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Sample records for alcohol spectrum disorder

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Experimental Treatments and Strategies for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Idrus, Nirelia M.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target ...

  5. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through Biomarkers International Research National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect Training & Education Past Activities ... review the research and develop guidelines for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) . The guidelines were developed for FAS only. ...

  7. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Murawski, Nathen J.; Moore, Eileen M.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a number of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and neural impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This article examines basic research that has been or could be translated into practical applications for the diagnosis or treatment of FASD. Diagnosing FASD continues to be a challenge, but advances are being made at both basic science and clinical levels. These include identification of biomarkers, recognition of subtle facia...

  8. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age...

  9. Mechanisms of Mathematics Deficits in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are associated with a broad range of neuropsychological and behavioral impairments, from diminished general intelligence to subtle attention and motor deficits. The extant literature suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have mathematics difficulties, however the nature and specificity of these deficits have not been thoroughly examined. The current study sought to evaluate mechanisms of mathematics abilities in children with prenatal al...

  10. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  11. Special Education of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Nam, Seungree; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the cost associated with special education among children (5 to 14 years) with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in elementary and middle school by sex, age group, and province and territory in Canada. It was estimated that there were 6,520 students with FASD receiving special education in Canada in…

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and ... share is alcohol problems and other health disparities. Native American populations experience significant health issues compared with the ...

  14. Facts About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this fact sheet » Order free English and Spanish cards » Signs and Symptoms FASDs refer to the whole range of effects that can happen to a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These conditions can affect ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Understanding the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Supporting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) affect a significant number of children in this country. This article addresses diagnostic issues related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related disabilities, discusses associated features and behaviors of FASD, and introduces interventions to support children with FASD in…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview from the Glia Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Clare J.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the abnormal brain

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: an overview from the glia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J. Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the

  19. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  20. The Knowledge of Rehabilitation Professionals Concerning Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephanie M; Carpenter, Heidi A; Marsh, Anna M; McClung, Kimberly A; Doll, Joy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' knowledge regarding signs and symptoms, prevention, and intervention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Participants were 111 rehabilitation practitioners (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology practitioners) recruited through email using a quantitative online survey design with purposive, snowball sampling. Results showed the majority of participants' demonstrated accurate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of FASD. Since professionals who received formal education on FASD reported significantly higher feelings of preparedness to identify children with FASD and manage/coordinate intervention plans, this study suggests rehabilitation professionals may be better prepared to treat individuals with FASD if they participate in formal training. PMID:26115404

  1. [Diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Sergio Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure, in our professional practice, is an almost neglected condition as an important etiological factor for the induction of a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric diseases that may appear during childhood, adolescence or adulthood. Children born to alcoholic mothers may show a profound mental retardation ranging to an apparent normality, and extending through epilepsy, attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity, autism and pervasive developmental disorders, and different types of learning disorders. When adolescents, they may develop different kinds of personality disorders and substance abuse disorders. Finally, in adulthood, they may suffer from different types of affective and psychotic disorders, among others. A great number of those children may not develop their full mental and social potentiality as free individuals. They usually have diverse types of cognitive, attentional, mnemonic and affective impairments. Not infrequently, they engage in antisocial behaviors or have school or work troubles. In this work, the present clinical classifications and diagnostic criteria for the disorders emerging from a prenatal ethanol exposure are reviewed in order to call attention to the medical pediatric and neuropsychiatric community about the increasingly, although underdiagnosed, frequency of these disorders in our country. PMID:20204241

  2. Cingulate gyrus morphology in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Fryer, Susanna L.; Reiss, Allan L; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a variety of cognitive and other birth defects, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which includes the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). This study examined the impact of gestational alcohol exposure on the morphology of the cingulate gyrus, given this region’s role in cognitive control, attention, and emotional regulation, all of which are affected in children with FASD. Thirty-one youth (ages 8–16) with histories of heavy...

  3. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Poole; Rose A. Schmidt; Courtney Green; Natalie Hemsing

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3...

  4. Utilization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Research Involving Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojie; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that fetal alcohol exposure can profoundly damage the developing brain. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of deficits that result from prenatal alcohol exposure. Over the past two decades, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive technique to characterize anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes in the human brain that are part of FASD. As using animal models can circumvent many of the complications...

  5. Animal Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Impact of the Social Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Sandra J.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Hannigan, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have been used to demonstrate the specificity of alcohol’s teratogenic effects and some of the underlying changes in the central nervous system (CNS) and, more recently, to explore ways to ameliorate the effects of alcohol. The main point of this review is to highlight research findings from the animal literature which point to the impact of the social context or social behavior on the effect(s) of alcohol exposure during development, an...

  6. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Peadon; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Peadon, Elizabeth J ElliottDiscipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetal alcohol exposure. The behavioral phenotype of children with FASD includes difficulties with executive function, memory, planning, processing speed, and attention. Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed in up to 94% ...

  7. Emotion-based decision-making in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    VAURIO, LINNEA

    2011-01-01

    Neurobehavioral outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure range from severe intellectual deficiency to subtle attention and motor deficits. Diagnosis of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) can be challenging especially when physical markers are absent or prenatal histories are unavailable. In addition, due to neurobehavioral similarities, individuals with FASD and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be confused clinically, making differ...

  8. Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rita de Cassia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Faleiros, Leticia Oliveira; Brito, Adriana Rocha; Werner Junior, Jairo; Herdy, Gesmar Volga Haddad [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: rcgonc@hotmail.com; Cruz Junior, Luiz Celso Hygino da; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. Method: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6{+-}3.8 years) who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1{+-}3,4 years). An 8 cm{sup 3} single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. Results: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020) in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048) in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. Conclusion: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol. (author)

  10. What is fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and why is it important that I know about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and why is it important that I know about it? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What should ... fetal alcohol spectrum disorders(FASDs) and why is it important for me to know about them? What ...

  11. Supporting Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders:a Summary of Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer; Xu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong condition that significantly affects the individual's learning, development, behavior, family, and quality of life. Diagnosing children with this condition and providing effective supports is challenging for professionals because little intervention research has been performed with the…

  12. Monsters, Monkeys, & Mandalas: Art Therapy with Children Experiencing the Effects of Trauma and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerteisen, June

    2008-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that describes the range of effects associated with the diagnoses of Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). FASD itself is not a diagnosis, but rather encompasses a wide range of symptomatic behaviors that occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during…

  13. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Woods

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD, effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task.

  14. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peadon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Peadon, Elizabeth J ElliottDiscipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetal alcohol exposure. The behavioral phenotype of children with FASD includes difficulties with executive function, memory, planning, processing speed, and attention. Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is diagnosed in up to 94% of individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, the exact relationship between FASD and ADHD is unclear. There is some evidence that ADHD in FASD may be a specific clinical subtype and thus may require a different treatment approach. Although traditional behavioral observation scales may not distinguish between the two groups, there is evidence that children with FASD have a different profile on the four-factor model of attention than children with ADHD who do not have FASD. There is a paucity of good scientific evidence on effective interventions for individuals with ADHD and FASD. There is weak evidence that children with FASD and ADHD may have a better response to dexamphetamine than methylphenidate. There is a strong need for larger, high quality studies to examine the relationship between ADHD and FASD and identify effective treatments because management of inattention and hyperactivity may improve learning and ameliorate the common secondary disabilities associated with FASD.Keywords: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  15. Implementation of a Shared Data Repository and Common Data Dictionary for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Research

    OpenAIRE

    Arenson, Andrew D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila; Chambers, Christina D.; Deximo, Christina; Foroud, Tatiana; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N.; May, Philip A.; Moore, Elizabeth; Ogle, Kimberly; Riley, Edward P.; Robinson, Luther K.; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Many previous attempts by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders researchers to compare data across multiple prospective and retrospective human studies have failed due to both structural differences in the collected data as well as difficulty in coming to agreement on the precise meaning of the terminology used to describe the collected data. Although some groups of researchers have an established track record of successfully integrating data, attempts to integrate data more broadly amongst differ...

  16. Mapping White Matter Integrity and Neurobehavioral Correlates in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth R. Sowell; Johnson, Arianne; Kan, Eric; Lu, Lisa H; Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2008-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction have been observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Little is known about how white matter integrity is related to these functional and morphological deficits. We used a combination of diffusion tensor and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate white matter integrity in individuals with FASDs and related these findings to neurocognitive deficits. Seventeen children and adolescents with FASDs...

  17. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bower Carol; Rhys-Jones Biarta; Peadon Elizabeth; Elliott Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electron...

  18. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Tesche, Claudia D.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Houck, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magneto...

  19. Learning the Dance of Connection: Helping a Foster Mother and a Child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnegar, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol results in complex problems for the developing child, some of which are long lasting, and may be irreversible. The earlier the intervention, the higher the probability of a positive outcome. In this article, the author illustrates the complex challenges stemming from Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and how a…

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD Associated Neural Defects: Complex Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Marrs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.

  1. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marlene M; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A; Hasken, Julie M; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Snell, Cudore L; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; May, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  2. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and assessment of maxillary and mandibular arc measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Katherine; May, Warren; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy; Hoyme, H Eugene; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Abdul-Rahman, Omar

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise a range of physical differences and neurologic deficits from prenatal alcohol exposure. Previous studies suggest that relative maxillary growth deficiency can accompany FASD. Using the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiologic Research (FASER) database, we investigated how maxillary and mandibular arcs and the ratio between them differ between FASD and non-FASD individuals. First, we established normative values for maxillary and mandibular arcs and maxillary-to-mandibular arc ratio. In our control group (545 males, 436 females), mean maxillary and mandibular arcs for males/females were 24.98/24.52 cm and 25.91/25.35 cm, respectively. The ratio was 0.9643 and 0.9676 for males and females, respectively. We then evaluated the effect of microcephaly, short stature, and low weight (maxillary and mandibular arc measurements is primarily on overall facial growth and less on asymmetric growth of the maxilla relative to the mandible, at least using this technique. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27253440

  4. Is it time for Newborn Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Commentary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A PASS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is one of the most common causes of acquired mental retardation in the United States and worldwide. The fetal brain is highly susceptible to the teratogenic effects of alcohol from maternal consumption during pregnancy resulting in newborns with mental deficits and congenital malformations. FAS diagnosis is difficult to diagnose in newborns where distinct anatomical defects are not apparent from mothers of moderate to light alcohol use. Hence, medical diagnoses are often not ascertained until mid-childhood after irreparable brain damage has already occurred. Such infants will have been deprived of available socioclinical interventions, trainings, measures, and future treatments that may someday be implemented soon after birth. Presently, there are no FASD newborn biomarker screening programs in place despite cost benefit analyses revealing an annual societal cost of $1.3 million per FASD incident case. Since newborn biomarkers have been reported in the biomedical literature, can we afford not to implement newborn screening for FASD?

  5. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wakana Momino; Têmis Maria Félix; Alberto Mantovani Abeche; Denise Isabel Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer Scheibler; Christina Chambers; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Renato Zamora Flores; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well a...

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders -a population-based prospective study of 80 552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake >/=5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism. METHODS: Participants were 80 552 children and their mothers enro...

  7. Exploring the complexity of intellectual disability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain development in mammals is long lasting. It begins early during embryonic growth and is finalized in early adulthood. This progression represents a delicate choreography of molecular, cellular and physiological processes initiated and directed by the fetal genotype in close interaction with environment. Not surprisingly, most aberrations in brain functioning including mental retardation are attributed to either gene(s, or environment or the interaction of the two. The ensuing complexity has made the assessment of this choreography, ever challenging. A model to assess this complexity has used a mouse model (C57BL/6J or B6 that is subjected to prenatal alcohol exposure. The resulting pups show learning and memory deficits similar to patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, which is associated with life-long changes in gene expression. Interestingly, this change in gene expression underlies epigenetic processes including DNA methylation and miRNAs. This paradigm is applicable to ethanol exposure at different developmental times (binge at trimesters 1, 2 and 3 as well as continuous preference drinking (70% of 10% alcohol by B6 females during pregnancy. The exposure leads to life-long changes in neural epigenetic marks, gene expression, and a variety of defects in neurodevelopment and CNS function. We argue that this cascade may be reversed postnatally via drugs, chemicals and environment including maternal care. Such conclusions are supported by two sets of results. First, antipsychotic drugs that are used to treat mental disability including psychosis function via changes in DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mark. Second, post-natal environment may improve (with enriched environments or worsen (with negative and maternal separation stress the cognitive ability of pups that were prenatally exposed to ethanol as well as their matched controls. In this review, we will discuss operational epigenetic mechanisms involved in the

  8. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  9. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings. PMID:23834387

  10. Cost of speech-language interventions for children and youth with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Shield, Kevin; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study, which is part of a large economic project on the overall burden and cost associated with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in Canada, estimated the cost of 1:1 speech-language interventions among children and youth with FASD for Canada in 2011. The number of children and youth with FASD and speech-language disorder(s) (SLD), the distribution of the level of severity, and the number of hours needed to treat were estimated using data from the available literature. 1:1 speech-l...

  11. Health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins Rochelle E; Elliott Elizabeth J; Mutch Raewyn C; Latimer Jane; Wilkins Amanda; Payne Janet M; Jones Heather M; Miers Sue; Peadon Elizabeth; McKenzie Anne; D’Antoine Heather A; Russell Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick James; O’Leary Colleen M; Halliday Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the availability of five guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), there is no national endorsement for their use in diagnosis in Australia. In this study we aimed to describe health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of FASD in Australia and identify implications for the development of national guidelines. Methods We surveyed 130 Australian and 9 international health professionals w...

  12. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bower Carol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for clinical studies (Randomized controlled trials (RCT, quasi RCT, controlled trials and pre- and post-intervention studies which evaluated pharmacological, behavioural, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychosocial and educational interventions and early intervention programs. Participants were aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of a FASD. Selection of studies for inclusion and assessment of study quality was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was not possible due to diversity in the interventions and outcome measures. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological weaknesses were common, including small sample sizes; inadequate study design and short term follow up. Pharmacological interventions, evaluated in two studies (both RCT showed some benefit from stimulant medications. Educational and learning strategies (three RCT were evaluated in seven studies. There was some evidence to suggest that virtual reality training, cognitive control therapy, language and literacy therapy, mathematics intervention and rehearsal training for memory may be beneficial strategies. Three studies evaluating social communication and behavioural strategies (two RCT suggested that social skills training may improve social skills and behaviour at home and Attention Process Training may improve attention. Conclusion There is limited good

  13. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  14. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23412828

  15. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  16. An examination of the abilities, risks, and needs of adolescents and young adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the criminal justice system.

    OpenAIRE

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) comprises the continuum of permanent deficits caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy, which may include brain injury, neurobehavioural impairment, growth restriction, and physical birth defects. Individuals with FASD experience numerous adverse outcomes, including high rates of involvement with the criminal justice system. This dissertation examined the psycholegal abilities, justice-system experiences, and risks associated with prospective offen...

  17. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population. PMID:26384109

  18. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  19. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the law in Australia: the need for awareness and concern to translate into urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2013-03-01

    Awareness of the social tragedies and legal difficulties caused by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder has been emerging since the 1960s. However, although a great deal is now known clinically about the disorder, its diagnosis and what needs to be done by way of prevention and management, a co-ordinated therapeutic and public health response in Australia has thus far been lacking. In turn, this is having a range of repercussions for the courts in evaluating accused persons' criminal responsibility and culpability. Two high-quality and extensive reports during 2012 from Western Australian and Commonwealth parliamentary committees have documented the problems and provided a blueprint for a collaborative and comprehensive intergovernmental response. The challenge for government is now to implement the proposals throughout Australia (and be guided by them in New Zealand) as a matter of urgency. PMID:23600183

  1. Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Russo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attantional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly et al., 1998. The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean CA of 11.7 years and a mean MA of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8.4 years and a mean MA of 9.6 years. The children with FASD were rated by their caregivers as having clinically significant attention difficulties for their developmental age. The reported symptomatology for the majority of the children with FASD were consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD, combined type, and only one child had a score within the average range. These reports are consistent with the finding here that the children with FASD demonstrated difficulties on the Creature Counting subtest of attentional control/shifting, but inconsistent with the finding that they outperformed the TD children on the Map Mission subtest of selective attention. These findings are considered within the context of the complexity in understanding attentional functioning among children with FASD and discrepancies across sources of information and components of attention.

  2. Focus On: The Use of Animal Models for the Study of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Shannon E.; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable efforts to educate women not to abuse alcohol during pregnancy have failed to reduce the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Therefore, other approaches to limit the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are under consideration, including the development of prevention programs and interventions. For these strategies to be as successful as possible, it also is important to improve methods for identifying affected children. The use of animal models in prenatal alcohol exposure rese...

  3. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Tesche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz “standard” tone bursts (80% randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz “target” tone bursts (10% and “novel” digital sounds (10%. Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time–frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  4. Focus on: Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, S. Christopher; Roussotte, Florence; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning as well as alterations in brain structure and function related to alcohol’s teratogenic effects. These impairments are present both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and in children with heavy in utero alcohol exposure who do not have facial dysmorphology required for the FAS diagnosis. Neuropsychological and behavioral studies have revealed deficits in most cogniti...

  5. Prevalence of Children with Severe Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Communities Near Rome, Italy: New Estimated Rates Are Higher than Previous Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. Methods: Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented first grade children (n = 976 were screened in Tier I for height, weight, or head circumference and all children

  6. Intervention for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Treatment Approaches and Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some…

  7. Teaching for the Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): Grades 1-12. A Resource for Teachers of Health and Life Skills, and Career and Life Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource supports a comprehensive school health approach to preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, addressing various aspects of the health and life skills and the career and life management programs of study through an approach that focuses on the development of a healthy self-concept and healthy relationships as fundamental to…

  8. Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

  9. Developmental and behavioral consequences of early life maternal separation stress in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberry, Bonnie; Singh, Shiva M

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), characterized by developmental disability. As children with FASD are often raised in suboptimal conditions, we have investigated the combination of PAE via maternal preference consumption of 10% ethanol in water with early life stress (ELS) via daily 3h maternal separation and isolation. Our results focus on development and behavioral features, including activity, anxiety-like behavior, as well as learning and memory. PAE influenced the number of pups surviving to postnatal day 2 and 70, with fewer surviving pups associated with the severity of ethanol exposure. PAE and ELS both had effects on pup weight at postnatal day 21, with amount of ethanol exposure positively correlating with pup weight. We found females were more active than males in a novel open field environment, but not following PAE. In addition, PAE resulted in overall increased exploratory behavior in the open field. Further, PAE and ELS both resulted in overnight hypoactivity in a home cage environment, as well as learning deficits that were influenced by sex in the Barnes Maze for learning and memory. These results are attributed to environmental interactions involving PAE and ELS. PMID:27102339

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Using Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Justice Professionals to Support their Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Raewyn C; Jones, Heather M; Bower, Carol; Watkins, Rochelle E

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPeople with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can be involved in high risk, socially unacceptable and harmful behaviours and are at high risk of engaging with the justice system.  ObjectiveTo obtain baseline data on Western Australian justice professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice relating to FASD to inform the development of FASD resources. MethodsCross sectional study using on-line survey methods, descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis methods for qualitative data.  Results1873 people were invited to complete the survey. A total of 427 (23%) judicial officers, lawyers, corrective services personnel and police completed the survey. The majority had heard of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (85%) but were less familiar with FASD (60%). Only 16% of respondents identified the key features of FASD as permanent and only 48.4% considered psychological difficulties as important. The majority of legal and judicial officers and approximately half the police officers considered that knowledge about FASD was very relevant to their work.  ConclusionThere was widespread agreement of the need for more information and training about FASD to optimise outcomes for people with, or suspected of having a FASD, engaging with the justice system. PMID:27132254

  11. A multinational deployment of 3D laser scanning to study craniofacial dysmorphology in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeff; Wernert, Eric; Moore, Elizabeth; Ward, Richard; Wetherill, Leah F.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry (the measurement and analysis of head and face dimensions) has been used to assess and describe abnormal craniofacial variation (dysmorphology) and the facial phenotype in many medical syndromes. Traditionally, anthropometry measurements have been collected by the direct application of calipers and tape measures to the subject's head and face, and can suffer from inaccuracies due to restless subjects, erroneous landmark identification, clinician variability, and other forms of human error. Three-dimensional imaging technologies promise a more effective alternative that separates the acquisition and measurement phases to reduce these variabilities while also enabling novel measurements and longitudinal analysis of subjects. Indiana University (IU) is part of an international consortium of researchers studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Fetal alcohol exposure results in predictable craniofacial dysmorphologies, and anthropometry has been proven to be an effective diagnosis tool for the condition. IU is leading a project to study the use of 3D surface scanning to acquire anthropometry data in order to more accurately diagnose FASD, especially in its milder forms. This paper describes our experiences in selecting, verifying, supporting, and coordinating a set of 3D scanning systems for use in collecting facial scans and anthropometric data from around the world.

  12. Enhanced case management to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Northern Plains communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Miller, Joseph H; Goodhart, Karen A; Maestas, Olivia R; Buckley, David; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Gossage, J Phillip

    2008-11-01

    Women proven to be extremely high risk for drinking during pregnancy were provided case management (CM) enhanced with strategies derived from motivational interviewing (MI) as a part of a comprehensive Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) epidemiology and prevention program in four American Indian communities in Northern Plains states. Data on the first women enrolled (n=131) revealed that they have extreme issues with alcohol abuse to overcome. Sixty-five percent of these women have experienced extensive alcohol use within their immediate family. At intake, 24% of CM clients reported binge drinking one or more days in the preceding week. Heavy drinking resulted in estimated blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) as high as .576 using the BACCUS methodology. Project staff has attempted to actively engage each of these women in CM. Clients have been in CM an average of 17.2 months (SD=16.6). The mean number of significant contacts (face-to-face or telephone MI sessions) was 19. Thirty-one percent of the women entered some type of formal alcohol or drug treatment while in CM. Data were collected at 6 month intervals from 6 to 72 months after enrollment. Consumption of alcohol, as measured by both quantity and frequency measures, was reduced at 6 months. Thirty-eight percent of enrolled women reported complete abstinence from alcohol use at 6 months, and the number of binges while drinking in CM declined significantly from 15 at baseline to 4.3 at 6 months. However, mean peak BACs for the heavy drinking sessions were still problematic for those who continued to drink. They ranged from .234 to .275 from baseline to 12 month follow-up, but the total number of binges was reduced substantially at 12 months as well. Furthermore, the most important outcomes are the status of the children born while in CM. One hundred and forty nine pregnancies have occurred among these women, and 76% of those pregnancies have resulted in normal deliveries, and only two children born in CM are suspected

  13. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many of the psychosocial stressors noted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) 4 , such as: • Educational ... AK, March 2004. 4. American Psychiatric Association.2000. Diagnostic and ... Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Text Revision. DSM-IV-TR. Arlington, ...

  14. Diagnostic challenges in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, Luisa; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; Francque, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that have been defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to damage of various organs, including the liver. Alcoholic liver disease includes different injuries ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis and implicates a diagnostic assessment of the liver disease and of its possible complications. There is growing interest in the possible different tools f...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Challenges Faced by Caregivers: Clinicians' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Jonathan; Delja, Jolie R; Mogil, Catherine; Gorospe, Clarissa M; Paley, Blair

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThere is a notable absence of evidence based early interventions for young children with FASD.  ObjectiveThis study examines clinicians' perspectives regarding the needs of caregivers of children with FASD and how such perspectives informed the development of a family-centered early intervention for young children with prenatal alcohol exposure.  Method19 professionals who work with children with prenatal alcohol exposure and / or in out-of-home care were recruited to participate in focus groups. The facilitator used a semi-structured topic guide to elicit feedback from participants. These data were transcribed, coded, and categorized to reflect themes in a manner informed by a grounded theory approach. A second investigator repeated the process. Codes were chosen and assigned to data by consensus.   ResultsThe coded data yielded five distinct perceived challenges faced by caregivers: (1) seeking and possibly receiving a diagnosis; (2) processing emotions and coming to terms with the child's difficulties; (3) seeking support and belonging within a knowledgeable community; (4) developing a new understanding of the child's behavior; and (5) becoming an educator, advocate, and expert on the child and FASD.   ConclusionProfessionals believe specific capacities are essential insofar as the human service systems that caregivers engage are perceived to be under-equipped to respond to the distinct set of challenges faced by children with FASD and their families. Findings are discussed in terms of how the proposed intervention was designed to address such challenges and to cultivate those key capacities in order for families to meet their children's needs. PMID:27462878

  16. Aberrant development of post-movement beta rebound in adolescents and young adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Vakhtin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependent on maternal (e.g. genetic, age and exposure (frequency, quantity, and timing variables, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus are known to vary widely, producing a broad range of morphological anomalies and neurocognitive deficits in offspring, referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Maternal drinking during pregnancy remains a leading risk factor for the development of intellectual disabilities in the US. While few functional findings exist today that shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the observed impairments in individuals with FASD, animal models consistently report deleterious effects of early alcohol exposure on GABA-ergic inhibitory pathways. The post-motor beta rebound (PMBR, a transient increase of 15–30 Hz beta power in the motor cortex that follows the termination of movement, has been implicated as a neural signature of GABA-ergic inhibitory activity. Further, PMBR has been shown to be a reliable predictor of age in adolescents. The present study sought to investigate any differences in the development of PMBR between FASD and control groups. Beta event-related de-synchronization (ERD and movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS, although not clearly linked to brain maturation, were also examined. Twenty-two participants with FASD and 22 age and sex-matched controls (12–22 years old underwent magnetoencephalography scans while performing an auditory oddball task, which required a button press in response to select target stimuli. The data surrounding the button presses were localized to the participants' motor cortices, and the time courses from the locations of the maximally evoked PMBR were subjected to wavelet analyses. The subsequent analysis of PMBR, ERD, and MRGS revealed a significant interaction between group and age in their effects on PMBR. While age had a significant effect on PMBR in the controls, no simple effects of age were detected in the FASD

  17. Hippocampal hyperexcitability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Pathological sharp waves and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Michal; Ramani, Meera; Dian, Josh; Florez, Carlos M; Mylvaganam, Shanthini; Brien, James; Reynolds, James; Kapur, Bhushan; Zoidl, Georg; Poulter, Michael O; Carlen, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to long-lasting neurological alterations that may predispose individuals to seizures and neurobehavioral dysfunction. To date, there exists limited information regarding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The hippocampal CA3 region generates excitatory population activity, called sharp waves (SPWs), that provide an ideal model to study perturbations in neuronal excitability at the network and cellular levels. In the present study, we utilized a mouse model of PAE and used dual extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells to evaluate the effect of 1st trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure (10% v/v) on SPW activity and excitatory/inhibitory balance. We observed that PAE significantly altered in vitro SPW waveforms, with an increased duration and amplitude, when compared to controls. In addition, PAE slices exhibited reduced pharmacological inhibition by the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline (BMI) on SPW activity, and increased population spike paired-pulse ratios, all indicative of network disinhibition within the PAE hippocampus. Evaluation of PAE CA3 pyramidal cell activity associated with SPWs, revealed increased action potential cell firing, which was accompanied by an imbalance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic drive, shifted in favor of excitation. Moreover, we observed intrinsic changes in CA3 pyramidal activity in PAE animals, including increased burst firing and instantaneous firing rate. This is the first study to provide evidence for hippocampal dysfunction in the ability to maintain network homeostasis and underlying cellular hyperexcitability in a model of PAE. These circuit and cellular level alterations may contribute to the increased propensity for seizures and neurobehavioral dysfunction observed in patients with a history of PAE. PMID:26996134

  18. Autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faras Hadeel; Al Ateeqi Nahed; Tidmarsh Lee

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that c...

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...

  20. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cuneyt Evren

    2010-01-01

    High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  2. Autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faras Hadeel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that could be contributing to the cause of these disorders. The occurrence of ASD has been increasing worldwide, with the most recent prevalence studies indicating that they are present in 6 per 1000 children. The objectives of this article are to provide physicians with relevant information needed to identify and refer children presenting with symptoms suggestive of ASDs to specialized centers early, and to make them feel comfortable in dealing with public concerns regarding controversial issues about the etiology and management of these disorders.

  3. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or

  4. Toward Better Collaboration in the Education of Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Integrating the Voices of Teachers, Administrators, Caregivers, and Allied Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenelle Marie Job

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study addresses the call for an increased presence of key stakeholders’ perspectives in educational research involving students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs (Duquette, Stodel, Fullarton, & Hagglund, 2006a. Specifically, greater understandings are necessary to support the educational success of students with FASDs. The analysis of 11 focus groups and 3 interviews with teachers, administrators, caregivers, and allied professionals (total n = 60 revealed three themes: fostering relationships, reframing practices, and accessing supports. These findings have important implications for the use of a qualitaitve approach in generating evidenced-based educational practices for stakeholders reflective of enhanced communication and collaboration that better meet the needs of students with FASDs.

  5. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  7. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beginning of MS. However, this may not be the case in developing countries where MS is uncommon. Most often transverse myelitis is monophasic and at best represents a site-restricted form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. Traditionally the combination of optic neuritis and ATM, occurring as a monophasic illness would have been called as neuromyelitis optica (NMO. Changing concepts in the definition of NMO and the discovery of a biomarker, neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin (NMO_IgG, has changed the way relapsing autoimmune disorders are being perceived currently. A variety of idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as Japanese form of optic spinal MS, recurrent myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis have been brought under the umbrella of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders because of the association with NMO-IgG. Complete transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis which is seronegative for this biomarker has also been reported from several countries including Japan, Australia, and India. Thus, ATM is a heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical spectrum, etiology, and outcome.

  8. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  9. What once was sick is now bad: The shift from victim to deviant identity for those diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Dej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD is constituted by different networks and institutions. I demonstrate that while the symptoms associated with FASD do not differ from childhood to adulthood, their conceptualization and thus societal and governmental responses to individuals with FASD change dramatically. This research is theoretically grounded in Rose’s work on psy-identities andHacking’s concept of a looping effect. To unpack the reconstitution of the FASD identity from childhood to adulthood I have identified two linked but distinctive loops — that of the promising child and the deviant adult. These two loops conceptualize the different institutions, stakeholders, and knowledges that take interest in the “FASD child” and those that constitute the “FASD adult” identitywithin the criminal justice system.

  10. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. PMID:26765502

  11. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus and not to...

  12. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V;

    2015-01-01

    bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  14. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  15. Autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often based on guidelines from a medical book titled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism ...

  16. Usability Testing of Guided Internet-based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; Green, Courtney R; Hewitt, Amy J; Mushquash, Christopher J; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J; Reynolds, James N

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundIn order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD.  ObjectivesTo evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. Methods A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants. Synchronous online usability testing sessions were conducted, followed by asynchronous testing. A total of 18 participants were included, comprised of both health care professionals with expertise in FASD and caregivers of children with FASD. The data collected in each cycle was examined for commonalities and results were used to inform changes to the website and content after each cycle.   ResultsParticipants rated the website as appealing and relatively easy and fast to use. Nevertheless, several usability problems were identified such as difficulty navigating between sections of content on the website, displaying too much content per page, and the relevance and appropriateness of the content as it related to FASD.  ConclusionsThe identification of usability problems was an important step in refining the Strongest Families FASD program before its effectiveness is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27115205

  17. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  18. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense) herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo; Mira Alberto; Soldin Offie P; Sobrino-Najul Elías J; Angulo Mario G; Ortega García Juan A; Claudio Luz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neu...

  19. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Armangué, Thaís; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arrambide, Georgina; Meca-Lallana, José E.; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Mendibe, Mar; Alvarez de Arcaya, Amaya; Aladro, Yolanda; Casanova, Bonaventura; Olascoaga, Javier; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Fernández-Fournier, Mireya; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluis; Cobo-Calvo, Alvaro; Viñals, Montserrat; de Andrés, Clara; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Cervelló, Angeles; Calles, Carmen; Rubio, Manuel Barón; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Caminero, Ana; Munteis, Elvira; Antigüedad, Alfredo R.; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Montalban, Xavier; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To (1) determine the value of the recently proposed criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that unify patients with NMO and those with limited forms (NMO/LF) with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies; and (2) investigate the clinical significance of the serologic status in patients with NMO. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of 181 patients fulfilling the 2006 NMO criteria (n = 127) or NMO/LF criteria with AQP4-IgG (n = 54). AQP4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) antibodies were tested using cell-based assays. Results: Patients were mainly white (86%) and female (ratio 6.5:1) with median age at onset 39 years (range 10–77). Compared to patients with NMO and AQP4-IgG (n = 94), those with NMO/LF presented more often with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) (p < 0.001), and had lower relapse rates (p = 0.015), but similar disability outcomes. Nonwhite ethnicity and optic neuritis presentation doubled the risk for developing NMO compared with white race (p = 0.008) or LETM presentation (p = 0.008). Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–13.6) and older age at onset were associated with worse outcome (for every 10-year increase, HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2). Patients with NMO and MOG-IgG (n = 9) had lower female:male ratio (0.8:1) and better disability outcome than AQP4-IgG-seropositive or double-seronegative patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with AQP4-IgG, the similar outcomes regardless of the clinical phenotype support the unified term NMOSD; nonwhite ethnicity and older age at onset are associated with worse outcome. Double-seronegative and AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMO have a similar clinical outcome. The better prognosis of patients with MOG-IgG and NMO suggests that phenotypic and serologic classification is useful. PMID:27144216

  20. Family Process - Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender,...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shared Neurobiology of Autism and Related Disorders NINDS Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Conference Summary Summary of Clinical Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Conference September 19-22, 2002. Publicaciones en ...

  3. Predicting Post Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examining alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of post-treatment alcohol outcomes. The present study uses a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of alcohol use outcomes were examined in 278 individuals diagnosed with a current DSM-IV schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder and an alcohol use disorder (A...

  4. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend or colleague Request free mailed brochure Autismo Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... list of all NINDS Disorders Publicaciones en Español Autismo Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison ...

  6. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beg...

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  8. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form ... Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current ...

  9. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...

  10. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...

  11. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Paolozza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In May 2013, a new version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the common manual health care providers ... use these terms to describe someone with ASD. Diagnostic and Statistical ... , 5th Edition. (2013). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC. [ ...

  13. Adapting Motivational Interventions for Comorbid Schizophrenia and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Kate B.; Leontieva, Luba; Dimmock, Jacqueline; Maisto, Stephen A; Batki, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    The co-occurrence of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders often leads to poor treatment retention and adherence. Both empirical research and statements of best practices suggest that interventions including motivational interviewing principles can enhance treatment engagement and improve outcomes. This article describes a set of exercises used within a motivational enhancement protocol for outpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum and alcohol use disorders. We describe how each exercise was ...

  14. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Raymond W. Lam

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed ...

  15. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  17. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  18. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  19. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan Bickram; Chappuis François; Baral Dharanidhar; Karki Prahlad; Rijal Suman; Hadengue Antoine; Gache Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non...

  20. Psychotic spectrum disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Deušić Smiljka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, there was a strong belief of existing continuity between childhood-onset psychoses and adult psychoses. Important moment in understanding psychotic presentations during infancy and childhood is Kanner's description of early infantile autism. Later studies of Rutter and Kolvin, as well as new classification systems, have delineated pervasive developmental disorders from all other psychotic disorders in childhood. But clinical experience is showing that in spite of existence of the group of pervasive developmental disorders with subgroups within it and necessary diagnostic criteria there are children with pervasive symptoms, who are not fulfilling all necessary diagnostic criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. Therefore, in this paper we are discussing and pointing at psychotic spectrum presentations in children, which have not the right place in any existing classification system (ICD-10, DSM-IV.

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have ... whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue ...

  2. Understanding alcohol use disorders with neuroelectrophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2014-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits associated with impairments in various brain regions and neural circuitries, particularly involving frontal lobes, have been associated with chronic alcoholism, as well as with a predisposition to develop alcohol use and related disorders (AUDs). AUD is a multifactorial disorder caused by complex interactions between behavioral, genetic, and environmental liabilities. Neuroelectrophysiological techniques are instrumental in understanding brain and behavior relationship...

  3. Parental alcohol use disorders and alcohol use and disorders in offspring: a community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Roselind; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Höfler, Michael; Pfister, Hildegard; ISENSEE, Barbara; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background. We examined the association between parental alcohol use disorders and patterns of alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders in their offspring in a community-based sample of young adults. Methods. Data are based on baseline and 4-year follow-up data of 2427 respondents aged 14–24 at baseline. Alcohol use and disorders in respondents were assessed using the Munich-Composite-International-Diagnostic-Interview with DSM-IV algorithms. Diagnostic information about parent...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  5. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  6. Desordens do espectro alcoólico fetal e habilidades de comunicação: relato de caso familiar Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and communication abilities: family case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o perfil de habilidades comunicativas de cinco irmãos com Desordens do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal. O diagnóstico de Desordens do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal foi realizado a partir do histórico gestacional positivo para álcool e identificação de sinais clínicos. A avaliação fonoaudiológica constou da Observação do Comportamento Comunicativo, Escala de Desenvolvimento Comportamental de Gesell e Amatruda, Teste de Vocabulário por Imagens Peabody e avaliação audiológica. Todos os participantes apresentaram alterações nos comportamentos motor grosso, motor delicado, adaptativo, pessoal-social e de linguagem em graus variados. As habilidades comunicativas estavam comprometidas para todos os participantes e S4 apresentava comportamentos autísticos. As Desordens do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal foram confirmadas em S1, S2 e S5 e o diagnóstico de Síndrome Alcoólica Fetal foi confirmado para S3 e S4. Os resultados apresentaram variabilidade no desenvolvimento das habilidades de desenvolvimento dos irmãos com as Desordens do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal. A variabilidade dos achados, principalmente nas habilidades comunicativas e comportamentais, sugere a necessidade de acompanhar crianças com histórico de uso de álcool pela mãe, visto o impacto destas desordens no desenvolvimento global destes indivíduos, com impacto nas atividades de vida diária e escolaridade.The present study had the aim to characterize the communicative abilities profile of five siblings with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. This diagnosis was carried out based on the positive report of prenatal alcohol exposure and identification of clinical signs. The Speech-Language Pathology evaluation consisted of the Communicative Behavior Observation, the Behavioral Development Scale of Gesell and Amatruda, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and hearing evaluation. Participants presented various degrees of alterations in gross

  7. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  8. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders Espectroscopia por ressonância magnética de prótons em crianças com transtornos do espectro alcoólico fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ferreira Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the metabolic constitution of brain areas through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children affected with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder compared with normal children. METHOD: The sample of this case-control study included eight boys with epidemiologic history of in utero exposure to alcohol (median age 13.6±3.8 years who were diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, and eight controls (median age 12.1±3,4 years. An 8 cm³ single voxel approach was used, with echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms, and 128 acquisitions in a 1.5T scanner, and four brain areas were analyzed: anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe, left striatum, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Peaks and ratios of metabolites N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol were measured. RESULTS: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder showed a decrease in choline/creatine ratio (p=0.020 in left striatum and an increase in myo-inositol/creatine ratio (p=0.048 in left cerebellum compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference in all peaks and ratios from the anterior cingulate and frontal lobe between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study found evidence that the left striatum and left cerebellum are affected by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Additional studies with larger samples are necessary to expand our knowledge of the effects of fetal exposure to alcohol.OBJETIVO: Analisar a composição metabólica de áreas encefálicas através da espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética em crianças com transtornos do espectro alcoólico fetal e crianças normais. MÉTODO: A amostra deste estudo de casos-controles incluiu 8 meninos com história epidemiológica de exposição fetal ao álcool (idade mediana 13,6±3,8 anos, diagnosticados com transtorno do espectro alcoólico fetal, e 8 controles (idade mediana 12,1±3,4 anos. Utilizou-se voxel único de 8 cm³, tempo de eco 30 ms, tempo de

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.

  11. Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide. They are largely consumed by normal individuals, but their use is even more frequent in psychiatric patients, Thus, patients with schizophrenia tend to abuse all three substances. The interrelationships between depression and alcohol are complex. These drugs can all create dependence, as understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Alcohol abuse is cl...

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  13. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  14. Comorbidity of eating disorder and alcohol dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Olivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies suggest that a high prevalence of alcohol addiction exists in female patients diagnosed with eating disorder in comparison to general population. For the purpose of explanation of the relationship of these disorders many conceptual models have been proposed. Case report. We presented a female patient displaying a comorbidity of eating disorder and alcohol dependency. We analyzed phenomenological similarities, personal characteristics and bio-psychological predisposition in order to ensure better understanding of the nature of the correlation of the two mentioned disorders. Conclusion. Even though, these days we find the synonym for eating disorders in the phrase "food addiction", it is impossible to categorize such a complex group of disorders to an addictive process. Moreover, we could assume that there exists a common psychobiological vulnerability which predisposes the development of one and/or the other disorder. To date knowledge has a significant implication for the development of new strategy in treating this comorbidity.

  15. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  16. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  17. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, G; Norbury, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, ...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Autism Spectrum Disorders What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Fast Facts Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental ...

  19. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  20. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks t...... an important psychopathological aspect of the schizophrenia spectrum, with significant relevance for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis.......Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks the...... of 'irreality' of the fantasy may become compromised. We articulate these anomalies of imagination as being entailed by the underlying generative disorder of schizophrenia, namely the disorder of minimal self (unstable ipseity or first-person perspective). We propose that pathology of imagination is...

  1. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B;

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol Daniel A; Bradstreet James J; Van Dyke Kyle; Schneider Cindy; Freedenfeld Stuart H; O’Hara Nancy; Cave Stephanie; Buckley Julie A; Mumper Elizabeth A; Frye Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies...

  3. [Recognition of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend

  4. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L H; Webb, Roger T; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-07-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971-1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  5. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L.H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  6. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  7. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  8. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaigenbaum, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AN...

  9. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-08-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, SPCD and the draft ICD-11 approach to pragmatic language impairment, highlighting points of overlap between the disorders and criteria for differential diagnosis. PMID:26699538

  10. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to...

  11. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C; McKowen, James W; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to illustrate risk factors which predispose individuals with ASD to developing SUD and discuss the obstacles to and modifications of evidence-based treatments for SUD. A review of the therapeutic interventions implemented in the treatment of this young male are described to highlight potential recommendations for the general management of SUD in those with ASD. PMID:26944591

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Kevin K.; Sheema, S.; Paz, Rodrigo D.; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.; Laughlin, Mary H.; Spence, Nathan E.; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N.; Allan, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associate...

  13. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  14. The effectiveness of a community-based intervention program for women at-risk for giving birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Kully-Martens, Katrina; Denys, Kennedy; Badry, Dorothy; Henneveld, Dorothy; Wyper, Katy; Grant, Therese

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the First Steps program (modeled after the Parent-Child Assistance Program) resulted in improved outcomes among women at-risk for giving birth to a child with FASD. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data on 70 participants in the First Steps program. Clients were high risk and faced many life challenges, including: being on welfare, substance abuse, physical and sexual abuse as children, mental health issues, criminal activity, and unplanned pregnancies. We found a significant increase in birth control use and decrease in welfare rates from pre- to post-program. At program exit, many participants were abstinent from alcohol and/or drugs and the majority did not experience a subsequent pregnancy. Clients also showed significant increases in goals and decreases in needs from pre-to post-program. The First Steps program demonstrated promising outcomes for women at-risk for giving birth to a child with FASD. PMID:20694802

  15. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; de Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  16. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef;

    2006-01-01

    adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years), and...... the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by...... differences in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted...

  17. Rotational Spectrum of Propargyl Alcohol Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.

    2013-06-01

    Propargyl alcohol is a molecule of interest to astrophysics as well as combustion studies. Rotational-tunneling spectra of propargyl alcohol monomer is well known and shows that the molecule exists in gauche form. Recently we reported microwave spectra of Ar...propargyl alcohol complex. Propargyl alcochol exists in gauche form in the complex as well. In this study we have recorded pure rotational spectra of propargyl alcohol dimer between 4-13 GHz range.A total of 47 transitions, 24 a-type, 16 b-type and 7 c-type, have been observed and fitted with semi rigid rotor asymmetric top hamiltonian. The fitted rotational constants are: A = 2321.83323(47) MHz, B = 1150.47726(24) MHz and C = 1124.89000(20) MHz. The standard deviation for the fit is 2.5 kHz. The experimental rotational constants are very close to the structure predicted by ab-initio calculations in which two gauche-propargyl alcohol moieties are in three point contact stabilized by O-H...O, O-H...pi and C-H...pi interactions. Few transitions for duterated isotopologues of the dimer have also been observed and search for the remaining transitions is in progress. Details will be presented in the talk. E. Hirota,J. Mol. Spectrosc. 26 (1968) 335-350. J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234 (2005) 149-156. D. Mani, E. Arunan, ChemPhysChem 14 (2013) 754-763.

  18. The importance of measurement precision and behavioral homologies in evaluating the behavioral consequences of fetal-ethanol exposure: commentary on Williams and colleagues ("Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The recent study by Willams and colleagues utilized a novel robotic virtual reality measurement system to measure sensory-motor processing deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This system and the precise quantitation of distinct constituent behavioral processes may hold considerable utility and importance for the study of FASD-related motor deficits, their neural bases, and translational research efforts using homologous behavioral approaches in animal and human studies.. PMID:24299062

  19. Emotion processing in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Ruth Clare Margaret

    2009-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of ~1%, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is relatively common. Whilst accepted as a neurodevelopmental disorder, currently the diagnosis of autism is based on the observation of characteristic behaviour: deficits in language, communication and social skills in addition to unusual or restricted interests. Research in the condition has been approached with psychological and physiological methodology however a full understanding of the underlying neuropa...

  20. The neurology of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jeste, SS

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: Neurological comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are not only common, but they are also associated with more clinical severity. This review highlights the most recent literature on three of autism's most prevalent neurological comorbidities: motor impairment, sleep disorders and epilepsy. Recent findings: Motor impairment in ASDs manifests as both delays and deficits, with delays found in gross and fine motor domains and deficits found in praxis, coordination ...

  1. Therapeutic options in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitley, Joanna; Palace, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that manifests predominantly with attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis; attacks are often severe. In contrast to multiple sclerosis, a secondary progressive phase is rare, and disability in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders is related to relapses. Thus, prompt and effective treatment of relapses, and early initiation of long-term immunosuppression to prevent subsequent attacks is required in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:26840802

  2. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  3. Autism spectrum disorder in adults : biological dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Manouilenko, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and the presence of repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in different brain regions in ASD. Motor difficulties, unusual percept ion and minor physical anomalies have been reported but not systematically investigated in the adult population with ASD and n...

  4. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, Maarten E. H.; Groen, Wouter; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; van Driel-de Jong, Dorine; Kan, Cees C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    Background: As autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have largely been neglected in old-age psychiatry, the objective of the present paper is to describe the diagnostic process in elderly patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on ASD in older age was undertaken and illustrated by a case

  5. Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…

  6. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  7. Time Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Duration judgment has not been comprehensively examined in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), despite reports of perceptual idiosyncrasies in these individuals. Time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 25 individuals with ASD and 25 controls matched group-wise on age and IQ. Individuals with ASD performed comparably to matched…

  8. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  9. Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sarah C.; Msall, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play…

  10. Recent update of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with ASDs. A revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASDs was proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) that was released in May 2013. The autism spectrum describes a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the fifth edition of the DSM. The new diagnostic criteria encompasses previous elements from the diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. An additional change to the DSM includes synthesizing the section on social and communication deficits into one domain. In ASD patients, the appropriate behavioral therapies and rehabilitation treatments significantly affect the prognosis. Therefore, this makes early diagnosis and treatment very important. In conclusion, pediatricians need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs and be attentive to them in order to make an early diagnosis and provide treatment. PMID:25729393

  11. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disorders are classified as either alcohol dependence (alcoholism) or alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, the more serious of the disorders, is a ... due to their drinking. Like many other diseases, alcoholism is usually considered chronic, meaning that it lasts ...

  12. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Siblings of Indian Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 201 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Siblings were screened using Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Responsiveness Scale, parent version. Screen-positive siblings were assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was correlated with various familial and disease characteristics of the index case. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was 4.97%. There was a significant effect of the presence of aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems in the proband, assessed using Childhood Behavior Checklist, and the young age of the father at conception on sibling risk of autism spectrum disorder. Results of our study are in line with previous studies reporting similar prevalence but have also brought up the association with behavioral problems as a possible risk factor. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder should be routinely screened, and genetic counseling for this increased risk should be explained to the family. PMID:26733506

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need well-baby care, vaccinations, good nutrition, exercise, hygiene, and basic medical care. But, for people with ... symptoms such as sad mood, loss of interest, sleep problems, school disruption, negativity, irritability, aggression, and anti- ...

  14. Perinatal episodes across the mood disorder spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Florio, Arianna; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Heron, Jess; Jones, Lisa; Craddock, Nicholas; Jones, Ian

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Affective disorders are common in women, with many episodes having an onset in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. OBJECTIVE To investigate the occurrence and timing of perinatal mood episodes in women with bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and recurrent major depression (RMD). SETTING AND PATIENTS Women were recruited in our ongoing research on the genetic and nongenetic determinants of major affective disorders. Participants were interviewed and case notes were reviewed. Best-estimate diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV criteria. The 1785 parous women identified included 1212 women with bipolar disorder (980 with type I and 232 with type II) and 573 with RMD. Data were available on 3017 live births. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We report the lifetime occurrence of perinatal mood episodes, the rates of perinatal episodes per pregnancy/postpartum period, and the timing of the onset of episodes in relation to delivery. RESULTS More than two-thirds of all diagnostic groups reported at least 1 lifetime episode of illness during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Women with bipolar I disorder reported an approximately 50% risk of a perinatal major affective episode per pregnancy/postpartum period. Risks were lower in women with RMD or bipolar II disorder, at approximately 40% per pregnancy/postpartum period. Mood episodes were significantly more common in the postpartum period in bipolar I disorder and RMD. Most perinatal episodes occurred within the first postpartum month, with mania or psychosis having an earlier onset than depression. CONCLUSIONS Although episodes of postpartum mood disorder are more common in bipolar I disorder and manic and psychotic presentations occur earlier in the postpartum period, perinatal episodes are highly prevalent across the mood disorder spectrum. PMID:23247604

  15. Young children with fetal alcohol spetrum disorder - communication profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari de Beer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the communication profiles of five young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD from 4 to 58months of age. A collective case-study design following a quantitative and descriptive approach was used to describe the communication profilesof the participants. The results are described according to the participants’ case histories and a four-level early communication assessment framework.The significant findings were that all participants were in foster care, and presented with incomplete case histories, general developmentaldelays and delays regarding all aspects of their communication abilities. An increase in the severity of the spectrum disorder across the participants’combined communication profiles was also identified. Participants presented with complex multiple neurodevelopmental needs thatshould be viewed within a developmental systems and ecological framework. The importance of early identification, diagnosis and assessmentof infants and young children prenatally exposed to alcohol, the identification of precursors to communication impairment at a very early age,and the need for individualised early communication intervention to improve developmental outcomes within a family-centred approach arediscussed. Suggestions for future research to accumulate knowledge about FASD in the field of early communication intervention are made.

  16. The complex genetics in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui; Wei, MengPing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a pervasive neurodevelopmental disease characterized by deficits in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and stereotypical behavior. Genetic changes/heritability is one of the major contributing factors, and hundreds to thousands of causative and susceptible genes, copy number variants (CNVs), linkage regions, and microRNAs have been associated with ASD which clearly indicates that ASD is a complex genetic disorder. Here, we will briefly summarize some of the high-confidence genetic changes in ASD and their possible roles in their pathogenesis. PMID:26335739

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  18. Acupuncture for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Brain connectivity in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Rezazadeh, I; Frohlich, J; Loo, SK; Jeste, SS

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have different brain connectivity patterns compared with typically developing individuals. However, the results of more recent studies do not unanimously support the traditional view in which individuals with ASD have lower connectivity between distant brain regions and increased connectivity within local brain regions. In this review, we discuss different methods for measuring brain connectivity and how the use o...

  20. Recent update of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with A...

  1. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in r...

  2. Premorbid Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Holger J.; Erik L. Mortensen; Parnas, Josef; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were...

  3. Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Daalen, E. van

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of the SOSO-project (Screenings Onderzoek Sociale Ontwikkeling), which provided the basis for the largest part of this thesis, was to evaluate the early signs and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in children identified through screening and by surveillance and to determine their potential biological, behavioural, cognitive, and environmental correlates. This particular thesis has its focus on the early diagnosis of ASDs. This subject is divided into 3 separate part...

  4. Molecular aspects of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lisik, Małgorzata Z.

    2014-01-01

    Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities. ASD affects 1% of child’s population. The sex difference is observed with 4:1 male to female ratio. This is descriptive diagnosis based on observation and analysis of behavior and cognitive functions. ASD does not fit the criteria of known patterns of inheritance. For the majority of patients polygenic model of inheritance with many interacting genes i...

  5. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzisław Duch; Wiesław Nowak; Jaroslaw Meller; Grzegorz Osiński; Krzysztof Dobosz; Dariusz Mikołajewski; Grzegorz Marcin Wójcik

    2012-01-01

    Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD) is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD) technique is used for the visualiza...

  6. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L.; Macklin, Eric A.; Smith, Kirby D.; Fahey, Jed W.; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), encompassing impaired communication and social interaction, and repetitive stereotypic behavior and language, affects 1–2% of predominantly male individuals and is an enormous medical and economic problem for which there is no documented, mechanism-based treatment. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, daily oral administration for 18 wk of the phytochemical sulforaphane (derived from broccoli sprouts) to 29 young men with ASD substa...

  7. [Therapeutic approaches in autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Víctor L; Arberas, Claudia L

    2015-02-25

    Autistic spectrum disorders affect one out of every 68 persons, with a 4:1 dominance in males. Since they are dysfunctions rather than irreversible injuries to the central nervous system, which can be attributed to deficits in the neuronal networks and synaptogenesis and are modifiable thanks to the plasticity of the brain, starting therapy as early as possible is essential for more favourable progress. Very few treatments are backed by solid scientific evidence. We will analyse the therapeutic approaches oriented towards improving autism spectrum disorders which showed a clinical improvement that can be related to neurophysiological or functional changes in the central nervous system. We will classify the behavioural educational treatments and those in the research phase into a hierarchy, highlighting the neurogenetic entities with a high prevalence of autism, in which their pathophysiology and molecular base are known, that attempt to modify the consequences of those alterations by means of pharmacological agents. These entities include fragile X syndrome (GABAergic and metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibitors), tuberous sclerosis (mTOR inhibitors), Phelan-McDermid syndrome and Rett syndrome (insulin-like growth factor 1 inhibitors). Oxytocin, which has been shown to improve social cognition in persons with autism spectrum disorders, is analysed separately. PMID:25726823

  8. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    phenomenologically oriented psychometric instrument for assessing anomalies of self-experience, the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). These empirical studies support the classic clinical intuition that anomalous self-experiences form a central phenotype of schizophrenia. Implications for diagnosis and......This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype of...... schizophrenia. Although the notion of a disordered self has continued to appear occasionally over the years-mainly in the phenomenologically or psychodynamically oriented literature-this notion was usually considered as a theoretical construct rather than as referring to concretely lived anomalous experiences...

  9. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful. PMID:26289149

  10. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  11. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol Use Disorders Are a Major Problem..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder involves an alcohol-induced imbalance in the brain's reward and stress systems. Moderate alcohol use initially leads to the pleasant feelings associated with mild intoxication. With excessive alcohol use, over time brain changes occur that lead to tolerance, the need ...

  12. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...

  13. Rotational Spectrum of Ar...PROPARGYL Alcohol Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Devendra; Shahi, Abhishek; Arunan, E.

    2012-06-01

    Pure rotational spectrum for Ar...Propargyl alcohol complex has been observed and fitted. Fitted rotational constants for the complex are : A=4346.17307(90) MHz, B=1617.15317(19)MHz and C= 1245.42065(15) MHz. These rotational constants are very close to the ab-initio rotational constants for the geometry, in which propargyl alcohol exists in gauche conformation and Ar interacts with both, the hydroxyl group and the acetylenic group of propargyl alcohol. Rotational spectrum of deuterated isotopologue (-OD) of the complex further confirms the existence of the above mentioned geometry. In previous studies tunneling frequency corresponding to -OH tunneling motion in propargyl alocohol monomer was determined to be 652.4 GHz and for -OD tunneling motion in mono-deuterated species, it was 213.5 GHz. In Ar...Propargyl alcohol complex also, a-type and c-dipole transitions show tunneling splitting. In the parent complex, for a-type transitions, tunneling splitting was 10 KHz and for c-type transitions (c-dipole of the complex is in the same direction as in propargyl alcohol monomer, and it is antisymmetric with respect to OH tunneling motion in both monomer and the complex), it was 2.59 MHz. In deuterated complex (OD) splitting was not resolvable for a-type transitions while for c-type it reduces to 900 KHz. Search for C-13 isotopologues is in progress. Moreover, propargyl alcohol offers several possibilities for H-bonding and we are planning to study its complexes with water in near future. Results will be presented in the talk. E. Hirota,J. Mol. Spectrosc. 26 (1968) 335-350. J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234 (2005) 149-156.

  14. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-07-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [(11)C]MP4A and [(11)C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [(123)I]5IA SPECT for the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [(123)I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. PMID:26984612

  15. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  16. On, yet under, the Radar: Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Susan; Ferguson, Dianne L.

    2006-01-01

    This 3-year qualitative study investigated the diagnostic process and the experiences of professionals and families associated with 5 Alaskan students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The data revealed (a) an increase in public awareness, but limited provision of services for children with FASD and their families; (b) the use of…

  17. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef;

    2006-01-01

    differences in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted......A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning in...

  18. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... to be more restrictive, leaving out a percentage of patients with psychotic symptoms from a diagnosis of schizophrenia; which in practice opens possibilities for intensive treatment options. On the other hand, not including attenuated psychosis syndrome at the present might protect patients from...... disorders, and eliminate the classic subtypes of schizophrenia. A dimensional assessment will be measured on a 0-4 point scale. It is recommended that the concept of attenuated psychosis syndrome is further investigated. The propositions affecting characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia might increase...

  19. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...

  20. Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2012-01-01

    Early-childhood trauma is strongly associated with developing mental health problems, including alcohol dependence, later in life. People with early-life trauma may use alcohol to help cope with trauma-related symptoms. This article reviews the prevalence of early-childhood trauma and its robust association with the development of alcohol use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. It also examines the potential biological mechanisms by which early adverse experiences can result in long-...

  1. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; Theodorakis, Yannis; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, al...

  2. Age of Alcohol Drinking Onset Precursors and the Mediation of Alcohol Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnne; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    This study explored early alcohol drinking onset (ADO), its precursors, and the mechanisms by which it leads to later alcohol disorder. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with ADO items from 1982 and 1983 and alcohol symptoms from 1989 and 1994. Drinking began earlier for respondents who were male, younger, non-Hispanic,…

  3. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    schizophrenia (IRR 3.80, CI 2.33-5.80), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (IRR 2.34, CI 1.46-3.53), and bipolar disorder (IRR 4.22, CI 2.25-7.13). Risks were highest in the first year after diagnosis of the traumatic stress disorder and remained significantly elevated after more than 5 years. Mental illness in a......OBJECTIVE: Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients...... with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental...

  4. Clinical Genetic Aspects of ASD Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bradley Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early presumptions opined that autism spectrum disorder (ASD was related to the rearing of these children by emotionally-distant mothers. Advances in the 1960s and 1970s clearly demonstrated the biologic basis of autism with a high heritability. Recent advances have demonstrated that specific etiologic factors in autism spectrum disorders can be identified in 30%–40% of cases. Based on early reports newer, emerging genomic technologies are likely to increase this diagnostic yield to over 50%. To date these investigations have focused on etiologic factors that are largely mono-factorial. The currently undiagnosed causes of ASDs will likely be found to have causes that are more complex. Epigenetic, multiple interacting loci, and four dimensional causes (with timing as a variable are likely to be associated with the currently unidentifiable cases. Today, the “Why” is more important than ever. Understanding the causes of ASDs help inform families of important issues such as recurrence risk, prognosis, natural history, and predicting associated co-morbid medical conditions. In the current era of emerging efforts in “personalized medicine”, identifying an etiology will be critical in identifying endo-phenotypic groups and individual variations that will allow for tailored treatment for persons with ASD.

  5. Clinical Genetic Aspects of ASD Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Early presumptions opined that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was related to the rearing of these children by emotionally-distant mothers. Advances in the 1960s and 1970s clearly demonstrated the biologic basis of autism with a high heritability. Recent advances have demonstrated that specific etiologic factors in autism spectrum disorders can be identified in 30%-40% of cases. Based on early reports newer, emerging genomic technologies are likely to increase this diagnostic yield to over 50%. To date these investigations have focused on etiologic factors that are largely mono-factorial. The currently undiagnosed causes of ASDs will likely be found to have causes that are more complex. Epigenetic, multiple interacting loci, and four dimensional causes (with timing as a variable) are likely to be associated with the currently unidentifiable cases. Today, the "Why" is more important than ever. Understanding the causes of ASDs help inform families of important issues such as recurrence risk, prognosis, natural history, and predicting associated co-morbid medical conditions. In the current era of emerging efforts in "personalized medicine", identifying an etiology will be critical in identifying endo-phenotypic groups and individual variations that will allow for tailored treatment for persons with ASD. PMID:26840296

  6. Fractionation of Social Brain Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…

  7. [Empathy, social cognition and autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Victor L

    2013-02-22

    From their earliest reports, Kanner and Asperger included the hierarchy of difficulties in socialisation as one of the key axes in persons affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), associated to development delay or language disorders and restricted interests. This deficiency in social cognition has been related with a deficit in empathy. The theory of deficit in empathising and hypersystematisation provides a coherent, comprehensible explanation with which to partially understand the genesis of these disorders. Empathy is an essential component for emotional experiencing and social interaction, and denotes an affective response to mental states that are either perceived directly or imagined or are feelings inferred by another person. It enables us to understand, feel and respond appropriately to social stimuli, thereby giving rise to an adequate socialisation. Empathy has been considered a synonym of emotional contagion, mimicry, sympathy, compassion and empathic interest. Although these are concepts that are related and necessary for the development of adequate social cognition, they are not the same; nonetheless, they are all essential for the development of empathy or its consequences. Empathy allows individuals to 'feel with', whereas sympathy, compassion and empathic interest are related with 'feeling for' or feeling what is appropriate. Studies conducted in persons with ASD have shown them to have a low empathy quotient. In this work, different aspects of empathy, its components, its neurobiological foundations, the manifestations related with its deficit and its relation with the development of ASDs are all analysed. PMID:23446714

  8. Hazardous alcohol use and alcohol use disorders in women : characteristics and vulnerability factors

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to study vulnerability factors associated with hazardous alcohol consumption during pregnancy and alcohol use disorders among Swedish women. Different risk-factors and characteristics were studied, and examined for their ability to discriminate or identify different subtypes (type I/late onset and type II/early onset) of alcohol dependence ( alcoholism ). In study I, an RCT at ANC in Stockholm (control, n = 156, intervention, n =147) we...

  9. Children with autism spectrum disorder have an exceptional explanatory drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-08-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific. PMID:26503988

  10. Impairment of script comprehension in Lewy body spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Rachel G.; Camp, Emily; McMillan, Corey T.; Dreyfuss, Michael; Gunawardena, Delani; Cook, Philip A.; Morgan, Brianna; Siderowf, Andrew; Hurtig, Howard I.; Stern, Matthew B.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    A disabling impairment of higher-order language function can be seen in patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We focus on script comprehension in patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders. While scripts unfold sequentially, constituent events are thought to contain an internal organization. Executive dysfunction in patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders may interfere with compr...

  11. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzisław Duch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD technique is used for the visualization of attractors in the semantic layer of the neural model of reading. Large-scale simulations of brain structures characterized by a high order of complexity requires enormous computational power, especially if biologically motivated neuron models are used to investigate the influence of cellular structure dysfunctions on the network dynamics. Such simulations have to be implemented on computer clusters in a grid-based architectures

  12. Myopathy associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Li, Ya; Dai, Qingqing; Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Zhu; Li, Yuan; Cai, Gang; Chu, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) were generally thought to affect only central nervous system and spare peripheral aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-expressing organs. In recent years, however, increasing evidence has shown that skeletal muscle is involved in NMOSD. We provided a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and summarized the clinical and pathological characteristics of myopathy associated with NMOSD. NMOSD-associated myopathy seems to be characterized by mild muscle symptoms with prominent hyperCKemia and minimal changes on conventional pathological staining. Loss of AQP4 and deposition of IgG and activated complement products on sarcolemma of type II fibers are diagnostic features on immunohistochemical examinations. Creatine kinase leakage as a result of AQP4-IgG-induced, complement-mediated sarcolemmal injury may be a potential mechanism for hyperCKemia. Myopathy should be considered a component of NMOSD unified by AQP4-IgG seropositivity. PMID:26514543

  13. Three cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusue, Eiji; Fujihara, Yoshio; Suto, Yutaka; Takahashi, Shotaro; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2016-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Cases positive for aquaporin 4 antibodies are classified to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) which includes cases with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or with brain lesions typical of NMO. Our three cases with NMO/NMOSD revealed five imaging features: (i) extensive transverse cord lesions, extending more than three vertebral segments, partially persisting as cavitation; (ii) periependymal lesions; (iii) lesions of the corticospinal tracts; (iv) extensive and confluent hemispheric white matter lesions reflecting vasogenic edema and partially involving the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia; and (v) two patterns of serial hemispheric white matter lesions: one is cavitation and another is partial regression or disappearance. Cavitations, in the upper spinal cord and hemispheric white matter, are considered to be caused by severe vasogenic edema and are likely to be one of the characteristic findings in NMOSD. PMID:27293805

  14. Social network as predictor for onset of alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne S; Becker, Ulrik;

    2015-01-01

    prospective design. METHODS: Information on social network and covariates was obtained from 9589 men and women aged 21-99 years in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, followed for registration of alcohol use disorder in the Danish National Patient Registry and the WINALCO database. RESULTS: Men who lived alone......OBJECTIVE: Social network has been linked to alcohol use disorder in several studies. However, since the majority of such findings are cross-sectional, causal interpretation is difficult. The aim of the present study was to test if social network characteristics predict alcohol use disorder in a...

  15. Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

  16. Fetal phenotypes in otopalatodigital spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudion, S; Moutton, S; Coupry, I; Sole, G; Deforges, J; Guerineau, E; Hubert, C; Deves, S; Pilliod, J; Rooryck, C; Abel, C; Le Breton, F; Collardeau-Frachon, S; Cordier, M P; Delezoide, A L; Goldenberg, A; Loget, P; Melki, J; Odent, S; Patrier, S; Verloes, A; Viot, G; Blesson, S; Bessières, B; Lacombe, D; Arveiler, B; Goizet, C; Fergelot, P

    2016-03-01

    Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDSD) include OPD syndromes types 1 and type 2 (OPD1, OPD2), Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS), and frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). These conditions are clinically characterized by variable skeletal dysplasia associated in males, with extra-skeletal features including brain malformations, cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, omphalocele and obstructive uropathy. Mutations in the FLNA gene have been reported in most FMD and OPD2 cases and in all instances of typical OPD1 and MNS. Here, we report a series of 10 fetuses and a neonatally deceased newborn displaying a multiple congenital anomalies syndrome suggestive of OPDSD and in whom we performed FLNA analysis. We found a global mutation rate of 44%. This series allows expanding the clinical and FLNA mutational spectrum in OPDSD. However, we emphasize difficulties to correctly discriminate OPDSD based on clinical criteria in fetuses due to the major overlap between these conditions. Molecular analyses may help pathologists to refine clinical diagnosis according to the type and the location of FLNA mutations. Discriminating the type of OPDSD is of importance in order to improve the genetic counseling to provide to families. PMID:26404489

  17. Prenatal Neurogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S

    2016-01-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention. PMID:27014681

  18. Prenatal neurogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.

  19. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations. PMID:27147957

  20. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  1. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations. PMID:27147957

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Present Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chaudhuri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and early intervention in management of the problem. But, unfortunately, autism is not yet considered to be under the purview of pediatricians. As pediatricians, we are often perplexed when faced with such a different child in our office and either overlook the problem or hurry to hand him over to a psychiatrist, not trying to really identify and understand the problem as a medical entity ourselves. Hence better awareness among pediatricians is the need of the day. As specialists have worked with autism over the decades, it has become clear that: autism is a disorder that involves early development, presently there is no medical answer to autism, and the only management strategy hinges largely on effective training. The earlier the training begins the better it is for the child. It is of paramount importance to start training and bring about changes by the time the child is 18 months old. This throws up interesting new challenges to the profession of pediatrics. To identify the early warning signs of autism, it is important that Pediatricians are able to recognize the signs and symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, have a strategy for assessing them systematically, be familiar with available tools for screening as well as developmental and educational resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12775 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 37-47

  3. Parental bonding in men with alcohol disorders: a relationship with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, P R; Sellman, D; Wells, E; Frampton, C M; Bushnell, J A; Oakley-Browne, M; Hornblow, A R

    1994-09-01

    Men from a clinical treatment setting suffering from alcohol dependence, and randomly selected men from the community diagnosed as having alcohol abuse and/or dependence, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. The men from the alcohol treatment setting perceived both parents as having been uncaring and overprotective. In the general population sample, an uncaring and overprotective parental style was strongly associated with childhood conduct disorder, but not with alcohol disorder symptoms. This discrepancy in perceived parenting highlights the difficulties in extrapolating findings about aetiological factors for alcohol disorders from clinical samples. It also suggests that childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behaviour could influence which men with alcohol disorders receive inpatient treatment. PMID:7893233

  4. On the issue of intellectual disability in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov S.A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At the stage of school education in the framework of comprehensive support for children with autism spectrum dis¬order it is important to adequately access their educational needs while taking all aspects of autistic disorders into consideration including intellectual disorders. This article examines some moments of interconnection between autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. It demonstrates that such interconnection can be treated as chronological comorbidity; it depicts dynamics and structure of connection between autism spectrum disorders and intellectual dis¬ability, different variants of qualitative characteristics of this connection; specifics of assessment of the level of intellect in autism spectrum disorders. The article provides practical recommendations for intellect assessment in children with autism spectrum disorder that allow avoiding mistakes in decision-making in educational trajectory of the child.

  5. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Onni Niemelä

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specif...

  6. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  7. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  9. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism sp

  10. Metabolic Approaches to the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates evidence for metabolic etiologies in autism spectrum disorders, as well as for the efficacy of dietary and vitamin treatments. The relationship between gastrointestinal abnormalities and autism spectrum disorders is also considered, and the need for more research on larger populations of individuals with autism is stressed.…

  11. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  12. Risk Factors for Bullying among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Anderson, Connie M.; Law, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a…

  13. Priorities for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Communication and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…

  14. No Evidence of Reaction Time Slowing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richard

    2016-01-01

    A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Daniel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Bradstreet, James J; Van Dyke, Kyle; Schneider, Cindy; Freedenfeld, Stuart H; O'Hara, Nancy; Cave, Stephanie; Buckley, Julie A; Mumper, Elizabeth A; Frye, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week) generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies enrolling children with ASD

  17. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Margaret A; Summerfeldt, Laura J; Antony, Martin M; Swinson, Richard P

    2003-01-01

    In light of current interest in an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders, this study sought to determine whether comorbidity patterns support the unique relationship hypothesized between these conditions and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Comparisons were made of lifetime rates of several proposed spectrum conditions in individuals with one of three anxiety disorder principal diagnoses (OCD, social phobia, or panic disorder [PD], N=277). Spectrum conditions examined included tic-related disorders, trichotillomania, skin picking, and eating disorders, with analyses performed on rates both of clinical disorder alone, and clinical and subclinical manifestations jointly. The OCD group was found to differ from both other groups in showing 1) a greater proportion of individuals affected with any lifetime spectrum condition, 2) a greater number of lifetime spectrum conditions affecting each individual, and 3) a greater proportion of individuals having a lifetime history of multiple spectrum conditions. Analyses for specific spectrum conditions indicated differences among the anxiety disorder groups for all spectrum categories except eating disorders, though only in the case of tic-related conditions did OCD differ significantly from both comparison groups. For the other conditions, dissimilar patterns of differences were observed among the three groups, particularly when subclinical manifestations were included. These findings have conceptual and clinical implications, including 1) the salience of tic-related disorders in the OC spectrum, 2) the possibility that the relationship between spectrum conditions and anxiety disorders may take several different forms, and 3) the need for refinement of the hypothesized spectrum. PMID:14625876

  18. Marital and Family Processes in the Context of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is often part of the fabric of marriage and family life, and although it is associated with certain positive effects, excessive drinking and alcohol disorders can exert a negative effect on the marital development and on the development of children in the context of the family. This review considers evidence that alcohol influences and is influenced by marital/family processes, including transitions into marriage and parenthood, marital satisfaction, marital violence, parenting, a...

  19. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  20. Molecular aspects of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisik, Małgorzata Z.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD, is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities. ASD affects 1% of child’s population. The sex difference is observed with 4:1 male to female ratio. This is descriptive diagnosis based on observation and analysis of behavior and cognitive functions. ASD does not fit the criteria of known patterns of inheritance. For the majority of patients polygenic model of inheritance with many interacting genes is the most probable. The etiology of ASD is poorly understood. It is estimated that a specific genetic etiology can be determined in up to 20% of individuals with ASD. Advances in microarray technology and next generation sequencing are revealing copy variant numbers (CNV and single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNP with important roles in synapse formation and function. For families where a specific etiology has been identified, the risk of recurrence in siblings generally depends on the etiologic diagnosis. For autism of unknown cause, the sibling risk varies across studies but is generally considered to range from 5 to 10 %.

  1. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation. PMID:25313065

  2. Personality disorders among Danish alcoholics attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Nielsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was firstly to describe the characteristics of alcoholic outpatients (A) suffering from co-morbid personality disorder (PD) of either the cluster B (A+PDB) or cluster C (A+PDC) type. Secondly, to investigate the effect of various kinds of treatment to be able to single......+PDB were younger and had a longer history of alcohol abuse than A-PD and A+PDC. After treatment there was no significance between the patients with and without PD concerning alcohol outcome and psychosocial outcome. The significance of co-morbid PD for the prognosis of alcohol abusers may be overestimated...

  3. DRINKING MOTIVES AS MEDIATORS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN PERSONALITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS AND ALCOHOL USE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Trull, Timothy J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Park, Aesoon

    2008-01-01

    Research shows high comorbidity between Cluster B Personality Disorders (PDs) and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Studies of personality traits and alcohol use have identified coping and enhancement drinking motives as mediators of the relation among impulsivity, negative affectivity or affectivity instability, and alcohol use. To the extent that certain PDs reflect extreme expression of these traits, drinking motives were hypothesized to mediate the relation between PD symptoms and presence/ab...

  4. Enhancing Work Outcomes of Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Leadership: Leadership for Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success.…

  5. Genetic and Clinical Investigation of Noonan Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ekvall, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Noonan spectrum disorders belong to the RASopathies, a group of clinically related developmental disorders caused by dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway. This thesis describes genetic and clinical investigations of six families with Noonan spectrum disorders. In the first family, the index patient presented with severe Noonan syndrome (NS) and multiple café-au-lait (CAL) spots, while four additional family members displayed multiple CAL spots only. Genetic analysis of four RAS-MAPK genes re...

  6. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Risk for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carmiol, Nasdia; Peralta, Juan M; Almasy, Laura; Contreras, Javier; Pacheco, Adriana; Escamilla, Michael A.; Knowles, Emma E; Raventós, Henriette; Glahn, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a high rate of comorbidity, more than 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder also receive a diagnosis of AUD in their lifetimes. Although both disorders are heritable, it is unclear if the same genetic factors mediate risk for bipolar disorder and AUD. We examined 733 Costa Rican individuals from 61 bipolar pedigrees. Based on a best-estimate process, 32% of the sample met criteria for bipolar disorder, 17% had a lifetime AUD diagnosis, 3...

  7. Tics and Tourette Syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more frequently associated with tic disorders than expected by chance. Variable rates of comorbidity have been reported and common genetic and neurobiological factors are probably involved. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of tic disorders in a clinical sample (n = 105) of children and…

  8. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Caria, Andrea; De Falco, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findi...

  9. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Kay H; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual-parietal-prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual-parietal-prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model of

  10. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay H. Brodersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a

  11. Involvement of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities in Multiple Public Service Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Stahmer, Aubyn; Mandell, David; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) among youths active in at least one of five public service systems - mental health [MH], educational services for youth with serious emotional disturbance [SED], child welfare [CW], juvenile justice [JJ], and alcohol and drug services [AD].This study also reports the characteristics and patterns of system involvement among these youths. Results indicate that approxi...

  12. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick Lonsdale; Shamberger, Raymond J.; Obrenovich, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quic...

  13. Psychopharmacological interventions in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politte, Laura C; Henry, Charles A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to1. Prescribe the appropriate psychotropic medication to treat symptoms of ASD.2. Identify the side effects of the psychotropic medications used to treat ASD.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social communication and language, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that cause significant functional impairment and distress for affected individuals and their caregivers. The increasing prevalence of ASD, most recently estimated as 1 in 88 children, presents an ever-increasing burden on families, schools, medical systems, and society at large. Individuals with ASD commonly present for treatment of associated emotional and behavioral disturbances that include anxiety, symptoms of ADHD, compulsions and other repetitive behaviors, mood lability, irritability, aggression, and sleep disturbance. Psychotropic medications are widely utilized in alleviating these symptoms, though rigorous clinical trials in ASD are lacking for most areas of impairment. Strong evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports the use of atypical antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and aripiprazole, for managing severe irritability and aggression in ASD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used to treat anxiety and compulsions, though reports of efficacy in the literature are mixed, and behavioral side effects in children are common. Minimal evidence supports the utility of anticonvulsants and traditional mood stabilizers in managing mood lability and aggression. Stimulant and nonstimulant ADHD medications can be effective for reducing hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, though to a lesser degree than in ADHD populations without ASD and with greater risk of adverse effects. Psychopharmacological interventions in development for core symptoms of autism include those that target the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and the

  14. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  15. Symptoms of Autism and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Clinically Referred Youth with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) symptoms in a clinically referred, non-ASD sample (N = 1160; ages 6-18) with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mothers and teachers completed "DSM-IV"-referenced symptom checklists. Youth with ODD were subdivided into angry/irritable symptom (AIS) or…

  16. AD/HD and autism spectrum disorders in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hofvander, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are early-onset, but often life-time impairing, neurodevelopmental disorders. They are highly overlapping and seem to carry considerable risks of negative outcomes, psychiatrically and psychosocially. Childhood hyperactivity is a known risk factor for early-onset conduct disorder (CD), but details concerning the associations between neurodevelopmental problems, aggression, and antisocial personal...

  17. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Swati eBanerjee; Manzoor eBhat; Maeveen eRiordan

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth,...

  18. The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to putative spectrum disorders: results from an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Reddy, Y C Janardhan; Srinath, S

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders is unclear. This study investigates the prevalence of putative OC spectrum disorders in OCD subjects in a controlled clinical design. The putative OC spectrum disorders studied included somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders, tic disorders (e.g., Tourette's syndrome [TS]), and impulse control disorders (e.g., trichotillomania). Only those disorders that are commonly noted to be possibly related to OCD are studied. Included in this study were 231 subjects with a diagnosis of OCD according to DSM-IV criteria and 200 controls who were not screened for psychiatric morbidity. The subjects and controls were assessed in detail by extensive clinical and semistructured interviews by expert clinical psychiatrists. The lifetime diagnoses were made by consensus of two psychiatrists. Prevalence of tic disorders, hypochondriasis, BDD, and trichotillomania was significantly greater in OCD subjects compared to controls. However, the prevalence of sexual compulsions, pathological gambling, eating disorders, and depersonalization disorder was not greater in the OCD subjects compared to controls. The findings of this comorbidity study suggest that tic disorders, hypochondriasis, BDD, and trichotillomania are perhaps part of the OC spectrum disorders. There is a need to evaluate evidence from other sources such as epidemiological, neurobiological, and family studies to further our understanding of the concept of OC spectrum disorders. PMID:12923710

  19. Screening for alcohol use disorders in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ward

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many chronic health conditions have been linked to alcohol consumption, as well as excess morbidity, mortality and an increased financial burden on the National Health Service (NHS. The British HIV Association (BHIVA recommends that HIV patients be asked about alcohol due to its effect on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend screening for alcohol use disorders in patients attending genitourinary medicine (GUM clinics. In this study we looked at the use of a screening tool for alcohol use disorders in HIV patients in a metropolitan city. We assessed HIV patients over a 6-month period for alcohol use disorders using the AUDIT-C questionnaire. Patients with a score >4 were identified as higher risk and provided with brief advice about alcohol and offered written information and support. Demographic data was collected along with hepatitis B and C status, information on sexually transmitted infection (STI testing and diagnosis. 352 patients were reviewed with a mean age of 41. 297 (84.4% patients were male, 235 (66.8% were white British and 251 (71.3% were men who have sex with men (MSM. 277 (78.7% patients were on antiretroviral therapy with 254 (91.7% of these having an undetectable viral load. Alcohol use disorders were assessed using the AUDIT-C score in 332 (94.3% patients with no patient declining assessment. 166 (50% patients had an AUDIT-C score >4 signifying higher risk. Alcohol advice was provided to 161 (97% of these patients and a Drink Smart guide offering advice on alcohol self help offered to 103 (64% patients and accepted by 45 (43.7%. An opportunistic STI screen was offered to 258 (73.3% patients on that visit in line with best practice guidelines and was accepted by 83 (32.2%. 25 infections were found in 20 patients, of which 13 (65% had AUDIT-C scores >4. There were 8 active hepatitis C co-infected patients of which 3 had an AUDIT-C score >4 and 12

  20. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain...

  1. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Weiner, Michael W.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  2. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  3. What Are the Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parent-mediated therapy Physical therapy Social skills training Speech-language therapy Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the treatments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Skip sharing on social media ...

  4. Self‐Disorders as schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterised by manifold psychopathological expressions, which might include major symptoms (such as delusions, hallucinations or social withdrawal), psychobehavioural enduring personality patterns (e.g. schizoid/schizotypal traits), or more subtle, quasi...

  5. Special educational needs of students with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Education of children with autism spectrum disorders is possible only if their special educational needs are taken into account. Special educational needs of children form the demand for special educational conditions. On the basis of the existing primary list of special educational needs in the approximate adapted basic general education program for students with autism spectrum disorders and with consideration of contemporary scientific data about particularities of their develo...

  6. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  7. Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Hong, L; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:10414613

  8. Evidence-based management and intervention for autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dillenburger, Karola

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed along a continuum of behavioural variants in social communication and repetitive behaviours [96]. Most individuals on the autism spectrum also experience differences in sensory perception. Some individuals on the spectrum are ‘high-functioning’ and able to cope in every day environments, while others are severely affected, non-verbal, and may have co-occurring diagnoses, such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, and/or obsessional, conduct, or ment...

  9. [Comorbidity of panic disorder and alcoholism in a sample of 100 alcoholic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, J; Salvador, L; Canet, J; Herrera, C; Aragón, C

    1994-01-01

    Among one hundred patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-III-R) studied in a drug abuse center in the "Bajo Llobregat" area (Barcelona industrial belt it was detected that 27% had life time rate of panic disorder. The age of onset of alcoholism was earlier than the one for panic disorder. In 78.8% of these patients alcoholismo appeared first. 70.4% refer worsening of the panic attacks when drinking large amounts of alcohol. Patients with Panic Disorder: a) are younger (p < 0.05); b) have attended school longer and have higher education (p < 0.01); c) have more alcoholism family history (p < 0.05); d) have more major depressive disorders (0.05) and dysthimic disorder (p < 0.01); e) Worse social functioning according to the GAS (p < 0.01); f) higher score for the Psychological disorders Scale (p < 0.001) and a lower performance at work (p < 0.001) measured by the ASI. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7484297

  10. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:22220491

  11. Intestinal inflammation in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, Caroline G.M.; Koelink, Pim J.; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a cluster of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, social interest and stereotypical behaviour. Dysfunction of the intestinal tract is reported in patients with ASD and implicated in the development and severity of ASD symptoms.

  12. Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Couple's Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jennifer B.; Clopton, James R.; Hendrick, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    Balancing the roles of parent and partner is challenging for most people and may be especially challenging when extra time and effort are required in the parenting role. The current research compared 25 couples whose children have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with 20 couples whose children do not have developmental disorders. Comparisons were…

  13. Amniotic Fluid MMP-9 and Neurotrophins in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  14. Theory of Mind Abilities and Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder that significantly impairs children's social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behaviors. Questions about theory of mind (ToM) deficits in ASD have generated a large number of empirical studies. This article reviews current studies of the relationship between ToM and…

  15. How Is Crying Perceived in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disorder that affects language and social skills to varying degrees. While many studies have concentrated on examining patterns of behavior and development on the context of speaking and interacting, very few researchers have investigated the parameters of crying in infants with ASD. This finding is surprising…

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been to...

  17. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244

  18. Age of alcohol drinking onset: Precursors and the mediation of alcohol disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, D.; Prause, J.; Ham-Rowbottom, K A; Emptage, N.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored early alcohol drinking onset (ADO), its precursors, and the mechanisms by which it leads to later alcohol disorder. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey Of Youth with ADO items from 1982 and 1983, and alcohol symptoms from 1989 and 1994. Drinking began earlier for respondents who were male, younger, non-Hispanic, non-African-American, and later born, and for those not living with both parents at age 14, ever charged with an illegal act, and with a family history...

  19. The contribution of parental alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric illness to the risk of alcohol use disorders in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Manzardo, Ann M; Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Madarasz, Wendy; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Becker, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    Few population-based studies have investigated associations between parental history of alcoholism and the risk of alcoholism in offspring. The aim was to investigate in a large cohort the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the offspring of parents with or without AUD and with or without...... hospitalization for other psychiatric disorder (OPD)....

  20. Adenosine Signaling in Striatal Circuits and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, ...

  1. The prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders: a population based study in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Zavos, HM; Siribaddana, S.; Ball, HA; Lynskey, MT; Sumathipala, A.; Rijsdijk, FV; Hotopf, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is increasing in non-Western countries. However, the effects of this increase on the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains unknown, particularly in South Asia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and AUD in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Environmental risk factors and psychiatric correlates were also examined. METHODS: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess alcohol use and psychiatric disorders in a popu...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language of a child and using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for their evaluation. In addition, the diagnosis may be made after evaluating the child using ...

  3. An investigator-blinded, randomized study to compare the efficacy of combined CBT for alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder versus CBT focused on alcohol alone in adults with comorbid disorders: the Combined Alcohol Social Phobia (CASP) trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Baillie, Andrew J; Sannibale, Claudia; Stapinski, Lexine A; Teesson, Maree; Rapee, Ronald M; Haber, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder are common and disabling conditions that frequently co-exist. Although there are efficacious treatments for each disorder, only two randomized controlled trials of interventions for these combined problems have been published. We developed a new integrated treatment for comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder based on established Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interventions for...

  4. Vibrational spectrum of topologically disordered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Grigera, T. S.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Verrocchio, P.

    2001-01-01

    The topological nature of the disorder of glasses and supercooled liquids strongly affects their high-frequency dynamics. In order to understand its main features, we analytically studied a simple topologically disordered model, where the particles oscillate around randomly distributed centers, interacting through a generic pair potential. We present results of a resummation of the perturbative expansion in the inverse particle density for the dynamic structure factor and density of states. T...

  5. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ricardo A; Cordas Taki A; Angst Jules; Campos Rodolfo N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating...

  6. Mitochondrial Disease in Autism Spectrum Disorder Patients: A Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Jacqueline R.; Kelley, Richard I.; Bauman, Margaret L.; Cohen, Bruce H.; Murray, Katherine F.; Mitchell, Rebecca L.; Kern, Rebecca L.; Natowicz, Marvin R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous reports indicate an association between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disorders of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. One study suggested that children with both diagnoses are clinically indistinguishable from children with idiopathic autism. There are, however, no detailed analyses of the clinical and laboratory findings in a large cohort of these children. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive review of patients with ASD and a mitochondrial disorder. Method...

  7. Bipolar disorder and comorbid alcoholism: prevalence rate and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Salloum, Ihsan M

    2006-12-01

    Classic Kraepelian observations and contemporary epidemiological studies have noted a high prevalence rate between bipolar disorder and alcoholism. The extent to which these two illnesses are comorbid (i.e., two distinct disease processes each with an independent course of illness), genetically linked, or different phenotypic expressions of bipolar illness itself continues to be investigated. It is increasingly clear that co-occurring alcohol abuse or dependence in bipolar disorder phenomenologically changes the illness presentation with higher rates of mixed or dysphoric mania, rapid cycling, increased symptom severity, and higher levels of novelty seeking, suicidality, aggressivity, and impulsivity. It is very encouraging that interest and efforts at evaluating pharmacotherapeutic compounds has substantially increased over the past few years in this difficult-to-treat patient population. This article will review the clinical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of conventional mood stabilizers (lithium, carbamazepine, divalproex, and atypical antipsychotics) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and relapse prevention in patients with alcoholism and in the treatment of bipolar disorder with comorbid alcoholism. A number of add-on, adjunctive medications, such as naltrexone, acamprosate, topiramate, and the atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and clozapine, may be candidates for further testing. PMID:17156154

  8. Fetal alcohol syndrome disorders: experience on the field. The Lazio study preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Spagnolo, Primavera Alessandra; Prastaro, Adele; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, little is known about the problems related to alcohol drinking during pregnancy. In this paper, the Italian literature about this subject is briefly reviewed. This first Italian experience of a field study, aimed to the assessment of the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in an area in the Rome province (Lazio region) is reported. This in-field study was performed in the school years 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 in cooperation with American researchers, most from University of New Mexico (Albuquerque), and Italian researchers from University "la Sapienza" of Rome. First grade children (n(o) = 1,086) of primary school were contacted to enter in the in-school study for the detection of FAS and FASD and were examined by the experts team of clinicians, pediatrics, psychologists. Preliminary consideration and the implications of this study for FASD prevention are discussed. PMID:16801726

  9. The MR spectrum of peroxisomal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade an increasing number of peroxisomal disorders has been recognized. Almost all peroxisomal disorders affect the central nervous system. Many of them lead to demyelination, some of them lead to migrational disturbances. The MR pattern of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is well known, but the pattern of the other peroxisomal disorders is less well known. We evaluated the gray and white matter abnormalities of 20 patients on 32 occasions. We compared the results with histological data and in this way came to the description of a number of characteristic MR patterns occurring in peroxisomal disorders: (1) Neuronal migrational disturbances in combination with hypomyelination, dysmyelination or demyelination. (2) Symmetrical demyelination of posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebellar white matter and brain stem tracts with a variable affection of cerebral hemispheres. (3) Symmetrical demyelination, exhibiting two zones, starting in the occipital area and spreading outwards and forwards; affection of brain stem tracts. (4) Less characteristic patterns of demyelination. The patterns are illustrated and differentiation from other disorders is discussed. (orig.)

  10. The MR spectrum of peroxisomal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaap, M.S. van der (Wilhelmina Kinderziekenhuis, Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Child Neurology); Valk, J. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neuroradiology)

    1991-02-01

    In the last decade an increasing number of peroxisomal disorders has been recognized. Almost all peroxisomal disorders affect the central nervous system. Many of them lead to demyelination, some of them lead to migrational disturbances. The MR pattern of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is well known, but the pattern of the other peroxisomal disorders is less well known. We evaluated the gray and white matter abnormalities of 20 patients on 32 occasions. We compared the results with histological data and in this way came to the description of a number of characteristic MR patterns occurring in peroxisomal disorders: (1) Neuronal migrational disturbances in combination with hypomyelination, dysmyelination or demyelination. (2) Symmetrical demyelination of posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebellar white matter and brain stem tracts with a variable affection of cerebral hemispheres. (3) Symmetrical demyelination, exhibiting two zones, starting in the occipital area and spreading outwards and forwards; affection of brain stem tracts. (4) Less characteristic patterns of demyelination. The patterns are illustrated and differentiation from other disorders is discussed. (orig.).

  11. RELN mutations in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lammert, Dawn B.; Howell, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    RELN encodes a large, secreted glycoprotein integral to proper neuronal positioning during development and regulation of synaptic function postnatally. Rare, homozygous, null mutations lead to lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, accompanied by developmental delay and epilepsy. Until recently, little was known about the frequency or consequences of heterozygous mutations. Several lines of evidence from multiple studies now implicate heterozygous mutations in RELN in autism spectrum dis...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Scale Scores in Pediatric Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.

  13. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  14. Oppositional Defiant Disorder as a Clinical Phenotype in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a clinical phenotype distinct from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale and a background questionnaire for 608 children (ages 3-12 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ASD sample was separated…

  15. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  16. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; S. Perrin

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Present Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chatterjee, N

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and ea...

  18. Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When we compare the categories about alcohol, and substance-related disorders in DSM-IV and DSM-5, the new category, named addictive disorders is the most striking change. Only gambling disorder have been identified currently in this category. This may be the most remarkable change among the changes in the DSM-5. Because the expansion of the existing diagnostic criteria may cause the assessment of and lsquo;normal behavior' as a disorder. Additionally, withdrawal of caffeine and cannabis are defined in the DSM-5. Disorders collected under the title of substance-related disorders in the DSM-IV were collected under the name of substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5. Specific criterias for substance abuse and substance addiction have been combined into the name of "substance use disorders". In substance abuse, "experienced legal problems" criteria was removed and "a strong desire or urge or craving for substance use" criteria has been introduced. Henceforth, substance abuse is defined as a mild form of substance use disorders in the DSM-5. A change in the prevalence of substance use disorders should be investigated by the new researches.

  19. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system.

  20. Impaired representational gaze following in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Sara; Fadda, Roberta; Doneddu, Giuseppe; Striano, Tricia

    2016-10-01

    Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared spontaneous gaze following in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (mean age 5.8 years) to that of typically developing children (mean age 5.7 years). Participants saw videos in which the position of a hidden object was either perceptually visible or was only represented in another person's mind. The findings indicate that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were significantly less accurate in gaze following and observed the attended object for less time than typically developing children only in the Representational Condition. These results show that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are responsive to gaze as a perceptual cue although they ignore its representational meaning. PMID:27348855

  1. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph; Schulsinger, Fini; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  2. Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wackernah RC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robin C Wackernah,1 Matthew J Minnick,1 Peter Clapp2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUD continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. Keywords: abuse, alcohol, alcoholism, craving, dependence, relapse

  3. The spectrum of alcohol induced liver disease. Histological features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, P; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol may induce a variety of changes in the liver. None of the features are diagnostic, but some are relatively specific. Usually the simultaneous occurrence of one or more non-specific lesions in combination with other more specific changes leads to the correct diagnosis of alcoholic liver...... disease....

  4. The spectrum of alcohol induced liver disease. Histological features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, P; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol may induce a variety of changes in the liver. None of the features are diagnostic, but some are relatively specific. Usually the simultaneous occurrence of one or more non-specific lesions in combination with other more specific changes leads to the correct diagnosis of alcoholic liver di...

  5. Premorbid multivariate prediction of adult psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole D.;

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children...... whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured when participants were 10-13years of age, were combined to predict psychosis-spectrum disorders in...

  6. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  7. Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Merete Juul Sørensen,1 Therese Koops Grønborg,2 Jakob Christensen,3,4 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Mogens Vestergaard,5,6 Diana Schendel,7 Lars Henning Pedersen8,9 1Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 5Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, 6Research unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8Danish Epidemiological Science Centre, Institute of Public Health, 9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Both the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have increased during recent years. A causal link has recently been suggested, but the association may be confounded by the underlying indication for antidepressant use. We investigated the association between maternal use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy and autism, controlling for potential confounding factors. Methods: We identified all children born alive in Denmark 1996–2006 (n=668,468 and their parents in the Danish Civil Registration System. We obtained information on the mother's prescriptions filled during pregnancy from the Danish National Prescription Registry, and on diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in the children and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders in the parents from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. In a cohort analysis, we estimated hazard ratios of autism spectrum disorders in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy compared with children who were not exposed, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Furthermore, we estimated the risk

  8. Autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents with Moebius sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schimek, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Hofmann, Christina; Schwab, K. Otfried

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Moebius sequence is a rare congenital disorder usually defined as a combination of facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction. A strong association of Moebius sequence with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been suggested in earlier studies with heterogenous age groups. The primary caregivers of all children and adolescents with Moebius sequence aged 6?17 years known to the German Moebius foundation were anonymously asked to complete two screening measures of A...

  9. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Latini; Anna Maria Papini; Paolo Rovero; Mario Chelli; Claudio De Felice; Joussef Hayek; Francesca Nuti; Chiara Testa

    2012-01-01

    ASDs (autism spectrum disorders) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors) suspected to interfer...

  10. COMMON NEUROLOGICAL CO-MORBIDITIES IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Maski, KP; Jeste, SS; Spence, SJ

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders associated with various co-morbidities. Neurological co-morbidities include motor impairments, epilepsy, and sleep dysfunction. These impairments have been receiving more attention recently, perhaps because of their significant impact on the behavior and cognitive function of children with ASDs. Here, we review the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical approach to these neurological co-morbiditie...

  11. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a Nigerian family: 4 case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Omoaregba, Joyce O.; James, Bawo O; Eze, George O

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The risk of developing schizophrenia is higher among persons with an affected sibling compared to the general population. Beliefs about aetiology influence presentation, management and treatment outcomes. There are no reports on multiple occurrences of this disorder in a family in this part of the world. In this case series we also highlight how cultural beliefs hamper and shape management. Case presentation We report a case series of schizophrenia spectrum disorders affecting fo...

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2012-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can predict symptom severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We divided 118 ASD children into a mild/moderate autism group (n = 65) and a severe a...

  13. Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Christopher S.; Peltier, Scott J.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Weng, Shih-Jen; Carrasco, Melisa; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact social functioning and communication, and individuals with these disorders often have restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Accumulating data indicate that ASD is associated with alterations of neural circuitry. Functional MRI (FMRI) studies have focused on connectivity in the context of psychological tasks. However, even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic or resting connectivity. Not...

  14. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search wor...

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders Conference for educators, parents, and psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    A conference designed to assist those who are supporting students from preschool through high school with autism spectrum disorders including Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified PDD-NOS or atypical autism, will be held March 30 and 31, at the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon, Va. Registration for the conference is $65 for both days and covers breaks, lunch, and materials.

  16. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Pearl L. H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolesce...

  17. Mood Stabilizers in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is defined by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, whereas ASD is defined by social dysfunction, communicative impairment, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. They should be distinctly evaluated in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in contrast to individuals without intellectual disability, because significant differences between these conditions exist. Mood disorders are also common in ASD and should be systematically investigated in this population of children and adolescents. Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with ASD receive medication for comorbid behavioral/ADHD and mood symptoms, mostly stimulants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment including medications for ADHD-like symptoms have recently been provided and should be carefully considered. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in ASDs with epilepsy, because seizures are associated with ASD in 10% to 30% of young patients, and as mood stabilizers. Lithium is another option for children and adolescents with ASD who present with symptoms of a mood disorder, such as elevated moods/euphoria, mania, and paranoia, whether accompanied or not by irritability. Experimental treatments are under

  18. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive development...

  19. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive...

  20. The Construct Validity of Anxiety Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Renno, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at a heightened risk for developing anxiety disorders. Between 11% and 84% of individuals with ASD are also diagnosed with a co-occurring anxiety disorder (Muris, 1998; de Bruin et al., 2007; Green et al., 2000; Simonoff et al., 2008; Sukhodolsky et al., 2007). Despite the high frequency of co-occurrence, little research has investigated the validity of the DSM-IV Anxiety Disorder classification system in the ASD ...

  1. Physical activity and risk of alcohol use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen Ejsing, Louise; Becker, Ulrik; Tolstrup, Janne;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohortstudy with focus on leisure-time physical activity. Methods: Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City HeartStudy (CCHS), performed in 1976–1978, 1981......–1983, 1991–1994 and 2001–2003. Information on physical activity (classified asModerate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol usedisorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central...... Research Register and the Winalcodatabase. In total, 18,359 people participated in the study, a mean follow-up time of 20.9 years. Cox proportional hazards model withdelayed entry was used. Models were adjusted for available covariates (age, smoking habits, alcohol intake, education, income...

  2. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders.

  3. Biomarker-Based Approaches for Assessing Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Onni

    2016-02-01

    Although alcohol use disorders rank among the leading public health problems worldwide, hazardous drinking practices and associated morbidity continue to remain underdiagnosed. It is postulated here that a more systematic use of biomarkers improves the detection of the specific role of alcohol abuse behind poor health. Interventions should be initiated by obtaining information on the actual amounts of recent alcohol consumption through questionnaires and measurements of ethanol and its specific metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a valuable tool for assessing chronic heavy drinking. Activities of common liver enzymes can be used for screening ethanol-induced liver dysfunction and to provide information on the risk of co-morbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and vascular diseases. Conventional biomarkers supplemented with indices of immune activation and fibrogenesis can help to assess the severity and prognosis of ethanol-induced tissue damage. Many ethanol-sensitive biomarkers respond to the status of oxidative stress, and their levels are modulated by factors of life style, including weight gain, physical exercise or coffee consumption in an age- and gender-dependent manner. Therefore, further attention should be paid to defining safe limits of ethanol intake in various demographic categories and establishing common reference intervals for biomarkers of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26828506

  4. Alcohol use disorders and psychiatric diseases in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Prada, Sergio I

    2016-01-01

    Background: An accurate understanding of co-occurrence and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Colombia is crucial for public health. Objective: A secondary analysis was conducted, using a 2003/2004 government´s population database to determine the lifetime associations between AUD and other mental and addictive disorders in people of Colombia aged 18-65 years. Methods: Several statistical analysis were performed: testing prevalence difference in mental disorders by whether the individual had an AUD; a stratified analysis by gender and logistic regression analyses accounting for differences in demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and self-reported health status variables. Results: People with AUD comprised 9% of the population, of which 88% were males and on average 37 years old. They were more likely to be males, be working, and be current smokers; and less likely to be at home or retired. The population with AUD had greater chance to comply with criteria for all disorders but minor depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence, and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population with AUD in Colombia. The findings highlight the importance of comorbidity as a sign of disease severity and impact on public health and supports the need for training of more professionals and developing appropriate interventions and services. PMID:27226662

  5. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. Rett syndrome will be excluded from autism spectrum disorder due to its genetic basis. In addition, severity of symptoms will be measured among individuals with autism spectrum disorder based on the support level required due to the impairment in their lives. The basic rationale behind this revision is that it is better to conceptualize autism as a spectrum including various individuals whose symptoms in different developmental areas range from mild to severe. It is aimed to increase the specificity of autism diagnosis by using one single diagnostic category with its specified severity rather than differentiating several subtypes. The major concern raised over the DSM-5 proposal has been the possibility that some of the individuals who were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR might not get a diagnosis in this new system. After the DSM-5 is released, clinical, legal, and educational rearrengements regarding the use of new autism spectrum disorder diagnostic criteria are expected to accelerate worldwide and in Turkey. This paper aims to review briefly the upcoming autism spectrum disorder diagnosis planned to appear in the DSM-5, the rationale of the proposed revision, main critics to the DSM-5 draft that has been publicized, and some of the regulations expected to occur in practice after the changes.

  6. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple…

  7. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  8. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  9. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  10. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  11. A Survey of Personnel Preparation Practices in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Polloway, Edward A.; Sumutka, Bianca M.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers indicate that special education is grappling with many issues and challenges that point to the need to examine the nature and type of personnel preparation for educators working with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to survey teacher educators at colleges and universities to (a) determine…

  12. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  13. Brief Report: Episodic Foresight in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Laura K.; Atance, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic foresight (EpF) or, the ability to imagine the future and use such imagination to guide our actions, is an important aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is despite its proposed links with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), two areas found to be impaired in…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  15. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  16. Is Emotion Recognition Impaired in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Schriber, Roberta A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) use an effortful "systematizing" process to recognize emotion expressions, whereas typically developing (TD) individuals use a more holistic process. If this is the case, individuals with ASDs should show slower and less efficient emotion recognition, particularly for…

  17. Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…

  18. Why Is Visual Search Superior in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M.; Keehn, Brandon; Connolly, Christine; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that enhanced memory for rejected distractor locations underlies the superior visual search skills exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We compared the performance of 21 children with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children in a standard static search task…

  19. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  20. DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Fictional Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jane E.; Cardon, Teresa A.; Algeo-Nichols, Dana

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, schools have seen an increasing number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the current estimated average of children in the United States who are diagnosed with an ASD is one out of 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). One way for educators and elementary students to learn about ASD is through…

  1. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…

  2. Detecting autism spectrum disorders in the general practitioner's practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongerloo, M.A. van; Bor, H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    It takes considerable time before Autism Spectrum Disorders are diagnosed. Validated diagnostic instruments are available, but not applicable to primary healthcare. By means of a case-control study we investigated whether there were differences in presented complaints and referral patterns between c

  3. Multisensory Speech Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Kwakye, Leslie D.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Stone, Wendy L.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined unisensory and multisensory speech perception in 8-17 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing controls matched on chronological age, sex, and IQ. Consonant-vowel syllables were presented in visual only, auditory only, matched audiovisual, and mismatched audiovisual ("McGurk")…

  4. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Adopted after Early Care Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Kay, Catherine; Sharma, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic autism has been described in children adopted after orphanage rearing. We investigated whether the same existed in children adopted after family breakdown. Families of 54/60 adopted children aged 6-11 years (mean 102 months; SD 20; 45% male) returned screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 21/54 (39%) screened…

  6. Implementation Science, Professional Development, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Samuel L.; Cox, Ann W.; Brock, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has intensified the need for high-quality special education services designed for children and youth with ASD and their families. Implementation science provides guidance for moving innovation, such as utilizing evidence- based practices for students with ASD, into regular practice in…

  7. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  8. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  9. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Congedo, M.; Schie, H.T. van

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation ove

  10. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  11. Teaching Physical Education to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Smith, Shannon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) estimates that one in every 110 children is affected by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prevalence of ASDs makes it very likely that every physical education teacher is teaching at least one student with an ASD. This article will provide physical educators with a brief overview of…

  12. Patterns of Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms…

  14. Emotion Recognition in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Haapsamo, Helena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Hurtig, Tuula; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Bolte, Sven; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    We examined upper facial basic emotion recognition in 57 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (M = 13.5 years) and 33 typically developing controls (M = 14.3 years) by using a standardized computer-aided measure (The Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition, FEFA). The ASD group scored lower than controls on the total…

  15. Driving Behaviors in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…

  16. Neonatal levels of cytokines and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik L; Atladóttir, Hjördis Ó; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Lumin...

  17. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  18. Developing Mirror Self Awareness in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Christine K.; Flattery, J. J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    A teaching methodology and curriculum was designed to develop and increase positive self-awareness in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Joint attention (JA) strategies were first utilized to directly teach students about reflected mirror images, and then subsequently, to indirectly teach students about their reflected image.…

  19. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  20. Neonatal chemokine levels and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Hougaard, David M; Mortensen, Erik L

    2013-01-01

    A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD and...

  1. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  2. The Cognitive Interview for Eyewitnesses with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Katie L.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) is one of the most widely accepted forms of interviewing techniques for eliciting the most detailed, yet accurate reports from witnesses. No research, however, has examined its effectiveness with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-six adults with ASD and 26 matched typical adults viewed a video of an…

  3. Narrative Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Hartzheim, Daphne; Studenka, Breanna; Simonsmeier, Vicki; Gillam, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether a narrative intervention program that targeted the use of mental state and causal language resulted in positive gains in narrative production for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Five children (2 girls and 3 boys) who had been diagnosed with ASD participated in the study.…

  4. Foundational Supports and Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennie L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the professional literature related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has focused on successful interventions and strategies there is a paucity of research documenting which of these methods and supports are most foundational and essential for classroom use. Specifically, literature does not define the interventions and strategies which…

  5. Supporting Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ling-Ling; Davenport, Randy; Schmiege, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have shown the importance of early intervention services for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families. However, most attention has been given to the effectiveness of treatments solely for children with ASDs. Because the family centered practice has been emphasized and supported by many researchers and…

  6. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  7. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  8. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  9. Attentional Shifts between Audition and Vision in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence on neurotypical adults shows that the presentation of a stimulus allocates the attention to its modality, resulting in faster responses to a subsequent target presented in the same (vs. different) modality. People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often fail to detect a (visual or auditory) target in a stream of stimuli after…

  10. Accessing and Selecting Word Meaning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…

  11. Symbolic Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gillian C.; Konstantareas, M. Mary

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability, receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language…

  12. Perception of Mirror Symmetry in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christine M.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt grouping in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is selectively impaired for certain organization principles but for not others. Symmetry is a fundamental Gestalt principle characterizing many biological shapes. Sensitivity to symmetry was tested using the Picture Symmetry Test, which requires finding symmetry lines on pictures. Individuals…

  13. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  14. Who Benefits from Early Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzchak, Esther Ben; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) described individual differences in response to intervention. This study explored child and parental characteristics at baseline that predict outcomes in adaptive skills and acquisition of cognitive gains. Seventy-eight children aged 15-35 months diagnosed with ASD by standardized diagnostic tools were…

  15. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  16. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  17. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  19. Polypharmacy Profiles and Predictors among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…

  20. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  1. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  2. The association between alcohol use, alcohol use disorders and tuberculosis (TB. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, tuberculosis (TB was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8% and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%. The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. Methods A systematic review of existing scientific data on the association between alcohol consumption and TB, and on studies relevant for clarification of causality was undertaken. Results There is a strong association between heavy alcohol use/alcohol use disorders (AUD and TB. A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59. Numerous studies show pathogenic impact of alcohol on the immune system causing susceptibility to TB among heavy drinkers. In addition, there are potential social pathways linking AUD and TB. Heavy alcohol use strongly influences both the incidence and the outcome of the disease and was found to be linked to altered pharmacokinetics of medicines used in treatment of TB, social marginalization and drift, higher rate of re-infection, higher rate of treatment defaults and development of drug-resistant forms of TB. Based on the available data, about 10% of the TB cases globally were estimated to be attributable to alcohol. Conclusion The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. Consequences for prevention and clinical interventions are discussed.

  3. Spectrum of disorders leading to hyperprolactinaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of disorders leading to hyperprolactinaemia (HP) in patients who reported to AFIP Rawalpindi. Study Design: Cross- sectional study. Place and duration of study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi, from January to June 2011. Patients and Methods: Patients with serum prolactin levels > 530 ml U/l in females and 360 ml U/l in males were included. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia(Hp) due to physiological causes (pregnancy and lactation etc), drug induced, irradiation and hypothyroid patients on thyroxin treatment were excluded. Seventy six samples were collected from the patients for the workup of pathological conditions. Serum prolactin, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, GH, cortisol, TSH and free T4 were analysed on Immulite 2000, while LFTs and RFTs on Hitachi. Pituitary adenomas were confirmed by MRI. Results: Seventy six patients had HP due to pathological causes, 13(17%) males and 63(83%) females had mean age of 30+-11 years. Pituitary microadenoma was the cause of hyperprolactinemia in 30 (39.5%) cases, pituitary macroadenoma in 12 (15.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism in 14 (18.4%), primary hypothyroidism in 10 (13.2%), PCOS in 4 (5.3%), cirrhosis in 2 (2.6%), idiopathic in 2 (2.6%), CKD in 1 (1.3%) and acromegaly in 1 (1.3%) patient. HP was significantly correlated with size of prolactinoma and serum TSH levels (primary and subclinical hypothyroidism) (p value < 0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that prolactinoma is the commonest pathology causing hyperprolactinemia, followed by hypothyroidism and PCOS in patients who reported to AFIP Rawalpindi. This will help in early diagnosis along with further management of the patient. (author)

  4. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Ricardo A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar Disorder (BD is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED. The Bipolar Spectrum (BS remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis.

  5. Paroxetine reduces social anxiety in individuals with a co-occurring alcohol use disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Patrick K.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder who are seen in clinical practice commonly have additional psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol use disorders. The first line treatment for social anxiety disorder is selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. However, the efficacy of SSRIs has been determined with studies that excluded alcoholics. Forty two subjects with social anxiety and a co-occurring alcohol use disorder participated in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo...

  6. Similarities and differences among Internet gaming disorder, gambling disorder and alcohol use disorder: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Hyun Soo; KIM, GA-YOUNG; JEON, YEONGJU; PARK, SU MI; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; SOHN, BO KYOUNG; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The aim of the present study was to test the impulsivities and compulsivities of behavioral addictions, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and gambling disorder (GD), by directly comparing them with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and a healthy control (HC) group. Methods: We enrolled male patients who were diagnosed with IGD, GD or AUD, with 15 patients per group, as well as 15 HCs. Trait impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11)...

  7. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was...

  8. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Brousse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.

  9. Autism spectrum disorders – epidemiology, symptoms, comorbidity and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rybakowski,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the new classification of American Psychiatric Association – DSM-5 – a category of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD was introduced, which replaced autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD are defined by two basic psychopathological dimensions: communication disturbances and stereotyped behaviors, and the diagnosis is complemented with the assessment of language development and intellectual level. In successive epidemiological studies conducted in 21 century the prevalence of ASD has been rising, and currently is estimated at 1% in general population. The lifetime psychiatric comorbidity is observed in majority of patients. The most common coexisting diagnoses comprise disorders of anxiety-affective spectrum, and in about 1/3 of patients attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorders could be diagnosed. Prodromal symptoms of ASD may emerge before 12 months of life, however reliability of diagnosis at such an early age is poor. Several screening instruments, based on the parental and/or healthcare professional assessments may be helpful in ASD detection. However, structured interviews and observation schedules remain the gold standard of diagnosis.

  10. Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…

  11. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  12. Examining Shared and Unique Aspects of Social Anxiety Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Bray, Bethany C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct…

  13. Learning Curve Analyses in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Are Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Truly Visual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Visual and auditory verbal learning using a selective reminding format was studied in a mixed clinical sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 42), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 83), velocardiofacial syndrome (n = 17) and neurotypicals (n = 38) using the Test of Memory and Learning to (1) more thoroughly…

  14. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  15. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders. PMID:26996178

  16. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings. PMID:23901152

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Drug Addiction: Common Pathways, Common Molecules, Distinct Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and drug addiction do not share substantial comorbidity or obvious similarities in etiology or symptomatology. It is thus surprising that a number of recent studies implicate overlapping neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways in both disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight this emerging intersection and consider implications for understanding the pathophysiology of these seemingly distinct disorders. One area of overlap involves neural ...

  18. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steensel, van, A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged

  19. Female alcoholics: electrocardiographic changes and associated metabolic and electrolytic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borini Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the electrocardiographic changes and their associations with metabolic and electrolytic changes in female alcoholics. METHODS: The study comprised 44 female alcoholics with no apparent physical disorder. They underwent the following examinations: conventional electrocardiography; serologic tests for syphilis, Chagas' disease, and hepatitis B and C viruses; urinary pregnancy testing; hematimetric analysis; biochemical measurements of albumin, fibrinogen, fasting and postprandial glycemias, lipids, hepatic enzymes, and markers for tissue necrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Some type of electrocardiographic change was identified in 33 (75% patients. In 17 (38.6% patients, more than one of the following changes were present: prolonged QTc interval in 24 (54.5%, change in ventricular repolarization in 11(25%, left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 (13.6%, sinus bradycardia in 4 (9.1%, sinus tachycardia in 3 (6.8%, and conduction disorder in 3 (6.8%. The patients had elevated mean serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferases, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as hypocalcemia and low levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The patients with altered electrocardiograms had a more elevated age, a lower alcohol consumption, hypopotassemia, and significantly elevated levels of triglycerides, postprandial glucose, sodium and gamma glutamyl transferase than those with normal electrocardiograms. The opposite occurred with fasting glycemia, magnesium, and alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSION: The electrocardiographic changes found were prolonged QTc interval, change in ventricular repolarization, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with normal and abnormal electrocardiograms had different metabolic and electrolytic changes.

  20. An evolutionary perspective on the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Adam; Miloyan, Beyon; Brilot, Ben; Gullo, Matthew J; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) commonly co-occurs with, and often precedes, Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In this paper, we address the relationship between SAD and AUD by considering how natural selection left socially anxious individuals vulnerable to alcohol use, and by addressing the underlying mechanisms. We review research suggesting that social anxiety has evolved for the regulation of behaviors involved in reducing the likelihood or consequences of threats to social status. The management of potential threats to social standing is important considering that these threats can result in reduced cooperation or ostracism - and therefore to reduced access to coalitional partners, resources or mates. Alcohol exerts effects upon evolutionarily conserved emotion circuits, and can down-regulate or block anxiety (or may be expected to do so). As such, the ingestion of alcohol can artificially signal the absence or successful management of social threats. In turn, alcohol use may be reinforced in socially anxious people because of this reduction in subjective malaise, and because it facilitates social behaviors - particularly in individuals for whom the persistent avoidance of social situations poses its own threat (i.e., difficulty finding mates). Although the frequent co-occurrence of SAD and AUD is associated with poorer treatment outcomes than either condition alone, a richer understanding of the biological and psychosocial drives underlying susceptibility to alcohol use among socially anxious individuals may improve the efficacy of therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing or treating this comorbidity. PMID:26914963

  1. Personality Disorder Symptoms, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol Use and Consequences: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Trull, Timothy J.; Park, Aesoon

    2007-01-01

    Research shows high comorbidity between Cluster B personality disorders (PDs) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Studies on personality traits and alcohol use have identified coping and enhancement drinking motives as mediators in the relations among impulsivity, affective instability, and alcohol use. To the extent that PDs reflect extreme expression of these traits, drinking motives should mediate the relation between PD symptoms and alcohol involvement. This was tested using path models est...

  2. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  3. Neuroanatomical variation in autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumah, Fareed; Ghannam, Malik; Jaber, Mohammad; Adeeb, Nimer; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in socialization, communication, and behavior. Many investigators have described the anatomical abnormalities in autistic brains, in an attempt to correlate them with the manifestations of ASD. Herein, we reviewed all the available literature about the neuroanatomical findings in ASD available via "PubMed" and "Google Scholar." References found in review articles were also searched manually. There was substantial discrepancy throughout the literature regarding the reported presence and significance of neuroanatomical findings in ASD, and this is thoroughly discussed in the present review. Clin. Anat. 29:454-465, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004599

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Translating human deficits into mouse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciuto, E; Borrie, S C; Kanellopoulos, A K; Santos, A R; Cappuyns, E; D'Andrea, L; Pacini, L; Bagni, C

    2015-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, with rising incidence but little effective therapeutic intervention available. Currently two main clinical features are described to diagnose ASDs: impaired social interaction and communication, and repetitive behaviors. Much work has focused on understanding underlying causes of ASD by generating animal models of the disease, in the hope of discovering signaling pathways and cellular targets for drug intervention. Here we review how ASD behavioral phenotypes can be modeled in the mouse, the most common animal model currently in use in this field, and discuss examples of genetic mouse models of ASD with behavioral features that recapitulate various symptoms of ASD. PMID:26220900

  5. Commonly studied comorbid psychopathologies among persons with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E

    2014-05-01

    The study of comorbid psychopathology among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is picking up steam. The purpose of this paper was to review and describe important characteristics of existing studies. Among the current crop of papers, depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been frequently evaluated. Groups studied have most frequently been children. Persons with ASD and normal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have been studied more often than individuals with ASD and intellectual disability. Additional characteristics are discussed, and the implications of these data for future developments in the field are reviewed. PMID:24629541

  6. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients With and Without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Sizoo; W. van den Brink; M. Gorissen-van Eenige; M.W. Koeter; P.J.M. van Wijngaarden-Cremers; R.J. van der Gaag

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD o

  7. Using the Autism-spectrum quotient to discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in adult patients with and without comorbid Substance Use Disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Brink, W. van den; Gorissen-van Eenige, M.E.E.; Koeter, M.W.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD o

  8. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati eBanerjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.

  9. Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Maeng Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Suh, Tongwoo; Suh, Guk-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Chung Kyoon

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of alcohol disorder comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, using Korean nationwide epidemiological data. By two-stage cluster sampling, 5,176 adult household residents of Korea were interviewed using the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pat...

  10. Sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances in autism spectrum disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowski, Mark; Wasilewska, Jolanta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers. Sleep-related problems have been shown to affect overall autism scores, social skills decits, stereotypic behavior, and cognitive performance. Additionally, problematic sleep in children with ASD has been associated with higher levels of parental stress. Underlying causes specically related to sleep disorders are not fully known. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with sleep problems in these patients. Children with ASD and GI symptoms have been found to have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with typically developing peers who do not have GI symptoms. Treatment approaches to children with sleep disorders are varied and range from lifestyle modications and behavioral interventions to drug therapies and surgical interventions. Physicians should take into account GI disorders as possible underlying causes of sleep-related problems in children with ASD. Therapeutic interventions should begin with less invasive methods before progressing to more invasive options such as pharmacotherapy and should be based on medical indications in order to provide effective care while minimizing potential adverse health effects. Evidence-based studies concerning GI and sleep disorders in children with ASD are limited and further studies are warranted. PMID:26384115

  11. Music therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger, Monika; Elefant, Cochavit; Mössler, Karin; Gold, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe central impairments of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core problems of people with ASD. The present version of this review on music therapy for ASD is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2006.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of music therapy ...

  12. Pupils with Autism spectrum disorders in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kopun, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The thesis includes the presentation of Asperger syndrome and strategies for teaching students with Asperger syndrome. It shows the survey on knowledge of Asperger syndrome among primary school teaches with experience and teachers with no experience in working with pupils with Asperger syndrome. It also includes the analysis of three interviews in which the characteristics of people with Asperger syndrome are presented. There are several autism spectrum disorders and the Asperger syndrome...

  13. The Impact of Neuroimmune Alterations in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gottfried, Carmem; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Francis, Fiona; Riesgo, Rudimar; Savino, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves a complex interplay of both genetic and environmental risk factors, with immune alterations and synaptic connection deficiency in early life. In the past decade, studies of ASD have substantially increased, in both humans and animal models. Immunological imbalance (including autoimmunity) has been proposed as a major etiological component in ASD, taking into account increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in postmortem brain from patient...

  14. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    D'Mello, Anila M.; Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most consistent sites of abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebellar damage is associated with an increased risk of ASD symptoms, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may play a crucial role in the etiology of ASD. The cerebellum forms multiple closed-loop circuits with cerebral cortical regions that underpin movement, language, and social processing. Through these circuits, cerebellar dysfunction could impact the core ASD symptoms of social and...

  15. Selected forms of therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dudzinska Ewa; Szymona Kinga; Pacian Anna; Kulik Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through act...

  16. Integrated approach to yoga therapy and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha Radhakrishna; Raghuram Nagarathna; Nagendra, H R

    2010-01-01

    A specially designed Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy module was applied to Autism Spectrum Disorders over a period of two academic years. Despite low numbers (six in each arm), consistency and magnitude of effects make the findings significant. Parental participation, allowing firm guidance to be given to each child, resulted in significant improvements in imitation and other skills, and in behavior at home and family relationships. We hypothesize that guided imitation of therapist body p...

  17. Reduced oblique effect in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Maria A Davletshina; Elena V Orekhova; Ilja A Galuta; Tatiana Alexandrovna Stroganova

    2016-01-01

    People are very precise in the discrimination of a line orientation relative to the cardinal (verti-cal and horizontal) axes, while their orientation discrimination sensitivity along the oblique ax-es is less refined. This difference in discrimination sensitivity along cardinal and oblique axes is called the oblique effect. Given that the oblique effect is a basic feature of visual pro-cessing with an early developmental origin, its investigation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD...

  18. Presence of Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Usui; Atsushi Senju; Yukiko Kikuchi; Hironori Akechi; Yoshikuni Tojo; Hiroo Osanai; Toshikazu Hasegawa

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies suggest diminished susceptibility to contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it could be driven by their atypical attention to the face. To test this hypothesis, children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children were shown yawning and control movies. To ensure participants' attention to the face, an eye tracker controlled the onset of the yawning and control stimuli. Results demonstrated that both TD children and children with ...

  19. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  20. Animal models of autism spectrum disorders: Information for neurotoxicologists

    OpenAIRE

    Halladay, Alycia K.; Amaral, David; Aschner, Michael; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Bowman, Aaron; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Hyman, Susan L.; Keller, Flavio; Lein, Pamela; Pessah, Isaac; Restifo, Linda; Threadgill, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings derived from large-scale datasets and biobanks link multiple genes to autism spectrum disorders. Consequently, novel rodent mutants with deletions, truncations and in some cases, overexpression of these candidate genes have been developed and studied both behaviorally and biologically. At the Annual Neurotoxicology Meeting in Rochester, NY in October of 2008, a symposium of clinicians and basic scientists gathered to present the behavioral features of autism, as well as strate...

  1. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much ...

  2. Social Participation Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special educ...

  3. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, Makiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more du...

  4. Validation of Proposed "DSM-5" Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Speer, Leslie; Embacher, Rebecca; Law, Paul; Constantino, John; Findling, Robert L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of proposed "DSM-5" criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: We analyzed symptoms from 14,744 siblings (8,911 ASD and 5,863 non-ASD) included in a national registry, the Interactive Autism Network. Youth 2 through 18 years of age were included if at least one…

  5. Developmental Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Emine; pp.593-604,

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of developmental interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Six criteria were used to select the studies included in this review. In the end 14 studies met the criteria and were included in the review. The table in Reichow and Volkmar (2010) study was used to analyze the studies. Five studies were based on developmental interventions (DI) and nine studies were based on developmental and behavioral interventions (D...

  6. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kouijzer, Mirjam,; De Moor, Jan,; Gerrits, Berrie,; Congedo, Marco; Van Schie, Hein,

    2009-01-01

    International audience Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's executive capacities were found to have improved greatly relative to pre-treatment assessment on a range of executive function ...

  7. Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF) is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links bet...

  8. Maternalmental health after a child's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, EA; Kuo, AA

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Importance:The prevalence of psychological distress among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests a need for interventions that address parental mental health during the critical period after the child's autism diagnosis when parents are learning to navigate the complex system of autism services.Objective: To investigate whether a brief cognitive behavioral intervention, problem-solving education (PSE), decreas...

  9. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zikl Pavel; Petrů Dita; Daňková Aneta; Doležalová Hana; Šafaříková Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardize...

  10. Locomotion and Grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Fulceri; Annarita Contaldo; Ilaria Parrini; Calderoni Sara; Antonio Narzisi; Raffaella Tancredi; Fabio Apicella; Filippo Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000) and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS) and a pare...

  11. The Cognitive Interview for Eyewitnesses with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, K. L.; Bowler, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) is one of the most widely accepted forms of interviewing techniques for eliciting the most detailed, yet accurate reports from witnesses. No research, however, has examined its effectiveness with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-six adults with ASD and 26 matched typical adults viewed a video of an enacted crime, and were then interviewed with either a CI, or a structured interview (SI) without the CI mnemonics. Groups did not differ on the qu...

  12. Alterations of GABAergic Signaling in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Cherubini; Rocco Pizzarelli

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by stereotyped behavior, marked impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, social skills, and cognition. Interestingly, in a small number of cases, ASDs are associated with single mutations in genes encoding for neuroligin-neurexin families. These are adhesion molecules which, by regulating transsynaptic signaling, contribute to maintain a proper excitator...

  13. Activity-dependent neuronal signalling and autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Daniel H.; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity induces the post-translational modification of synaptic molecules, promotes localized protein synthesis within dendrites and activates gene transcription, thereby regulating synaptic function and allowing neuronal circuits to respond dynamically to experience. Evidence indicates that many of the genes that are mutated in autism spectrum disorders are crucial components of the activity-dependent signalling networks that regulate synapse development and plasticity. Dysregulati...

  14. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother–child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children’s descriptions of friendships (age 8–12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and with typical development (TYP) (n = 38). Overall, half of the HFASD sample (54.45%) reported maternal attachment security, corroborating data from yo...

  15. What does CNTNAP2 reveal about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Peñagarikano, Olga; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by the presence of repetitive/restrictive behaviors and variable deficits in language and social behavior. Many genes predisposing an individual to ASD have been identified, and understanding the causal disease mechanism(s) is critical to be able to develop treatments. Neurobiological, genetic, and imaging data provide strong evidence for the CNTNAP2 gene as a risk factor for ASD and relat...

  16. Neural correlates of moral reasoning in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Karla; Pauly, Katharina D.; Gossen, Anna; Mevissen, Lea; Michel, Tanja M.; Ruben C. Gur; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    In our study, we tried to clarify whether patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reveal different moral decision patterns as compared to healthy subjects and whether common social interaction difficulties in ASD are reflected in altered brain activation during different aspects of moral reasoning. 28 patients with high-functioning ASD and 28 healthy subjects matched for gender, age and education took part in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Participants were...

  17. Atypical Network Connectivity for Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Patricia; Shen, Mark; Öttl, Birgit; Keehn, Brandon; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Imitation has been considered as one of the precursors for sociocommunicative development. Impairments of imitation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be indicative of dysfunctional underlying neural processes. Neuroimaging studies have found reduced activation in areas associated with imitation, but a functional connectivity MRI network perspective of these regions in autism is unavailable. Functional and effective connectivity was examined in 14 male participants with ASD and 14 matche...

  18. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Anand, Amit; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDougle, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has become increasingly understood since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial observations of an above-average head circumference were supported by structural MRI studies that found evidence of increased total brain volume and early rapid brain overgrowth in affected individuals. Subsequent research revealed consistent abnormalities in cortical gray and white matter volume in ASDs. The structural integrity and orientation...

  19. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L; Kowatch, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current diagnostic system makes few modifications to accommodate children and adolescents. Researchers in this area have developed specific BPSD definitions that ...

  20. Improving Clinical Prediction of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Christine Demeter; Boris Birmaher; Kowatch, Robert A; L. Eugene Arnold; David Axelson; Mary K. Gill; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Findling, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    This report evaluates whether classification tree algorithms (CTA) may improve the identification of individuals at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD). Analyses used the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) cohort (629 youth, 148 with BPSD and 481 without BPSD). Parent ratings of mania symptoms, stressful life events, parenting stress, and parental history of mania were included as risk factors. Comparable overall accuracy was observed for CTA (75.4%) relative to logistic...

  1. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2009-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother–child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children’s descriptions of friendships (age 8–12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and with typical development (TYP) (n = 38). Overall, half of the HFASD sample (54.45%) reported maternal attachment security, corroborating data from yo...

  2. A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Audhya, Tapan; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Recent evidence shows that subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly lower levels of glutathione than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two commonly used glutathione supplements in subjects diagnosed with an ASD to determine their efficacy in increasing blood glutathione levels in subjects diagnosed with an ASD. Material/Methods The study was an eight-week, open-label trial using oral lipoce...

  3. Adaptation of educational tasks for children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov A.V.; Zagumennaya O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The second part of the article describes variations of adapted learning tasks of different levels for children with autism spectrum disorders who study in second grade according to adapted basic educational programs. The article presents examples of tasks for mathematics, Russian language, literary reading and environmental studies. The materials were developed and tested in the Center for psychological, medical and social help for children and adolescents of Moscow State Universi...

  4. Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The clinical, social and financial burden of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is staggering. We urgently need valid and reliable biomarkers for diagnosis and effective treatments targeting the often debilitating symptoms. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is beginning to be used by a number of centers worldwide and may represent a novel technique with both diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Here we critically review the current scientific evidence for the use of TMS in ASD. Though prel...

  5. Parent Training Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Audrée Jeanne Beaudoin; Guillaume Sébire; Mélanie Couture

    2014-01-01

    Background. Now that early identification of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is possible, efforts are being made to develop interventions for children under three years of age. Most studies on early intervention have focused on intensive and individual interventions. However, parent training interventions that help parents interact and communicate with their toddlers with ASD might be a good alternative to promote the development of their child’s sociocommunicative skills. Object...

  6. [Diversity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and pharmacotherapy associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) are effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The response rate for SRI is approximately 50% and refractory OCD may exist. The effect of antipsychotics augmentation therapy has been established for this kind of patients. However, OCD is clinically and biologically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease and it will affect the response of pharmacotherapy. Several subtypes of OCD have been identified. Early onset OCD and hoarding symptoms dominant patients with OCD tend to resist SRI treatment. Antipsychotics augmentation with SRI is much effective for OCD with tic disorders. On the other hand, psychiatric disorders in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD) have similar clinical symptoms, comorbidities, genetic factors, and neurobiological etiology. SRI is effective for patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in preoccupation with body appearance or sensation subgroup. The response of SRI in BDD is similar to OCD while that of eating disorders was different. Impulse control disorders will respond to opiate antagonist but not to SRI. This subgroup might have a characteristic of behavioral addiction. Antipsychotic agents are effective for neurological disorders including tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, and autistic spectrum disorders. Therefore, the dopaminergic pathophysiology might underlie in this subgroup. The main goal of DSM-V is to make diagnosis based on biological validity, and the treatment response is an important factor. Further studies are necessary for understanding the pathophysiology of OCSD. PMID:22187889

  7. Modeling alcohol use disorder severity: an integrative structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    NathashaRMoallem; LaraARay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol dependence is a complex psychological disorder whose phenomenology changes as the disorder progresses. Neuroscience has provided a variety of theories and evidence for the development, maintenance, and severity of addiction; however, clinically, it has been difficult to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate and validate a data-driven approach to capturing alcohol severity in a community sample. Method: Participants we...

  8. Modeling Alcohol Use Disorder Severity: An Integrative Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moallem, Nathasha R.; Courtney, Kelly E.; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol dependence is a complex psychological disorder whose phenomenology changes as the disorder progresses. Neuroscience has provided a variety of theories and evidence for the development, maintenance, and severity of addiction; however, clinically, it has been difficult to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate and validate a data-driven approach to capturing alcohol severity in a community sample. Method: Participants were...

  9. A systematic review of physical activity correlates in alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; De Herdt, Amber; DETRAUX, JOHAN; Probst, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity might promote mental and physical health in persons with alcohol use disorder. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of participation in physical activity in persons with alcohol use disorder is an essential first step in order to devise effective physical activity interventions. Objective: The present review provides a systematic quantitative review of the correlates of physical activity in people with alcohol use disorder. Methods: Major...

  10. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Toshihiko; Yamada, Hisashi; Teo, Alan R.; Yoshimura, Chiho; Kodama, Yuya; van Vliet, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants w...

  11. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  12. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abu...

  13. The Effect of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Consumption Among Individuals With Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among participants (N = 151) who were enrolled...

  14. Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Fuentes-Albero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD compared with typically developing children (TD age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years. Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with autism spectrum disorders from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tsai, Wen-Che; Fang, Jye-Siung; Su, Ying-Cheng; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA. PMID:24132905

  16. Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Miesen, Anna I R; Hurley, Hannah; De Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    The current literature shows growing evidence of a link between gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study reviews the available clinical and empirical data. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scopus; utilizing different combinations of the following search terms: autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Asperger's disorder (AD), co-morbidity, gender dysphoria (GD), gender identity disorder (GID), transgenderism and transsexualism. In total, 25 articles and reports were selected and discussed. Information was grouped by found co-occurrence rates, underlying hypotheses and implications for diagnosis and treatment. GD and ASD were found to co-occur frequently - sometimes characterized by atypical presentation of GD, which makes a correct diagnosis and determination of treatment options for GD difficult. Despite these challenges there are several case reports describing gender affirming treatment of co-occurring GD in adolescents and adults with ASD. Various underlying hypotheses for the link between GD and ASD were suggested, but almost all of them lack evidence. PMID:26753812

  17. Comparing Service Use and Costs among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Special Needs and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact…

  18. Gestural Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…

  19. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  20. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  1. Assessment of Metabolic Parameters For Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth N Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a brain development disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD, which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. The reported incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased markedly over the past decade. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recently estimated the prevalence of ASDs in the United States at approximately 5.6 per 1000 (1 of 155 to 1 of 160 children. Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms. In deciding upon the appropriate evaluation scheme a clinician must consider a host of different factors. The guidelines in this article have been developed to assist the clinician in the consideration of these factors.

  2. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findings of anterior insula cortex hypoactivation and dysconnectivity during tasks related to emotional and social processing indicates its dysfunctional role in ASD. In parallel, increasing evidence showed that successful control of anterior insula activity can be attained using real-time fMRI paradigms. More importantly, successful regulation of this region was associated with changes in behavior and brain connectivity in both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. Building on these results we here propose and discuss the use of real-time fMRI neurofeedback in ASD aiming at improving emotional and social behavior.

  3. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Andrea; de Falco, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findings of anterior insula cortex hypoactivation and dysconnectivity during tasks related to emotional and social processing indicates its dysfunctional role in ASD. In parallel, increasing evidence showed that successful control of anterior insula activity can be attained using real-time fMRI paradigms. More importantly, successful regulation of this region was associated with changes in behavior and brain connectivity in both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. Building on these results we here propose and discuss the use of real-time fMRI neurofeedback in ASD aiming at improving emotional and social behavior. PMID:25798096

  4. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Chiari 1 Malformation Co-occurring in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Ferdnand C; Amalraj, Benedict; Noveloso, Bernard D; Aikoye, Salisu A; Bradley, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Very few studies have shown associations between autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Chiari 1 malformation. Here, we report an 10-year-old male that presented after having seizures with a history of Chiari 1 malformation, autism spectrum disorder and ADHD with moderate mental retardation and speech delay. This case highlights the fact that autism spectrum disorder as biologically based neurodevelopmental disorder with altered brain growth may be associated with Chiari 1 malformation and ADHD. PMID:27050897

  6. Patterns of autism spectrum symptomatology in individuals with Down syndrome without comorbid autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B. Allyson; Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A; Bussanich, Paige M.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) are highly varied. This variation is partly due to the difficulty of screening for and diagnosing comorbid ASD in individuals with a syndrome that carries its own set of social communicative and behavioral difficulties that are not well documented. The aim of this study was to identify the typical range of social communicative impairments observed in children, adolescents, and young adults with DS who do n...

  7. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. PMID:26099657

  8. The relationship between sleep problems and autism spectrum disorders among preschool children with anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dunsæd, Anne Martine Rafoss

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety symptoms are among the most commonly observed and impairing symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, parents of children with ASD frequently report that their children have sleep disturbances. The current study´s main hypothesis is that there is a significant relationship between ASD and anxiety in preschool children within the autism spectrum. Secondly, it is hypothesized that this relationship between ASD and anxiety are mediated by sleep pr...

  9. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention ...

  10. Role of astrocytic glutamate transporter in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer R; Jia, Yun-Fang; Qiu, Yan-Yan; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-03-22

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the most widespread neuropsychiatric conditions, having a significant health and socioeconomic impact. According to the 2014 World Health Organization global status report on alcohol and health, the harmful use of alcohol is responsible for 5.9% of all deaths worldwide. Additionally, 5.1% of the global burden of disease and injury is ascribed to alcohol (measured in disability adjusted life years, or disability adjusted life years). Although the neurobiological basis of AUD is highly complex, the corticostriatal circuit contributes significantly to the development of addictive behaviors. In-depth investigation into the changes of the neurotransmitters in this circuit, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyricacid, and glutamate, and their corresponding neuronal receptors in AUD and other addictions enable us to understand the molecular basis of AUD. However, these discoveries have also revealed a dearth of knowledge regarding contributions from non-neuronal sources. Astrocytes, though intimately involved in synaptic function, had until recently been noticeably overlooked in their potential role in AUD. One major function of the astrocyte is protecting neurons from excitotoxicity by removing glutamate from the synapse via excitatory amino acid transporter type 2. The importance of this key transporter in addiction, as well as ethanol withdrawal, has recently become evident, though its regulation is still under investigation. Historically, pharmacotherapy for AUD has been focused on altering the activity of neuronal glutamate receptors. However, recent clinical evidence has supported the animal-based findings, showing that regulating glutamate homeostasis contributes to successful management of recovery from AUD. PMID:27014596

  11. Autism spectrum disorders in siblings of children with a developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the familial characteristics of children diagnosed during childhood as having a developmental language disorder (DLD). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in siblings of probands diagnosed during childhood as having a DLD...... (P = 0.53; OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.07-4.19). Thus our results provide no support for a familial association between DLD andASD....

  12. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Shook, Devon A.; James, Joette D.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that over 30% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 20% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new...

  13. Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotta Höglund Carlsson; Fritjof Norrelgen; Liselotte Kjellmer; Joakim Westerlund; Christopher Gillberg; Elisabeth Fernell

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. Methods. Parents and children were seen by a research team. Data were based on parental interviews, pediatric assessments, and tests of the child. Information on autistic symptoms, general cognitive function, speech and language, motor function, epilepsy, vision, hearing, activity leve...

  14. Treatment for Co-Occurring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Naomi Ornstein; Kollins, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the co-occurrence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has grown in the last decade. Research on clinical populations supports the frequent co-occurrence of ADHD traits (e.g., hyperactivity) in individuals with ASD and ASD traits (e.g., social communication deficits) in individuals with ADHD. Similar trends in co-occurring traits have been observed in population-based samples, as well as family and genetic studies of affected indivi...

  15. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.J.C.; Arntz, A.R.; Egger, J. I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore, we explored social cognition in these patient groups. Tests included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence-Test (MSCEIT) and Emotional-Quotient-Inventory (EQ-i). Analyses indicate that th...

  16. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome. PMID:27200076

  17. [Treatable neurometabolic diseases. Association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Herrera, Paula; Kuster, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are presented on 1% of subjects over general population. Organic pathologies prevalence in schizophrenia spectrum patients is not well determined, and it is probably underestimated. In the present update review, we are going to highlight seven treatable neurometabolic diseases (NMD) associated to sub-clinic neurological symptoms. It is not infrequent to witness the absence of any clinical neurological signs going along with the NMD. Psychiatric symptoms may be the only clinical alarm that can guide physicians to an acute diagnosis. This is why it is a challenging pathology, defying our clinical accuracy as psychiatrist or any other practitioners confronted to this population. Hereby we are going to expose a literature review and comprehensive tables in order to present in a glance the essential clinical features of disorders of homocysteine metabolism, urea cycle disorders, Niemann-Pick disease type C, acute porphyria, cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis. These conditions are sensible to major improvement strongly correlated to the accuracy of diagnosis. Literature analysis led us to propose a comprehensive list of atypical psychiatric symptoms including highly predominant visual hallucinations, compared to auditory ones, as well as confusion, catatonia or progressive cognitive decline. We highlight the importance of considering antipsychotic treatment resistance as a crucial sign leading to suspect an organic factor beneath the psychiatric features. PMID:26248708

  18. Autoimmune AQP4 channelopathies and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Shannon R; Lennon, Vanda A; Pittock, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving group of central nervous system (CNS)-inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating diseases unified by a pathogenic autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel. It was historically misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS), which lacks a distinguishing biomarker. The discovery of AQP4-IgG moved the focus of CNS demyelinating disease research from emphasis on the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte. NMO is recognized today as a relapsing disease, extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include brain (especially in children) and skeletal muscle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, identifiable in 60% of patients at the second attack, are consistent with MS in 10% of cases. NMOSD-typical lesions (another 10%) occur in AQP4-enriched regions: circumventricular organs (causing intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (causing sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Advances in understanding the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity have necessitated continuing revision of NMOSD clinical diagnostic criteria. Assays that selectively detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 are promising prognostically. When referring to AQP4 autoimmunity, we suggest substituting the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for the term "NMO spectrum disorders." Randomized clinical trials are currently assessing the efficacy and safety of newer immunotherapies. Increasing therapeutic options based on understanding the molecular pathogenesis is anticipated to improve the outcome for patients with AQP4 channelopathy. PMID:27112688

  19. Adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, decreased A2AR function is associated with decreased CREB activity in the DMS, which enhances goal-oriented behaviors and contributes to excessive ethanol drinking in mice. Interestingly, caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive substance, is known to inhibit both the A1R and A2AR. This dampened adenosine receptor function may mask some of the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol. Furthermore, based on the fact that A2AR activity plays a role in goal-directed behavior, caffeine may also promote ethanol-seeking behavior. The A2AR is enriched in the striatum and exclusively expressed in striatopallidal neurons, which may be responsible for the regulation of inhibitory behavioral control over drug rewarding processes through the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit. Furthermore, the antagonistic interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors in the striatum also play an integral role in alcoholism and addiction-related disorders. This review focuses on regulation of adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and the possible implication of caffeine in goal-directed behaviors and addiction. PMID:23912595

  20. Adopting and Fostering Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Those who choose to become a parent or caregiver to a child with an FASD experience great joy along with the challenges. The child can benefit from a stable, loving home with parents and caregivers who understand his or her needs. Ultimately, adoptive ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevalence of ... conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), CDC, to produce national estimates for a ...

  2. Examining playground engagement between elementary school children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum disorder and 51 classmates without autism spectrum disorder who served as peer models matched on gender, classroom, grade, age, and ethnicity. Using a timed-interval behavior-coding system, children with autism spectrum disorder spent approximately 30% of their recess time engaged in solitary activities, whereas their classmates only spent approximately 9% of recess unengaged. In addition, children with autism spectrum disorder spent about 40% of the recess period jointly engaged with peers in a reciprocal activity, conversation, or game as compared to 70% for matched classmates. These findings provide a context for which to interpret intervention outcomes and gains for children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive settings. PMID:26341991

  3. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Maeda, Justin;

    2009-01-01

    -13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization for......OBJECTIVE: The authors examined whether motor coordination difficulties assessed in childhood predict later adult schizophrenia spectrum outcomes. METHOD: A standardized childhood neurological examination was administered to a sample of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10...... registers completed in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study...

  4. Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan Hedegaard; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was...... together with other substance use disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists on treating this form of dual-diagnosis patients. Studies grouping several types of substances as a single outcome may overlook differential effects. Future RCTs should investigate combinations of psychosocial...

  5. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique versus Comorbid Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youths were surveyed when they were 10 years…

  6. Diminished sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte De Boer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD using an audiovisual Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ task. In order to assess domain-specific impairments, the stimuli varied in social complexity from simple flash/beeps to videos of a handclap or a speaking face. Compared to typically-developing controls, individuals with ASD were generally less sensitive in judgments of audiovisual temporal order (larger Just Noticeable Differences, JNDs, but there was no specific impairment with social stimuli. This suggests that people with ASD suffer from a more general impairment in audiovisual temporal processing.

  7. Integrated approach to yoga therapy and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Radhakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A specially designed Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy module was applied to Autism Spectrum Disorders over a period of two academic years. Despite low numbers (six in each arm, consistency and magnitude of effects make the findings significant. Parental participation, allowing firm guidance to be given to each child, resulted in significant improvements in imitation and other skills, and in behavior at home and family relationships. We hypothesize that guided imitation of therapist body positions stimulated mirror neuron activation, resulting in improved sense of self.

  8. See Me, See My Child: Glimpses into Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is on the rise, with one in 68 children diagnosed with ASD. Families of children with ASD speak of being othered-feeling like outsiders in social situations. Because of ASD prevalence, all nurses need to understand current research, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and how to offer effective support. Nurses within the faith community, especially parish/faith community nurses, can play a significant role in creating a welcoming and supportive environment for children with ASD and their families. PMID:26548173

  9. Violations of Personal Space by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Ralph Adolphs

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain an appropriate physical distance (i.e., interpersonal distance) from others is a critical aspect of social interaction and contributes importantly to real-life social functioning. In Study 1, using parent-report data that had been acquired on a large number of individuals (ages 4-18 years) for the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection, we found that those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n = 766) more often violated the space of others c...

  10. Decreased number of orbital sulci in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Mihoko; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2016-04-30

    An altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern has been reported in the schizophrenia-spectrum, but it remains unknown whether they also have differences in the number of intermediate and posterior orbital sulci compared with healthy subjects. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the number of these sulci in 102 schizophrenia patients, 47 schizotypal disorder patients, and 84 controls. Both patient groups had a significantly lower number of both sulci bilaterally compared with controls, which was weakly associated with the severity of negative symptoms. Our results may reflect the neurodevelopmental pathology related to vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:27017422

  11. Limited Activity Monitoring in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N=28), typical development (TD) (N=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (N=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g. toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking ...

  12. Relapse of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Associated with Intravenous Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Uzawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine unmasks silent symptoms and eases neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis patients; however, the effects of lidocaine in neuromyelitis optica have never been reported. We describe the case of a 59-year-old Japanese woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder who developed optic neuritis 1 day after intravenous lidocaine injection for treating allodynia. Her symptom seemed to result from a relapse of neuromyelitis optica induced by lidocaine administration, and not because of the transient effects of intravenous lidocaine administration. The possibility that lidocaine administration results in relapse of neuromyelitis optica due to its immunomodulating effects cannot be ruled out.

  13. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills. PMID:25475362

  14. Toward an immune-mediated subtype of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Christopher J; Landino, Samantha M; Vahabzadeh, Arshya; O'Rourke, Julia; Zurcher, Nicole R; Finger, Beate C; Palumbo, Michelle L; Helt, Jessica; Mullett, Jennifer E; Hooker, Jacob M; Carlezon, William A

    2015-08-18

    A role for immunological involvement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has long been hypothesized. This review includes four sections describing (1) evidence for a relationship between familial autoimmune disorders and ASD; (2) results from post-mortem and neuroimaging studies that investigated aspects of neuroinflammation in ASD; (3) findings from animal model work in ASD involving inflammatory processes; and (4) outcomes from trials of anti-inflammatory/immune-modulating drugs in ASD that have appeared in the literature. Following each section, ideas are provided for future research, suggesting paths forward in the continuing effort to define the role of immune factors and inflammation in the pathophysiology of a subtype of ASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25445995

  15. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  16. Intellectual Profiles in the Autism Spectrum and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouga, Susana; Café, Cátia; Almeida, Joana; Marques, Carla; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-09-01

    The influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in Intelligence Quotients (IQ), Indexes and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was investigated in 445 school-aged children: ASD (N = 224) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 221), matched by Full-Scale IQ and chronological age. ASD have lower scores in the VIQ than PIQ. The core distinctive scores between groups are Processing Speed Index and "Comprehension" and "Coding" subtests with lower results in ASD. ASD group with normal/high IQ showed highest score on "Similarities" subtest whereas the lower IQ group performed better on "Object Assembly". The results replicated our previous work on adaptive behaviour, showing that adaptive functioning is positively correlated with intellectual profile, especially with the Communication domain in ASD. PMID:27312715

  17. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  18. Microglia in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Proper synaptic pruning is essential for the development of functional neural circuits. Impairments in synaptic pruning disrupt the excitatory versus inhibitory balance (E/I balance) of synapses, which may cause neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies have determined molecular mechanisms by which microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, engulf inappropriate and less active synapses. Thus, microglial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD through attenuated or excess synaptic pruning. In this review, we discuss recent animal and human studies that report an E/I imbalance and the characteristics of microglia in ASD. We will further discuss whether and how synaptic pruning by microglia is involved in the pathogenesis of ASD. PMID:26116891

  19. Synaptic signaling and aberrant RNA splicing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between presynaptic and postsynaptic cellular adhesion molecules drive synapse maturation during development. These trans-synaptic interactions are regulated by alternative splicing of cellular adhesion molecule RNAs, which ultimately determines neurotransmitter phenotype. The diverse assortment of RNAs produced by alternative splicing generates countless protein isoforms necessary for guiding specialized cell-to-cell connectivity. Failure to generate the appropriate synaptic adhesion proteins is associated with disrupted glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling, resulting in loss of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, and risk for developmental disorders, including autism. While the majority of genetic mutations currently linked to autism are rare variants that change the protein coding sequence of synaptic candidate genes, regulatory polymorphisms affecting constitutive and alternative splicing have emerged as risk factors in numerous other diseases, accounting for an estimated 40-60% of general disease risk. Here, we review the relationship between aberrant RNA splicing of synapse-related genes and autism spectrum disorders.

  20. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441