treatment programs. The earliest historical roots of psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy in the 1950s were associated with Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy to treat what was then called, alcoholism. But results were varied and psychedelic therapy with LSD and other 'classical' psychedelics fell out of favour in the wake of socio-political pressures and cultural changes. A current revisiting of psychedelic clinical research is now targeting substance use disorders - and particularly alcohol use disorder - again. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy has never been formally explored as a treatment for any form of substance use disorder. But in recent years MDMA has risen in prominence as an agent to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With its unique receptor profile and a relatively well-tolerated subjective experience of drug effects when used clinically, MDMA Therapy is ideally suited to allow a patient to explore and address painful memories without being overwhelmed by negative affect. Given that alcohol use disorder is so often associated with early traumatic experiences, the author is proposing in a current on-going UK-based study that patients with alcohol use disorder who have undergone a medical detoxification from alcohol might benefit from a course of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modification of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies in alcohol-dependent patients with mild or major neurocognitive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijen, A.; Rinck, M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Becker, E.S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced

  5. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis. Risperidone and aripiprazole are currently the only medications FDA approved for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders, targeting the irritability often seen with this diagnosis. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder appear to be more susceptible to adverse effects with medications; therefore, initiation with low doses and titrating very slowly is recommended. Some complementary alternative treatments have been researched as possible treatments in autism, though evidence supporting many of these is very limited. PMID:27738378

  6. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings.

  7. Autism spectrum disorders are prevalent among patients with dystrophinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Saito, Toshio; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Saki; Iwata, Yuko; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Imura, Osamu

    2018-03-28

    Recent studies have reported a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among patients with dystrophinopathies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among those with dystrophinopathies. The possible role of dystrophin isoforms in patients was also explored. Fifty-six patients recruited from Toneyama National Hospital were included in this study (mean age = 12.9 years, SD = 5.2 years). Autistic symptoms were evaluated using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders/Autism Spectrum Disorders Rating Scale (PARS), a clinician rating scale. Eleven patients (19.6%; 95% confidence interval 10.2-32.4) met the criteria for ASD based on their PARS scores. Patients were separated into two groups based on the cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms predicted from the mutation location. The prevalence of ASD was examined between these groups. Infantile and current autistic symptoms did not differ between the groups, except on one subscale of the PARS. This study revealed that there was a high prevalence of ASD in patients with dystrophinopathies.

  8. Early intervention for infants with autistic spectrum disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R; Takenoshita, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kamijo, A; Funaba, K; Takarabe, M

    2001-04-01

    To date, many researchers in Japan have assumed that the cause of autistic spectrum disorders is attributable to some disorder in the ability of the child. However, we have been working on the premise that autistic spectrum disorders are brought about by relationship disturbances in early infancy and have been attempting to validate this hypothesis through early intervention. We have examined the developmental process of affective communication in infants with autistic spectrum disorders. We have postulated that approach-avoidance motivational conflict (Richer) is the primary factor impeding the development of affective communication and have focused therapeutic intervention on this perspective. As a result, attachment behavior was markedly improved in children, but affective communication with their mothers was not. Examing the mothers' images of themselves in infancy in mother-infant psychotherapy, problems that the mothers had themselves in infacy with attachment behavior to their own mothers affected the mothers' internal representation of their children, leading to active evolution of mother-child interaction and development of affective communication between the mother and child. In this context, the basis and significance of the internal representation of both parties being determinants in the quality of mother-child communication are discussed. Our goal in early intervention is not the elevation of a child's linguistic-cognitive abilities, but the creation of a comforting relationship in which both parent and child can live securely, without strain.

  9. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  10. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  11. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12

  12. 78 FR 31568 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis SUMMARY: In compliance with the.... Proposed Collection: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Research Portfolio Analysis, 0925--NEW--National... the proposed project, contact: The Office of Autism Research Coordination, NIMH, NIH, Neuroscience...

  13. Impulsivity and compulsivity in Internet gaming disorder: A comparison with obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jin; Lim, Jae A; Lee, Ji Yoon; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Dai Jin; Ha, Jong Eun; Kwon, Jun Soo; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity. Methods A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra-extra dimensional set shift test (IED). Results Within the domain of impulsivity, the IGD and OCD groups made significantly more direction errors in SST (p = .003, p = .001) and showed significantly delayed reaction times in the color-word reading condition of the Stroop test (p = .049, p = .001). The OCD group showed the slowest reading time in the color-word condition among the four groups. Within the domain of compulsivity, IGD patients showed the worst performance in IED total trials measuring attentional set shifting ability among the groups. Conclusions Both the IGD and OCD groups shared impairment in inhibitory control functions as well as cognitive inflexibility. Neurocognitive dysfunction in IGD is linked to feature of impulsivity and compulsivity of behavioral addiction rather than impulse dyscontrol by itself.

  14. [Autism spectrum disorder : a diagnosis for a better support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabane, Nadia; Manificat, Sabine

    2016-09-21

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders at the origin of severe handicap. The clinical expression of these disorders is strongly variable according to the presence of an intellectual deficiency or an associated organic and\\or psychiatric disorder. Getting a correct diagnosis of ASD as a child or an adult can help a person and the professionals understand past difficulties, identify his or her strengths, and adapt the right kind of help. A complete diagnosis, realized by a trained multidisciplinary team, allows to define the necessary strategies of global support, in partnership with families. Treatments and services can improve a person's symptoms and ability to function. These characteristics must be regularly assessed in time.

  15. Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study...

  16. Autism spectrum disorders in siblings of children with a developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the familial characteristics of children diagnosed during childhood as having a developmental language disorder (DLD). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in siblings of probands diagnosed during childhood as having a DLD...

  17. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  18. Motor, emotional, and cognitive empathy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, D.; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, F.; Herpers, P.; Rommelse, N.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor,

  19. Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…

  20. Neural mechanisms of social-emotional dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, E.T.

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and individuals with conduct disorder (CD) are characterized by notable impairments in social-emotional functioning. In this thesis social-emotional impairments were investigated using a cognitive neuroscience perspective (i.e., studying cognitive