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Sample records for alcohol spectrum disorder

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles & Key Findings Materials & Multimedia Fact Sheets & Brochures Posters & Print Ads Infographics 5 Steps for Alcohol Screening ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  3. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  4. Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Alterations in Brain and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Guerri, Consuelo; Bazinet, Alissa; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The term ‘Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)’ refers to the range of disabilities that may result from prenatal alcohol exposure. This article reviews the effects of ethanol on the developing brain and its long-term structural and neurobehavioural consequences. Brain imaging, neurobehavioural and experimental studies demonstrate the devastating consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system (CNS), identifying specific brain regions affected, the range...

  5. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: experimental treatments and strategies for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol-induced damage, protecting against alcohol's teratogenic effects, whereas other treatments may enhance central nervous system plasticity either during alcohol exposure or long after alcohol exposure has ceased. The insights gained to date from experimental models offer several candidates for attenuating the deficits associated with FASD.

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms: A possible link between autism spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadinova, Miroslava; Boyadjieva, Nadka

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) still remains unclear and seems to involve a considerable overlap between polygenic, epigenetic and environmental factors. We have summarized the current understanding of the interplay between gene expression dysregulation via epigenetic modifications and the potential epigenetic impact of environmental factors in neurodevelopmental deficits. Furthermore, we discuss the scientific controversies of the relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and alcohol-induced epigenetic dysregulations, and gene expression alterations which are associated with disrupted neural plasticity and causal pathways for ASDs. The review of the literature suggests that a better understanding of developmental epigenetics should contribute to furthering our comprehension of the etiology and pathogenesis of ASDs and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Special Education of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Nam, Seungree; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the cost associated with special education among children (5 to 14 years) with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in elementary and middle school by sex, age group, and province and territory in Canada. It was estimated that there were 6,520 students with FASD receiving special education in Canada in…

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles & Key Findings Materials & Multimedia Fact Sheets & Brochures Posters & Print Ads Infographics 5 Steps for Alcohol Screening ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  9. Facts About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behavior and learning. They might do poorly in school and have difficulties with math, memory, attention, judgment, and poor impulse control. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): People with ARBD might have problems ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  11. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the treatment plan that works best for your child. Behavior and Education Therapy NOFAS Brochure — Hope for Children Living with ... Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice ... importance of alcohol screening and counseling for all women ...

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview from the Glia Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Clare J; Guizzetti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the abnormal brain

  14. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  16. GLIA AND NEURODEVELOPMENT: FOCUS ON FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eGuizzetti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD.Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the developing brain and it is becoming apparent that the effects of fetal alcohol are due, at least in part, to effects on glial cells affecting their ability to modulate neuronal development and function. The three major classes of glial cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia as well as their precursors are affected by ethanol during brain development. Alterations in glial cell functions by ethanol dramatically affect neuronal development, survival, and function and ultimately impair the development of the proper brain architecture and connectivity. For instance, ethanol inhibits astrocyte-mediated neuritogenesis and oligodendrocyte development, survival and myelination; furthermore, ethanol induces microglia activation and oxidative stress leading to the exacerbation of ethanol-induced neuronal cell death.This review article describes the most significant recent findings pertaining the effects of ethanol on glial cells and their significance in the pathophysiology of FASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. The Knowledge of Rehabilitation Professionals Concerning Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephanie M; Carpenter, Heidi A; Marsh, Anna M; McClung, Kimberly A; Doll, Joy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' knowledge regarding signs and symptoms, prevention, and intervention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Participants were 111 rehabilitation practitioners (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology practitioners) recruited through email using a quantitative online survey design with purposive, snowball sampling. Results showed the majority of participants' demonstrated accurate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of FASD. Since professionals who received formal education on FASD reported significantly higher feelings of preparedness to identify children with FASD and manage/coordinate intervention plans, this study suggests rehabilitation professionals may be better prepared to treat individuals with FASD if they participate in formal training.

  18. Challenges of Parenting Children with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Concept Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason D.; Bednar, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the challenges of parents of children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Nineteen birth, foster or adoptive parents were asked to answer the following question: "What are the challenges you face parenting a child with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?" The data were analyzed using…

  19. Breastfeeding and maternal alcohol use: Prevalence and effects on child outcomes and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; de Vries, Marlene M; Barnard, Ronel; Botha, Isobel; Roux, Sumien; Doms, Cate; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Manning, Melanie A; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Determine any effects that maternal alcohol consumption during the breastfeeding period has on child outcomes. Population-based samples of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), normally-developing children, and their mothers were analyzed for differences in child outcomes. Ninety percent (90%) of mothers breastfed for an average of 19.9 months. Of mothers who drank postpartum and breastfed (MDPB), 47% breastfed for 12 months or more. In case control analyses, children of MDPB were significantly lighter, had lower verbal IQ scores, and more anomalies in comparisons controlling for prenatal alcohol exposure and final FASD diagnosis. Utilizing a stepwise logistic regression model adjusting for nine confounders of prenatal drinking and other maternal risks, MDPB were 6.4 times more likely to have a child with FASD than breastfeeding mothers who abstained from alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol use during the period of breastfeeding was found to significantly compromise a child's development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. THEORY OF MIND IN CHILDREN WITH FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Nadine M.; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Dodge, Neil C.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to understand and make inferences about other people’s intentions, feelings, and beliefs. Although children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are known to have deficits in social-cognitive function, little is known about ToM in FASD. Methods ToM ability was assessed using a developmentally sensitive ToM battery, including the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) test, a measure of mental inferential ability that has been found to be impaired in other clinical populations. IQ and executive function (EF) were assessed as potential mediating variables. The battery was administered to 63 children (aged 9–11 years) from Cape Town, South Africa, whose mothers had been prospectively recruited during pregnancy. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS; n=8) and partial FAS (PFAS; n=19), as well as nonsyndromal heavily exposed children (HE; n=17), were compared to children born to abstaining or light drinkers (n=19) from the same community. Results No FASD group differences were found on the less challenging ToM tasks. By contrast, children with FAS and PFAS performed more poorly than controls on a more challenging ToM task, the RME test. A continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis in that it was related to four higher-order ToM measures, particularly the ability to attribute mental states assessed on RME. IQ only partially mediated the effect of exposure on RME performance, and these effects were not mediated by EF. Hence, the data suggest that these ToM measures tap into a specific alcohol-related social-cognitive deficit that does not merely reflect poorer EF. FASD diagnosis and prenatal alcohol exposure were each also related to RME after control for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in higher-order ToM function may play a significant role in the social-cognitive behavioural impairment in FASD. PMID

  1. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic fac...

  3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic...

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: New Zealand birth mothers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the 'lived' experiences of New Zealand birth mothers, from pregnancy onwards, of a child/ren diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). A qualitative paradigm was utilized so that the participants could tell their stories through words and text rather than collecting statistical data which is the domain of quantitative research. The adoption of a feminist standpoint theory bridged a communication gap, adjusted the balance of power within society and gave visibility and voice to the women. Eight New Zealand-resident multipara biological mothers ages 18 and over, who had nurtured or were still living with their affected offspring, were studied. Their ages ranged from 29 to 64. The mothers were interviewed in depth, face-to-face, using unstructured, open-ended questions. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The mothers described a range of issues of concern for their disabled offspring and themselves (as advocates) relating to health, social, educational, judicial systems, lack of knowledge by professionals and problems in diagnosis, to being oppressed and stigmatized. Cognitive concerns for the offspring included attention-deficit, absence of fear, diminished memory and comprehension and inability to acknowledge and understand consequences. Behavioural issues included excessive crying or no crying as a baby, lying, stealing, hyper-activity, aggressiveness, destructiveness, sexual promiscuity and few friends. Other issues of concern were delayed milestones and numerous health problems. All mothers stated that the pregnancy, labour and delivery of their child with FASD were different from their other non-compromised pregnancies/labours/deliveries. Most mothers said that the doctors used medical language which they did not understand, thus giving power to the former. Seven mothers were either married to or partners of alcoholics when they conceived their offspring with FASD. All mothers had been

  5. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (palcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  6. Neurodevelopmental profile of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Shannon; Rovet, Joanne; Rehm, Jürgen; Popova, Svetlana

    2017-06-23

    In an effort to improve the screening and diagnosis of individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), research has focused on the identification of a unique neurodevelopmental profile characteristic of this population. The objective of this review was to identify any existing neurodevelopmental profiles of FASD and review their classification function in order to identify gaps and limitations of the current literature. A systematic search for studies published up to the end of December 2016 reporting an identified neurodevelopmental profile of FASD was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search was not limited geographically or by language of publication. Original research published in a peer-reviewed journal that involved the evaluation of the classification function of an identified neurodevelopmental profile of FASD was included. Two approaches have been taken to determine the pathognomonic neurodevelopmental features of FASD, namely the utilization of i) behavioral observations/ratings by parents/caregivers and ii) subtest scores from standardized test batteries assessing a variety of neurodevelopmental domains. Both approaches show some promise, with the former approach (which is dominated by research on the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool) having good sensitivity (63% to 98%), but varying specificity (42% to 100%), and the latter approach having good specificity (72% to 96%), but varying sensitivity (60% to 88%). The current review revealed that research in this area remains limited and a definitive neurodevelopmental profile of FASD has not been established. However, the identification of a neurodevelopmental profile will aid in the accurate identification of individuals with FASD, by adding to the armamentarium of clinicians. The full review protocol is available in PROSPERO ( http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ); registration number CRD42016039326; registered 20 May 2016.

  7. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders har fået danske kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccia, Marcella; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Rausgaard, Nete Lundager Klokker

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic...... facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect...

  8. Neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Alfredo S; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Gossage, J Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R; May, Philip A

    2008-11-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed at defining the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly selected peers without FASD. This article presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Of 80 children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly selected control children from the same first-grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to 0.004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive/impulsive characteristics among children

  9. What the Spectrum of Microglial Functions Can Teach us About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa L. Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure during gestation can lead to severe defects in brain development and lifelong physical, behavioral and learning deficits that are classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Sadly, FASD is diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate, affecting 2%–5% of live births in the United States, making it the most common non-heritable cause of mental disability. Currently, no standard therapies exist that are effective at battling FASD symptoms, highlighting a pressing need to better understand the underlying mechanisms by which alcohol affects the developing brain. While it is clear that sensory and cognitive deficits are driven by inappropriate development and remodeling of the neural circuits that mediate these processes, alcohol’s actions acutely and long-term on the brain milieu are diverse and complex. Microglia, the brain’s immune cells, have been thought to be a target for alcohol during development because of their exquisite ability to rapidly detect and respond to perturbations affecting the brain. Additionally, our view of these immune cells is rapidly changing, and recent studies have revealed a myriad of microglial physiological functions critical for normal brain development and long-term function. A clear and complete understanding of how microglial roles on this end of the spectrum may be altered in FASD is currently lacking. Such information could provide important insights toward novel therapeutic targets for FASD treatment. Here we review the literature that links microglia to neural circuit remodeling and provide a discussion of the current understanding of how developmental alcohol exposure affects microglial behavior in the context of developing brain circuits.

  10. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual Defects in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lantz, Crystal L.; Pulimood, Nisha S.; Rodrigues-Junior, Wandilson S.; Chen, Ching-Kang; Manhaes, Alex C.; Kalatsky, Valery A.; Medina, Alexandre Esteves

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a multitude of neurological problems in offspring, varying from subtle behavioral changes to severe mental retardation. These alterations are collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Early alcohol exposure can strongly affect the visual system and children with FASD can exhibit an amblyopia-like pattern of visual acuity deficits even in the absence of optical and oculomotor disruption. Here, we test whether early alc...

  12. Emotion-based decision-making in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vaurio, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Neurobehavioral outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure range from severe intellectual deficiency to subtle attention and motor deficits. Diagnosis of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) can be challenging especially when physical markers are absent or prenatal histories are unavailable. In addition, due to neurobehavioral similarities, individuals with FASD and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be confused clinically, making differ...

  13. Resilience in the Face of Adversity: Stories from Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Lyndsay; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the school and life experiences of four adults diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from an urban area in western Canada. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into the lives of these adults, including their experiences with this disorder as it related to their social interactions and peer relationships…

  14. Identifying the Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someki, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), characterized by various levels of dysmorphia and behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions, is the result of prenatal alcohol exposure. FASD characteristics can be masked by many other conditions. As a result, early identification of FASD is often difficult, leading to a delay of children with FASD receiving…

  15. State of the art and setting priorities for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder(s) prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Sylvia; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Koek, Ger; Nijhuis, Jan; Curfs, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term for one of the leading preventable forms of mental retardation affecting individuals and societies worldwide. Alcohol and its interference with the development of the fetus and child are complex and highly variable. The aim of

  16. Fine motor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.

  17. Proceedings of the 2009 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Kane, Cynthia J M; Smith, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    The annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was held on June 20, 2009 in San Diego, CA, as a satellite of the Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting. The FASDSG membership includes clinical, basic, and social scientists who meet to discuss recent advances and issues in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders research. The main theme of the meeting was "Epigenetics and Development." Two keynote speakers, Dr. Randy Jirtle and Dr. Michael Skinner, addressed the role of epigenetics and environmental inputs, including alcohol, during critical stages of development and their potential critical and long-lasting effects. Members of the FASDSG provided new findings through brief "FASt" data reports, and national agency representatives provided updates on activities and funding priorities. Scientific presentations were made by recipients of the Student Research Merit Award and Rosett Award. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: rcgonc@hotmail.com; Cruz Junior, Luiz Celso Hygino da; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6{+-}3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1{+-}3,4 years). An 8 cm{sup 3} single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6±3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1±3,4 years). An 8 cm 3 single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  1. The Effect of Rehearsal Training on Working Memory Span of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Manji, Shazeen; Andrew, Gail

    2008-01-01

    A key area of weakness in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is working memory, thus the goal of this study was to determine whether teaching children (aged 4-11) with FASD verbal rehearsal would increase their memory. Rehearsal training has been effective in other populations with working memory difficulties, so we…

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol screening and counseling for all women Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevalence of ... conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), CDC, to produce national estimates for a ...

  3. Population differences in dysmorphic features among children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; Smith, Matthew; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Cecanti, Mauro; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Khaole, Nathaniel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2010-05-01

    To examine the variation in significant dysmorphic features in children from 3 different populations with the most dysmorphic forms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). Advanced multiple regression techniques are used to determine the discriminating physical features in the diagnosis of FAS and PFAS among children from Northern Plains Indian communities, South Africa, and Italy. Within the range of physical features used to identify children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, specifically FAS and PFAS, there is some significant variation in salient diagnostic features from one population to the next. Intraclass correlations in diagnostic features between these 3 populations is 0.20, indicating that about 20% of the variability in dysmorphology core features is associated with location and, therefore, specific racial/ethnic population. The highly significant diagnostic indicators present in each population are identified for the full samples of FAS, PFAS, and normals and also among children with FAS only. A multilevel model for these populations combined indicates that these variables predict dysmorphology unambiguously: small palpebral fissures, narrow vermillion, smooth philtrum, flat nasal bridge, and fifth finger clinodactyly. Long philtrum varies substantially as a predictor in the 3 populations. Predictors not significantly related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders dysmorphology across the 3 populations are centile of height (except in Italy) strabismus, interpupilary distance, intercanthal distance, and heart murmurs. The dysmorphology associated with FAS and PFAS vary across populations, yet a particular array of common features occurs in each population, which permits a consistent diagnosis across populations.

  4. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peadon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Peadon, Elizabeth J ElliottDiscipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetal alcohol exposure. The behavioral phenotype of children with FASD includes difficulties with executive function, memory, planning, processing speed, and attention. Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is diagnosed in up to 94% of individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, the exact relationship between FASD and ADHD is unclear. There is some evidence that ADHD in FASD may be a specific clinical subtype and thus may require a different treatment approach. Although traditional behavioral observation scales may not distinguish between the two groups, there is evidence that children with FASD have a different profile on the four-factor model of attention than children with ADHD who do not have FASD. There is a paucity of good scientific evidence on effective interventions for individuals with ADHD and FASD. There is weak evidence that children with FASD and ADHD may have a better response to dexamphetamine than methylphenidate. There is a strong need for larger, high quality studies to examine the relationship between ADHD and FASD and identify effective treatments because management of inattention and hyperactivity may improve learning and ameliorate the common secondary disabilities associated with FASD.Keywords: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  5. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Building Strengths, Creating Hope. Programming for Students with Special Needs. Book 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarren, Sandra G. Bernstein

    2004-01-01

    "Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Building Strengths, Creating Hope" is Book 10 in the Programming for Students with Special Needs series; a revision and expansion of the 1997 Alberta Learning teacher resource, "Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Possible Prenatal Alcohol-Related Effects."…

  6. Preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the role of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Deshpande, Sameer; Thurmeier, Robin; Lavack, Anne M; Agrey, Noreen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines health communication campaigns aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or attempting to become pregnant. Relevant communication materials were gathered and a qualitative review was conducted. A majority of the campaigns followed the tenets of protection motivation theory by focusing on the threat variables of severity and vulnerability, as well as emphasizing response efficacy. Few campaigns focused on costs or self-efficacy. Future fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevention initiatives should attempt to reduce perceived costs, as well as include self-efficacy messages in order to increase women's confidence that they can carry out the recommended actions.

  7. Diving into the world of alcohol teratogenesis: a review of zebrafish models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Buckley, Desire M; Eberhart, Johann K

    2018-04-01

    The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic exposure to alcohol. Along with other reviews in this special issue, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish, have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart, and craniofacial skeleton. We provide insights into how zebrafish research has aided in our understanding of the mechanisms of ethanol teratogenesis. We end by providing some relatively recent advances that zebrafish has provided in characterizing gene-ethanol interactions that may underlie FASD.

  8. Postnatal nutritional treatment of neurocognitive deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons-Compta, A; Astals, M; Andreu-Fernandez, V; Navarro-Tapia, E; Garcia-Algar, O

    2018-04-01

    Ethanol is the most important teratogen agent in humans. Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects, which are broadly termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The most severe consequence of maternal alcohol abuse is the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, defined by growth retardation, facial malformations, and central nervous system impairment expressed as microcephaly and neurodevelopment abnormalities. These alterations generate a broad range of cognitive abnormalities such as learning disabilities and hyperactivity and behavioural problems. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, differences in genetic susceptibility related to ethanol metabolism, alcohol consumption patterns, obstetric problems, and environmental influences like maternal nutrition, stress, and other co-administered drugs are all factors that may influence FASD manifestations. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of nutrition as a protective factor against alcohol teratogenicity. There are a great number of papers related to nutritional treatment of nutritional deficits due to several factors associated with maternal consumption of alcohol and with eating and social disorders in FASD children. Although research showed the clinical benefits of nutritional interventions, most of work was in animal models, in a preclinical phase, or in the prenatal period. However, a minimum number of studies refer to postnatal nutrition treatment of neurodevelopmental deficits. Nutritional supplementation in children with FASD has a dual objective: to overcome nutritional deficiencies and to reverse or improve the cognitive deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of simultaneous multiple-nutrient supplementation.

  9. Visual defects in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Crystal L; Pulimood, Nisha S; Rodrigues-Junior, Wandilson S; Chen, Ching-Kang; Manhaes, Alex C; Kalatsky, Valery A; Medina, Alexandre Esteves

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a multitude of neurological problems in offspring, varying from subtle behavioral changes to severe mental retardation. These alterations are collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Early alcohol exposure can strongly affect the visual system and children with FASD can exhibit an amblyopia-like pattern of visual acuity deficits even in the absence of optical and oculomotor disruption. Here, we test whether early alcohol exposure can lead to a disruption in visual acuity, using a model of FASD to mimic alcohol consumption in the last months of human gestation. To accomplish this, mice were exposed to ethanol (5 g/kg i.p.) or saline on postnatal days (P) 5, 7, and 9. Two to three weeks later we recorded visually evoked potentials to assess spatial frequency detection and contrast sensitivity, conducted electroretinography (ERG) to further assess visual function and imaged retinotopy using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. We observed that animals exposed to ethanol displayed spatial frequency acuity curves similar to controls. However, ethanol-treated animals showed a significant deficit in contrast sensitivity. Moreover, ERGs revealed a market decrease in both a- and b-waves amplitudes, and optical imaging suggest that both elevation and azimuth maps in ethanol-treated animals have a 10-20° greater map tilt compared to saline-treated controls. Overall, our findings suggest that binge alcohol drinking restricted to the last months of gestation in humans can lead to marked deficits in visual function.

  10. Children adopted from Poland display a high risk of foetal alcohol spectrum disorders and some may go undiagnosed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, S.; Rijk, C.H.A.M.; Hoksbergen, R.A.C.; van Baar, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Children adopted from Central and Eastern Europe often have negative early experiences, including prenatal exposure to alcohol. We examined a group of Polish children, adopted by Dutch parents, to see how many were diagnosed with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and to what extent

  11. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  12. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  13. Comparing Attentional Networks in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.

  14. Understanding and managing sleep disruption in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Chen, Maida Lynn; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2018-04-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed high rates of sleep disruption among children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Multiple animal and clinical studies have found a clear association between sleep problems and prenatal alcohol exposure, and recent research is beginning to characterize the types and extent of sleep disruption in FASD. Nevertheless, sleep disruption in children with FASD often goes unrecognized or is treated without referring to an evidence base. Children's disrupted sleep interferes with parental sleep and increases caregiver burden, which is of particular importance for families raising children with FASD, a group with very high levels of caregiving stress. The literature supporting an association between sleep problems and deficits in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive function in children is compelling, but needs further investigation in children with FASD. This paper will review the current state of knowledge on sleep in FASD and recommend a rational approach to sleep interventions for affected children and their families.

  15. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Associated Neural Defects: Complex Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Zhou, Feng C; Marrs, James A

    2013-06-19

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD Associated Neural Defects: Complex Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Marrs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.

  18. Maternal factors predicting cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Adnams, Colleen M

    2013-06-01

    To provide an analysis of multiple predictors of cognitive and behavioral traits for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Multivariate correlation techniques were used with maternal and child data from epidemiologic studies in a community in South Africa. Data on 561 first-grade children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (PFAS), and not FASD and their mothers were analyzed by grouping 19 maternal variables into categories (physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking) and used in structural equation models (SEMs) to assess correlates of child intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and behavior. A first SEM using only 7 maternal alcohol use variables to predict cognitive/behavioral traits was statistically significant (B = 3.10, p < .05) but explained only 17.3% of the variance. The second model incorporated multiple maternal variables and was statistically significant explaining 55.3% of the variance. Significantly correlated with low intelligence and problem behavior were demographic (B = 3.83, p < .05) (low maternal education, low socioeconomic status [SES], and rural residence) and maternal physical characteristics (B = 2.70, p < .05) (short stature, small head circumference, and low weight). Childbearing history and alcohol use composites were not statistically significant in the final complex model and were overpowered by SES and maternal physical traits. Although other analytic techniques have amply demonstrated the negative effects of maternal drinking on intelligence and behavior, this highly controlled analysis of multiple maternal influences reveals that maternal demographics and physical traits make a significant enabling or disabling contribution to child functioning in FASD.

  19. Visual deficits in a mouse model of Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L Lantz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a multitude of neurological problems in offspring, varying from subtle behavioral changes to severe mental retardation. These alterations are collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD. Early alcohol exposure can strongly affect the visual system and children with FASD can exhibit an amblyopia-like pattern of visual acuity deficits even in the absence of optical and oculormotor disruption.Here we test whether early alcohol exposure can lead to a disruption in visual acuity, using a model of FASD to mimic alcohol consumption in the last months of human gestation. To accomplish this, mice were exposed to ethanol (5g/kg i.p or saline on postnatal days (P 5, 7 and 9. Two to three weeks later we recorded visually evoked potentials (VEPs to assess spatial frequency detection and contrast sensitivity, conducted electroretinography (ERGs to further assess visual function and imaged retinotopy using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. We observed that animals exposed to ethanol displayed spatial frequency acuity curves similar to controls. However, ethanol-treated animals showed a significant deficit in contrast sensitivity. Moreover, ERGs revealed a market decrease in both a- and b- waves amplitudes, and optical imaging suggest that both elevation and azimuth maps in ethanol-treated animals have a 10-20o greater map tilt compared to saline-treated controls. Overall, our findings suggest that binge alcohol drinking restricted to the last months of gestation in humans can lead to marked deficits in visual function.

  20. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a province in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Maternal interviews (n = 905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child's family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95%C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child's neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child's family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p < .001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Province in Italy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M.; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods Maternal interviews (n=905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p<.001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. PMID:25456331

  2. Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Boys, Christopher J; Chang, Pi-Nian; Miller, Bradley S; Eckerle, Judith K; Deling, Lindsay; Fink, Birgit A; Hoecker, Heather L; Hickey, Marie K; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    Because prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with growth deficiency, little attention has been paid to the potential for overweight and obesity in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI]) in a large clinical sample of children with FASD. Children, aged 2 to 19 years, who were evaluated for FASD at University Clinics, included 445 with an FASD diagnosis and 171 with No-FASD diagnosis. Prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85 percentile) was compared to national and state prevalence. BMI was examined in relation to FASD diagnosis, gender, and age. Dietary intake data were examined for a young subsample (n = 42). Thirty-four percent with any FASD diagnosis were overweight or obese, which did not differ from the No-FASD group or U.S. prevalence. Underweight was prevalent in those with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (17%). However, increased rates of overweight/obesity were seen in those with partial FAS (40%). Among adolescents, those with any FASD diagnosis had increased overweight/obesity (42%), particularly among females (50%). The rate in adolescent females with FASD (50%) was nearly 3 times higher than state prevalence for adolescent females (17 to 18%), p overweight/obese consumed more calories, protein, and total fat per day than those who were not overweight or obese. Rates of overweight/obesity are increased in children with partial FAS. In adolescents, rates are increased for any FASD diagnosis (particularly in females). Results are suggestive of possible metabolic/endocrine disruption in FASD-a hypothesis for which there is evidence from animal models. These data suggest that clinicians may consider prenatal alcohol exposure as a risk factor for metabolic/endocrine disruption, should evaluate diet as a risk in this population, and may need to target interventions to females prior to puberty to effect changes in overweight-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 by

  3. Sympathy, shame, and few solutions: News media portrayals of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiagaray, Ines; Scholz, Brett; Giorgi, Caterina

    2016-09-01

    there is a lack of public understanding about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and many countries lack policies to deal with FASD concerns. Given the role of news media in disseminating a range of health information, the aim of the current study was to explore the media coverage on alcohol use during pregnancy and FASD, and to identify ways to improve associated health messages. the current study uses a framing analysis of news media reports about FASD over a 1-year period. Framing analysis seeks to better understand how media messages serve to shape the thoughts, feelings, and decisions of readers. two frames dominated the media coverage of FASD: a frame of sympathy, and a frame of shame. Some news media encouraged feelings of sympathy for children with FASD, while others encouraged sympathy towards mothers of these children. At the same time, mothers were also portrayed as deserving of shame. the interrelated frames of sympathy and shame may confuse readers, as they inconsistently hold different parties responsible for the impact of FASD. Media portrayals that encourage women to refrain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy might be more useful than stigmatising and isolating those who do. practitioners should be aware that conflicting messages about alcohol consumption during pregnancy might lead to shame and confusion, and should encourage openness with mothers to challenge stigma. Guidelines for media reporting should discourage stigmatising frames, and media articles should also consider the role that government, non-government organisations, and the alcohol industry could play for improving FASD shame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing diagnostic classification of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure with the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder guidelines: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Breen, Rebecca E Hudson; Netelenbos, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Second, classification of ND-PAE was compared with FAS and pFAS only, a criterion for which includes facial features highly predictive of prenatal alcohol exposure and effects. Eighty-two patients underwent multidisciplinary clinical evaluations using the Canadian FASD diagnostic guidelines between 2011 and 2015. Two clinicians independently reviewed patient files for evidence of diagnostic criteria for ND-PAE when applying an impairment cut-off level of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean, or clinically significant impairment in the absence of standardized norm-referenced measures. Good interrater reliability was established between clinicians (κ = 0.79). Classifications of ND-PAE and Canadian FASD diagnoses, including alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, were moderately correlated (Cramer V [82] = 0.44, p 0.05). Although there is considerable overlap between both sets of criteria, ND-PAE was less likely to identify patients with FASD. Although the neurobehavioral domains assessed by ND-PAE are supported in research, its diagnostic structure restricts the identification of FASD at the impairment threshold of 2 or more standard deviations. A disconnect remains with regard to impairment thresholds between FASD, which relies on neurodevelopmental data, and ND-PAE, which relies on clinical judgment.

  5. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Poole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.

  6. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  7. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marlene M.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A.; Hasken, Julie M.; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Snell, Cudore L.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D. H.; May, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  8. Mapping White Matter Integrity and Neurobehavioral Correlates in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Johnson, Arianne; Kan, Eric; Lu, Lisa H.; Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction have been observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Little is known about how white matter integrity is related to these functional and morphological deficits. We used a combination of diffusion tensor and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate white matter integrity in individuals with FASDs and related these findings to neurocognitive deficits. Seventeen children and adolescents with FASDs were compared with 19 typically developing age-and gender-matched controls. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in individuals with FASDs relative to controls in the right lateral temporal lobe and bilaterally in the lateral aspects of the splenium of the corpus callosum. White matter density was also lower in some, but not all regions in which FA was lower. FA abnormalities were confirmed to be in areas of white matter in post hoc region of interest analyses, further supporting that less myelin or disorganized fiber tracts are associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Significant correlations between performance on a test of visuomotor integration and FA in bilateral splenium, but not temporal regions were observed within the FASD group. Correlations between the visuomotor task and FA within the splenium were not significant with in the control group, and were not significant for measures of reading ability. This suggests that this region of white matter is particularly susceptible to damage from prenatal alcohol exposure and that disruption of splenial fibers in this group is associated with poorer visuomotor integration. PMID:18256251

  9. Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goril, Shery; Zalai, Dora; Scott, Louise; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures. Children and adolescents (N = 36, 6-18 years) with FASD participated in clinical assessments by sleep specialists, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) test in a pediatric sleep laboratory. PSG was analyzed according to standardized scoring guidelines and sleep architecture was compared with normative data. DLMOs were determined and melatonin secretion curves were evaluated qualitatively to classify melatonin profiles. Sleep disorders were evaluated according to international diagnostic criteria. There was a high prevalence (58%) of sleep disorders. The most common sleep problems were parasomnias (27.9%) and insomnia (16.8%). The sleep studies showed lower than normal sleep efficiency and high rates of sleep fragmentation. Most participants (79%) had an abnormal melatonin profile. This study led to the recognition that both sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities are present in children with FASD. Therefore, to be effective in managing the sleep problems in children with FASD, one needs to consider both the sleep per se and a possible malfunction of the circadian regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Virtual Sensorimotor Training for Balance: Pilot Study Results for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Westcott McCoy, Sarah; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Kartin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction. Significant effects were group and session for MABC-2 Balance and interaction for MABC-2 Total Motor and P-CTSIB-2. Preliminary results support improved sensory adaptation, balance, and motor performance post-STABEL, which warrant further study with a larger, randomized sample.

  11. Caregivers' management of schooling for their children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Suretha; Hall, Wendy A; McKee, William T; Ford, Laurie

    2014-11-01

    In this article we describe a grounded theory study of how caregivers of school-aged children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) managed their children's schooling. We completed 30 interviews with 17 caregivers residing in a western Canadian province, as well as document analysis and 25 hours of participant observation. We used constant comparative analysis to construct our substantive theory: intertwining to fit in. The core variable is an iterative cycle caregivers used to resolve their main concerns: preventing their children from failing academically and in social interactions and preventing themselves from being regarded as unacceptable parents. To intertwine to fit in, caregivers used two strategies: orchestrating schooling and keeping up appearances. They also regulated their relationships with their children. "Intertwining to fit in" contributes to the literature on attachment and parenting and extends explanations about caregivers' advocacy for their children with FASD. The theory has implications for school personnel and practitioners, as well as researchers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. An exploration of the experiences and perspectives of New Zealanders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny V; Buetow, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    The experiences and perspectives of New Zealanders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) need to be heard since no research to date has been performed. FASD, a neuro-developmental disability with life-lasting effects, is irreversible. The condition is caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. This study aimed to explore and understand the daily challenges of New Zealand individuals with FASD. Our sequential mixed methods design used two discrete but compatible qualitative methodologies--transcendental phenomenology in Phase One and classic grounded theory in Phase Two--framed by the meta-theory of pragmatism, which allows the use of 'what works' in research. One methodology alone would not have answered our research question. Using the same sample of 14 individuals, 14 to 37 years, two separate data sets were produced sequentially using face-to-face unstructured interviews. Participants had been diagnosed with either fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or fetal alcohol effects (FAE). Data credibility was checked using triangulation. Six themes common to the participants' experiences emerged: daily challenges in the classroom; daily challenges in the workplace; coping with mental health issues; memory problems; socialization difficulties and involvement with the law and authority. Phase Two's emerging theory revealed that because the participants perceived they had been under-supported by the social/health systems, many engaged in illegal behaviours (secondary disabilities) and experienced employment and social problems. Many disavowed having the disability, but with maturity and knowing the signs and symptoms, accepted it. They suggested ways in which their concerns could be resolved. In order that progress in this field can take place, health and social agencies, educational and criminal justice systems and policy-makers need to have increased awareness of the disability and the complex problems that individuals with the disability and their families face.

  13. Theory of Mind in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Nadine M; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Thomas, Kevin G F; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-02-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to understand and make inferences about other people's intentions, feelings, and beliefs. Although children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are known to have deficits in social-cognitive function, little is known about ToM in FASD. ToM ability was assessed using a developmentally sensitive ToM battery, including the reading the mind in the eyes (RME) test, a measure of mental inferential ability that has been found to be impaired in other clinical populations. IQ and executive function (EF) were assessed as potential mediating variables. The battery was administered to 63 children (aged 9 to 11 years) from Cape Town, South Africa, whose mothers had been prospectively recruited during pregnancy. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS; n = 8) and partial FAS (PFAS; n = 19), as well as nonsyndromal heavily exposed children (n = 17), were compared to children born to abstaining or light drinkers (n = 19) from the same community. No FASD group differences were found on the less challenging ToM tasks. By contrast, children with FAS and PFAS performed more poorly than controls on a more challenging ToM task, the RME test. A continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis in that it was related to 4 higher-order ToM measures, particularly the ability to attribute mental states assessed on RME. IQ only partially mediated the effect of exposure on RME performance, and these effects were not mediated by EF. Hence, the data suggest that these ToM measures tap into a specific alcohol-related social-cognitive deficit that does not merely reflect poorer EF. FASD diagnosis and PAE were each also related to RME after control for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These findings suggest that deficits in higher-order ToM function may play a significant role in the social-cognitive behavioral impairment in FASD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Variability in Classroom Social Communication: Performance of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…

  15. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  17. The Marulu Strategy 2008-2012: overcoming Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Latimer, Jane; Wright, Edie; Boulton, John

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Fitzroy Valley, remote north-western Australia, introduced restrictions on access to take-away full-strength alcohol. Following this, Aboriginal leaders engaged strategic partners in a broader strategy to address FASD in the region. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a community-led, researcher-supported, FASD strategy. A review of literature focusing on community-led FASD strategies identified key components that informed the Marulu FASD strategy. These included strategy ownership, leadership, and governance by participating communities, and a research framework. Community meetings and workshops led to the development of The Marulu FASD Strategy (2008). Feasibility and community consent to conduct a FASD prevalence study (the Lililwan Project) was confirmed, and implementation was progressed (2010-2013). Concurrent FASD prevention activities were conducted. In 2012, the Marulu FASD Unit was established within a local Aboriginal organisation to sustain and coordinate ongoing strategy activities. Community control of public health initiatives can be achieved when Aboriginal communities prioritise issues of significant concern, and engage strategic partners to overcome them. Implications for public health: The Marulu Strategy forms a template for action to address FASD and other public health issues in Aboriginal communities in Australia and internationally. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Deficits in response inhibition correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-02-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  20. Exploring the complexity of intellectual disability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddho eChokroborty-Hoque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain development in mammals is long lasting. It begins early during embryonic growth and is finalized in early adulthood. This progression represents a delicate choreography of molecular, cellular and physiological processes initiated and directed by the fetal genotype in close interaction with environment. Not surprisingly, most aberrations in brain functioning including mental retardation are attributed to either gene(s, or environment or the interaction of the two. The ensuing complexity has made the assessment of this choreography, ever challenging. A model to assess this complexity has used a mouse model (C57BL/6J or B6 that is subjected to prenatal alcohol exposure. The resulting pups show learning and memory deficits similar to patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, which is associated with life-long changes in gene expression. Interestingly, this change in gene expression underlies epigenetic processes including DNA methylation and miRNAs. This paradigm is applicable to ethanol exposure at different developmental times (binge at trimesters 1, 2 and 3 as well as continuous preference drinking (70% of 10% alcohol by B6 females during pregnancy. The exposure leads to life-long changes in neural epigenetic marks, gene expression, and a variety of defects in neurodevelopment and CNS function. We argue that this cascade may be reversed postnatally via drugs, chemicals and environment including maternal care. Such conclusions are supported by two sets of results. First, antipsychotic drugs that are used to treat mental disability including psychosis function via changes in DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mark. Second, post-natal environment may improve (with enriched environments or worsen (with negative and maternal separation stress the cognitive ability of pups that were prenatally exposed to ethanol as well as their matched controls. In this review, we will discuss operational epigenetic mechanisms involved in the

  1. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  2. Seizures and electroencephalography findings in 61 patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, S; Vicente, M; Lainez, E; Sánchez-Montañez, A; Vázquez, E; Mangado, L; Martínez-Ribot, L; Del Campo, M

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) cause neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, publications about epilepsy and electroencephalographic features are scarce. In this study, we prospectively performed electroencephalography (EEG) and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 61 patients with diagnosis of FASD. One patient had multiple febrile seizures with normal EEGs. Fourteen children showed EEG anomalies, including slow background activity and interictal epileptiform discharges, focal and/or generalized, and 3 of them had epilepsy. In one patient, seizures were first detected during the EEG recording and one case had an encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep (ESES). Focal interictal discharges in our patients did not imply the presence of underlying visible focal brain lesions in the neuroimaging studies, such as cortical dysplasia or polymicrogyria. However, they had nonspecific brain MR abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia, vermis hypoplasia or cavum septum pellucidum. The latter was significantly more frequent in the group with EEG abnormal findings (p < 0.01). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The relation between theory of mind and executive functions in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Wyper, Katy; Talwar, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are faced with a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and/or learning deficits, as well as poor executive functioning and social skills. Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand that one's own perspective may differ from the perspective of another individual. ToM develops around age 4 and is correlated with performance on executive functioning tasks. The goals of this study were to examine ToM performance in young children with FASD, how age was related to ToM performance, and whether ToM abilities were related to underlying executive function difficulties. Fifty-three children (aged 4 to 8 years) participated: 25 children with FASD and 28 control children. All children were tested on measures of ToM, executive functioning, and receptive vocabulary. More children in the FASD group (44%) failed one or both ToM measures than in the control group (25%). Older children with FASD performed worse on ToM than younger children, but this was not the case for the control group. For the FASD group, ToM performance was correlated with a measure of inhibition, but for the control group, ToM was correlated with visual-spatial working memory. Children with FASD have difficulty on ToM tasks, and this difficulty may be related to underlying deficits in inhibition.

  4. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echoleah S Rufer

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID, is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse

  6. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bower Carol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for clinical studies (Randomized controlled trials (RCT, quasi RCT, controlled trials and pre- and post-intervention studies which evaluated pharmacological, behavioural, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychosocial and educational interventions and early intervention programs. Participants were aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of a FASD. Selection of studies for inclusion and assessment of study quality was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was not possible due to diversity in the interventions and outcome measures. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological weaknesses were common, including small sample sizes; inadequate study design and short term follow up. Pharmacological interventions, evaluated in two studies (both RCT showed some benefit from stimulant medications. Educational and learning strategies (three RCT were evaluated in seven studies. There was some evidence to suggest that virtual reality training, cognitive control therapy, language and literacy therapy, mathematics intervention and rehearsal training for memory may be beneficial strategies. Three studies evaluating social communication and behavioural strategies (two RCT suggested that social skills training may improve social skills and behaviour at home and Attention Process Training may improve attention. Conclusion There is limited good

  7. Virtual Sensorimotor Balance Training for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Jirikowic, Tracy; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Dellon, Brian; Kartin, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Diminished sensory adaptation has been associated with poor balance control for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A virtual reality system, Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement and Learning (STABEL), was developed to train sensory control for balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the STABEL system in children with FASD and children with typical development (TD) to (1) determine the feasibility of the STABEL system and (2) explore the immediate effects of the STABEL system on sensory attention and postural control. This is a technical report with observational study data. Eleven children with FASD and 11 children with TD, aged 8 to 16 years, completed 30 minutes of STABEL training. The children answered questions about their experience using STABEL. Sensory attention and postural control were measured pre- and post-STABEL training with the Multimodal Balance Entrainment Response system and compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All children engaged in game play and tolerated controlled sensory input during the STABEL protocol. Immediate effects post-STABEL training in both groups were increased postural sway velocity and some changes in entrainment gain. Children with FASD showed higher entrainment gain to vestibular stimuli. There were no significant changes in sensory attention fractions. The small sample size, dose of STABEL training, and exploratory statistical analyses are study limitations, but findings warrant larger systematic study to examine therapeutic effects. Children completed the training protocol, demonstrating the feasibility of the STABEL system. Differences in postural sway velocity post-STABEL training may have been affected by fatigue, warranting further investigation. Limited immediate effects suggest more practice is needed to affect sensory attention; however, entrainment gain changes suggest the STABEL system provoked vestibular responses during balance practice. © 2015

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  9. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  10. Out of sight, out of mind? A national survey of paediatricians in Ireland regarding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  11. Use of health, education, and social services by individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D; de B Hanlon Dearman, Ana C; Macwilliam, Leonard R; Chudley, Albert E; Roos, Noralou P; Yallop, Lauren P; A Longstaffe, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of intellectual disability in western society, presenting a significant burden on health, education and social services. Quantifying the burden of FASD is important for service planning and policy and program development. To describe the health, education and social service use of individuals with FASD to provide an indication of the burden of service use of the disorder. Using a matched-cohort design health, education and social service data were linked with clinical records on individuals 6+ years diagnosed with FASD between 1999/2000-2009/10 (N=717). Matching was 2:1 with a general population (gPop) and asthma group by age, sex and area-level income. Adjusted rates and relative risks were calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Hospitalizations were higher in the FASD compared to gPop (adjusted relative risk=3.44 (95% confidence interval=2.29, 5.17)) and asthma (2.87 (1.94, 4.25)) groups, whereas for physician visits and overall prescriptions, the FASD group differed from only the gPop group (1.58 (1.34, 1.84); 1.44 (1.22, 1.72), respectively). Antibiotics, pain killers and anti-psychotics were similar across groups whereas antidepressants and psychostimulants were higher in the FASD group (antidepressants: FASD vs. gPop 8.76 (2.82, 27.21); FASD vs. asthma 2.10 (1.15, 3.83); psychostimulants: FASD vs. gPop 5.78 (2.89, 11.57); FASD vs. asthma 2.47 (1.37, 4.47)). Attention-deficit\\hyperactivity disorder was higher in the FASD than the gPop and asthma groups (6.41 (3.29, 12.49); 3.12 (1.97, 4.93), respectively). Education and social service use was higher for the FASD than either of the other groups for all measures (FASD vs. gPop and FASD vs. asthma, respectively for: grade repetition 3.06 (1.58, 5.94); 3.48 (1.79, 6.78); receipt of any special education funding 9.22 (6.23, 13.64); 6.10 (4.14, 8.99); family receipt of income assistance 1.74 (1.33, 2.27); 1.89 (1.45, 2.47); child in care 13.19 (5

  12. THE PREVENTION OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER: THE NEED FOR A COORDINATED SERVICE BY ROLE PLAYERS IN THE WINE PRODUCING AREAS IN THE BREEDE RIVER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries, Marlene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS is seen as the leading preventable birth defect in the western world (May, Miller, Goodhart, Maestas, Buckley, Trujillo & Gossage, 2007. FAS is the severe end of a spectrum of effects caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy and is characterised by unique facial features, growth retardation and developmental delays (May, Gossage, Marais, Adnams, Hoyme, Jones, Robinson, Khaole, Snell, Kalberg, Hendricks, Brooke, Stellavato & Viljoen, 2007; Urban, Chersich, Fourie, Chetty, Olivier & Viljoen, 2008. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has physical, behavioural and mental consequences for the developing fetus. These effects last throughout the lifespan of the individual with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD

  13. A review of social skills deficits in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and prenatal alcohol exposure: profiles, mechanisms, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kully-Martens, Katrina; Denys, Kennedy; Treit, Sarah; Tamana, Sukhpreet; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-04-01

    Individuals gestationally exposed to alcohol experience a multitude of sociobehavioral impairments, including deficits in adaptive behaviors such as social skills. The goal of this report is to critically review research on social skills deficits in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, including individuals with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Social deficits are found in alcohol-exposed children, adults, and adolescents with and without a clinical presentation. These deficits tend to persist across the lifespan and may even worsen with age. Social deficits in this population appear to be independent of facial dysmorphology and IQ and are worse than can be predicted based on atypical behaviors alone. Abnormalities in neurobiology, executive function, sensory processing, and communication likely interact with contextual influences to produce the range of social deficits observed in FASD. Future investigations should strive to reconcile the relationship between social skills deficits in FASD and variables such as gender, age, cognitive profile, and structural and functional brain impairments to enable better characterization of the deficits observed in this population, which will enhance diagnosis and improve remediation. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attantional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly et al., 1998. The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean CA of 11.7 years and a mean MA of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8.4 years and a mean MA of 9.6 years. The children with FASD were rated by their caregivers as having clinically significant attention difficulties for their developmental age. The reported symptomatology for the majority of the children with FASD were consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD, combined type, and only one child had a score within the average range. These reports are consistent with the finding here that the children with FASD demonstrated difficulties on the Creature Counting subtest of attentional control/shifting, but inconsistent with the finding that they outperformed the TD children on the Map Mission subtest of selective attention. These findings are considered within the context of the complexity in understanding attentional functioning among children with FASD and discrepancies across sources of information and components of attention.

  15. Impairment of motor skills in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in remote Australia: The Lililwan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Latimer, Jane; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to characterise motor performance in predominantly Aboriginal children living in very remote Australia, where rates of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are high. Motor performance was assessed, and the relationship between motor skills, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and PAE was explored. Motor performance was assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition Complete Form, in a population-based study of children born in 2002 or 2003 living in the Fitzroy Valley, Western Australia. Composite scores ≥2SD (2nd percentile) and ≥1SD (16th percentile) below the mean were used respectively for FASD diagnosis and referral for treatment. FASD diagnoses were assigned using modified Canadian Guidelines. A total of 108 children (Aboriginal: 98.1%; male: 53%) with a mean age of 8.7 years was assessed. The cohort's mean total motor composite score (mean ± SD 47.2 ± 7.6) approached the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition normative mean (50 ± 10). Motor performance was lower in children with FASD diagnosis than without (mean difference (MD) ± SD: -5.0 ± 1.8; confidence interval: -8.6 to -1.5). There was no difference between children with PAE than without (MD ± SE: -2.2 ± 1.5; confidence interval: -5.1 to 0.80). The prevalence of motor impairment (≥-2SD) was 1.9% in the entire cohort, 9.5% in children with FASD, 3.3% in children with PAE and 0.0% both in children without PAE or FASD. Almost of 10% of children with FASD has significant motor impairment. Evaluation of motor function should routinely be included in assessments for FASD, to document impairment and enable targeted early intervention.[Lucas BR, Doney R, Latimer J, Watkins RE, Tsang TW, Hawkes G, Fitzpatrick JP, Oscar J, Carter M, Elliott EJ. Impairment of motor skills in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in remote Australia: The Lililwan Project. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:719-727]. © 2016

  16. Neural correlates of cerebellar-mediated timing during finger tapping in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Lindie; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Robertson, Frances C; Peterson, Bradley S; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2015-01-01

    Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC), an elemental form of learning, is among the most sensitive indicators of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum plays a key role in maintaining timed movements with millisecond accuracy required for EBC. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to identify cerebellar regions that mediate timing in healthy controls and the degree to which these areas are also recruited in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. fMRI data were acquired during an auditory rhythmic/non-rhythmic finger tapping task. We present results for 17 children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS, 17 heavily exposed (HE) nonsyndromal children and 16 non- or minimally exposed controls. Controls showed greater cerebellar blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation in right crus I, vermis IV-VI, and right lobule VI during rhythmic than non-rhythmic finger tapping. The alcohol-exposed children showed smaller activation increases during rhythmic tapping in right crus I than the control children and the most severely affected children with either FAS or PFAS showed smaller increases in vermis IV-V. Higher levels of maternal alcohol intake per occasion during pregnancy were associated with reduced activation increases during rhythmic tapping in all four regions associated with rhythmic tapping in controls. The four cerebellar areas activated by the controls more during rhythmic than non-rhythmic tapping have been implicated in the production of timed responses in several previous studies. These data provide evidence linking binge-like drinking during pregnancy to poorer function in cerebellar regions involved in timing and somatosensory processing needed for complex tasks requiring precise timing.

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  18. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  19. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Tesche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz “standard” tone bursts (80% randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz “target” tone bursts (10% and “novel” digital sounds (10%. Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time–frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  20. Diagnostic outcomes of 27 children referred by pediatricians to a genetics clinic in the Netherlands with suspicion of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmalik, Nadia; van Haelst, Mieke; Mancini, Grazia; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Hennekam, Raoul; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) constitute a specific facial phenotype, growth failure and neurodevelopmental defects. Reported FASD prevalences vary widely from 0.08 per 1,000 up to 68.0-89.2 per 1,000. We aimed to evaluate to which extent children referred with a

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Using Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Justice Professionals to Support their Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Raewyn C; Jones, Heather M; Bower, Carol; Watkins, Rochelle E

    2016-01-01

    People with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can be involved in high risk, socially unacceptable and harmful behaviours and are at high risk of engaging with the justice system. To obtain baseline data on Western Australian justice professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice relating to FASD to inform the development of FASD resources. Cross sectional study using on-line survey methods, descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis methods for qualitative data. 1873 people were invited to complete the survey. A total of 427 (23%) judicial officers, lawyers, corrective services personnel and police completed the survey. The majority had heard of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (85%) but were less familiar with FASD (60%). Only 16% of respondents identified the key features of FASD as permanent and only 48.4% considered psychological difficulties as important. The majority of legal and judicial officers and approximately half the police officers considered that knowledge about FASD was very relevant to their work. There was widespread agreement of the need for more information and training about FASD to optimise outcomes for people with, or suspected of having a FASD, engaging with the justice system.

  2. Findings from the Families on Track Intervention Pilot Trial for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Pandolfino, Mary E; Robinson, Luther K

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multicomponent intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Families were randomized to either the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention or an active control of neuropsychological assessment and personalized community referrals. The 30-week intervention integrates scientifically validated bimonthly, in-home parent behavioral consultation, and weekly child skills groups. Outcomes measured at baseline and follow-up postintervention included intervention satisfaction, child emotional and behavioral functioning, child self-esteem, caregiver knowledge of FASD and advocacy, caregiver attitudes, use of targeted parenting practices, perceived family needs met, social support, and self-care. Data analysis emphasized calculation of effect sizes and was supplemented with analysis of variance techniques. Analyses indicated that families participating in the intervention reported high program satisfaction. Relative to comparison group outcomes, the intervention was associated with medium-to-large effects for child emotion regulation, self-esteem, and anxiety. Medium-sized improvements in disruptive behavior were observed for both groups. Medium and large effects were seen for important caregiver outcomes: knowledge of FASD and advocacy, attributions of behavior, use of antecedent strategies, parenting efficacy, family needs met, social support, and self-care. This pilot study yielded promising findings from the multicomponent Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention for child and caregiver outcomes. An important next step is to

  3. TLR4 response mediates ethanol-induced neurodevelopment alterations in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Montesinos, Jorge; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Forteza, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Guerri, Consuelo

    2017-07-24

    Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects

  4. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go unrecognized or are misdiagnosed as a mental illness or brain injury. Individuals with an FASD may also receive multiple diagnoses, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety disorder. Therefore, it is important to determine whether ...

  5. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: When Science, Medicine, Public Policy, and Laws Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, alcohol has been used for different purposes including as a part of religious observances, as a food, at times as a medicine and its well-known use as a beverage. Until relatively recently these purposes have not changed and have at times been at odds with one another, resulting in collisions among policies and practices in science,…

  7. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  8. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  9. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  10. Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Loriann; Jackson, Carl P T; Choe, Noreen; Pelland, Lucie; Scott, Stephen H; Reynolds, James N

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is associated with a large number of cognitive and sensory-motor deficits. In particular, the accurate assessment of sensory-motor deficits in children with FASD is not always simple and relies on clinical assessment tools that may be coarse and subjective. Here we present a new approach: using robotic technology to accurately and objectively assess motor deficits of children with FASD in a center-out reaching task. A total of 152 typically developing children and 31 children with FASD, all aged between 5 and 18 were assessed using a robotic exoskeleton device coupled with a virtual reality projection system. Children made reaching movements to 8 peripheral targets in a random order. Reach trajectories were subsequently analyzed to extract 12 parameters that had been previously determined to be good descriptors of a reaching movement, and these parameters were compared for each child with FASD to a normative model derived from the performance of the typically developing population. Compared with typically developing children, the children with FASD were found to be significantly impaired on most of the parameters measured, with the greatest deficits found in initial movement direction error. Also, children with FASD tended to fail more parameters than typically developing children: 95% of typically developing children failed fewer than 3 parameters compared with 69% of children with FASD. These results were particularly pronounced for younger children. The current study has shown that robotic technology is a sensitive and powerful tool that provides increased specificity regarding the type of motor problems exhibited by children with FASD. The high frequency of motor deficits in children with FASD suggests that interventions aimed at stimulating and/or improving motor development should routinely be considered for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Bertilsson, Göran; Domeij, Helena; Fahlström, Gunilla; Heintz, Emelie; Hjern, Anders; Nehlin Gordh, Christina; Nordin, Viviann; Rangmar, Jenny; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin; Hultcrantz, Monica

    2018-01-05

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists. Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the social services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.

  12. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hasken, Julie M; Adnams, Colleen M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences. Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%. Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; de Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Hoyme, Derek; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference ≤ 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...

  16. Exploring the utility of narrative analysis in diagnostic decision making: picture-bound reference, elaboration, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C; Coggins, Truman E; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Astley, Susan J

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate classification accuracy and clinical feasibility of a narrative analysis tool for identifying children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Picture-elicited narratives generated by 16 age-matched pairs of school-aged children (FASD vs. typical development [TD]) were coded for semantic elaboration and reference strategy by judges who were unaware of age, gender, and group membership of the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the classification accuracy of the resulting set of narrative measures for making 2 classifications: (a) for the 16 children diagnosed with FASD, low performance (n = 7) versus average performance (n = 9) on a standardized expressive language task and (b) FASD (n = 16) versus TD (n = 16). Combining the rates of semantic elaboration and pragmatically inappropriate reference perfectly matched a classification based on performance on the standardized language task. More importantly, the rate of ambiguous nominal reference was highly accurate in classifying children with an FASD regardless of their performance on the standardized language task (area under the ROC curve = .863, confidence interval = .736-.991). Results support further study of the diagnostic utility of narrative analysis using discourse level measures of elaboration and children's strategic use of reference.

  17. A qualitative assessment of program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted.

  18. Potential impacts of the Alberta fetal alcohol spectrum disorder service networks on secondary disabilities: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Moffatt, Jessica; Jacobs, Philip; Chuck, Anderson W; Jonsson, Egon

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the break-even effectiveness of the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Service Networks in reducing occurrences of secondary disabilities associated with FASD. The secondary disabilities addressed within this study include crime, homelessness, mental health problems, and school disruption (for children) or unemployment (for adults). We used a cost-benefit analysis approach where benefits of the service networks were the cost difference between the two approaches: having the 12 service networks and having no service network in place, across Alberta. We used a threshold analysis to estimate the break-even effectiveness (i.e. the effectiveness level at which the service networks became cost-saving). If no network was in place throughout the province, the secondary disabilities would cost $22.85 million (including $8.62 million for adults and $14.24 million for children) per year. Given the cost of network was $6.12 million per year, the break-even effectiveness was estimated at 28% (range: 25% to 32%). Although not all benefits associated with the service networks are included, such as the exclusion of the primary benefit to those experiencing FASD, the benefits to FASD caregivers, and the preventative benefits, the economic and social burden associated with secondary disabilities will "pay-off" if the effectiveness of the program in reducing secondary disabilities is 28%.

  19. Variability in classroom social communication: performance of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.

  20. Preliminary Findings that a Targeted Intervention Leads to Altered Brain Function in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8–12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10 or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11 conditions. They were assessed with a Go-NoGo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm before and after training or the wait-out period. Groups initially performed equivalently and showed no fMRI differences. At post-test, TXT outperformed WL on NoGo trials while fMRI in uncorrected results with a small-volume correction showed less activation in prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. Groups also demonstrated different patterns of change over time reflecting reduced signal at post-test in selective prefrontal and parietal regions in TXT and increased in WL. In light of previous evidence indicating TXT at post-test perform similar to non-exposed children on the Go-NoGo fMRI paradigm, our findings suggest Alert® does improve functional integrity in the neural circuitry for behavioral regulation in children with FASD.

  1. Aberrant development of post-movement beta rebound in adolescents and young adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Vakhtin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependent on maternal (e.g. genetic, age and exposure (frequency, quantity, and timing variables, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus are known to vary widely, producing a broad range of morphological anomalies and neurocognitive deficits in offspring, referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Maternal drinking during pregnancy remains a leading risk factor for the development of intellectual disabilities in the US. While few functional findings exist today that shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the observed impairments in individuals with FASD, animal models consistently report deleterious effects of early alcohol exposure on GABA-ergic inhibitory pathways. The post-motor beta rebound (PMBR, a transient increase of 15–30 Hz beta power in the motor cortex that follows the termination of movement, has been implicated as a neural signature of GABA-ergic inhibitory activity. Further, PMBR has been shown to be a reliable predictor of age in adolescents. The present study sought to investigate any differences in the development of PMBR between FASD and control groups. Beta event-related de-synchronization (ERD and movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS, although not clearly linked to brain maturation, were also examined. Twenty-two participants with FASD and 22 age and sex-matched controls (12–22 years old underwent magnetoencephalography scans while performing an auditory oddball task, which required a button press in response to select target stimuli. The data surrounding the button presses were localized to the participants' motor cortices, and the time courses from the locations of the maximally evoked PMBR were subjected to wavelet analyses. The subsequent analysis of PMBR, ERD, and MRGS revealed a significant interaction between group and age in their effects on PMBR. While age had a significant effect on PMBR in the controls, no simple effects of age were detected in the FASD

  2. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ceccanti; Sara De Nicolò; Rosanna Mancinelli; George Chaldakov; Valentina Carito; Marco Ceccanti; Giovanni Laviola; Paola Tirassa; Marco Fiore

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA an...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.

  4. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-21

    Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment. Children (n = 108, 7 to 9 years) were participants in a population-prevalence study of FASD in Western Australia. Fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, which provided a Fine Motor Composite score, and evaluated Fine Manual Control (Fine Motor Precision; Fine Motor Integration) and Manual Coordination (Manual Dexterity; Upper-Limb Coordination). Descriptive statistics were reported for the overall cohort; and comparisons made between children with and without PAE and/or FASD. The prevalence of severe (≤ 2nd percentile) and moderate (≤16th percentile) impairments was determined. Overall, Fine Motor Composite scores were 'average' (M = 48.6 ± 7.4), as were Manual Coordination (M = 55.7 ± 7.9) and Fine Manual Control scores (M = 42.5 ± 6.2). Children with FASD had significantly lower Fine Motor Composite (M = 45.2 ± 7.7 p = 0.046) and Manual Coordination scores (M = 51.8 ± 7.3, p = 0.027) than children without PAE (Fine Motor Composite M = 49.8 ± 7.2; Manual Coordination M = 57.0 ± 7.7). Few children had severe impairment, but rates of moderate impairment were very high. Different types of fine motor skills should be evaluated in children with PAE or FASD. The high prevalence of fine motor impairment in our

  5. Research Review: Executive function deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Cardoso, Christopher; McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972–2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups. FASD groups included those with and without dysmorphy (i.e., FAS, pFAS, ARND, and other FASD diagnoses). Effect sizes (Hedges’ g, standardized mean difference) were calculated. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for R. Results Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria (FASD N = 2,115; ADHD N = 453; controls N = 1,990). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits in planning, fluency, and set-shifting compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.94, −0.78) and children with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −0.72, −0.32). FASD was associated with moderate to large impairments in working memory, compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −.84, −.58) and small impairments relative to groups with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −.26). Smaller and less consistent deficits were found on measures of inhibition and vigilance relative to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.52, −0.31); FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderator analyses indicated executive dysfunction was associated with older age, dysmorphy, and larger group differences in IQ. Sex and diagnostic system were not consistently related to effect size. Conclusions While FASD is associated with global executive impairments, executive function weaknesses are most consistent for measures of planning, fluency, and set-shifting. Neuropsychological measures assessing these executive function domains may improve differential diagnosis

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  8. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaishi, Tetsuya; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but recent studies with anti-aquaporin-4-antibody specific to NMO have revealed that the clinical spectrum is wider than previously thought. International consensus diagnostic criteria propose NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) as the term to define the entire spectrum including typical NMO, optic neuritis, acute myelitis, brain syndrome, and their combinations. NMOSD is now divided into anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive NMOSD and -seronegative NMOSD (or unknown serostatus). MR imaging and optical coherence tomography are indispensable in the diagnosis and evaluation of NMOSD. This article reviews the clinical and MR imaging findings of anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-seropositive NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  10. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) - What we know and what we should know - The knowledge of German health professionals and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Mirjam N; Albers, Lucia; Rahmsdorf, Birte; Vill, Katharina; Gerstl, Lucia; Lippert, Michaela; Heinen, Florian

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and the implementation of the German guideline for FASD among different professionals in the health and social system and among parents with children with FASD. A questionnaire about FASD, containing 20 items, was sent by post to all children's hospitals (n = 287), all hospitals for child and adolescent psychiatry (n = 173), all social paediatric centres (n = 162), all neuropaediatricians (n = 129) and all youth welfare offices (n = 672) in Germany. Furthermore a link to the questionnaire as online version was put in the member's newsletter by 14 relevant professional societies. Besides, the questionnaire was distributed personally to the attendees of the annual national FASD conference (n = 363). Altogether 428 persons took part in the survey. 273 participants were professionals and 155 parents of children with FASD. More than 95% of the professionals and parents knew that alcohol consumption during pregnancy constitutes a risk for the child. The prevalence of maternal alcohol consumption and of FASD was underestimated. Although approx. 70% of the professionals knew which disorders belong to FASD just a few could tell their specific deficits. Questions regarding effective intervention for children with FASD and the long-term outcome were only partially answered correctly. Professionals in the German health and social system are aware of FASD but underestimate the level of damage and the impact on every day functioning of the affected people. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  13. Regression in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Gerry A

    2008-12-01

    A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity, but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

  14. Mathematics intervention for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A replication and extension of the math interactive learning experience (MILE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kully-Martens, Katrina; Pei, Jacqueline; Kable, Julie; Coles, Claire D; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2018-07-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) experience deficits in behavior, cognition, and academic functioning resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Although receiving intervention for developmental disabilities is a strong protective factor against negative outcomes in FASD, intervention research in this population is in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend a mathematics intervention, the Math Interactive Learning Experience (MILE) program, which was developed in the USA specifically for children with FASD. Twenty-eight Canadian children aged 4-10 years with confirmed PAE or an FASD diagnosis were assigned to either the MILE intervention or a contrast intervention. Following a relatively brief, individualized, one-on-one intervention, children in the MILE group demonstrated significantly greater changes in math achievement compared to the contrast group. Significant changes in other cognitive functions were not observed. Older age, lower IQ, and confirmed PAE but no FASD diagnosis were associated with greater math achievement change in the MILE group. The replication and extension of the math intervention appears to have significant, positive impact on mathematics achievement scores of children with PAE and FASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russ

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it.

  16. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus...... trials, suggesting a less efficient early classification of the stimulus. P3 showed larger amplitudes to No-Go vs. Go in both groups. The study has provided new evidence for inhibition deficits in FAS/PFAS subjects identified by ERPs....

  17. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  18. Development of children adopted from Poland : The role of early life risk factors, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Annually, 300 to 400 Polish children are adopted internationally. Prior to adoption, most of these children were exposed to circumstances that could harm their development, for example, neglect or prenatal exposure to alcohol. Our study was initiated because the Dutch adoption agency that placed

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  20. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  1. "They silently live in terror…" why sleep problems and night-time related quality-of-life are missed in children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; McKellin, William H; Carey, Norma; Loock, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs. We used narrative schema and therapeutic emplotment in conjunction with analyzes of medical records to appropriately diagnose SPs and develop treatment strategies. The research was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver (Canada) between 2008 and 2011. In the QIs, parents and HCPs exhibited awareness of the significance of SPs and the effects of an SP on the daytime behaviors of the child and the associated burdens on the parents. HCPs' systemic inattention to the sequelae of SPs and the affected family's wellbeing appears due to an insufficient understanding of the various factors that contribute to nighttime SPs and their daytime sequelae. In the CCSAs, we found that the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs in children and adolescents was impaired by the exclusive focus on daytime presentations. Daytime behavioral and emotional problems were targets of pharmacological treatment rather than the underlying SP. Consequently, SPs were also targeted with medications, without investigating the underlying problem. Our study highlights deficits in the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs among children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities and proposes a clinical practice strategy, based on therapeutic

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Autism Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet By Karen Ansel, MS, RDN, CDN Published April 2, 2018 nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental and neurological ...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. The range ...

  4. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  5. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  6. Observation of classroom social communication: do children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders spend their time differently than their typically developing peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders documented classroom social communication by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (L. B. Olswang, L. Svensson, T. E. Coggins, J. Beilinson, & A. L. Donaldson, 2006). The Social Communication Coding System consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking) that account for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified timeframe. The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension (as measured by proportion of time and average length of time spent performing each dimension) were recorded. Children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of passive/disengaged and irrelevant behavior, and the proportion and average length of time in these behaviors were larger and longer than those of their peers. Further, children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of prosocial/engaged behavior; however, the proportion and average length of time that they spent being prosocial were smaller and shorter than those of their peers. Implications Results suggest children with mild FASD performed differently than their peers in regard to classroom social communication, which was consistent with parent and teacher behavioral reports.

  7. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  8. Family Process - Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  10. Clinical neurogenetics: autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sunil Q; Golshani, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication, and repetitive or restricted interests. There is strong evidence that de novo or inherited genetic alterations play a critical role in causing Autism Spectrum Disorders, but non-genetic causes, such as in utero infections, may also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging based and autopsy studies indicate that early rapid increase in brain size during infancy could underlie the deficits in a large subset of subjects. Clinical studies show benefits for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies. Genotype-specific treatments have the potential for improving outcome in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... but not all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...

  13. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra W. Soh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX or delayed-treatment control group (DTC. Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT. All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM. Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1 At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2 Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, right frontal pole (BA11, and right anterior cingulate (BA32 in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3 At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9, which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children.

  14. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Paolozza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  15. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Debra W.; Skocic, Jovanka; Nash, Kelly; Stevens, Sara; Turner, Gary R.; Rovet, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF) deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX) or delayed-treatment control (DTC) group (DTC). Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT). All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-h sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM). Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1) At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2) Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10), right frontal pole (BA11), and right anterior cingulate (BA32) in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3) At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9), which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children. PMID:25788884

  16. Epilepsy: A Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, a disorder of unprovoked seizures is a multifaceted disease affecting individuals of all ages with a particular predilection for the very young and old. In addition to seizures, many patients often report cognitive and psychiatric problems associated with both the seizures themselves and its therapy. Epilepsy has numerous etiologies both idiopathic and acquired with a wide range of therapeutic responses. Despite numerous treatments available to control repetitive seizures including medications, diets, immunotherapy, surgery, and neuromodulatory devices, a large percentage of patients continue to suffer the consequences of uncontrolled seizures, which include psychosocial stigma and death. PMID:26328931

  17. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  19. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  20. Alcohol use disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVido, Jeffrey; Bogunovic, Olivera; Weiss, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are less prevalent in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, but these disorders can create a host of clinical challenges when encountered. Unfortunately, little evidence is available to guide clinical decision making in this population. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can have negative consequences on both fetus and mother, but it remains controversial as to the volume of alcohol consumption that correlates with these consequences. Likewise, little evidence is available to support the use of particular pharmacologic interventions for AUDs during pregnancy or to guide the management of alcohol detoxification in pregnant women. The use of benzodiazepines (the mainstay of most alcohol detoxification protocols) in pregnant women is controversial. Nevertheless, despite the lack of robust data to guide management of AUDs in pregnancy, clinicians need to make management decisions when confronted with these challenging situations. In that context, this article reviews the epidemiology of AUDs in pregnancy and the pharmacologic management of both AUDs and alcohol withdrawal in pregnant women, with the goal of informing clinicians about what is known about managing these co-occurring conditions.

  1. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are they related? Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions ASD Autism spectrum disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autism spectrum disorder ( ASD ) is a condition that appears very early ...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  5. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  6. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  7. Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanen, N Carolyn

    2006-10-15

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a complex group of behaviorally related disorders that are primarily genetic in origin. Involvement of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ASD has been suggested by the occurrence of ASD in patients with disorders arising from epigenetic mutations (fragile X syndrome) or that involve key epigenetic regulatory factors (Rett syndrome). Moreover, the most common recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in ASD involve maternally derived duplications of the imprinted domain on chromosome 15q11-13. Thus, parent of origin effects on sharing and linkage to imprinted regions on chromosomes 15q and 7q suggest that these regions warrant specific examination from an epigenetic perspective, particularly because epigenetic modifications do not change the primary genomic sequence, allowing risk epialleles to evade detection using standard screening strategies. This review examines the potential role of epigenetic factors in the etiology of ASD.

  8. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  9. Alcohol use disorders among Nigerian University students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environments and encounter new social and institutional factors that may foster heavy alcohol use. Little is known about alcohol use disorders in non-western cultures. Aims This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use disorders among students in Nigerian ...

  10. Epigenetics of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is diagnosed in 1 of every 68 children. ASD is incredibly heterogeneous both clinically and aetiologically. The etiopathogenesis of ASD is known to be complex, including genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Normal epigenetic marks modifiable by both genetics and environmental exposures can result in epigenetic alterations that disrupt the regulation of gene expression, negatively impacting biological pathways important for brain development. In this chapter we aim to summarize some of the important literature that supports a role for epigenetics in the underlying molecular mechanism of ASD. We provide evidence from work in genetics, from environmental exposures and finally from more recent studies aimed at directly determining ASD-specific epigenetic patterns, focusing mainly on DNA methylation (DNAm). Finally, we briefly discuss some of the implications of current research on potential epigenetic targets for therapeutics and novel avenues for future work.

  11. Autism spectrum disorder: seeing is not understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Lepage, Jean-François; Théoret, Hugo

    2006-02-21

    Impairments in social and emotional skills are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder. Recent research shows that structural and functional abnormalities within the neural system that matches observation and execution of actions--the mirror neuron system--may explain the social aspects of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder.

  12. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  13. Alcohol Use Disorders: Implications for the Clinical Toxicologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McDonough

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are a health problem of high prevalence in most communities and such problems account for 5% of the total burden of disease worldwide. Clinical toxicologists are commonly required to treat patients having AUDs and associated drug/alcohol-related harm. There have been recent changes to some of the diagnostic criteria (notably in DSM V relevant to AUDs, with older terms “alcohol abuse” and “alcohol dependence” no longer being classified. AUDs may sometimes not be clearly recognizable and use of evidence-based screening interventions can help identify such conditions and lead to effective brief interventions (e.g. SBIRT programs in emergency departments. AUDs are viewed as chronic disorders of alcohol consumption occurring across a spectrum of severity. While most AUDs are mild to moderate in severity and usually self-limiting conditions, more severe presentations are more commonly encountered by physicians in emergency settings. Hence, clinical toxicologists are more likely to see patients within the more severe form of disorder, at end of the spectrum of AUDs. Among this group of patients, multi-morbidity and particularly high mortality risk exists, and thus they usually require management collaboration with specialist services. Patients with AUDs are most likely to be recognized by a clinical toxicologist in the following scenarios: following acute heavy alcohol ingestion and subsequently developing acute alcohol intoxication (ethanol toxidrome, following accidental or intentional drug overdosage where alcohol has also been consumed, following acute alcohol consumption that has been associated with behavioral risk-taking and/or self-harming (e.g. poisoning, envenomation, etc., when alcohol withdrawal reactions are severe requiring hospitalization and possibly following an adverse drug reaction.

  14. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  15. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  16. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  17. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context--the Brightening Our Home Fires Project, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel 'ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchack, Kristian E; Thomas, Craig A

    2016-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Prognosis is heavily affected by the severity of diagnosis and the presence of intellectual disability. Children with optimal outcomes receive earlier, more intensive behavioral interventions and less pharmacologic treatment.

  19. Self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Agartz, Ingrid; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Lorentzen, Steinar; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Walby, Fredrik A

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and gender profile of self-harm in a cross-sectional sample of 388 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. All patients were interviewed and assessed with respect to lifetime self-harm and relevant clinical variables. An overall of 49% of the patients reported self-harm which was associated with female gender, having had a depressive episode, younger age at psychosis onset, alcohol abuse or dependence, current suicidality, awareness of illness, and low adherence to prescribed medication. Higher awareness of having a mental disorder was associated with self-harm in men only, while emotional dysregulation was associated with self-harm in women only. We conclude that while self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is highly prevalent in both genders, risk factors in men and women differ in several important ways.

  20. Self-disorders in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk; Sæbye, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Self-disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a certain degree of temporal stability of self-disorders would therefore be expected. The aim of the study was to examine the persistence of self-disorders measured...... by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences over a time span of 5 years. 48 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology at baseline and 5 years later. Self-disorders were assessed by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences. The level of self-disorders...... was same at the two occasions for the full Examination of Anomalous Self Disorders and for four out of the five domains. For one domain, the level of self-disorders increased slightly from baseline to follow-up. The correlations between baseline and follow-up were moderate. 9 out of the 13 most...

  1. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  2. [Recognition of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend

  3. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  4. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...... personality disorder, or other disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum....

  5. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and/or stressed when you are not drinking Types of AUDs include alcoholism (also called alcohol dependence), and ... enhancement therapy helps you build and strengthen the motivation to change ... over a short period of time. The therapy starts with identifying the pros ...

  6. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...

  7. Progress in mind: focus on alcohol use disorders, an elsevier resource centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, D. J.; Rehm, J.; van den Brink, W.; Gorwood, P.; Buchsbaum, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the top five risks for burden of disease globally and in Europe; in 2012, 3.3 million net deaths (approximately 6% of all global deaths) were attributable to this risk factor. It is also linked to the development of a wide spectrum of alcohol use disorders, ranging

  8. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  9. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children with Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, B.; Noens, I.; Philips, E.M.; Kuppens, S.P.E.; Benninga, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children presenting with functional defecation disorders. Study design: Children (age 4-12 years) with functional constipation or functional non-retentive fecal incontinence according to the Rome III

  11. Autism spectrum disorders in children with functional defecation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Babette; Noens, Ilse; Philips, Elise M.; Kuppens, Sofie; Benninga, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    To prospectively assess the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children presenting with functional defecation disorders. Children (age 4-12 years) with functional constipation or functional non-retentive fecal incontinence according to the Rome III criteria referred to a

  12. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; De Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  13. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Implications for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaniz, Crystal; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), possible causes of ASD, current demographic information, the effects on the individual with ASD and the family, as well as diversity and multicultural issues related to autism. Additionally, the paper provides pertinent information about students with ASD for both general…

  15. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  16. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, Maarten E. H.; Groen, Wouter; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; van Driel-de Jong, Dorine; Kan, Cees C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    Background: As autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have largely been neglected in old-age psychiatry, the objective of the present paper is to describe the diagnostic process in elderly patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on ASD in older age was undertaken and illustrated by a case

  17. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  18. Atypical Saccadic Scanning in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…

  19. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  20. Novel Treatments for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    In no area of developmental pediatric practice is there more controversy regarding the choice of treatment than related to children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) are often elected because they are perceived as treating the cause of symptoms rather than the symptoms themselves. CAM…

  1. Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…

  2. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N.; Marques, J. Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic…

  3. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; Benvenuto, Arianna; Galasso, Cinzia; Porfirio, Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions with complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology. Despite high estimates of heritability, genetic causes of ASDs remain elusive, due to a high degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. So far, several "monogenic" forms of autism have been…

  5. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  6. Supporting University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum…

  7. Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim

  8. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  9. Olfactory dysfunction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.J.; Zhao, N.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, D.Q.; Wang, J.; Qin, W.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Wood, K.; Liu, Y.; Yu, C.S.; Shi, F.D.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Few data were available for the understanding of olfactory function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of olfactory dysfunction and characterize olfactory structures, using MRI, in patients with NMOSDs. Olfactory function was

  10. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  11. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; De Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to occurrences of misdiagnosis of PDD, which can occur when an adequate screening of the autistic syndrome is not realised. The result of the surgery was an improvement in autistic behaviours, despite the persistence of less severe autistic traits that may be more closely related to Asperger’s syndrome. PMID:22736729

  12. Picture Exchange Communication System for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that manifests itself within an individual through cognitive, social, and academic deficits. As is true for all spectrum disorders, each individual may experience a range of deficits with varying severity. Many students with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty in some area of…

  13. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  14. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  15. Construct validation of the scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : The attitudes toward issues related to alcohol and alcoholism have been noted as important predictors of the quantity and quality of care provided to individuals who have problems related to alcohol use. The Scale of Attitudes toward Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholics (EAFAAA (Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e à pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool – EAFAAA has been widely used among students in health-related fields. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested among professionals. Objective : The goal of this study was to determine the construct validity of the EAFAAA for use among health professionals. Methods : A preliminary version of the EAFAAA was distributed to a sample of health care professionals (n = 1,025. For the construct validation of the scale, the data were subjected to a factorial analysis, and the internal consistency was examined; the cutoff score of the instrument was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results : The exploratory factor analysis and the refinement of the EAFAAA items resulted in a final version consisting of 50 items divided into four factors: (1 Work and interpersonal relationships with patients with alcohol use disorders, (2 The individual with an alcohol use disorder, (3 Etiology of alcoholism and (4 Alcoholic beverages and their use. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (Cronbach’s α > 0.80, and the instrument cutoff score was set at 3.15. Discussion : The results suggest that the instrument is valid for identifying attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders among health professionals.

  16. [Theory of mind in schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre

    2009-01-01

    To review studies that investigated theory of mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. After a thorough literature search, 71 studies were included in this review. Data regarding the relationship between ToM, and other cognitive skills, symptoms, and the impact of the state of illness were reviewed. ToM instruments used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders have some major psychometric limitations; however, previous research was still able to provide some important findings regarding mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia. While ToM deficits are more pronounced in the acute phase of illness, it seems to persist during periods of remission. There is also evidence of ToM deficits in the healthy relatives of schizophrenics, patients with delusional disorder and bipolar disorder (BD), and individuals with high schizotypy scores. ToM dysfunction might be secondary to other cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia that have a good prognosis, asymptomatic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and BD. Other cognitive deficits do not seem to explain ToM dysfunction in patients with psychosis and severe negative symptoms. These findings support the contribution of impairment in both domain-general and domain-specific mechanisms to ToM deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ToM deficits may be important for understanding poor social functioning and poor insight in psychotic disorders. While ToM is influenced by state variables, it might be an endophenotype of schizophrenia; however, ToM is likely to be an indicator of other frontal lobe-related endophenotypes. Longitudinal studies conducted with high-risk individuals are particularly important.

  17. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks...... the epistemological and phenomenological framework to address such questions. Using the resources of phenomenology and philosophy of mind, we articulate the structure of imagination and describe its distinctive modifications in the SSDs. Drawing on pilot data with patients' self-descriptions, we present the notion...

  18. Epigenetics, autism spectrum, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; D'Mello, Santosh R; Narayanan, Vinodh

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic marks are modifications of DNA and histones. They are considered to be permanent within a single cell during development, and are heritable across cell division. Programming of neurons through epigenetic mechanisms is believed to be critical in neural development. Disruption or alteration in this process causes an array of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent studies have provided evidence for an altered epigenetic landscape in ASDs and demonstrated the central role of epigenetic mechanisms in their pathogenesis. Many of the genes linked to the ASDs encode proteins that are involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. In this review we highlight selected neurodevelopmental disorders in which epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role. These include Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Kabuki syndrome. For each of these disorders, we discuss how advances in our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches.

  19. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...... of schizophrenia. Although the notion of a disordered self has continued to appear occasionally over the years-mainly in the phenomenologically or psychodynamically oriented literature-this notion was usually considered as a theoretical construct rather than as referring to concretely lived anomalous experiences....... Empirical research on the disorders of self-experience in schizophrenia can be traced back to the US-Denmark psychopathological collaboration in the well-known adoption and high-risk studies, which aimed at identifying trait or phenotypic vulnerability features. This research was later followed by clinical...

  20. Subthreshold autism spectrum disorder in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carpita, B; Gesi, C; Cremone, I M; Corsi, M; Massimetti, E; Muti, D; Calderani, E; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Ricca, V; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2018-02-01

    Increasingly data suggest a possible overlap between psychopathological manifestations of eating disorders (EDs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of subthreshold autism spectrum symptoms, by means of a recently validated instrument, in a sample of participants with EDs, particularly comparing participants with or without binge eating behaviours. 138 participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for EDs and 160 healthy control participants (HCs), were recruited at 3 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and assessed by the SCID-5, the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) and the Eating Disorders Inventory, version 2 (EDI-2). ED participants included: 46 with restrictive anorexia (AN-R); 24 with binge-purging type of Anorexia Nervosa (AN-BP); 34 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and 34 with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was split in two groups: participants with binge eating behaviours (BEB), in which were included participants with AN-BP, BN and BED, and participants with restrictive behaviours (AN-R). participants with EDs showed significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than HCs. Moreover, EDs participants showed significantly higher scores on all AdAS Spectrum domains with the exception of Non verbal communication and Hyper-Hypo reactivity to sensory input for AN-BP participants, and Childhood/Adolescence domain for AN-BP and BED participants. Participants with AN-R scored significantly higher than participants with BEB on the AdAS Spectrum total score, and on the Inflexibility and adherence to routine and Restricted interest/rumination AdAS Spectrum domain scores. Significant correlations emerged between the Interpersonal distrust EDI-2 sub-scale and the Non verbal communication and the Restricted interest and rumination AdAS Spectrum domains; as well as between the Social insecurity EDI-2 sub-scale and the Inflexibility and adherence to routine and Restricted interest and rumination

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  2. Membranous nephropathy with Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangling; Wang, YanQiang

    2017-07-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) accompanying Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has rarely been described previously. We recently presented a 45-year-old Chinese male presenting with recurrent lower extremity pitting edema, or eyelid edema, proteinuria and hyperlipidemia. especially intractable hiccup and vomiting, painful tonic spasm (PTS) as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating disorder of central nervous system. The kindey biopsy specimen showed MN stage 2. Serological testing revealed antibodies AQP4, MRI head and spine revealed medulla oblongata and C1-C2 cervical vertebra lesions. Treatment with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine resulted in consistent clinical improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The pharmacogenetics of alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jermaine D; Comer, Sandra D; Kranzler, Henry R

    2015-03-01

    Annually, the use and abuse of alcohol contributes to millions of deaths and billions of dollars in societal costs. To determine the impact of genetic variation on the susceptibility to the disorder and its response to treatment, studies have been conducted to assess the contribution of a variety of candidate genetic variants. These variants, which we review here, were chosen based upon their observed or hypothesized functional relevance to alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk or to the mechanism by which medications used to treat the disorder exert their effects. This qualitative review examines studies in which candidate polymorphisms were tested as moderator variables to identify pharmacogenetic effects on either the subjective response to alcohol or the outcomes of pharmacotherapy. Although findings from these studies provide evidence of a number of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic effects, the literature is limited and there are conflicting findings that require resolution. Pharmacogenetic studies of AUD treatment that use greater methodological rigor and better statistical controls, such as corrections for multiple testing, may help to resolve inconsistent findings. These procedures could also lead to the discovery of more robust and clinically meaningful moderator effects. As the field evolves through methodological standardization and the use of larger study samples, pharmacogenetic research has the potential to inform clinical care by enhancing therapeutic effects and personalizing treatments. These efforts may also provide insights into the mechanisms by which medications reduce heavy drinking or promote abstinence in patients with an AUD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Structural MRI in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rong; Jiao, Yun; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic-resonance (MR) examination provides a powerful tool for investigating brain structural changes in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We review recent advances in the understanding of structural-MR correlates of ASD. We summarize findings from studies based on voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and tensor-based morphometry, and diffusion-tensor imaging. Finally, we discuss diagnostic models of ASD, based on MR-derived features.

  5. Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    early behavioral interventions are the most effective treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but almost half of the children do not make...behavioral intervention . 2. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder , implicit learning, associative learning, individual differences, functional Magnetic...2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0261 TITLE: Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  7. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  8. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2018-01-01

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder classification, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Samata R; Gonda, Xenia; Tarazi, Frank I

    2018-05-12

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD. Several scales such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), The Autism Spectrum Disorder-Observation for Children (ASD-OC), The Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3di), are available to aid in better assessing the behaviors and symptoms associated with ASD. Nearly 75% of ASD patients suffer from comorbid psychiatric illnesses or conditions, which may include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, Tourette syndrome, and others. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments include psychostimulants, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists. These medications provide partial symptomatic relief of core symptoms of ASD or manage the symptoms of comorbid conditions. Non-pharmacological interventions, which show promising evidence in improving social interaction and verbal communication of ASD patients, include music therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and social behavioral therapy. Hormonal therapies with oxytocyin or vasopressin receptor antagonists have also shown some promise in improving core ASD symptoms. The use of vitamins, herbal remedies and nutritional supplements in conjunction with pharmacological and behavioral treatment appear to have some

  10. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  12. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful.

  13. A Study of the Relationship Between Alcoholism and Character Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfley, Virgil L.

    Studies have shown that sociopaths and alcoholics tend to come from similar social backgrounds and that they share several characteristics. To investigate the relationship between alcoholism and character disorder syndrome in adult males, 20 males who had a history of alcohol problems and displayed characteristics of character disorder were…

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance and Developmental Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Canitano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD share clinical and genetic components that have long been recognized. The two disorders co-occur more frequently than would be predicted by their respective prevalence, suggesting that a complex, multifactor association is involved. However, DSM-5 maintains the distinction between ASD, with core social and communication impairments, and SSD, including schizophrenia (SCZ, with hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder as essential features. ASD and SSD have common biological underpinnings that may emerge early in development and unfold over time. One of the hypotheses supporting the similarities in the social and cognitive disturbances of ASD and SSD relates to abnormalities in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory cortical activity (E/I imbalance. E/I imbalance in neurodevelopmental disorders could be the consequence of abnormalities in genes coding for glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors or synaptic proteins followed by system derangements. SSD and ASD have been characterized as polygenic disorders in which to the onset and progression of disease is triggered by interactions among multiple genes. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is under intense investigation as a convergent altered pathway in the two spectrum disorders. Current understanding of shared and divergent patterns between ASD and SSD from molecular to clinical aspects is still incomplete and may be implemented by the research domain criteria approach.

  15. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  16. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  17. Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Šteglová, Dominika

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on problem behavior, its manifestations and causes of origin in children with autism spectrum disorders. The thesis is divided into two parts, the theoretical and empirical. The theoretical part focuses on introduction to issues of autism spectrum disorders and problem behavior. Mentioned here is history and etiology of disorders, also the part deals with autistic triad of disability. Among others I try briefly characterize various autism spectrum disorders focusing on inf...

  18. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [ 11 C]MP4A and [ 11 C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [ 123 I]5IA SPECT for the α 4 β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [ 123 I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  19. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  20. Drosophila Studies on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Tian; Zi Chao Zhang; Junhai Han

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade,numerous genes associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been identified.These genes encode key regulators of synaptogenesis,synaptic function,and synaptic plasticity.Drosophila is a prominent model system for ASD studies to define novel genes linked to ASDs and decipher their molecular roles in synaptogenesis,synaptic function,synaptic plasticity,and neural circuit assembly and consolidation.Here,we review Drosophila studies on ASD genes that regulate synaptogenesis,synaptic function,and synaptic plasticity through modulating chromatin remodeling,transcription,protein synthesis and degradation,cytoskeleton dynamics,and synaptic scaffolding.

  1. Language and communication in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova K.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a review of English_language literature on the topic of development of language and communication in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. It is shown that language in ASD often differs from the one in typical development, particularly in terms of pragmatics, unusual intonation and echolalia, and difficulties in speech perception and comprehension may also be present. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the results of many studies in this area are controversial due to a variety of reasons and it is hardly possible to reach agreement on many questions in this area.

  2. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  3. [Pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder: recent developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissine, Mikhail; Clin, Elise; de Villiers, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by primary pragmatic difficulties, out of step with verbal and non-verbal developmental level. This selective survey paper addresses three recent domains of research on pragmatic functions in autism. First, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how lack of sensitivity to social cues impacts early acquisition of words. Second, we review recent findings on the comprehension of non-literal language, pointing to a more refined clinical reality. Third, we describe recent developments in the study of conversation skills in autism. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  4. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1857–1865....

  5. Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Clarke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger’s Syndrome subtype with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  7. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environment factors affect to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Aim. To develop recommendations for the prevention schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the influence of environmental factors on the clinical pathomorphosis of the disease. Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environmental factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental

  8. Epigenetic regulation in Autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraboni Chaudhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an impaired social communication skill and often results in repetitive, stereotyped behavior which is observed in children during the first few years of life. Other characteristic of this disorder includes language disabilities, difficulties in sensory integration, lack of reciprocal interactions and in some cases, cognitive delays. One percentage of the general population is affected by ASD and is four times more common in boys than girls. There are hundreds of genes, which has been identified to be associated with ASD etiology. However it remains difficult to comprehend our understanding in defining the genetic architecture necessary for complete exposition of its pathophysiology. Seeing the complexity of the disease, it is important to adopt a multidisciplinary approach which should not only focus on the “genetics” of autism but also on epigenetics, transcriptomics, immune system disruption and environmental factors that could all impact the pathogenesis of the disease. As environmental factors also play a key role in regulating the trigger of ASD, the role of chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation has started to emerge. Such epigenetic modifications directly link molecular regulatory pathways and environmental factors, which might be able to explain some aspects of complex disorders like ASD. The present review will focus on the role of epigenetic regulation in defining the underlying cause for ASD

  9. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.

  10. Parental bonding in men with alcohol disorders: a relationship with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, P R; Sellman, D; Wells, E; Frampton, C M; Bushnell, J A; Oakley-Browne, M; Hornblow, A R

    1994-09-01

    Men from a clinical treatment setting suffering from alcohol dependence, and randomly selected men from the community diagnosed as having alcohol abuse and/or dependence, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. The men from the alcohol treatment setting perceived both parents as having been uncaring and overprotective. In the general population sample, an uncaring and overprotective parental style was strongly associated with childhood conduct disorder, but not with alcohol disorder symptoms. This discrepancy in perceived parenting highlights the difficulties in extrapolating findings about aetiological factors for alcohol disorders from clinical samples. It also suggests that childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behaviour could influence which men with alcohol disorders receive inpatient treatment.

  11. Autistic spectrum disorders as functional disconnection syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Robert; Leisman, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    We outline the basis of how functional disconnection with reduced activity and coherence in the right hemisphere would explain all of the symptoms of autistic spectrum disorder as well as the observed increases in sympathetic activation. If the problem of autistic spectrum disorder is primarily one of desynchronization and ineffective interhemispheric communication, then the best way to address the symptoms is to improve coordination between areas of the brain. To do that the best approach would include multimodal therapeusis that would include a combination of somatosensory, cognitive, behavioral, and biochemical interventions all directed at improving overall health, reducing inflammation and increasing right hemisphere activity to the level that it becomes temporally coherent with the left hemisphere. We hypothesize that the unilateral increased hemispheric stimulation has the effect of increasing the temporal oscillations within the thalamocortical pathways bringing it closer to the oscillation rate of the adequately functioning hemisphere. We propose that increasing the baseline oscillation speed of one entire hemisphere will enhance the coordination and coherence between the two hemispheres allowing for enhanced motor and cognitive binding.

  12. Clinical Genetic Aspects of ASD Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bradley Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early presumptions opined that autism spectrum disorder (ASD was related to the rearing of these children by emotionally-distant mothers. Advances in the 1960s and 1970s clearly demonstrated the biologic basis of autism with a high heritability. Recent advances have demonstrated that specific etiologic factors in autism spectrum disorders can be identified in 30%–40% of cases. Based on early reports newer, emerging genomic technologies are likely to increase this diagnostic yield to over 50%. To date these investigations have focused on etiologic factors that are largely mono-factorial. The currently undiagnosed causes of ASDs will likely be found to have causes that are more complex. Epigenetic, multiple interacting loci, and four dimensional causes (with timing as a variable are likely to be associated with the currently unidentifiable cases. Today, the “Why” is more important than ever. Understanding the causes of ASDs help inform families of important issues such as recurrence risk, prognosis, natural history, and predicting associated co-morbid medical conditions. In the current era of emerging efforts in “personalized medicine”, identifying an etiology will be critical in identifying endo-phenotypic groups and individual variations that will allow for tailored treatment for persons with ASD.

  13. Living with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Parental Experiences of Raising a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan; Overall, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the study was to explore parental experiences of raising a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A mixed-method approach consisting of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was used in order to elicit parental perspectives of raising a child with ASD. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of…

  14. [Sleep disturbances in children with autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I A

    2015-01-01

    An association between sleep disorders and autistic spectrum disorders in children is considered. Characteristic variants of sleep disorders, including resistance to going to bed, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, changes in sleep structure, primarily, the decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, are presented. Attention is focused on the possibility of the direct relationship between sleep disturbance and the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. A role of pathological alterations in the production of neuromediators and morphological changes in the brain structures characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders in the genesis of sleep disorders in children is discussed. Possible non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches are suggested.

  15. Alcohol-use disorder severity predicts first-incidence of depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Wall, M.M.; Hasin, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted

  16. Alcohol-use disorder severity predicts first-incidence of depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; van den Brink, W.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Wall, M. M.; Hasin, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous studies suggest that alcohol-use disorder severity, defined by the number of criteria met, provides a more informative phenotype than dichotomized DSM-IV diagnostic measures of alcohol use disorders. Therefore, this study examined whether alcohol-use disorder severity predicted

  17. Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0369 TITLE: Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Betty Diamond...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1...to approximately 5% of cases of ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fetal brain; Autism spectrum disorder ; antibody; B cells; Caspr2 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  18. The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa; Daniels, Julie; Fallin, M Daniele; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Lee, Brian K; Park, Bo Y; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Schendel, Diana; Volk, Heather; Windham, Gayle C; Newschaffer, Craig

    2017-03-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction. Epidemiologic investigations focused on nongenetic factors have established advanced parental age and preterm birth as ASD risk factors, indicated that prenatal exposure to air pollution and short interpregnancy interval are potential risk factors, and suggested the need for further exploration of certain prenatal nutrients, metabolic conditions, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss future challenges and goals for ASD epidemiology as well as public health implications.

  19. Object interest in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCDUFFIE, ANDREA S.; LIEBERMAN, REBECCA G.; YODER, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social communication treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder examined the effect of treatment on object interest. Thirty-two children, 18–60 months, were randomly assigned to the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (RPMT) condition. Assessment of object interest was conducted in an unstructured play session with different toys, activities, adult, and location than experienced in treatment. Results indicated children in the RPMT condition showed greater increases in object interest as compared to children in the PECS condition. Because child characteristics such as interest in objects may influence response to interventions using object play as contexts for treatment, it is important to improve our understanding of whether intervention can affect object interest. PMID:22133872

  20. Public awareness of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsehemi, Matar A; Abousaadah, Mahmoud M; Sairafi, Razan A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2017-07-01

    Examine the awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in our community which would help in early recognition and improved support of affected families. A focused 20-item questionnaire was designed to survey the public awareness and knowledge of ASD. Personal interviews were conducted during an ASD awareness day, which was organized in a major shopping mall on February 20, 2015 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 259 individuals participated in the study with 47% being 30 years of age). Females were more likely to think that autistic children can be employed in the future (p=0.008), whereas males were more likely to think that autism is similar to mental retardation (p=0.005). The public awareness of ASD needs improvement. Areas for targeted education were identified to help improve the quality of life of autistic children and their families.

  1. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Schuetze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases. However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  2. Pharmacological Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    LeClerc, Sheena; Easley, Deidra

    2015-01-01

    Medications are often added to behavioral therapy to help patients with autism spectrum disorder function successfully. This review discusses approved and off-label pharmacotherapeutic options for the various symptoms of the disorder.

  3. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Han, Summer S.; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Leng, Lin; Mizue, Yuka; Anderson, George M.; Mulder, Erik J.; de Bildt, Annelies; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Chang, Joseph T.; Bucala, Richard

    OBJECTIVE. Autistic spectrum disorders are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communicative impairment and repetitive and stereotypical behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity that promotes

  4. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  5. MRI characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Friedemann; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A.; Tenembaum, Silvia; Asgari, Nasrin; Palace, Jacqueline; Klawiter, Eric C.; Sato, Douglas K.; de Seze, Jérôme; Wuerfel, Jens; Banwell, Brenda L.; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Kim, Su-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti–aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive for anti–aquaporin-4 antibody are common and some may be relatively unique by virtue of localization and configuration. Some seropositive patients present with brain involvement during their first attack and/or continue to relapse in the same location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement. Thus, characteristics of brain abnormalities in such patients have become of increased interest. In this regard, MRI has an increasingly important role in the differential diagnosis of NMO and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD), particularly from multiple sclerosis. Differentiating these conditions is of prime importance because early initiation of effective immunosuppressive therapy is the key to preventing attack-related disability in NMOSD, whereas some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis may exacerbate the disease. Therefore, identifying the MRI features suggestive of NMOSD has diagnostic and prognostic implications. We herein review the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord MRI findings of NMOSD. PMID:25695963

  6. Fetal phenotypes in otopalatodigital spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudion, S; Moutton, S; Coupry, I; Sole, G; Deforges, J; Guerineau, E; Hubert, C; Deves, S; Pilliod, J; Rooryck, C; Abel, C; Le Breton, F; Collardeau-Frachon, S; Cordier, M P; Delezoide, A L; Goldenberg, A; Loget, P; Melki, J; Odent, S; Patrier, S; Verloes, A; Viot, G; Blesson, S; Bessières, B; Lacombe, D; Arveiler, B; Goizet, C; Fergelot, P

    2016-03-01

    Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDSD) include OPD syndromes types 1 and type 2 (OPD1, OPD2), Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS), and frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). These conditions are clinically characterized by variable skeletal dysplasia associated in males, with extra-skeletal features including brain malformations, cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, omphalocele and obstructive uropathy. Mutations in the FLNA gene have been reported in most FMD and OPD2 cases and in all instances of typical OPD1 and MNS. Here, we report a series of 10 fetuses and a neonatally deceased newborn displaying a multiple congenital anomalies syndrome suggestive of OPDSD and in whom we performed FLNA analysis. We found a global mutation rate of 44%. This series allows expanding the clinical and FLNA mutational spectrum in OPDSD. However, we emphasize difficulties to correctly discriminate OPDSD based on clinical criteria in fetuses due to the major overlap between these conditions. Molecular analyses may help pathologists to refine clinical diagnosis according to the type and the location of FLNA mutations. Discriminating the type of OPDSD is of importance in order to improve the genetic counseling to provide to families. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prenatal neurogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.

  8. Progress in mind: focus on alcohol use disorders, an elsevier resource centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, D J; Rehm, J; van den Brink, W; Gorwood, P; Buchsbaum, M S

    2015-04-30

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the top five risks for burden of disease globally and in Europe; in 2012, 3.3 million net deaths (approximately 6% of all global deaths) were attributable to this risk factor. It is also linked to the development of a wide spectrum of alcohol use disorders, ranging from mild manifestations to a severe disease known as alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence is a progressive, chronic, and relapsing brain disease resulting from the prolonged effects of alcohol on the brain. Alcohol dependence imposes a significant societal burden, with indirect societal costs reaching up to 0.64% of European countries׳ annual gross domestic product. With these facts in mind, it is important to recognize and manage alcohol dependence. Although the biological mechanisms behind the development of alcohol dependence are not fully known, factors that have been shown to influence its development include genetic predisposition, psychological problems, and social interactions. Alcohol use has also been linked to the development of hypertension, liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, multiple types of cancer, and psychiatric comorbidities such as depression and anxiety disorders. With such severe effects on both individuals and society, it is important to recognize the characteristic signs and symptoms of alcohol dependence and explore new ways to better manage patients with this brain disease. Effective treatment approaches for alcohol dependence include biological, behavioral, and social components addressing the multiple aspects of this disease. Comprehensive, educational platforms in which to explore the many facets of this disease such as the Progress in Mind: Focus on Alcohol Use Disorders Resource Centre, will provide clinicians with the tools necessary for recognizing patients with alcohol dependence and managing their disease along with related comorbidities. Online Access: http://progressinmind.elsevierresource.com. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  9. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  10. Differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Seong-Joon; Lee, Haeng Jin; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Palace, Jacqueline; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly manifesting as optic neuritis and/or myelitis, which are frequently recurrent/bilateral or longitudinally extensive, respectively. As the autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) can mediate the pathogenesis of NMOSD, testing for the AQP4-Ab in serum of patients can play a crucial role in diagnosing NMOSD. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis of NMOSD in clinical practice is often challenging despite the phenotypical and serological characteristics of the disease because: (1) diverse diseases with autoimmune, vascular, infectious, or neoplastic etiologies can mimic these phenotypes of NMOSD; (2) patients with NMOSD may only have limited clinical manifestations, especially in their early disease stages; (3) test results for AQP4-Ab can be affected by several factors such as assay methods, serologic status, disease stages, or types of treatment; (4) some patients with NMOSD do not have AQP4-Ab; and (5) test results for the AQP4-Ab may not be readily available for the acute management of patients. Despite some similarity in their phenotypes, these NMOSD and NMOSD-mimics are distinct from each other in their pathogenesis, prognosis, and most importantly treatment. Understanding the detailed clinical, serological, radiological, and prognostic differences of these diseases will improve the proper management as well as diagnosis of patients. PMID:28670343

  11. Abnormal infant neurodevelopment predicts schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to detect infants who carry a schizophrenic genotype and study the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZSD) from birth. In the 1940s, Bender described uneven maturation in childhood schizophrenics and in 1952 found this in the infant histories of 6 schizophrenic children. We tested a possible index for defective neural integration in infants termed "pandysmaturation" (PDM). This required retarded cranial growth plus retarded and erratic gross motor development on a single exam. Twelve offspring of hospitalized schizophrenic mothers and 12 infants in a "Well Baby Clinic," were examined 10 times between birth and 2 years of age. Psychiatric interviews and psychological testing were done at 10, 15, and 22 years of age, plus follow-up at 27-35 years of age. Six infants had PDM at 2, 6, or 13 months of age. Five individuals have been blindly diagnosed (by KSK) as having lifetime SZSD; all 5 had PDM before 8 months. Chi-square one-tailed tests confirmed the predictions: (1) PDM was related to subsequent SZSD (chi(2) = 11.43; p < 0.0005); (2) schizophrenic mothers had more infants with PDM than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 3.28; p < 0.05); and (3) schizophrenic mothers had more SZSD offspring than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 6.39; p < 0.0125). These first behavioral observations of aberrant neurodevelopment in pre- SZSD infants support the evidence of early neurodevelopmental disorder seen in studies of brain pathology in SZSD adults.

  12. Mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom; Stokes, Mark; McGillivray, Jane; Bittar, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behaviour. Although there is no reliable neurophysiological marker associated with ASDs, dysfunction of the parieto-frontal mirror neuron system has been suggested as a disturbance linked to the disorder. Mirror neurons (MNs) are visuomotor neurons which discharge both when performing and observing a goal directed action. Research suggests MNs may have a role in imitation, empathy, theory of mind and language. Although the research base is small, evidence from functional MRI, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and an electroencephalographic component called the mu rhythm suggests MNs are dysfunctional in subjects with ASD. These deficits are more pronounced when ASD subjects complete tasks with social relevance, or that are emotional in nature. Promising research has identified that interventions targeting MN related functions such as imitation can improve social functioning in ASDs. Boosting the function of MNs may improve the prognosis of ASDs, and contribute to diagnostic clarity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  14. Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kristen; Anderson, Bryan; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Forness, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Although comorbid or co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and oppositional defiant or conduct disorders have been well studied in children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very little research is available on preschool samples. The current study…

  15. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  16. A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavăl, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system. We hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic circuit leads to social deficits, while a dysfunction of the nigrostriatal circuit leads to stereotyped behaviors. Furthermore, we discuss 2 key predictions of our hypothesis, with emphasis on clinical and therapeutic aspects. First, we argue that dopaminergic dysfunctions in the same circuits should associate with autistic-like behavior in nonautistic subjects. Concerning this, we discuss the case of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections) which displays behaviors similar to those of ASD, presumed to arise from dopaminergic dysfunctions. Second, we argue that providing dopamine modulators to autistic subjects should lead to a behavioral improvement. Regarding this, we present clinical studies of dopamine antagonists which seem to have improving effects on autistic behavior. Furthermore, we explore the means of testing our hypothesis by using neuroreceptor imaging, which could provide comprehensive evidence for dopamine signaling dysfunctions in autistic subjects. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of our hypothesis. Along these lines, we aim to provide a dopaminergic model of ASD which might lead to a better understanding of the ASD pathogenesis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    children -autism- spectrum-disorder C. Technologies or techniques Nothing to Report D. Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses Nothing to Report...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0526 TITLE: Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  18. Pediatric epilepsy and comorbid reading disorders, math disorders, or autism spectrum disorders: Impact of epilepsy on cognitive patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iterson, L.; de Jong, P.F.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In pediatric epilepsy, comorbidities are reported to be frequent. The present study focusedon the cognitive patterns of children with isolated epilepsy, children with isolated neurodevelopmental disorders (reading disorders, math disorders, autism spectrum disorders), and children with

  19. Trauma, alexithymia, emotional regulation and dissociation in alcohol use disorder, substance use disorder and polysubstance disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Background: Around 33-50% who attend treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a history of trauma. Experiencing trauma can lead to psychological disorders, difficulties with emotional regulation and dissociation. SUD and AUD can be chronic, relapsing disorders and understanding what individual factors affect addiction has important implications for treatment. Objective: The systematic review was interested in whether alexithymia affects ...

  20. Priorities for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Communication and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…

  1. Coexistence of 9p Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Ekinci, Nuran; Toros, Fevziye

    2017-01-01

    Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism

  3. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  4. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  5. Priorities for autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken, which investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for autism, with more studies underway. At present, much remains unknown regarding autism spectrum disorder risk factors, but the emerging picture of causation is in many cases complex, with multiple genes and gene-environment interactions being at play. The complexity and uncertainty surrounding autism spectrum disorder risk factors raise a number of questions regarding the ethical considerations that should be taken into account when undertaking autism spectrum disorder risk communication. At present, however, little has been written regarding autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics. This article summarizes the findings of a recent conference investigating ethical considerations and policy recommendations in autism spectrum disorder risk communication, which to the authors' knowledge is the first of its kind. Here, the authors discuss a number of issues, including uncertainty; comprehension; inadvertent harm; justice; and the appropriate roles of clinicians, scientists, and the media in autism spectrum disorder risk communication.

  6. Quantifying the use of gestures in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechts, Anna; Yarrow, Kielan; Maras, Katie

    Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in communication and social interaction. In the absence of a biomarker, a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is reached in settings such as the ADOS (Lord et al., 2000) by observing disturbances of social...

  7. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  8. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  9. No Evidence of Reaction Time Slowing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richard

    2016-01-01

    A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…

  10. Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder co-morbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneier, F R; Foose, T E; Hasin, D S; Heimberg, R G; Liu, S-M; Grant, B F; Blanco, C

    2010-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001-2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version. Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.

  11. Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Lee, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although alcohol abstinence is the crucial therapeutic goal for patients with alcoholic liver disease, these patients have less access to psychosocial, behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder. Psychosocial and behavioral therapies include 12-step facilitation, brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy. In addition to medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for alcohol use disorder (disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate), recent efforts to identify potential new treatments have yielded promising candidate pharmacotherapies. Finally, more efforts are needed to integrate treatments across disciplines toward patient-centered approaches in the management of patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease. PMID:27984008

  12. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  13. Practical outpatient pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjung; Hack, Laura M; Ahn, Elizabeth S

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population. Herein, we provide practical pharmacotherapy strategies to improve treatment outcome for AUD. We review the efficacy and side effects of both on- and off-label agents with a particular focus on clinical applicability. Recommendations are supported by findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses selected to be representative, where possible, of current treatment guidelines. The goal of this paper is to help readers use pharmacotherapy with greater confidence when treating patients with AUD. PMID:29445407

  14. Practical outpatient pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is commonly encountered in clinical practice. A combination of psychosocial intervention and pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of AUD treatment. Despite their efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness, clinicians are reluctant to prescribe medications to treat individuals with AUD. Given the high rate of relapse with psychosocial intervention alone, increasing patient access to this underutilized treatment has the potential to improve clinical outcome in this difficult-to-treat population. Herein, we provide practical pharmacotherapy strategies to improve treatment outcome for AUD. We review the efficacy and side effects of both on- and off-label agents with a particular focus on clinical applicability. Recommendations are supported by findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT and meta-analyses selected to be representative, where possible, of current treatment guidelines. The goal of this paper is to help readers use pharmacotherapy with greater confidence when treating patients with AUD.

  15. Epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Martina; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-05-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e., nociceptin and dynorphin) are involved in the interaction of stress and alcohol. In fact, alterations in the expression and function of these molecules have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. In recent years, various studies have focused on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate chromatin architecture, thereby modifying gene expression. Interestingly, epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions have been shown to be associated with the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism and stress. In particular, the enzymes responsible for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases) have been identified as common molecular mechanisms for the interaction of stress and alcohol and have become promising therapeutic targets to treat or prevent alcoholism and associated emotional disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Convergent functional genomic studies of ω-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Niculescu, H; Case, N J; Hulvershorn, L; Patel, S D; Bowker, D; Gupta, J; Bell, R; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Kuczenski, R; Geyer, M A; Rodd, Z A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-04-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond.

  17. Hazardous alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in women : characteristics and vulnerability factors

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to study vulnerability factors associated with hazardous alcohol consumption during pregnancy and alcohol use disorders among Swedish women. Different risk-factors and characteristics were studied, and examined for their ability to discriminate or identify different subtypes (type I/late onset and type II/early onset) of alcohol dependence ( alcoholism ). In study I, an RCT at ANC in Stockholm (control, n = 156, intervention, n =147) we...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  19. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  20. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in response to both reward types. In particular, diminished activation in the nucleus accumbens was observed when money, but not when social reward, was at stake, whereas the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactivated within the ASD group in response to both rewards. These data indicate that the reward circuitry is compromised in ASD in social as well as in non-social, i.e. monetary conditions, which likely contributes to atypical motivated behaviour. Taken together, with incentives used in this study sample, there is evidence for a general reward dysfunction in ASD. However, more ecologically valid social reward paradigms are needed to fully understand, whether there is any domain specificity to the reward deficit that appears evident in ASD, which would be most consistent with the ASD social phenotype. PMID:22419119

  1. Color Vision Losses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Zachi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impairments in social/communication abilities and restricted behaviors. The present study aims to examine color vision discrimination in ASD children and adolescents without intellectual disability. The participants were also subdivided in order to compare color vision thresholds of autistic participants and those who achieved diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome (AS. Nine subjects with autism, 11 participants with AS and 36 typically developing children and adolescents participated in the study. Color vision was assessed by the Cambridge Color Test (CCT. The Trivector protocol was administered to determine color discrimination thresholds along the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion lines. Data from ASD participants were compared to tolerance limits for 90% of the population with 90% probability obtained from controls thresholds. Of the 20 ASD individuals examined, 6 (30% showed color vision losses. Elevated color discrimination thresholds were found in 3/9 participants with autism and in 3/11 AS participants. Diffuse and tritan deficits were found. Mechanisms for chromatic losses may be either at the retinal level and/or reflect reduced cortical integration.

  2. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  3. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey  of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environment factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental factors influence in high risk individuals would postpone early manifestation, reduce disability in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, as evidenced by the statement of leading health experts.

  4. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Tics and Tourette Syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more frequently associated with tic disorders than expected by chance. Variable rates of comorbidity have been reported and common genetic and neurobiological factors are probably involved. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of tic disorders in a clinical sample (n = 105) of children and…

  6. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  7. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Derrick; Shamberger, Raymond J.; Obrenovich, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but qui...

  8. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  9. Referential communication in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-07-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated diminished performance in children with autism spectrum disorder, mirroring performance in everyday life, in comparison to verbal IQ and mental age matched typically developing children. Among children with autism spectrum disorders, there was a positive relationship between performance in referential communication and theory of mind. Memory capacity also proved to play a role in success in the task.

  10. The cost of autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Horlin

    Full Text Available A diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorders is usually associated with substantial lifetime costs to an individual, their family and the community. However, there remains an elusive factor in any cost-benefit analysis of ASD diagnosis, namely the cost of not obtaining a diagnosis. Given the infeasibility of estimating the costs of a population that, by its nature, is inaccessible, the current study compares expenses between families whose children received a formal ASD diagnosis immediately upon suspecting developmental atypicality and seeking advice, with families that experienced a delay between first suspicion and formal diagnosis.A register based questionnaire study covering all families with a child with ASD in Western Australia.Families with one or more children diagnosed with an ASD, totalling 521 children diagnosed with an ASD; 317 records were able to be included in the final analysis.The median family cost of ASD was estimated to be AUD $34,900 per annum with almost 90% of the sum ($29,200 due to loss of income from employment. For each additional symptom reported, approximately $1,400 cost for the family per annum was added. While there was little direct influence on costs associated with a delay in the diagnosis, the delay was associated with a modest increase in the number of ASD symptoms, indirectly impacting the cost of ASD.A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families. Early and appropriate access to early intervention is known to improve a child's long-term outcomes and reduce lifetime costs to the individual, family and society. Consequently, a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation, as is the case in Western Australia.

  11. Understanding visual consciousness in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatziv, Tal; Jacobson, Hilla

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the question of what the (visual) perceptual differences are between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals. We argue against the view that autistic subjects have a deficiency in the most basic form of perceptual consciousness-namely, phenomenal consciousness. Instead, we maintain, the perceptual atypicality of individuals with autism is of a more conceptual and cognitive sort-their perceptual experiences share crucial aspects with TD individuals. Our starting point is Ben Shalom's (2005, 2009) three-level processing framework for explaining atypicality in several domains of processing among autistics, which we compare with two other tripartite models of perception-Jackendoff's (1987) and Prinz's (2000, 2005a, 2007) Intermediate Level Hypothesis and Lamme's (2004, 2006, 2010) neural account of consciousness. According to these models, whereas the second level of processing is concerned with viewer-centered visual representations of basic visual properties and incorporates some early forms of integration, the third level is more cognitive and conceptual. We argue that the data suggest that the atypicality in autism is restricted mainly to the third level. More specifically, second-level integration, which is the mark of phenomenal consciousness, is typical, yet third-level integration of perceptual objects and concepts is atypical. Thus, the basic experiences of individuals with autism are likely to be similar to typical subjects' experiences; the main difference lies in the sort of cognitive access the subjects have to their experiences. We conclude by discussing implications of the suggested analysis of experience in autism for conceptions of phenomenal consciousness.

  12. Relationship between Alcohol Purchasing Time and Alcohol Use Disorder in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun

    2017-12-01

    Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.

  13. Coping strategies of Taiwanese children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Chih; Chao, Kuo-Yu; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Li, Hsin-Mei; Chen, Sue-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    To explore and describe the coping experiences of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. Children with autism spectrum disorders are faced with daily social and living challenges, which can cause stress. Chinese culture emphasises discipline and obedience, which may influence coping strategies of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. This qualitative study employed an exploratory descriptive design. Data were collected from in-depth, face-to-face structured interviews. Interviews explored coping strategies of Taiwanese school-aged children (aged 6-19) with autism spectrum disorders. Children (N = 17) and their caregivers were recruited by purposive sampling. Transcribed interview data were thematically analysed using the procedure of Miles and Huberman. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data, which described the coping strategies of the children: (1) problem-solving, (2) acting-out, (3) avoidance, (4) seeking help and (5) self-regulation. These themes included multiple coping strategies, which employed the concepts of engagement and disengagement. The children with autism spectrum disorder used many strategies to cope with the stresses resulting from behaviours and symptoms associated with the disorder. Most of the Taiwanese children use both problem-solving and emotional-focused coping strategies. Understanding coping strategies of children with autism spectrum disorder could help caregivers (parents, teachers) and medical professionals develop interventions to reduce these challenges, which could alleviate stress and improve social functioning for these children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Enhancing work outcomes of employees with autism spectrum disorder through leadership: leadership for employees with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Hunter, Samuel T

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success. Through a series of interviews with 54 employees with autism spectrum disorder, results indicated that leadership has a great effect on employee attitudes and performance, and that the notion of leadership preferences is quite complex culminating in several important behaviors rather than one superior leadership theory. Implications and future research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Value-based decision making and alcohol use disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nebe, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a widespread mental disease denoted by chronic alcohol use despite significant negative consequences for a person’s life. It affected more than 14 million persons in Europe alone and accounted for more than 5% of deaths worldwide in 2011-2012. Understanding the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms driving the development and maintenance of pathological alcohol use is key to conceptualizing new programs for prevention and therapy of AUD. There has been a v...

  16. Coagulopathy in Zellweger spectrum disorders: a role for vitamin K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeynelabidin, S. (Sara); Klouwer, F.C.C. (Femke C. C.); J.C.M. Meijers; Suijker, M.H. (Monique H.); M. Engelen (Marc); B.T. Poll-The; C.H. van Ommen (Heleen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are caused by an impairment of peroxisome biogenesis, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities. This leads to a range of symptoms, including hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of

  17. The prevalence and causes of autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Terry

    Autism and autistic spectrum disorders are still relatively poorly understood. This article outlines the results of new research into the prevalence of autism and into the causes of the condition and highlights implications for nurses from the findings.

  18. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi...

  19. Social Network as predictor for onset of alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne; Becker, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    in a prospective design. Methods: Information on social network and covariates was obtained from 9589 men and women aged 21–99 years in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, followed for registration of alcohol use disorder in the Danish National Patient Registry and the WINALCO database. Results: Men who lived alone......Objective: Social network has been linked to alcohol use disorder in several studies. However, since the majority of such findings are crosssectional, causal interpretation is difficult. The aim of the present study was to test if social network characteristics predict alcohol use disorder......, were separated or divorced or widowers had a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder: HR among men living alone vs. men not living alone was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.59–3.27), and HR among separated/divorced men vs. married men was 2.55 (95% CI: 1.33–4.89). No such associations were found among women...

  20. Aripiprazole for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lauren E; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-06-26

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Antipsychotics have been used as a medication intervention for irritability related to ASD. Aripiprazole, a third-generation, atypical antipsychotic, is a relatively new drug that has a unique mechanism of action different from that of other antipsychotics. This review updates a previous Cochrane review on the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for individuals with ASD, published in 2011 (Ching 2011). To assess the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole as medication treatment for individuals with ASD. In October 2015, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and seven other databases as well as two trial registers. We searched for records published in 1990 or later, as this was the year aripiprazole became available. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of aripiprazole (administered orally and at any dosage) versus placebo for treatment of individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. Two review authors independently collected, evaluated and analysed data. We performed meta-analysis for primary and secondary outcomes, when possible. We used the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to rate the overall quality of the evidence. We included three trials in this review. Two were included in the previous published review, and the results of one, placebo-controlled discontinuation study were added to this review. Although we searched for studies across age groups, we found only studies conducted in children and youth. Included trials had low risk of bias across most domains. High risk of bias was seen in only one trial with incomplete outcome data. We judged the overall quality of the evidence for most outcomes to be moderate.Two RCTs with similar methods evaluated

  1. Alcohol use disorder and tuberculosis treatment: A longitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out ...

  2. Prevalence of Alcohol use Disorders among Medical and Surgical in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reasons include inadequate medical school and residency training in addictions and a lack of adequate faculty role models who intervene and diagnose alcohol dependence (30). The likelihood that a physician will detect and address alcohol use disorders in patients varies according to the physician's field of training (8).

  3. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  4. Predicting an Alcohol Use Disorder in Urban American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale

    2014-01-01

    This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…

  5. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Schizotypal personality disorder inside and outside the schizophrenic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Edvardsen, J; Øien, P A; Onstad, S; Skre, I; Lygren, S; Kringlen, E

    2002-03-01

    The concept of schizotypal personality disorder has been heavily discussed since its introduction into the official classification of mental disorders in DSM-III. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between schizotypal personality disorder within and outside the genetic spectrum of schizophrenia. Schizotypals with and without schizophrenic cotwins and first-degree relatives were compared, with individuals with other mental disorders and no mental disorders as controls. It appeared that only inadequate rapport and odd communication were more pronounced among schizotypals within, compared to schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum. Schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum, however, scored higher than schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum on ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoia, social anxiety, self-damaging acts, chronic anger, free-floating anxiety and sensitivity to rejection. Interestingly, the four last features are seldom observed among schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizophrenics score high on inadequate rapport, odd communication, social isolation and delusions/hallucinations. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizotypals outside the schizophrenic genetic spectrum score high on illusions, depersonalization, derealization and magical thinking. Negative schizotypal features appear to be inside the schizophrenic spectrum, while positive borderline-like features are outside having another genetic endowment.

  7. Pitch perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Williams, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (Mage=9.34, SDage=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (Mage=9.13,

  8. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  9. Clinical Manifestations of Self-disorders in Schizophrenia Spectrum Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Mads Gram

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the phenomenologically informed, theoretical and empirical research direction on self-disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum conditions. First, we describe the concept of ‘self’ that is operative in the concept of ‘self-disorders’ and we discuss how this self may be disordered or fragile in the schizophrenia spectrum. Second, we offer a detailed psychopathological presentation and discussion of 3 patients with schizophrenia. The vignettes provide paradigmatic examples of self-disorders in schizophrenia. Third, we summarize the main findings in the current empirical research on self-disorders. These findings consistently indicate that self-disorders constitute a crucial, trait phenotype of the schizophrenia spectrum.

  10. The discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder in well-functioning men with hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, H.; Korzec, A.; Arndt, T.; van den Brink, W.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses within a population of well-functioning male heavy drinkers. A group of 57 subjects with a consumption of at least 28 alcoholic units (AU)/week was recruited from wine-tasting clubs. Within

  11. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.Th.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.; Arntz, A.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  12. [Predictors of hospitalization for alcohol use disorder in Korean men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hae-Sook; Park, Jeong-Eun; Park, Wan-Ju

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to identify the patterns and significant predictors influencing hospitalization of Korean men for alcohol use disorder. A descriptive study design was utilized. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 143 inpatients who met the DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria and were receiving treatment and 157 social drinkers living in the community. The questionnaires included Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Problems, Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ), Life Position, and The Korean version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-K). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, χ²-test, F-test, Pearson correlation coefficients, and logistic regression with forward stepwise. AUDIT had significant correlations with alcohol problems, alcohol expectancy, and parents' alcoholism. In logistic regression, factors significantly affecting hospitalization were divorced (OR=4.18, 95% CI: 1.28-13.71), graduation from elementary school (OR=28.50, 95% CI: 8.07-100.69), middle school (OR=6.66, 95% CI: 2.21-20.09), high school (OR=6.31, 95% CI: 2.59-15.36), drinking alone (OR=9.07, 95% CI: 1.78-46.17), family history of alcoholism (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.11-5.25), interpersonal relationship problems (OR=1.28, 95% CI:1.17-1.41), and sexual enhancement of alcohol expectancy (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94), which accounted for 53% of the variance. Results suggest that interpersonal relationship programs and customized cognitive programs for social drinkers in the community are needed to decreased alcohol related hospitalization in Korean men.

  13. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  14. Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0527 TITLE: Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...neurophysiological, and observational measures. Initial findings indicate that children with ASD who have clinically significant sensory are at increased risk for

  15. Autism Spectrum Symptoms in a Tourette's Disorder Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Dion, Yves; King, Robert; Pauls, David; Budman, Cathy L.; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J.; McMahon, William M.; Lee, Paul C.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    Objective: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD,

  16. Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Couple's Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jennifer B.; Clopton, James R.; Hendrick, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    Balancing the roles of parent and partner is challenging for most people and may be especially challenging when extra time and effort are required in the parenting role. The current research compared 25 couples whose children have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with 20 couples whose children do not have developmental disorders. Comparisons were…

  17. Autism Spectrum Symptoms in a Tourette's Disorder Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Grados, Marco A; Sandor, Paul; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Dion, Yves; King, Robert A; Pauls, David L; Budman, Cathy L; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J; McMahon, William M; Lee, Paul C; Delucchi, Kevin L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD,

  18. Theory of Mind Abilities and Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder that significantly impairs children's social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behaviors. Questions about theory of mind (ToM) deficits in ASD have generated a large number of empirical studies. This article reviews current studies of the relationship between ToM and…

  19. Intellectual Profiles in the Autism Spectrum and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouga, Susana; Café, Cátia; Almeida, Joana; Marques, Carla; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-01-01

    The influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in Intelligence Quotients (IQ), Indexes and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was investigated in 445 school-aged children: ASD (N = 224) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 221), matched by Full-Scale IQ and chronological age. ASD have lower…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Noens, Ilse L. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Doreleijers, Theo A.

    2010-01-01

    Only case reports have described the co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this co-occurrence using a systematic approach. Children and adolescents (115 boys and 89 girls, mean age 10.8, SD = 3.58) referred to a gender identity clinic received a standardized assessment during which…

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Noens, I.L.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Only case reports have described the co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this co-occurrence using a systematic approach. Children and adolescents (115 boys and 89 girls, mean age 10.8, SD = 3.58) referred to a gender identity

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each of the disorders on the autism spectrum is a neurological disorder that affects a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others. They share some or all of the following characteristics, which can vary from mild to severe: (1) Communication problems (for example, with the use or comprehension of language); (2)…

  3. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been...

  4. Amniotic fluid MMP-9 and neurotrophins in autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  5. Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. Anthony; Damiano, Cara R.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Petty, Chris; Bizzell, Josh; Voyvodic, James; Heller, Aaron S.; Coffman, Marika C.; Smoski, Moria; Davidson, Richard J.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by high rates of comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders. One mechanistic account of these comorbidities is that ASD is characterized by impaired emotion regulation (ER) that results in deficits modulating emotional responses. We assessed neural activation during cognitive reappraisal of…

  6. The effect of comorbid alcoholism on recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of comorbid alcoholism on the risk of recurrence in affective disorder have given contradictory results. METHOD: Using survival analysis, the rate of recurrence was calculated in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective...... an auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients with a current auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism had increased rate of recurrence following the first three affective episodes but not following subsequent episodes compared with patients without auxiliary diagnoses. The effect of alcoholism declined...... with the number of episodes. In contrast, no effect was found of other auxiliary diagnoses on the rate of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Rehospitalisation data suggest that concurrent alcoholism increases the risk of recurrence of affective episodes during the initial course of unipolar and bipolar disorder but has...

  7. Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions as a Risk Factor for Sleep Disorders in Children with Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Lena M.; Flick, Louise H.; Twyman, Kimberly A.; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders often co-occur with autism spectrum disorder. They further exacerbate autism spectrum disorder symptoms and interfere with children's and parental quality of life. This study examines whether gastrointestinal dysfunctions increase the odds of having sleep disorders in 610 children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder, aged 2-18…

  8. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...... anomalies may provide important clues to understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Minor physical anomalies appear to signal stressors relevant to schizophrenia spectrum development, especially in those at genetic risk for schizophrenia....

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Jennifer; Pappas, Demetra; Welchons, Leah; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker. There was no concern for oral-motor dysfunction. She was also referred to early intervention for feeding therapy. However, her parents terminated participation after 6 months because she became anxious and had tantrum prior to treatment groups.She was seen in another feeding program at 3 years; zinc, folate, thyroid, and a celiac panel were normal, and an endoscopy was negative for eosinophilic esophagitis. She began individual feeding therapy, where concerns for rigidity, difficulty transitioning, and limited peer interactions led to a neuropsychological evaluation. Kendra was diagnosed with an ASD and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Her cognitive skills were average, and expressive and receptive language skills were low average.Her diet consisted of French fries, Ritz crackers, pretzels, and 32 ounces of soy formula daily. She had stopped accepting Cheerios and saltines 2 months prior. She controlled other aspects of feeding, insisting on a specific parking spot at a fast food restaurant and drinking from a particular sippy cup. Her parents accepted these demands with concern about her caloric intake, which they tracked daily.Following diagnosis with ARFID, she resumed feeding therapy using a systematic desensitization approach with rewards. At the first session, she kissed and licked 2 new foods without gagging. Her mother appeared receptive to recommendations that included continuing the "food

  10. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  11. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  12. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  13. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Geurts, Hilde M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  14. Memory, learning and language in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Boucher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims The ‘dual-systems’ model of language acquisition has been used by Ullman et al. to explain patterns of strength and weakness in the language of higher-functioning people with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, intact declarative/explicit learning is argued to compensate for a deficit in non-declarative/implicit procedural learning, constituting an example of the so-called see-saw effect. Ullman and Pullman extended their argument concerning a see-saw effect on language in autism spectrum disorder to cover other perceived anomalies of behaviour, including impaired acquisition of social skills. The aim of this paper is to present a critique of Ullman et al.’s claims and to propose an alternative model of links between memory systems and language in autism spectrum disorder. Main contribution We argue that a four-system model of learning, in which intact semantic and procedural memory are used to compensate for weaknesses in episodic memory and perceptual learning, can better explain patterns of language ability across the autistic spectrum. We also argue that attempts to generalise the ‘impaired implicit learning/spared declarative learning’ theory to other behaviours in autism spectrum disorder are unsustainable. Conclusions Clinically significant language impairments in autism spectrum disorder are under-researched, despite their impact on everyday functioning and quality of life. The relative paucity of research findings in this area lays it open to speculative interpretation which may be misleading. Implications More research is needed into links between memory/learning systems and language impairments across the spectrum. Improved understanding should inform therapeutic intervention and contribute to investigation of the causes of language impairment in autism spectrum disorder with potential implications for prevention.

  15. The influence of media suggestions about links between criminality and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Neil; Zoanetti, Jordana; Young, Robyn L

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether media reports linking criminal behaviour and autism spectrum disorder foster negative attitudes towards individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In a between-subjects design, participants were exposed to (a) a media story in which a murderer was labelled with autism spectrum disorder (media exposure condition) or not labelled with any disorder (control) and (b) an autism spectrum disorder-education condition attacking the myth that people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are likely to be violent criminals or a no-autism spectrum disorder-education condition. Participants attitudes towards three different crime perpetrators (one with autism spectrum disorder) described in separate vignettes were probed. The media exposure linking crime and autism spectrum disorder promoted more negative attitudes towards individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whereas the positive autism spectrum disorder-related educational message had the opposite effect. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. PROVIDING DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana MURARU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, it is realistic to assume that dental professionals are likely to treat individuals with this diagnosis. Understanding the complexities of this disorder and its behavioral manifestations is indispensable for dentists. The present article presents several characteristics of autism spectrum disorder that impact dental interventions, along with medical and behavioral alternatives to better manage the dental problems of children with autism spectrum disorder. A multidisciplinary approach and family support are important for planning a dental intervention for these patients in order to avoid anxiety. Knowledge on autism, the dentist-patient relationship and the individual preparation for dental interventions is useful for constructing a controllable medical experience

  17. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.

  18. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....

  19. The Cycle of Schizoaffective Disorder, Cognitive Ability, Alcoholism, and Suicidality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Haas, Gretchen L.; Pakrashi, Manish; Novero, Ada M.; Luther, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the putative role of cognitive dysfunction, diagnosis (schizoaffective versus schizophrenia disorder), and alcoholism as risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Subjects received cognitive tests and medical records were reviewed for evidence of a…

  20. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  2. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum as a scientific "metaphor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-09-01

    As a result of clinical, epidemiological, neuroimaging, and therapy studies that took place in the late 1980s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been well-characterized in the field of anxiety disorders. Other disorders attracted attention for their similarities to OCD, and were located in the orbit of the disorder. OCD has become known as the "primary domain" of a scientific "metaphor" comprising the putative cluster of OCD-related disorders (OCRDs). It is a "paradigm" with which to explore basal ganglia dysfunction. The OCRDs share common phenomenology, comorbidities, lifetime course, demographics, possible genetics, and frontostriatal dysfunction (particularly caudate hyperactivity.) The adoption of this metaphor analogy has proven useful. However, 15 years since its emergence, the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders remains controversial. Questions under debate include whether OCD is a unitary or split condition, whether it is an anxiety disorder, and whether there exists only one spectrum or several possible spectrums. Further work is needed to clarify obsessive-compulsive symptoms, subtypes, and endophenotypes. There is need to integrate existing databases, better define associated symptom domains, and create a more comprehensive endophenotyping protocol for OCRDs. There is also a need to integrate biological and psychological perspectives, concepts, and data to drive this evolution. By increasing research in this field, the OCD spectrum may evolve from a fragmented level of conceptualization as a "metaphor" to one that is more comprehensive and structured.

  4. [Comorbidity in panic disorders and alcoholism (II). Alcoholism in a sample of 148 patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, J; Salvador, L; Canet, J; Aragón, C; Herrera, C

    1995-01-01

    Among 148 patients presenting Panic Disorder (DSM-III-R), 18.9% have an alcohol disorder, 8.8% present abuse and 10.1% dependence. Mean age of onset of alcoholism was much earlier than panic disorder. Patients with alcoholism: a) are males more frequently (0.001); b) present more alcoholism in first grade relatives (0.05); c) use more often other drugs like: tobacco (0.01), coffee (p cannabis (p < 0.001), d) patients with alcoholism refer a greater severity of their panic attacks when drinking large amounts of alcohol (25%) than the group without these problems (2.5%) (x2:14.8) (p < 0.001) e) according to the GAS the overall level of performance is lower in alcoholics (p < 0.005); f) present more anxiety measured by the HARS (p < 0.01), and therefore have more comorbid anxiety disorders according to DSM-III-R (p < 0.01). The clinical significance of these findings is discussed.

  5. PROSPECTS OF DIAGNOSTICS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Novoselova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of a problem of autism spectrum disorder in children and the modern view on etiology and pathogenesis of these states are revealed in the article. Autism classification according to the International classification of diseases of the 10th revision adopted in Russia and important changes of a new classifier of the American psychiatric association concerning autism spectrum disorders are considered. The difficulties connected with diagnostics of autism spectrum disorders in children, autism comorbidity and some other psychiatric nosologies and the necessity of detailed differential diagnostics for a circle of these diseases are mentioned. Autism spectrum disorders are presented from the point of view of clinical genetics, the necessity of medical genetic consultation in diagnosing is proved. Definition of complex and essential autism is given. A number of widespread genetic syndromes with the description of clinical characteristics and molecular genetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis is allocated in the group of complex autism. Difficulties of molecular genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are revealed, the algorithm of search of mutations and the short description of methods of diagnostics are given. The efficiency of standard procedure of molecular genetic diagnostics at each stage, according to literary data, is shown in the group of children with essential autism. The opportunities and advantages of a method of the chromosomal micromatrix analysis as one of available modern methods of molecular genetic diagnostics in the group of children with autism spectrum disorders are highlighted on the example of extended microdeletion and microduplicational syndromes.

  6. Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-07-01

    Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol

  7. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Autism Spectrum Disorder Initiatives, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  9. The MR spectrum of peroxisomal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.; Vrije Univ., Amsterdam

    1991-01-01

    In the last decade an increasing number of peroxisomal disorders has been recognized. Almost all peroxisomal disorders affect the central nervous system. Many of them lead to demyelination, some of them lead to migrational disturbances. The MR pattern of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is well known, but the pattern of the other peroxisomal disorders is less well known. We evaluated the gray and white matter abnormalities of 20 patients on 32 occasions. We compared the results with histological data and in this way came to the description of a number of characteristic MR patterns occurring in peroxisomal disorders: (1) Neuronal migrational disturbances in combination with hypomyelination, dysmyelination or demyelination. (2) Symmetrical demyelination of posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebellar white matter and brain stem tracts with a variable affection of cerebral hemispheres. (3) Symmetrical demyelination, exhibiting two zones, starting in the occipital area and spreading outwards and forwards; affection of brain stem tracts. (4) Less characteristic patterns of demyelination. The patterns are illustrated and differentiation from other disorders is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Autistic spectrum disorder: the challenge for dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin H

    2010-10-01

    Those who actively work with children are, with increasing frequency, encountering patients who have been diagnosed with autistic disorders. Often, dentists may be the first healthcare providers to recognize that a 1- or 2-year-old child has some type of extraordinary pervasive behavioral disorder that a parent, fearing the worst, may have suspected instinctively and emotionally but never faced objectively. Currently, there are no empirical biological tests (eg, blood tests or brain scans) for ASD that are reliable. The definitive diagnosis of ASD is usually made by pediatricians, psychologists, or psychiatrists who institute a process of analysis which involves a developmental and clinical history, tests for cognitive function, and assessment of receptive and expressive language skills. The etiology of ASD is an enigma. Highly regarded researchers are of the opinion that there is probably more than one cause since the disorder can have such disparate manifestations. Genetics, environmental poisons, neurologic psychopathy, dietary deficiencies, and allergies have all been implicated. Pervasive developmental disorders, Asperger's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and childhood degenerative disorders are all considered a part of the ASD group, but the distinction between the various entities is not always clear. Given the fact that the etiology and the increased incidence of the various ASDs are scientifically puzzling, treatment modalities tend to be wide ranging and very much trial and error, especially since there is no cure. Dental professionals who treat patients with ASDs should be knowledgeable about the special needs of not only these patients, but also of their parents.

  11. Cry, Baby, Cry: Expression of Distress As a Biomarker and Modulator in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Gianluca; Hiroi, Noboru; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder is critical, because early intensive treatment greatly improves its prognosis. Methods: We review studies that examined vocalizations of infants with autism spectrum disorder and mouse models of autism spectrum disorder as a potential means to identify autism spectrum disorder before the symptomatic elements of autism spectrum disorder emerge. We further discuss clinical implications and future research priorities in the field. ...

  12. Personality Characteristics of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Substance Use Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; van Eenige, Marielle Gorissen; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    We examined temperament and character profiles of 128 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants completed the abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory. The ASD and ADHD groups showed distinct temperament profiles (ADHD:

  13. Personality Characteristics of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Substance Use Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; van Eenige, Marielle Gorissen; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-01-01

    We examined temperament and character profiles of 128 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants completed the abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory. The ASD and ADHD groups showed distinct temperament profiles (ADHD:

  14. Association of attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder with alcohol use disorders in fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.

  15. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social anxiety disorder Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  16. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system.

  17. Why MDMA therapy for alcohol use disorder? And why now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Ben

    2017-11-07

    Alcohol use disorder represents a serious clinical, social and personal burden on its sufferers and a significant financial strain on society. Current treatments, both psychological and pharmacological are poor, with high rates of relapse after medical detoxification and dedicated treatment programs. The earliest historical roots of psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy in the 1950s were associated with Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy to treat what was then called, alcoholism. But results were varied and psychedelic therapy with LSD and other 'classical' psychedelics fell out of favour in the wake of socio-political pressures and cultural changes. A current revisiting of psychedelic clinical research is now targeting substance use disorders - and particularly alcohol use disorder - again. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy has never been formally explored as a treatment for any form of substance use disorder. But in recent years MDMA has risen in prominence as an agent to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With its unique receptor profile and a relatively well-tolerated subjective experience of drug effects when used clinically, MDMA Therapy is ideally suited to allow a patient to explore and address painful memories without being overwhelmed by negative affect. Given that alcohol use disorder is so often associated with early traumatic experiences, the author is proposing in a current on-going UK-based study that patients with alcohol use disorder who have undergone a medical detoxification from alcohol might benefit from a course of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autistic spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Mariam Mettry; Madhavan, Deepak; Zaroff, Charles M

    2015-08-01

    In individuals with a comorbid autistic spectrum disorder and medically refractory epilepsy, vagus nerve stimulation may offer the potential of seizure control and a positive behavioral side effect profile. We aimed to examine the behavioral side effect profile using longitudinal and quantitative data and review the potential mechanisms behind behavioral changes. We present a case report of a 10-year-old boy with autistic spectrum disorder and epilepsy, who underwent vagus nerve stimulation subsequent to unsuccessful treatment with antiepileptic medication. Following vagus nerve stimulation implantation, initial, if temporary, improvement was observed in seizure control. Modest improvements were also observed in behavior and development, improvements which were observed independent of seizure control. Vagus nerve stimulation in autistic spectrum disorder is associated with modest behavioral improvement, with unidentified etiology, although several candidates for this improvement are evident.

  19. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...

  20. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  1. Modification of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies in alcohol-dependent patients with mild or major neurocognitive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijen, A.; Rinck, M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Becker, E.S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced

  2. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  3. Premorbid multivariate prediction of adult psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured when participants were 10-13years of age, were combined to predict psychosis-spectrum disorders......Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children...

  4. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  5. Physical Activity and Risk of Alcohol Use Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Kristiansen; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2015-01-01

    .5- to 2-fold increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder (Hazard ratios for men 1.64; 95% CI 1.29-2.10 and women 1.45; 1.01-2.09) in individuals with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity, compared with a moderate to high level. However, when stratifying by presence of other psychiatric......AIMS: To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohort study with focus on leisure-time physical activity. METHODS: Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), performed in 1976-1978, 1981......-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003. Information on physical activity (classified as Moderate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol use disorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric...

  6. Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Merete Juul Sørensen,1 Therese Koops Grønborg,2 Jakob Christensen,3,4 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Mogens Vestergaard,5,6 Diana Schendel,7 Lars Henning Pedersen8,9 1Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 5Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, 6Research unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8Danish Epidemiological Science Centre, Institute of Public Health, 9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Both the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have increased during recent years. A causal link has recently been suggested, but the association may be confounded by the underlying indication for antidepressant use. We investigated the association between maternal use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy and autism, controlling for potential confounding factors. Methods: We identified all children born alive in Denmark 1996–2006 (n=668,468 and their parents in the Danish Civil Registration System. We obtained information on the mother's prescriptions filled during pregnancy from the Danish National Prescription Registry, and on diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in the children and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders in the parents from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. In a cohort analysis, we estimated hazard ratios of autism spectrum disorders in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy compared with children who were not exposed, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Furthermore, we estimated the risk

  7. [Autism spectrum disorder. Contemporary experimental researches review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschekina, E A; Strelets, V B

    2014-01-01

    Autism, like schizophrenia, are heterogeneous diseases, which are directed by both genetic factors and external influences in the early stages of development. Knowledge about the similarities and differences of these disorders can help early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with autism have specific cognitive difficulties in social relations. They are characterized by impairment of social interaction, communication and behavioral flexibility. The severity of the delay the development of autistic children, clinical and psychological indicators is correlated with an increase in the high frequency of spontaneous EEG activity. Cognitive task in autistic children, unlike normal persons, does not lead to a significant restructuring of high-frequency EEG activity, which may be a violation of the reaction mechanism to external stimuli and behavioral disorders. Abnormality in high-frequency components of EEG reactivity on cognitive task, the perception of human faces and visual illusions as well as the inadequate system of mirror neurons, can be considered common mechanisms underlying disorders of autism and schizophrenia. These general mechanisms may be considered as related to violation of the inhibition-exitation balance, controlled via GABA-transmission and NMDA-receptors. A multidimensional study of patterns of disontogenesis in autism, in addition to detailing the clinical picture of disease and rehabilitation activities, allows us to clear the fundamental understanding of the brain.

  8. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  9. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic

  10. The genetic overlap of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, A.J.; Schothorst, P.F.; Vorstman, J.A.; Staal, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are classified as distinct disorders within the DSM-IV-TR (1994). The manual excludes simultaneous use of both diagnoses in case of overlap on a symptomatic level. However this does not always represent clinical

  11. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  12. Cbt for anxiety disorders in children with and without autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was examined, and compared with children without ASD. Method: Children with ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (n = 79, 58 boys; Mage = 11.76) and children with

  13. Formal thought disorder in autism spectrum disorder predicts future symptom severity, but not psychosis prodrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, M.L.J.M.; de Bruin, E.I.; van Gool, A.R.; Louwerse, E.S.; van der Ende, J.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a disruption in the flow of thought, which is inferred from disorganisation of spoken language. FTD in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) might be a precursor of psychotic disorders or a manifestation of ASD symptom severity. The current longitudinal study is a

  14. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  15. Visual Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    DR Simmons; AE Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are common developmental disorders thought to affect more than 1% of the UK population (Baird et al, 2006, The Lancet 368, 210). Whilst the current official diagnostic criteria for ASD concentrate on signs and symptoms associated with social behaviour, it is also well known that sensory difficulties are a major factor in the presentation of this condition (Simmons et al, 2009, Vision Research 49, 2705). Over the past few years we have been investigating these ...

  16. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavi...

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder and High Confidence Gene Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, MOCHIZUKI

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological developmental disorder whose mechanism isyet unclear. However, recent ASD studies, which employ exome- and genome-wide sequencing,have identified some high-confidence ASD genes. Those ASD studies have revealed that CHD8is likely associated with ASD. In this article, we highlight that CHD8 may regulate othercandidate ASD risk genes. Current research indicates that there exist some thousand autismsusceptibility candidate genes. Moreover, we sugge...

  18. [Comorbidity of panic disorder and alcoholism in a sample of 100 alcoholic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, J; Salvador, L; Canet, J; Herrera, C; Aragón, C

    1994-01-01

    Among one hundred patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-III-R) studied in a drug abuse center in the "Bajo Llobregat" area (Barcelona industrial belt it was detected that 27% had life time rate of panic disorder. The age of onset of alcoholism was earlier than the one for panic disorder. In 78.8% of these patients alcoholismo appeared first. 70.4% refer worsening of the panic attacks when drinking large amounts of alcohol. Patients with Panic Disorder: a) are younger (p < 0.05); b) have attended school longer and have higher education (p < 0.01); c) have more alcoholism family history (p < 0.05); d) have more major depressive disorders (0.05) and dysthimic disorder (p < 0.01); e) Worse social functioning according to the GAS (p < 0.01); f) higher score for the Psychological disorders Scale (p < 0.001) and a lower performance at work (p < 0.001) measured by the ASI. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed.

  19. [Genetic and neuroendocrine aspects in autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Norma; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; de la Chesnaye, Elsa; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was described in 1943 and is defined as a developmental disorder that affects social interaction and communication. It is usually identified in early stages of development from 18 months of age. Currently, autism is considered a neurological disorder with a spectrum covering cases of different degrees, which is associated with genetic factors, not genetic and environmental. Among the genetic factors, various syndromes have been described that are associated with this disorder. Also, the neurobiology of autism has been studied at the genetic, neurophysiological, neurochemical and neuropathological levels. Neuroimaging techniques have shown multiple structural abnormalities in these patients. There have also been changes in the serotonergic, GABAergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems related to this disorder. This paper presents an update of the information presented in the genetic and neuroendocrine aspects of autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal Brain Connectivity Spectrum Disorders Following Thimerosal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, tic disorder (TD, and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (attention deficit disorder [ADD]/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] are disorders recently defined as abnormal connectivity spectrum disorders (ACSDs because they show a similar pattern of abnormal brain connectivity. This study examines whether these disorders are associated with exposure to thimerosal, a mercury (Hg-based preservative. Methods: A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated the Vaccine Safety Datalink for the potential dose-dependent odds ratios (ORs for diagnoses of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD compared to controls, following exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administrated within the first 15 months of life. Febrile seizures, cerebral degeneration, and unspecified disorders of metabolism, which are not biologically plausibly linked to thimerosal, were examined as control outcomes. Results: On a per 25 μg Hg basis, cases diagnosed with ASD (OR = 1.493, TD (OR = 1.428, or ADD/ADHD (OR = 1.503 were significantly (P < .001 more likely than controls to have received increased Hg exposure. Similar relationships were observed when separated by gender. Cases diagnosed with control outcomes were no more likely than controls to have received increased Hg exposure. Conclusion: The results suggest that Hg exposure from thimerosal is significantly associated with the ACSDs of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD.

  1. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Hilde K; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J

    2012-11-12

    The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11-13 years) who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS), an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (pchildren with neurological disorders was moderate to high for the total score and for three sub scores generated from a factor analysis, and low to moderate for single items. The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  2. Delay to first treatment contact for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cath; Slade, Tim; Hunt, Caroline; Teesson, Maree

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the patterns and correlates of time to first treatment contact among people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Australia. Specifically it examined the relationship between sex, birth cohort, onset of AUD symptoms, severity, comorbidity, symptom type and time to first treatment contact (treatment delay) among those with alcohol abuse and dependence in a large population sample. Data came from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (N=8841). A modified version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to determine the presence and age of onset of DSM-IV AUD and other mental disorders and the age at which respondents first sought treatment for alcohol or other drug-related problems. Median time to first treatment contact for an AUD was 18 years (14 years dependence, 23 years abuse). Projected lifetime treatment rates were 78.1% for alcohol dependence and 27.5% for abuse. Those with earlier onset and from older cohorts reported longer delay and were less likely to ever seek treatment compared to those with later onset or from more recent cohorts. Those with comorbid anxiety but not mood disorder, or who reported alcohol-related role disruption or recurrent interpersonal problems were more likely to ever seek treatment and reported shorter delay compared to those who did not report these symptoms. Treatment delay for alcohol use disorder in Australia is substantial. Those with earlier onset and those with comorbid mood disorder should be a target for earlier treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges in Evaluating Psychosocial Interventions for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Catherine; Wagner, Ann; Rogers, Sally; Szatmari, Peter; Aman, Michael; Charman, Tony; Dawson, Geraldine; Durand, V. Mark; Grossman, Lee; Guthrie, Donald; Harris, Sandra; Kasanri, Connie; Marcus, Lee; Murphy, Susan; Odom, Samuel; Pickles, Andrew; Scahill, Lawrence; Shaw, Evelyn; Siegel, Bryna; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Smith, Tristram; Yoder, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting concerning methodological challenges of research in psychosocial interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders. This paper provides a summary of the presentations and the discussions that occurred during this meeting. Recommendations to federal and private agencies included the need for…

  4. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  5. Delayed Self-Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate temporally extended self-awareness (awareness of one's place in and continued existence through time) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using the delayed self-recognition (DSR) paradigm (Povinelli et al., Child Development 67:1540-1554, 1996). Relative to age and verbal ability matched comparison children, children…

  6. Social Narrative Strategies to Support Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogle, Christan Grygas; Ahmed, Siddiq; Aljaffal, Mohammed Abdulaziz; Alsheef, Manal Yousef; Hamdi, Hamad Ali

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to identify social narrative strategies that can be used to enhance the social skills of young children identified with autism spectrum disorder. We provide a description as well as scenarios describing how educators might consider using social narrative strategies. We conclude with resources to attain additional…

  7. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  8. Supporting Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ling-Ling; Davenport, Randy; Schmiege, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have shown the importance of early intervention services for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families. However, most attention has been given to the effectiveness of treatments solely for children with ASDs. Because the family centered practice has been emphasized and supported by many researchers and…

  9. Brief Report: Intuitive and Reflective Reasoning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Ashwin, Chris; Lewton, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Dual Process Theory has recently been applied to Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to suggest that reasoning by people with ASD and people with higher levels of ASD-like traits can be characterised by reduced intuitive and greater reflective processing. 26 adolescents and adults with ASD and 22 adolescent and adult controls completed an assessment of…

  10. Employment Outcomes of Vocational Rehabilitation Clients with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Charlotte Y.; Yamamoto, Scott H.

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently documented poor employment outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Vocational rehabilitation (VR) services provide substantial federal and state commitments to individuals with disabilities to obtain and maintain employment. To date, little research has examined the relationship between VR services…

  11. Sensory and Attention Abnormalities in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Miriam; Saulnier, Celine; Fein, Deborah; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, "sensory overreactivity",…

  12. Evidence of Reduced Global Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Rhonda D. L.; Happé, Francesca G. E.

    2018-01-01

    Frith's original notion of 'weak central coherence' suggested that increased local processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) resulted from reduced global processing. More recent accounts have emphasised superior local perception and suggested intact global integration. However, tasks often place local and global processing in direct trade-off,…

  13. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lartseva, A.; Dijkstra, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social

  14. Emotion Regulation in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Lauren; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2017-01-01

    There has been little research connecting underlying emotion processes (e.g., emotion regulation) to frequent behavior problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the stability of emotion regulation and its relationship with other aspects of child functioning. Participants included 108 children with ASD,…

  15. Parenting Behaviour among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Boonen, Hannah; Maes, Bea; Noens, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the extensive amount of empirical findings about parental perceptions, parenting cognitions, and coping in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research about parenting itself is very scarce. A first goal of this study was to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of two scales to measure parenting…

  16. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  17. A Scoping Review of Health Disparities in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Kind, Amy J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy compared to the general population, and these disparities are likely exacerbated for those individuals who are otherwise disadvantaged. We conducted a review to ascertain what is known about health and health system quality (e.g., high…

  18. Into the Unknown: Aging with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth A.; Berkman, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Research investigation of older adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) noticeably lags behind studies of children and younger adults with ASD. This article reviews the current literature regarding a range of quality of life outcomes of aging adults with ASD. Studies that have addressed life expectancy, comorbid physical and mental health…

  19. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  20. Coagulopathy in Zellweger spectrum disorders: a role for vitamin K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeynelabidin, Sara; Klouwer, Femke C. C.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Suijker, Monique H.; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van Ommen, C. Heleen

    2017-01-01

    Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are caused by an impairment of peroxisome biogenesis, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities. This leads to a range of symptoms, including hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of coagulopathy and the effect

  1. 2009 Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: Portfolio Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Office of Autism Research Coordination (OARC) and Acclaro Research Solutions, Inc., on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC), conducted a comprehensive analysis of the 2009 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portfolio of major Federal agencies and private organizations. This is the second annual analysis…

  2. Teaching Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in HE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to examine the type of adjustments to delivery appropriate for students with an autistic spectrum disorder in a UK higher education setting. Design/Methodology/Approach--A case study in a UK university was conducted over a two-year period. Findings--A variety of adjustments may be…

  3. Mental Health Aspects of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, N.; Gallagher, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported variable and at times opposite findings on comorbid psychiatric problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Aims: This study aimed to examine patterns of comorbid psychiatric problems in children with ASD and their parents compared with IQ matched controls and their parents. Methods:…

  4. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Congedo, M.; Schie, H.T. van

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation

  5. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P.; Soriano, M. F.; Paredes, N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and…

  6. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  7. Transcendental meditation for autism spectrum disorders? A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Black

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports suggest that Transcendental Meditation (TM may be helpful for some children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. In this perspective piece, we present six carefully evaluated individuals with diagnosed ASDs, who appear to have benefitted from TM, and offer some thoughts as to how this technique might help such individuals.

  8. Characterizing Sleep in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S. E.; Alder, M. L.; Burgess, H. J.; Corbett, B. A.; Hundley, R.; Wofford, D.; Fawkes, D. B.; Wang, L.; Laudenslager, M. L.; Malow, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied 28 adolescents/young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 13 age/sex matched individuals of typical development (TD). Structured sleep histories, validated questionnaires, actigraphy (4 weeks), and salivary cortisol and melatonin (4 days each) were collected. Compared to those with TD, adolescents/young adults with ASD had…

  9. College Students' Openness toward Autism Spectrum Disorders: Improving Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Rose E. A.; White, Susan W.

    2011-01-01

    One probable consequence of rising rates of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in individuals without co-occurring intellectual disability is that more young adults with diagnoses or traits of ASD will attend college and require appropriate supports. This study sought to explore college students' openness to peers who demonstrate…

  10. Diagnostic Stability in Very Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jamie M.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Robins, Diana L.; Fein, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnosis in very young children may be delayed due to doubts about validity. In this study, 77 children received a diagnostic and developmental evaluation between 16 and 35 months and also between 42 and 82 months. Diagnoses based on clinical judgment, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Autism Diagnostic…

  11. Association of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maunoo; Krishnamurthy, Jayasree; Susi, Apryl; Sullivan, Carolyn; Gorman, Gregory H.; Hisle-Gorman, Elizabeth; Erdie-Lalena, Christine R.; Nylund, Cade M.

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both have multifactorial pathogenesis with an increasing number of studies demonstrating gut-brain associations. We aim to examine the association between ASD and IBD using strict classification criteria for IBD. We conducted a retrospective case-cohort study using records from…

  12. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  13. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  14. Sign Language Echolalia in Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron; Cooley, Frances; Meier, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We present the first study of echolalia in deaf, signing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigate the nature and prevalence of sign echolalia in native-signing children with ASD, the relationship between sign echolalia and receptive language, and potential modality differences between sign and speech. Method: Seventeen…

  15. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  16. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple…

  17. Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The clinical, social and financial burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is staggering. We urgently need valid and reliable biomarkers for diagnosis and effective treatments targeting the often debilitating symptoms. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is beginning to be used by a number of centers worldwide and may represent a novel…

  18. Measuring Theory of Mind in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn L.; Barnett, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to interpret others' beliefs, intentions and emotions--undermine the ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to interact in socially normative ways. This study provides psychometric data for the Adult-Theory of Mind (A-ToM) measure using video-scenarios based in part on Happé's…

  19. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…

  20. Referential Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2008-01-01

    Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated…

  1. Brief Report: Episodic Foresight in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Laura K.; Atance, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic foresight (EpF) or, the ability to imagine the future and use such imagination to guide our actions, is an important aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is despite its proposed links with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), two areas found to be impaired in…

  2. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  3. Group Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachie, Helen; McLaughlin, Eleanor; Grahame, Victoria; Taylor, Helen; Honey, Emma; Tavernor, Laura; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark; Hemm, Cahley; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the acceptability and feasibility of adapted group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Method: A total of 32 children aged 9-13 years were randomised to immediate or delayed therapy using the "Exploring Feelings" manual (Attwood, 2004). Child and parent…

  4. Attentional Shifts between Audition and Vision in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence on neurotypical adults shows that the presentation of a stimulus allocates the attention to its modality, resulting in faster responses to a subsequent target presented in the same (vs. different) modality. People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often fail to detect a (visual or auditory) target in a stream of stimuli after…

  5. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  6. Reduced Chromatic Discrimination in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Notman, Leslie; Gonzalez-Dixon, Melissa; West, Dorotea; Alexander, Iona; Loveday, Stephen; White, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley,…

  7. Randomized Trial of Law Enforcement Training on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagardin, Jill; Dixon, Dennis R.; Smith, Marlena N.; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are likely to affect interactions between law enforcement officers and persons with ASD. If law enforcement officers are not trained to identify and appropriately respond to persons with ASD, it is possible that officers may exacerbate a situation, resulting in unnecessary trauma, injury, or…

  8. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  9. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  10. Sexual Knowledge and Victimization in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Lavoie, S. M.; Viecili, M. A.; Weiss, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant gap in understanding the risk of sexual victimization in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the variables that contribute to risk. Age appropriate sexual interest, limited sexual knowledge and experiences, and social deficits, may place adults with ASD at increased risk. Ninety-five adults with ASD and 117…

  11. Longitudinally extensive optic neuritis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pula, John H; Kattah, Jorge C; Keung, Bonnie; Wang, Huaping; Daily, Jennifer

    2014-10-15

    Neuomyelitis optica, sarcoid, and multiple sclerosis can all cause optic neuritis. Further means of distinguishing the causes of optic neuritis among these etiologies would be valuable for the clinician. This is a retrospective, cohort study from a single university based hospital and neuro-ophthalmology clinic. Blinded interpretation of orbit MRIs was performed on patients with acute optic neuritis from multiple sclerosis (n=25), sarcoid (n=5) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n=6). A length of >40 mm anterior visual pathway enhancement distinguished neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from multiple sclerosis (p=0.0376). No statistically significant differences were found for presence of pain or papillitis, however there was a trend for bilateral involvement and chiasmal involvement in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder compared to multiple sclerosis. In acute optic neuritis, enhancing anterior visual pathway lesion length >40 mm helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from multiple sclerosis. This degree of involvement can be considered longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Further characterization is necessary as this degree of enhancement occurs in other clinical syndromes besides neuromyelitis optica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  13. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  14. Teaching Physical Education to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Smith, Shannon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) estimates that one in every 110 children is affected by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prevalence of ASDs makes it very likely that every physical education teacher is teaching at least one student with an ASD. This article will provide physical educators with a brief overview of…

  15. ERP Correlates of Recognition Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massand, Esha; Bowler, Dermot M.; Mottron, Laurent; Hosein, Anthony; Jemel, Boutheina

    2013-01-01

    Recognition memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to be undiminished compared to that of typically developing (TD) individuals (Bowler et al. 2007), but it is still unknown whether memory in ASD relies on qualitatively similar or different neurophysiology. We sought to explore the neural activity underlying recognition by employing the…

  16. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  17. The Clinician Perspective on Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Rene; Bishop, Somer L.; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.

    2017-01-01

    Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited,…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder: FRAXE Mutation, a Rare Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, F.; Café, C.; Almeida, J.; Mouga, S.; Oliveira, G.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Fragile X E is associated with X-linked non-specific mild intellectual disability (ID) and with behavioral problems. Most of the known genetic causes of ASD are also causes of ID, implying that these two…

  19. Accessing and Selecting Word Meaning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…

  20. Pediatricians' Perspectives on Identification and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Erinn H.; Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Ash, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative interview methodology was used to investigate the perspectives and experiences of five general pediatricians who had diagnosed children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Information was obtained from the participants in the following areas: a) training; b) signs/symptoms of ASD; c) causes of ASD; d) well-child exams; e) first…

  1. Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…

  2. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Petersson, K.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Kan, C.C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from

  3. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Petersson, K.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Kan, C.C.; Tendolkar, I.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life: the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from

  4. Predictors of Handwriting in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinckx, Tinneke; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    During writing, perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes interact. This study explored the predictive value of several factors on handwriting quality as well as on speed in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our results showed that, in this population, age, gender, and visual-motor integration significantly predicted handwriting…

  5. Metaperception in Adolescents with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Lauren V.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) evaluated unfamiliar peers (i.e., perceptions), as well as how adolescents believed they were evaluated by peers (i.e., metaperceptions). The Perceptions and Metaperceptions Questionnaire was designed to quantify perceptions and metaperceptions following a live…

  6. Psychophysiological Associations with Gastrointestinal Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Bradley J.; Marler, Sarah; Altstein, Lily L.; Lee, Evon Batey; Akers, Jill; Sohl, Kristin; McLaughlin, Aaron; Hartnett, Kaitlyn; Kille, Briana; Mazurek, Micah; Macklin, Eric A.; McDonnell, Erin; Barstow, Mariah; Bauman, Margaret L.; Margolis, Kara Gross

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disturbances, which also may impact behavior. Alterations in autonomic nervous system functioning are also frequently observed in ASD. The relationship between these findings in ASD is not known. We examined the relationship between gastrointestinal symptomatology, examining upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptomatology separately, and autonomic nervous system functioning, as assessed by heart rate variability and...

  7. Teaching Motor Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are commonly characterized by deficits in the social and communication domains. However, up to 80 percent of this population also have poor motor skills. Individuals with an ASD experience difficulties in motor planning, imitation, and postural stability. A better understanding of these deficits and of strategies…

  8. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  9. Motor Skill Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Breslin, Casey M.; ElGarhy, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Without proper motor assessment, children with autism spectrum disorder may be placed in educational settings that are inappropriate for their motor abilities. However, many practitioners find it challenging to choose which assessment to use to assess these children, especially with the number of instruments available. The purpose of this study…

  10. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  11. An Ecosystem Approach to Employment and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B.; Mitchell, Wendy; Dudley, Carolyn; Clarke, Margaret; Zulla, Rosslynn

    2018-01-01

    Relatively little is yet known about employment readiness and elements that promote access to, and the retention of, employment for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper posits elements within the ecosystem of employment and ASD. The ecosystem approach locates employment among persons with ASD as inextricably linked with broader…

  12. Object Interest in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Treatment Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea S.; Lieberman, Rebecca G.; Yoder, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social communication treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder examined the effect of treatment on object interest. Thirty-two children, 18-60 months, were randomly assigned to the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (RPMT)…

  13. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; de Groot, Erik; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of brain function in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: We studied MNDs in 122 children (93 males, 29 females; mean age 8y 1mo, SD 2y 6mo) who, among a total cohort of 705 children (513 males, 192 females; mean age…

  14. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  16. Anger in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Anger related behaviours such as aggression are known to be an area of difficulty for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A national internet forum for parents of children with ASD was selected out of other similar forums from six English speaking countries. Information about the angry episodes of 121 children with ASD as described by…

  17. Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jo; Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Oliver, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology is comparatively high in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). However, the profile and developmental trajectories of these ASD characteristics are potentially different to those observed in individuals with idiopathic ASD. In this study we examine the ASD profile in CdLS in…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  19. Bullying Prevalence in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marilyn; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Whiteford, Chrystal; Dillon-Wallace, Julie; Ashburner, Jill; Saggers, Beth; Carrington, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    All forms of bullying, physical, verbal, social, and cyber, are prevalent among youth worldwide. An especially vulnerable population for involvement in bullying is students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there are some studies that have investigated bullying in these students, many of these are beset by methodological issues. We…

  20. Individualized Education Programs for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Menousek, Kathryn; Hunter, Melissa; Mudgal, Dipti

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present with a broad array of deficits and excesses that require educational intervention. The Individualized Education Program (IEP) serves as the blueprint for educational intervention but it can sometimes be difficult to identify which goals and objectives should be addressed with this population.…

  1. What Do Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine Creighton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to better understand the perspectives of parents with children who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders regarding the Individualized Education Program (IEP) process, and interventions implemented to help their child meet IEP goals. The web-based survey included both closed and open-ended items.…

  2. Toward early markers for Autism Spectrum Disorder using eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, R.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374642001

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to explore two possible early markers of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): visual search superiority, and gaze behavior during face perception. These possible markers were explored as they pertain to both the social deficits in ASD (gaze during face perception) and

  3. Neonatal levels of cytokines and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Luminex...

  4. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane Lilleøre; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    Objective Maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. We assessed the potential influence of both maternal and paternal RA on the risk of ASD in offspring to disentangle the influence of genetic inheritance from...

  5. Theory of Mind, linguistic recursion and autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyanskaya, Irina; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Braüner, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we give the motivation for and discuss the design of an experiment investigating whether the acquisition of linguistic recur-sion helps children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) develop second-order false belief skills. We first present the relevant psycho-logical concepts (in...

  6. Music therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Elefant, Cochavit; Mössler, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background The central impairments of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core...

  7. Neonatal chemokine levels and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD...

  8. Perspectives of University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anastasia H.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at heightened risk of post-secondary educational failure and account for approximately 1% of students in post-secondary education. Findings from an on-line survey of students with ASD attending university in Australian are reported in this study. Respondents indicated high rates of academic and…

  9. Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Derserri Y.; Lee, Hoe C.; Patomella, Ann-Helen; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving…

  10. Children with autism spectrum disorder show pronoun reversals in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overweg, Jessica; Hartman, C.A.; Hendriks, Petra

    Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6–12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children

  11. Trends and Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    The field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is expanding at an exponential rate. New topics for study are forming and journals are emerging rapidly to handle the ever-increasing volume of publications. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of past and current research trends. Representative studies were evaluated for type of content…

  12. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  13. Cradling bias is absent in children with autism spectrum disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study investigated relations among empathy and cradling bias in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Twenty children with ASDs and 20 typically developing (TD) children, aged 5–15 years old, cradled a doll as if it were an infant s/he was putting to sleep on three separate ...

  14. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  15. Comprehension of metaphors in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Aschauer, Harald N; Stoettner, Susanne; Schmoeger, Michaela; Pils, Nicole; Raab, Monika; Willinger, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    Metaphors, mainly proverbs and idiomatic expressions of ordinary life are commonly used as a model for concretism. Previous studies have shown impaired metaphor comprehension in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to either psychiatric or non-psychiatric control subject. The aim of this study was to detect possible quantitative differences in figurative processing between patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and healthy controls. In order to analyse possible dissociations of different aspects of figurative speech, a range of metaphor tasks was used to distinguish between recognition of familiar metaphors, paraphrasing the meaning of the latter and generating novel metaphors: we used a standard proverb test for conventional metaphors consisting of a multiple-choice and a paraphrasing task, and the Metaphoric Triads Test for the assessment of novel metaphors. We included 40 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 43 healthy control subjects. Our results showed that patients had impaired figurative speech processing regarding novel and conventional metaphors. Associations with cognitive functions were detected. Performance on the paraphrasing task was associated with the severity of negative symptoms. We conclude that patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders do exhibit impairments in the recognition and paraphrasing of conventional and the generation of novel metaphors and that some cognitive domains as well the extent of negative symptoms might be associated with these deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Fictional Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jane E.; Cardon, Teresa A.; Algeo-Nichols, Dana

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, schools have seen an increasing number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the current estimated average of children in the United States who are diagnosed with an ASD is one out of 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). One way for educators and elementary students to learn about ASD is through…

  17. Bullying Experiences among Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated bullying experiences among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, preliminary research suggests that children with ASD are at greater risk for being bullied than typically developing peers. The aim of the current study was to build an understanding of bullying experiences among children with…

  18. Assessment of Fear in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Laura B.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2012-01-01

    Although intense fears have been reported in up to 64% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the phenomenology of fear in this population. This study assessed the relationship between fear and core symptoms of autism in children with an ASD. In Phase I of this study, parents of 41 children with an ASD completed…

  19. Psychiatric interventions for AIDS-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S W; Markowitz, J

    1986-10-01

    Although the medical and psychosocial problems posed by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are unique, interventions to treat AIDS-related psychiatric disorders are currently available. The depression, delirium, and denial that occur in medically hospitalized patients with AIDS respond to standard psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological approaches. Outpatients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex benefit from clarification, abreaction, and support if the therapist accepts the regression associated with the sick role, focuses initially on somatic rather than on psychological concerns, and overcomes unwarranted fears of contagion. Patients with AIDS-related dementia are helped considerably by early diagnosis and planning, and patients with antibodies to the AIDS virus require a psycho-educational approach that includes stress inoculation and problem-solving techniques. The authors describe the above interventions as well as common countertransference responses that impede their implementation.

  20. Clinical Spectrum of Disorders of Sexual Differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, U. L.; Ahsan, T.; Jabeen, R.; Zehra, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the mode of presentation and causes of the disorders of sexual differentiation in patients presenting in the Endocrine Clinic. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from July 2012 to July 2014. Methodology: Patients with phenotypic, psychosocial gender confusion or absence of gender appropriate secondary sexual maturation were enrolled in the study. Patients having chronic systemic disease, as cause of delayed puberty, were excluded from the study. SPSS 13 was used to evaluate the data. Results: A total of 48 patients registered in the study with mean age of 19.9 ± 8 years. Female gender was assigned to 28 (58.3 percentage) of which 8 (28.57 percentage) had genital ambiguity. Male gender was assigned to 20 (41.66 percentage) patients at the time of birth and 7 (35 percentage) of them had ambiguous genitalia. Karyotyping could be done in 36 (75 percentage) patients of which 17 (47.2 percentage) were females and 19 (52.7 percentage) were males. Karyotypic gender of the 19 (48.57 percentage) male patients was 46 XX, 46 XY and 47 XXY; in 4 (21.05 percentage), 5 (26.3 percentage) and 10 (52.6 percentage) patients, respectively with 9 Klinfelter syndrome. Karyotypic gender of 17 (47.42 percentage) female patients were 46 XX, 46 XY and 45 X0; in 5 (29.4 percentage), 3 (17.64 percentage) and 9 (52.9 percentage) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Disorder of sexual development constitutes a small but difficult area of endocrinology with disastrous consequences, especially if assigned wrong sex at birth. Mode of presentation of these cases was diverse ranging from delayed puberty, to gender confusion, to pregnancy in a male. Eventually in an adult patient assignment or reassignment of gender identity was primarily the patient's prerogative. (author)