WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol pendant groups

  1. Effect of Pendant Group on pDNA Delivery by Cationic-β-Cyclodextrin:Alkyl-PVA-PEG Pendant Polymer Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Aditya; Badwaik, Vivek; DeFrees, Kyle; Schuldt, Ryan A.; Gunasekera, Dinara S.; Powers, Cory; Vlahu, Alexander; VerHeul, Ross; Thompson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that cationic-β-CD:R-poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(ethylene glycol) pendant polymer host:guest complexes are safe and efficient vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, where R = benzylidene-linked adamantyl or cholesteryl esters. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological performance of a family of PVA-PEG pendant polymers whose pendant groups have a wide range of different affinities for the β-CD cavity. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that all of the cationic-β-CD:pendant ...

  2. A recyclable heavy fluorous tag carrying an allyl alcohol pendant group: design and evaluation toward applications in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuo; Tojino, Mami; Goto, Kohtaro; Dohi, Hirofumi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Mamoru

    2015-04-30

    Toward applications in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry, we converted our previous acid-resistant heavy fluorous tag [(Rf)3C-CH2-OH, 1] to allyl alcohol derivatives [(Rf)3C-CH2-O-(CH2)n-CH=CH-CH2-OH, 3 (n=1) or 4 (n=3)] by means of olefin cross metathesis. They were then subjected to β-glycosylation reactions by using a series of glycosyl donors, including glycosyl bromide and trichloroacetimidates. The terminal OH group in 3 and 4 was found to be β-glycosylated in moderate yield when 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-D-galactosyl trichloroacetimidate was used as the glycosyl donor. Upon a detachment reaction using Pd(PPh3)4, the initial heavy fluorous tag 1 was recovered in high yield (>90%) together with 1-hydroxy sugar, indicating that not only the allyl ether linkage in the glycosides but also the internal di-alkyl ether linkage in 4 be cleaved by the action of the Pd-catalyst enabling long-range olefin transmigration. Potential utility was demonstrated by using the tetra-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactosylated derivative of 3 in a series of deprotection, protection and glycosylation reactions, which were conductible in high yields without using chromatographic purification process. These findings prompt us to propose a general scheme in which the acid-resistant heavy fluorous compound 1 is applied as a recyclable tag in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. PMID:25753904

  3. Calix[4] crowns with Methoxynaphthoylmethyl Pendant Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金传明; 陆国元; 张超智; 施证伟; 游效曾

    2003-01-01

    The novel calix [4] crowns with two pendant groups were prepared by the alkylation of calix 141 crowns with 6-methoxy-2-bromoacetylnaphthalene. 1H NMR titration and picrate extraction experiments indicated that they exhibit higher complexing efficiency than their parent compounds and possess obvious selectivity for Na+ or K+ , respetively, and that the cation is encapsulated inside the preorganized ionophoric cavity defined by carbonyl oxygens, the crown ether and the phenoxy oxygens.From UV and fluorescent spectra it is revealed that calix [4]crown-4 3a with 6-methoxy-2-naphthoylmethyl pedant groups exhibits remarkable cation-induced photophysical effects and it could be utilized as a selective fluorescent sensor for Ca2+.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF POLY ( ETHER-URETHANE) CONTAINING PENDANT AMINO GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinhuang; SUN Yanhui; FENG Xinde

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the synthesis of poly (ether-urethane) with pendant amino groups. The copolyether produced by ring opening copolymerization of tetrahydrofuran and epibromohydrin was treated with sodium azide in dimethylformamide to form azido substituted copolyether. The poly (ether-urethane) made from it was subjected to reduction reaction to convert azido group to amino group. The stress-strain behavior and dynamic-mechanical properties of poly (ether-urethane) containing pendant amino groups were studied.

  5. Synthesis of biodegradable polyesteramides with pendant functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Veld, in 't, R.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives having substituents with benzyl-protected carboxylic acid, benzyloxycarbonyl-protected amine and p-methoxy-protected thiol groups, respectively, were prepared in 29-58% yield by cyclization of the corresponding N-[(2RS)-bromopropionyl]-L-amino acids. Polyesteramides with protected pendant functional groups were obtained by ring-opening copolymerization of either ε-caprolactone or DL-lactide with morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives having protected functional subs...

  6. Synthesis and photooxidation of styrene copolymer bearing camphorquinone pendant groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Husár

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available (±-10-Methacryloyloxycamphorquinone (MCQ was synthesized from (±-10-camphorsulfonic acid either by a known seven-step synthetic route or by a novel, shorter five-step synthetic route. MCQ was copolymerized with styrene (S and the photochemical behavior of the copolymer MCQ/S was compared with that of a formerly studied copolymer of styrene with monomers containing the benzil (BZ moiety (another 1,2-dicarbonyl. Irradiation (λ > 380 nm of aerated films of styrene copolymers with monomers containing the BZ moiety leads to the insertion of two oxygen atoms between the carbonyl groups of BZ and to the formation of benzoyl peroxide (BP as pendant groups on the polymer backbone. An equivalent irradiation of MCQ/S led mainly to the insertion of only one oxygen atom between the carbonyl groups of camphorquinone (CQ and to the formation of camphoric anhydride (11 covalently bound to the polymer backbone. While the decomposition of pendant BP groups formed in irradiated films of styrene copolymers with pendant BZ groups leads to crosslinking, only small molecular-weight changes in irradiated MCQ/S were observed.

  7. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  8. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  9. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10−4 mg/mL and 3.9 × 10−5 mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability

  10. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b-poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl-triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b-polylactide (PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b-poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b-polylactide (PLA-b-PBAMO-b-PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following "Click" reaction of PLA-b-PBAMO-b-PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10(-4)mg/mL and 3.9 × 10(-5)mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. PMID:25175206

  11. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo, E-mail: zghu@htu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10{sup −4} mg/mL and 3.9 × 10{sup −5} mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  12. Hydrogen-bond stabilized columnar discotic benzenetrisamides with pendant triphenylene groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraschiv, I.; Lange, de K.; Giesbers, M.; Lagen, van B.; Grozema, F.C.; Abellon, R.D.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Zuilhof, H.; Marcelis, A.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    series of 1,3,5-benzenetrisamide derivatives with three hexaalkoxytriphenylene pendant groups were prepared, in which the triphenylene groups are connected to the central 1,3,5-benzenetrisamide core through a flexible spacer. The length of this spacer, as well as the size of the ortho-substituent at

  13. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer was po...

  14. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David;

    2015-01-01

    series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  15. Synthesis of biodegradable polyesteramides with pendant functional groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, in 't Peter J.A.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives having substituents with benzyl-protected carboxylic acid, benzyloxycarbonyl-protected amine and p-methoxy-protected thiol groups, respectively, were prepared in 29-58% yield by cyclization of the corresponding N-[(2RS)-bromopropionyl]-L-amino acids. Polyesteramides

  16. Synthesis and Preliminary Properties of Novel Poly(aryl ethers Containing β-Naphthalene Pendant Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel poly(aryl ethers containing β-naphthalene pendant group were synthesized and the structures of these polymers were confirmed by 1HNMR spectroscopy. The polymers exhibited good thermal stabilities with high Tg of 256°C and 274°C, respectively. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, such as DMAc, DMSO, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3, and can be electrospun into microfiber (1–5 µm with lots of nanopores (<100 nm from CHCl3 solution. These fibers showed high hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of fibers is above 120°.

  17. Phosphoric acid doped polysulfone membranes with aminopyridine pendant groups and imidazole cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hink, Steffen; Elsøe, Katrine; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen;

    2015-01-01

    Udel polysulfone based membranes with 4-aminopyridine pendant groups and cross-linking imidazole units are synthesized in a simple two step reaction. The ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole is varied and the materials are extensively characterized. The average phosphoric acid uptake (in 85 wt...... tests at 130 °C. The relationships between PA uptake, chemical composition and mechanical stability are reported. Proton conductivity and mechanical properties only depend on the phosphoric acid content, which, however is a function of the chemical composition....

  18. Synthesis of Single-stranded Polynorbornene with Pendant Group Bearing Benzenedicarboxaldehyde and Long Alkyl Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ze; WU Hao-hao; WANG Chun-shan; FAN Kun-zeng

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented single-stranded polynorbornene with the pendant group containing benzenedicarboxaldehyde and a long alkyl chain(12) was synthesized by ring-open metathesis polymerization(ROMP) of the corresponding monomer(11),which was obtained via the esterification of two crucial intermediates,namely,2-hexadecyloxy-5-hydroxymethy1-1,3-benzenedicarboxaldehyde(7,obtained via 6 steps) and 4-(4-aza-tricyclo[5.2.1.02.6]-dec-8en-4-yl)benzoic acid(10).The target compound and all the intermediates were characterized by infrared(IR),1H NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy(HRMS) analysis.

  19. Photo- or EB-induced cross-linking reaction of the polymers containing pendant epoxide or vinyl ether groups from glycidyl vinyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers containing pendant epoxide or vinyl ether groups were synthesized by radical copolymerization of glycidyl vinyl ether (GVE) with N-phenylmaleimide (NPM) and N-phenoxycarbonyloxymaleimide (NPCM), or by ring-opening alternating copolymerization of GVE with phthalic anhydride (PAn). In the photo-induced cross-linking reaction, the pendant vinyl ether groups in poly(GVE-PAn) showed higher reactivity than the pendant epoxide groups in poly(GVE-NPM), and poly(GVE-PAn) was readily cross-linked by various dithiols with or without benzophenone. In the electron beam (EB)-induced cross-linking reaction, the sensitivity of poly(GVE-NPCM), which has pendant epoxide and carbonate groups, was higher than that of poly(GVE-NPM) containing only pendant epoxide groups. Furthermore, the EB-sensitivity of poly(GVE-PAn) was even higher than that of poly(GVE-NPM) or poly(GVE-NPCM). (author)

  20. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Michiue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  1. Synthesis, properties, and light-induced shape memory effect of multiblock polyesterurethanes containing biodegradable segments and pendant cinnamamide groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linbo; Jin, Chunli; Sun, Xiangying

    2011-01-10

    Novel multiblock polyesterurethanes containing crystalline hard and amorphous soft segments and pendant cinnamamide moieties were designed and synthesized via a two-step polyaddition reaction using N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) cinnamamide (BHECA), biodegradable poly(l,l-lactide) (PLLA), and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diols as raw materials and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as coupling agent and characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, UV, DSC, tensile and photomechanical tests, and so on. The copolymers behaved as typical thermoplastic elastomers and showed satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. They also exhibited light-induced shape memory effect (LSME) at room temperature on exposure to light stimuli. The pendant cinnamamide groups work as photoresponsive molecular switches and provide the polymer with LSME via reversible [2 + 2] cycloaddition cross-linking. The strain fixity (R(f)) increases with the content of BHECA and the strain recovery (R(r)) increases with the content of PLLA. The R(f) reaches 50% at a BHECA content of 20 wt % and the R(r) reaches >95% at PLLA content of 50 wt %. PMID:21125994

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyamide-ethers based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Saadati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyamide-ethers (PAEs based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups was prepared by direct polycondensation of a diamine, 4-(1-(4-(4-(2-(4-aminophenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-ylphenoxyphenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylbenzenamine (DABI, and various dicarboxylic acids. All the resulting polyamide-ethers were amorphous with inherent viscosities ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 dL/g and were readily soluble in many organic solvents which could be solution-cast into transparent and tough films. The glass transition temperatures (Tg of these polymers were affected considerably by their chemical structure and ranged from 230 to 310 ºC. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high temperatures of 10% weight loss (T10 in the range of 329-399 ºC in air atmosphere.

  3. Synthesis and properties of poly(1-phenyL~(-1)-octyne)s containing stereogenic and chromophoric pendant groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAM Jacky W. Y.; QIN AnJun; JIM Cathy K. W.; LU Ping; YUAN WangZhang; DONG YongQiang; DONG YuPing; KWOK Hoi Sing; TANG Ben Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Poly(1-phenyL~(-1)-octyne)s containing different stereogenic and chromophoric pendants {-[(C_6H_(13))C=C(C_6H_4-p-CO_2-R)]_n- R=[(1S)-endo]-(-)-borneyl (P3), (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthyl(P4), -C_6H_4-p-(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthyl (P5), 2-napthyl (P6), 4-biphenylyl (P7)} have been designed and synthesized. The polymers are prepared in moderate yields by WCl6-Ph4Sn and possess high molecular weights (M_w up to 64000). The structures and properties of the polymers are characterized and evaluated by NMR, TGA, UV, CD, PL, and EL analyses. All the polymers are thermally stable and their temperatures for 5% weight loss locate in the range of 300 to 416℃ under nitrogen. The energy band gaps of all the polymers are ~3.0 eV. Polymers P4 and P5 show CD absorptions associated with the helicity of the polymer segments. Excitation of the THF solutions of P3-P7 by UV irradiation gives strong blue lights of ~485 nm with quantum yields higher than 20%. The thin films of the polymers also emit in the same spectral region, indicative of little aggregation-caused quenching of light emission. Multilayer EL devices with a configuration of ITO/Polymer:PVK/BCP/Alq_3/LiF/Al are constructed, which emit blue lights of ~487 nm. The maximum luminance and external quantum efficiency vary with the pendant groups, with P6 exhibiting the highest external quantum efficiency of 0.16%. The spectra stability of the EL devices is outstanding and the EL peak maximum experiences little change with the applied voltage.

  4. Synthesis and properties of poly(1-phenyl-1-octyne)s containing stereogenic and chromophoric pendant groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAM; Jacky; W.Y.; JIM; Cathy; K.W.; KWOK; Hoi; Sing

    2009-01-01

    Poly(1-phenyl-1-octyne)s containing different stereogenic and chromophoric pendants {-[(C6H13)C=C(C6H4-p-CO2-R)]n-R=[(1S)-endo]-(-)-borneyl (P3), (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthyl (P4),―C6H4-p-(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthyl (P5), 2-napthyl (P6), 4-biphenylyl (P7)} have been designed and synthesized. The polymers are prepared in moderate yields by WCl6-Ph4Sn and possess high molecular weights (Mw up to 64000). The structures and properties of the polymers are characterized and evaluated by NMR, TGA, UV, CD, PL, and EL analyses. All the polymers are thermally stable and their temperatures for 5% weight loss locate in the range of 300 to 416℃ under nitrogen. The energy band gaps of all the polymers are ~3.0 eV. Polymers P4 and P5 show CD absorptions associated with the helicity of the polymer segments. Excitation of the THF solutions of P3―P7 by UV irradiation gives strong blue lights of ~485 nm with quantum yields higher than 20%. The thin films of the polymers also emit in the same spectral region, indicative of little aggregation-caused quenching of light emission. Multilayer EL devices with a configuration of ITO/Polymer:PVK/BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al are constructed, which emit blue lights of ~487 nm. The maximum luminance and external quantum efficiency vary with the pendant groups, with P6 exhibiting the highest external quantum efficiency of 0.16%. The spectra stability of the EL devices is outstanding and the EL peak maximum experiences little change with the applied voltage.

  5. ABA TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS WITH PENDANT HYDROXYL GROUPS PREPARED BY CONTROLLED CATIONIC POLYMERIZATION AND THEIR USE AS DELIVERY CARRIER FOR PACLITAXEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Ren; Yi-bo Wu; Wen-li Guo; Shu-xin Li; Ying Chen

    2013-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity of poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS),this study focuses on the synthesis of novel functional ABA triblock copolymer thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) with polyisobutylene (PIB) as rubbery segments.The precursor poly{(styrene-co-4-[2-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy) ethyl]styrene)-b-isobutylene-b-(styrene-co-4-[2-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)ethyl]styrene)}(P(St-co-TBDMES)-PIB-P(St-co-TBDMES)) triblock copolymer was first synthesized by living sequential cationic copolymerization of isobutylene (IB) with styrene (St) and 4-[2-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)ethyl]styrene (TBDMES) using 1,4-di(2-chloro-2-propyl)benzene (DiCumC1)/titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4)/2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (DtBP) as the initiating system.Then,P(St-co-TBDMES)-PIB-P(St-co-TBDMES) was hydrolyzed in the presence of tetra-butylammonium fluoride to yield poly{[styrene-co-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)styrene]-b-isobutylene-b-[styrene-co-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)styrene]} (P(St-co-HOES)-PIB-P(St-co-HOES)) with pendant hydroxyl groups.P(St-co-HOES)-PIB-P(St-co-HOES) used as the paclitaxel carrier was also investigated in this study.Comparing with SIBS,P(St-co-HOES)-PIB-P(St-co-HOES) has exhibited better compatibility with paclitaxel and higher release rate.

  6. Donor-π-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  7. Introduction of bridging and pendant organic groups into mesoporous alumina materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stacy M; Woods, Stephan M; Gericke, Arne; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-11-01

    Incorporation of organic functionalities into soft-templated mesoporous alumina was performed via organosilane-assisted evaporation induced self-assembly using aluminum alkoxide precursors and block copolymer templates. This strategy permits one to obtain mesoporous alumina-based materials with tailorable adsorption, surface and structural properties. Isocyanurate, ethane, mercaptopropyl, and ureidopropyl-functionalized mesoporous alumina materials were synthesized with relatively high surface area and large pore volume with uniform and wormhole-like mesopores. The presence of organosilyl groups within these hybrid materials was confirmed by IR or Raman spectroscopy and their concentration was determined by elemental analysis. PMID:21988174

  8. Reduction of N-Cyanomethyl Groups on a Macrocyclic Nickel(II) Complex Using Sodium Borohydride: Synthesis of a Complex Bearing Two N-(2-Aminoethyl) Pendant Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ were determined by a spectrophotometric titration.17 The approximate pKa1 value (ca. 3.6) was found to be somewhat larger than the pKa2 value (ca. 2.4), as usual. The low pKa1 and pKa2 values may be result from the relatively strong interactions between the functional groups and the central metal of the complex. NaBH4 is an efficient reagent for the reduction of [NiL1]2+ in the presence of methanol, even though the N-CH2CN groups are not involved in coordination. The stepwise protonation constants for [NiL2]2+ indicate that the pendant amino groups-central metal interactions are relatively strong

  9. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies. PMID:24128149

  10. A dynamic NMR study of self-inclusion of a pendant group in amphiphilic 6-thiophenyl-6-deoxycyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodziuk, H.; Chmurski, K.; Jurczak, J.; Koźmiński, W.; Lukin, O.; Sitkowski, J.; Stefaniak, L.

    2000-02-01

    The dynamic stereochemistry of amphiphilic derivatives of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins ( 1- 3) has been investigated by means of variable temperature 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in DMF-d 7 solutions. The most significant spectral changes were detected for the smallest hexakis(6-thiophenyl-6-deoxy)-α-cyclodextrin ( 1) and they decrease with the increase of the macrocycle size. On the basis of ROESY measurements, these changes reflecting restricted movements of thiophenyl groups upon the temperature decrease were interpreted in terms of self-inclusion of at least one thiophenyl group. Molecular modeling of these compounds is consistent with these findings.

  11. Bis(alkyl) rare-earth complexes supported by a new tridentate amidinate ligand with a pendant diphenylphosphine oxide group. Synthesis, structures and catalytic activity in isoprene polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpygin, Aleksei O; Glukhova, Tatyana A; Cherkasov, Anton V; Fukin, Georgy K; Aleksanyan, Diana V; Cui, Dongmei; Trifonov, Alexander A

    2015-10-01

    A new tridentate amidine 2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NHC(tBu)[double bond, length as m-dash]N(2,6-Me2C6H3) (1) bearing a side chain pendant Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]O group was synthesized and proved to be a suitable ligand for coordination to rare-earths ions. Bis(alkyl) complexes {2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-Me2C6H3)}Ln(CH2SiMe3)2(THF)n (Ln = Y, n = 1 (3), Ln = Er, n = 1 (4), Ln = Lu, n = 0 (5)) were prepared using alkane elimination reactions of and Ln(CH2SiMe3)3(THF)2 (Ln = Y, Er, Lu) in hexane and were isolated in 50, 70 and 75% yields respectively. The X-ray studies revealed that complexes 2-5 feature intramolecular coordination of P[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups to metal ions. The lutetium complex 5 proved to be rather stable: at 20 °C its half-life time is 1155 h, while for the yttrium analogue the half-life time was found to be 63 h. Complexes 3-5 were evaluated as precatalysts for isoprene polymerization. The systems Ln/borate/AliBu3 (Ln = 3-5, borate = [PhNHMe2][B(C6F5)4], [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4]) turned out to be highly efficient in isoprene polymerization and enable complete conversion of 1000-10,000 equivalents of monomer into polymer at 20 °C within 0.5-2.5 h affording polyisoprenes with a very high content of 1,4-cis units (up to 96.6%) and from narrow (1.49) to moderate (3.54) polydispersities. A comparative study of catalytic performance of the related bis(alkyl) yttrium complexes supported by amidinate ligands of different denticities and structures [tBuC(N-2,6iPr2C6H4)2](-), [tBuC(N-2,6-iPr2C6H4)(N-2-MeOC6H4)](-) and {2-[Ph2P(O)]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-Me2C6H3)}(-) demonstrated that the introduction of a pendant donor group (2-MeOC6H4 or Ph2P(O)) into a side chain of amidinate scaffolds results in a significant increase in catalytic activity. The amidinate ligand bearing a Ph2P(O)-group provides a high isoprene polymerization rate along with excellent control over regio- and stereoselectivities and allows us to obtain polyisoprenes with a reasonable

  12. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  13. Fully Oxidized and Mixed-Valent Polyoxomolybdates Structured by Bisphosphonates with Pendant Pyridine Groups: Synthesis, Structure and Photochromic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Oms

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic-inorganic polyoxometalates (POMs were synthesized in water by the reaction of a MoVI precursor with bisphosphonate ligands functionalized by pyridine groups. The fully oxidized POM [(MoVI3O82(O(O3PC(O(C3H6NH2CH2C5H4NHPO32]4− has been isolated as water insoluble pure Na salt (NaMo6(Ale-4Py2 or mixed Na/K salt (NaKMo6(Ale-4Py2 and their structure solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mixed-valent complex [(MoV2O4(MoVI2O62{O3PC(O(C3H6N(CH2C5H4N2(MoVIO3PO3}2]8− was obtained as an ammonium salt (NH4Mo6(AlePy2Mo2, in the presence of a reducing agent (hydrazine. 31P NMR spectroscopic studies in aqueous media have allowed determining the pH stability domain of NH4Mo6(AlePy2Mo2. NaMo6(Ale-4Py2 and NaKMo6(Ale-4Py2 exhibit remarkable solid-state photochromic properties in ambient conditions. Under UV excitation, they develop a very fast color-change from white to deep purple and proved to be the fastest photochromic organoammonium/POM systems. The coloration kinetics has been fully quantified for both salts and is discussed in light of the hydrogen-bonding networks.

  14. Alcohol and immunology: Summary of the 2012 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year’s meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immu...

  15. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  16. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from......The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... some forms of drinking (‘controlled drunkenness’) while restricting others (drinking alone, drinking ‘for the wrong reason’, losing control often). Furthermore, the idea behind this article is that social capital is both a background factor influencing participants’ relationship to alcohol...

  17. Alcohol and Inflammatory Responses: Summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Niya L Morris; Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Chen, Michael M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Hines, Ian N.; Haddad, Gorges E.; Chang, Sulie L; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2014-01-01

    Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois hosted the 18th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting on November 22, 2013. This year’s meeting emphasized alcohol’s effect on inflammatory responses in diverse disease states and injury conditions. The meeting consisted of three plenary sessions demonstrating the adverse effects of alcohol, specifically, liver inflammation, adverse systemic effects, and alcohol’s role in infection and immun...

  18. 5 and 6 - cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon platinum group metal complexes of 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole derived ligands with a pendant nitrile group: Syntheses, spectral and structural studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gloria Sairem; Venkateswara Rao Anna; Peng Wang; Bbulal Das; Mohan Rao Kollipara

    2012-03-01

    Reaction of two equivalents 4-{(3-(pyridine-2-yl) 1H-pyrazole-1-yl}methyl benzonitrile (L1) and 3-{(3-(pyridine-2-yl)1H-pyrazole-1-yl}methyl benzonitrile (L2) with one equivalent of [(6-arene)Ru(- Cl)Cl]2 and [Cp∗M(-Cl)Cl]2 in methanol yielded mononuclear complexes of the formulae [(6-arene)Ru(L1/L2)Cl]BF4{arene =C6H6 (1, 6); C10H14 (2, 7); C6Me6 (3, 8)} and [Cp∗M(L1/L2)Cl]PF6/BF4 {Cp∗= 5-C5Me5, M=Rh (4, 8); Ir (5, 10)}. These complexes are characterized by IR, 1H NMR and identities of the structure are established by single crystal XRD studies of some of the representative complexes. It is confirmed from the spectral studies that the nitrile group is not taking part in complexation; instead it remains as a free pendant group only.

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  20. Des femmes dans la France combattante pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale : Le Corps des Volontaires Françaises et le Groupe Rochambeau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jauneau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question de l’engagement des femmes dans l’Armée française pendant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale grâce aux traces écrites qu’elles ont laissés.Dès 1940, plusieurs centaines de femmes rejoignent les rangs des FFL à Londres, mais aussi en Afrique du Nord (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie. Elles s’engagent dans les trois corps d’Armée et sont présentes dans la plupart des services. Souvent dénigrées par les hommes, sous-estimées aussi, ces femmes accomplissent pourtant des tâches essentielles entre 1940 et 1945. Cet engagement moral, physique et souvent idéologique dans l’Armée de la Libération, devient pour la plupart d’entre elles un tournant définitif dans leur vie. Nombreuses sont celles qui ont éprouvé le besoin de raconter cette période si « particulière » de leur vie. La lecture des témoignages et des souvenirs permet de comprendre quand et comment s’est déroulé leur engagement. Car, contrairement aux idées reçues, elles n’étaient pas toutes dans les transmissions ou dans les services de santé. Elles n’étaient pas non plus « que » des AFAT (Auxiliaires féminines de l’Armée de Terre. Grâce à un panel d’autobiographies et de souvenirs de guerre, les points abordés ici seront donc ceux du contexte et des motivations de l’engagement, des postes occupés par ces femmes, ainsi que du regard que les libérateurs ont porté sur elles pendant mais surtout après la Libération.This article uses women’s writings to examine women’s voluntary enlistment in the French Army during World War II. As early as 1940, several hundred women joined the Free French Army’s ranks in London, but also in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. They enlisted in the three army corps and were present in most services. These women carried out essential jobs between 1940 and 1945, although men often denigrated and underestimated their contributions. This moral, physical, and often

  1. Acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc): A New Photochemically Removable Protecting Group for Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Bo; TANG Wen-Jian; YU Jing-Yu; SONG Qin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis and photochemistry of acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc) as a new photochemically removable protecting group for alcohols were described. Three carbonates of alcohols 1-3 were synthesized through condensation of 9-hydroxymethylacridine and chloroformates of alcohols, including benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and one galactose derivative. The photolysis of protected alcohols can efficiently release the corresponding alcohol in the efficiencies (Qu1ε) of 100-200 (quantum yield Qu1=0.011-0.023, and molar absorptivity ε=9.1 × 103-9.8 × 103 mol-1·L·cm-1) under 360 nm light.

  2. 侧链含酯基的聚对苯撑的合成及其水解性研究%Synthesis and Hydrolysis of Poly(p-phenylene)s with Ester Pendant Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丹波; 王跃川

    2016-01-01

    Taking two ester substituted 2,5-dichlorobenzoates(substituent:methyl,iso-octyl) made by self as monomers, the poly(p-phenylene)s with methyl ester or iso-octyl ester pendant group and their copolymer were synthesized with Ni-catalyzed/Zn-mediated system. The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the three kinds of polymers were characterized by GPC and DSC,their solubility in organic solvents were also tested. The results show that poly(p-phenylene) homopolymers and copolymer with a certain molecular weight were obtained through Ni-catalyzed/Zn-mediated system,and also the two monomers are copolymerized on the basis of charge ratio. By adjusting different monomer charge ratios,Tg of the copolymer can be tuned from –7.7℃to 130℃,when the charge ratio is 1∶1(mole ratio),Tg of the copolymer is 87.7℃. The solubility in organic solvents are greatly enhanced by introducing bulky iso-octyl ester pendant group into poly(p-phenylene). Moreover,the hydrolysis characteristics of ester pendant groups are different because of steric hindrance,and the hydrolyses of the homopolymers were investigated in a cer-tain alkaline condition. The homopolymer with methyl ester pendant group is absolutely hydrolyzed in 30 min while the homopoly-mer with isooctyl-ester pendant group is almost not,in contrast,it took 12 h for the latter tofinish the hydrolysis. Besides,the hy-drolysis experiment of the copolymer with charge ratio being 1∶1 was done,it is found that the hydrolysis is completed in 75 min under same conditions. The presence of the carboxyl groups after hydrolysis provide the reactive points for subsequent modifications such as cross-linking.%以自制的2,5-二氯苯甲酸甲酯和2,5-二氯苯甲酸异辛酯为单体,采用Ni/Zn催化体系,合成了侧基分别为甲酯基、异辛酯基的聚对苯撑及其共聚物,利用凝胶渗透色谱法和差示扫描量热法测试了3种聚合物的分子量及玻璃化转变温度(Tg),

  3. Alcohol and group formation: a multimodal investigation of the effects of alcohol on emotion and social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A; Creswell, Kasey G; Dimoff, John D; Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Heckman, Bryan W; Kirchner, Thomas R; Levine, John M; Moreland, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    We integrated research on emotion and on small groups to address a fundamental and enduring question facing alcohol researchers: What are the specific mechanisms that underlie the reinforcing effects of drinking? In one of the largest alcohol-administration studies yet conducted, we employed a novel group-formation paradigm to evaluate the socioemotional effects of alcohol. Seven hundred twenty social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) were assembled into groups of 3 unacquainted persons each and given a moderate dose of an alcoholic, placebo, or control beverage, which they consumed over 36 min. These groups' social interactions were video recorded, and the duration and sequence of interaction partners' facial and speech behaviors were systematically coded (e.g., using the facial action coding system). Alcohol consumption enhanced individual- and group-level behaviors associated with positive affect, reduced individual-level behaviors associated with negative affect, and elevated self-reported bonding. Our results indicate that alcohol facilitates bonding during group formation. Assessing nonverbal responses in social contexts offers new directions for evaluating the effects of alcohol. PMID:22760882

  4. Water/alcohol soluble electron injection material containing azacrown ether groups: synthesis, characterization and application to enhancement of electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Shing; Lu, Huai-An; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Using an environmentally stable metal as the cathode in a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) is an essential requirement for its practical application. We present the preparation of a water/alcohol soluble copoly(p-phenylene) (P1) containing pendant azacrown ether and ethylene glycol ether groups as a highly efficient electron injection layer (EIL) for PLEDs, allowing the use of environmentally stable aluminum as the cathode. Multilayer PLEDs [ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PF-Green-B/EIL/Al] using P1 as EIL exhibit significantly enhanced device performance, particularly in the presence of K2CO3 or Cs2CO3. The maximum luminous power efficiency and maximum luminance of the device with Cs2CO3-doped P1 as EIL were enhanced to 9.16 lm W(-1) and 17,050 cd m(-2), respectively, compared with those without EIL (0.16 lm W(-1), 890 cd m(-2)). The turn-on voltage was also significantly reduced from 5.7 V to 3.7 V simultaneously. The performance enhancement has been attributed to improved electron injection which has been confirmed by the rise in open-circuit voltage (Voc) obtained from photovoltaic measurements. The incorporation of such an electron injection layer significantly enhances device performance for PLEDs with an environmentally stable metal as the cathode. PMID:24442208

  5. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, Joris C.; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A.L.; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common dise...

  6. Alcohol and Inflammation & Immune Responses: Summary of the 2006 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Cook, Robert T.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2008-01-01

    The 11th annual meeting of the Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) was held at Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois on November 17, 2006. The AIRIG meeting is held annually to exchange new findings and ideas that arise from onging research examining the effects of alcohol intake on the immune system. The event consisted of five sessions, two of which featured plenary talks from invited speakers, two with oral presentations from selected abstracts, and a final...

  7. Histomorphologic liver abnormalities in a group of alcoholic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Libán Álvarez Cáceres; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Merlyn Arce Núñez.

    2010-01-01

    Background: the ingestion of alcohol has been directly involved in the development of liver diseases. Nowadays, the liver damage by ethanol is a serious health problem all over the world. To achieve satisfactory results In order to face it, it is necessary to provide multidisciplinary attention. Objective: to determine the histomorphologic liver impairments in alcoholic patients. Methods: an observational, descriptive, co-relational and prospective study conducted in 23 patients with an alcoh...

  8. Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Morris, Niya L; Cannon, Abigail R; Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda; Casey, Carol A; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Persidsky, Yuri; Nixon, Kimberly; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-12-01

    On November 21, 2014 the 19th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The meeting focused broadly on inflammatory cell signaling responses in the context of alcohol and alcohol-use disorders, and was divided into four plenary sessions focusing on the gut and liver, lung infections, general systemic effects of alcohol, and neuro-inflammation. One common theme among many talks was the differential roles of macrophages following both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. Macrophages were shown to play significant roles in regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and viral infection following alcohol exposure in the liver, lungs, adipose tissue, and brain. Other work examined the role of alcohol on disease progression in a variety of pathologies including psoriasis, advanced stage lung disease, and cancer. PMID:26520175

  9. Histomorphologic liver abnormalities in a group of alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libán Álvarez Cáceres

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ingestion of alcohol has been directly involved in the development of liver diseases. Nowadays, the liver damage by ethanol is a serious health problem all over the world. To achieve satisfactory results In order to face it, it is necessary to provide multidisciplinary attention. Objective: to determine the histomorphologic liver impairments in alcoholic patients. Methods: an observational, descriptive, co-relational and prospective study conducted in 23 patients with an alcoholism diagnosis at the Provincial University Hospital "Arnaldo Milián Castro" in Villa Clara. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into account. The variables studied were: laparoscopic evolution, period of time consuming alcohol (in years, histologic evolution and alanine aminotransferase. Results: both trough laparoscopic and liver biopsy, the most frequent diagnosis was steatosis, followed by chronic hepatitis. In one patient cirrhosis was diagnosed through laparoscopy: a biopsy was not performed in this case. Conclusion: there were a high proportion of patients with impaired liver aminotransferases and severe histological diagnoses, especially those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. A Price Survey Comparison of Alcoholic Beverages with the Five Basic Food Groups in Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles I. Abramson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of alcohol abuse is relatively new in Brazil. Government estimates suggest that 11.2% of the Brazilian population is alcohol dependent. Problems associated with alcohol dependence include domestic violence, increased risk of traffic accidents, poor self-esteem and weak academic performance. A factor known to correlate with alcohol abuse in 12-17 year olds is to have the money necessary to purchase alcoholic beverages. No data is available, however, on the price of alcoholic beverages. The objective of the present study was to provide data on price and to compare the price of alcoholic beverages to basic food items in the Brazilian diet. We also had interest in studying a population in the northeast region of Brazil. This region is the poorest in Brazil, has the highest percentage of alcohol dependency and is seldom the focus of research on dependency. We report that the prices of many alcoholic beverages are less than the price of basic food items. Prices of alcoholic beverages including beer, wine and spirits were compared to the prices of select food items as represented in the Food Pyramid. Food items were selected from the categories of Grain, Dairy, Fruit, Meat and Vegetable. Data was gathered from 32 supermarkets in 8 cities in the northeast state of Paraiba. The price of alcohol is generally less expensive than most basic food group items, especially brands of cachaça (a spirit distilled from sugar cane and beer. Data on price should be considered in any alcohol dependency program in Brazil.

  12. Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-05-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986227

  13. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Linden

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk taking behaviour used to be a typical part of the adolescence period during which teenagers start learning to drink alcohol in their responsible way. Risky alcohol use has become a major concern among public health practioners in Europe. After years of increasing numbers of episodic binge drinking among young people, since 2010/2011 consumption levels of the male youth appear to be dropping, while we see no change in risky drinking patterns among young women, however at lower...

  14. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption as a Social Group Indicator in Modern Russian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Roshchina; Petr Martynenko

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the correlation between alcohol consumption patterns in Russian cities and the characteristics of consumers, including their social status. The empirical dataset used in this study was generated from the Russian Target Group Index for 2000–2010 and produced by Synovate Comcon. The methods used in the study include correlation analyses, cluster analyses and correspondence analyses. The results of the study confirm that differences in alcohol consumption patterns are impor...

  15. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  16. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL ALCOHOL-SOLUBLE POLYORGANOSILOXANE CONTAINING AMINO SIDE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-qing Liu; Yang Liu; Zhong-rong Shen; Ping Xie; Rong-ben Zhang; Chao-bin He; Tai-shung Chung

    2001-01-01

    A novel alcohol-soluble polyorganosiloxane containing amino side groups, poly[3-(4-aminophenoxy)propylmethylsiloxane] (2), was first prepared by the reduction of nitro groups on 4-nitrophenoxypropyl side chains of poly[3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propylmethylsiloxane] (1). The reaction proceeded easily with nearly 100% conversion. The synthesized alcohol-soluble polymer 2, which has potential application as a precursor for preparing advanced functional polymers, was characterized by FTI1R 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 29Si-NMR, VPO and GPC, respectively.

  17. Alcohol Use among Italian University Students: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Peer Group Norms and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…

  18. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  19. A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Adjudicated College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lamb, Toby F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Quinlan, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement intervention with college students adjudicated for violation of alcohol policy. The intervention consisted of a timeline Followback assessment of drinking, social norms re-education, decisional balance for behavior change, relapse prevention, expectancy…

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  1. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function o...

  2. Comparison of Coping Mechanisms Between Alcoholics in Early Remission and Alcoholics in Remission at Least for 1 Year and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKLI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare coping mechanisms and appraisal of coping skills at various stages of remission in patients with alcohol dependence.Method: This was a cross sectional study comparing the results of 3 groups including group 1- patients with alcohol dependence and, group 2-patients with alcohol dependence and in remission for at least 1 year and group 3 – a control group consisting of healthy individuals without any history of substance use except smoking. Hamilton Depression Scale, Coping with Stress Scale, Problem Solving Inventory, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Inventory, Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were completed for all subjects.Results: The control group and persons with at least one year of remission used adaptive coping mechanisms more frequently. Factors associated with the degree of alcohol dependence, such ase age at the start of alcohol use and daily alcohol consumption were found to affect coping mechanisms and appraisal of coping skills. Persons attending Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings were found to use an indirect coping mechanism (seeking help, which is an adaptive coping skill in our culture, more frequently and were found to have less hopelessness.Conclusion: The results implied that patients with alcohol dependence who have been in remission more than 1 year and subjects attending AA meetings use adaptive coping mechanisms more frequently. It suggests coping skills treatment and attendance at AA meetings would improve long- term outcomes of alcohol dependence. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45: 37-47

  3. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarty Andrea S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47% and sport-related (56%. Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%, or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%, or content (22%. Public health professionals (47% appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%. Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or

  4. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  5. Prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols with a group contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The prediction of solubility of pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols was presented. ► Improved group contribution method UNIFAC was proposed for 42 binary mixtures. ► Infinite activity coefficients were used in a model. ► A semi-predictive model with one experimental point was proposed. ► This model qualitatively describes the temperature dependency of Pharms. -- Abstract: An improved group contribution approach using activity coefficients at infinite dilution, which has been proposed by our group, was used for the prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols [B. Moller, Activity of complex multifunctional organic compounds in common solvents, PhD Thesis, Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2009]. The solubility of 16 different pharmaceuticals in water, ethanol and octan-1-ol was predicted over a fairly wide range of temperature with this group contribution model. The predicted values, along with values computed with the Schroeder-van Laar equation, are compared to experimental results published by us previously for 42 binary mixtures. The predicted solubility values were lower than those from the experiments for most of the mixtures. In order to improve the prediction method, a semi-predictive calculation using one experimental solubility value was implemented. This one point prediction has given acceptable results when comparison is made to experimental values

  6. A Price Survey Comparison of Alcoholic Beverages with the Five Basic Food Groups in Paraiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Charles I.; Waylon Howard; Mia Zolna; Shakuntla Nain; Italo S. Aquino; Herbert R.Z. Moraes; Melanie M. Page; Zeyna Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The study of alcohol abuse is relatively new in Brazil. Government estimates suggest that 11.2% of the Brazilian population is alcohol dependent. Problems associated with alcohol dependence include domestic violence, increased risk of traffic accidents, poor self-esteem and weak academic performance. A factor known to correlate with alcohol abuse in 12-17 year olds is to have the money necessary to purchase alcoholic beverages. No data is available, however, on the price of alcoholic beverage...

  7. Consumo de alcohol y sus determinantes en estudiantes universitarios limeños: estudio de focus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Chau

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was performed using the focus group methodology with first year university students in Greater Lima, to learn about their drinking habits and explore the main determinants of their alcohol consumption. Four homogeneous focus groups (bygender and social class were organized, with group sizes between 5 and 9. Content analysis of the discussions revealed that the stressors experienced by these students are similar to those of other western adolescents, yet that economic difficulties and weight concerns (among females provide additional stress. Expectancies towards alcohol were predominantly positive and partly reflected those of American adolescents (social enhancement, tension reduction and improved cognitive/motor abilities, although additional expectancies were mentioned (pleasure, diversion, loss of inhibitions, selfconfidenceand group acceptance and others were considered less important (sexual enhancement, increased arousal, and cognitive/motor impairment. Self-efficacy to refuse alcohol was not perceived as an important determinant of alcohol use.

  8. Main-group compounds selectively oxidize mixtures of methane, ethane, and propane to alcohol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Brian G; Konnick, Michael M; Bischof, Steven M; Gustafson, Samantha J; Devarajan, Deepa; Gunsalus, Niles; Ess, Daniel H; Periana, Roy A

    2014-03-14

    Much of the recent research on homogeneous alkane oxidation has focused on the use of transition metal catalysts. Here, we report that the electrophilic main-group cations thallium(III) and lead(IV) stoichiometrically oxidize methane, ethane, and propane, separately or as a one-pot mixture, to corresponding alcohol esters in trifluoroacetic acid solvent. Esters of methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropanol, and propylene glycol are obtained with greater than 95% selectivity in concentrations up to 1.48 molar within 3 hours at 180°C. Experiment and theory support a mechanism involving electrophilic carbon-hydrogen bond activation to generate metal alkyl intermediates. We posit that the comparatively high reactivity of these d(10) main-group cations relative to transition metals stems from facile alkane coordination at vacant sites, enabled by the overall lability of the ligand sphere and the absence of ligand field stabilization energies in systems with filled d-orbitals. PMID:24626925

  9. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  10. Synthesis and Reactivity of Tripodal Complexes Containing Pendant Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Pegis, Michael L.; Raugei, Simone; Kaminsky, Werner; Forget, Amelie; Cook, Sarah; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S.; Mayer, James M.

    2014-09-02

    The synthesis of a new tripodal ligand family is reported, with tertiary-amine groups in the second-coordination sphere. The ligands are tris(amido)amine derivatives, with the pendant amines attached via a peptide coupling strategy. They were designed to be used in new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which the pendant acid/base group could improve catalyst performance. Two members of the new ligand family were each metallated with Co(II) and Zn(II) to afford trigonal monopyramidal complexes. Reaction of the cobalt complexes, [Co(L)]-, with dioxygen reversibly generates a small amount of a Co(III)-superoxo species, which was characterized by EPR. Protonation of the zinc complex Zn[N{CH2CH2NC(O)CH2N(CH2Ph)2}3)-– ([Zn(TNBn)]-) with one equivalent of acid occurs with displacement and dissociation of an amide ligand. Addition of excess acid to the any of the complexes [M(L)]- results in complete proteolysis and formation of the ligands H3L. This decomposition limits the use of these complexes as catalysts for the ORR. An alternative ligand with two pyridyl arms was also prepared but could not be metallated. These studies highlight the importance of stability of the primary-coordination sphere of ORR electrocatalysts to both oxidative and acidic conditions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  11. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. METHODOLOGY: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  12. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty Andrea S; Chapman Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in ...

  13. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlbring, Per; Forsberg, Lars; Rosendahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI), is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT. PMID:27069823

  14. The influence of pendant carboxylic acid loading on surfaces of statistical poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    synthesis with propargyl bromide and the copolymers were functionalized with pendant aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids by click chemistry. Differential scanning calorimetry of the copolymers demonstrates the large influence on Tg ofthe different functional groups and the backbone composition. In...... acid groups on the surface....

  15. Synthesis of acrylic copolymers consisting of multiple amine pendants for dispersing pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Hsu, Ru-Siou; Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Chang, Shinn-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chun; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2009-06-01

    A class of acrylic copolymers with narrow molecular weight distribution from butyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate comonomers via atom transfer radical polymerization was synthesized. Various types of polarities including hydroxyl-amines, glycols, and carboxylic acids were then grafted onto the oxirane side groups. The resultant comb-like copolymers with different polar pendants were tested for homogenizing a representative Yellow pigment in 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate medium. Specifically, the polyacrylates with 1,3-diamine pendants (7-10 multiplicity on each polymer strain) enabled to homogeneously disperse the pigment than the analogous copolymers with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups. Ultimately, the pigment dispersion with an average size of ca. 20 nm in diameter, high transmittance and low viscosity was achieved. Furthermore, the pigment dispersion was allowed to UV-cure into a film, and for the first time, the primary structures of the pigment particles (ca. 50 nm in diameter) were observed by transmission electronic microscope. PMID:19364609

  16. Developing a guide for community-based groups to reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. Methods A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms. Discussion There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts. Conclusions The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities. So what? This paper advances knowledge by providing a precise summary of Australian African migrant focused alcohol and other drug research to date. It also describes a three-step approach that aimed to incorporate a diversity of community views in the creation of a health promotion and community capacity-building resource. PMID:26726816

  17. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Enhanced catalytic four-electron dioxygen (O2) and two-electron hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction with a copper(II) complex possessing a pendant ligand pivalamido group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Saya; Peterson, Ryan L; Ohkubo, Kei; Karlin, Kenneth D; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-01

    A copper complex, [(PV-tmpa)Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (1) [PV-tmpa = bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl){[6-(pivalamido)pyrid-2-yl]methyl}amine], acts as a more efficient catalyst for the four-electron reduction of O2 by decamethylferrocene (Fc*) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (CF3COOH) in acetone as compared with the corresponding copper complex without a pivalamido group, [(tmpa)Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (2) (tmpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The rate constant (k(obs)) of formation of decamethylferrocenium ion (Fc*(+)) in the catalytic four-electron reduction of O2 by Fc* in the presence of a large excess CF3COOH and O2 obeyed first-order kinetics. The k(obs) value was proportional to the concentration of catalyst 1 or 2, whereas the k(obs) value remained constant irrespective of the concentration of CF3COOH or O2. This indicates that electron transfer from Fc* to 1 or 2 is the rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of the four-electron reduction of O2 by Fc* in the presence of CF3COOH. The second-order catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) for 1 is 4 times larger than the corresponding value determined for 2. With the pivalamido group in 1 compared to 2, the Cu(II)/Cu(I) potentials are -0.23 and -0.05 V vs SCE, respectively. However, during catalytic turnover, the CF3COO(-) anion present readily binds to 2 shifting the resulting complex's redox potential to -0.35 V. The pivalamido group in 1 is found to inhibit anion binding. The overall effect is to make 1 easier to reduce (relative to 2) during catalysis, accounting for the relative k(cat) values observed. 1 is also an excellent catalyst for the two-electron two-proton reduction of H2O2 to water and is also more efficient than is 2. For both complexes, reaction rates are greater than for the overall four-electron O2-reduction to water, an important asset in the design of catalysts for the latter. PMID:23509853

  19. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals Estudo das dermatoses e sua prevalencia em individuos comprovadamente alcoolistas comparativamente a um grupo de individuos não alcoolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho Bruno; Maria Aparecida Constantino Vilela; Carlos Alberto B. Mendes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES: to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group an...

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population. PMID:26384109

  1. Where It's At! The Role of Best Friends and Peer Group Members in Young Adults' Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Bot, Sander M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Sentse, Miranda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger

    2011-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that best friends and members from a broader peer group would not differ in the amount of influence they have on young adults' alcohol consumption and that what counts would be the mere presence of drinking peers in a given context-irrespective of the type of relationship

  2. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria T Moreira; Reza Oskrochi; Foxcroft, David R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF w...

  3. What Makes Group MET Work? A Randomized Controlled Trial of College Student Drinkers in Mandated Alcohol Diversion

    OpenAIRE

    LaChance, Heather; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally, college drinkers exhibit the highest rates of alcohol consumption and represent the largest percentage of problem drinkers. Group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) has been found to catalyze problem drinking reductions among college student samples. While research supporting the use of single-session GMET in college samples (general and mandated) is emergent, no studies have evaluated a comprehensive model of the potential active ingredients of this group intervention. Colle...

  4. The relationship between viewing US-produced television programs and intentions to drink alcohol among a group of Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exposure to US-produced television programs and family rules prohibiting alcohol use on the development of normative beliefs, expectancies, and intentions to drink alcohol in the next 12 months among a group of Norwegian adolescents who reported that they had not previously consumed alcohol. Data were collected via a survey administered to 622 eighth and ninth graders enrolled at ten junior highs in southeastern Norway. To examine these relationships we tested the fit of a structural equation model which was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1988). Data from the non-drinkers (n= 392, 63% of the respondents) were used. To control for the influence of peer drinking on behavioral intentions, our model was tested under two group conditions: (1) those subjects reporting that they have no friends who drink alcohol and (2) those subjects reporting that they have one or more friends who drink. The findings indicate that the influence of TV exposure was a significant predictor (directly) of normative beliefs, expectancies (indirectly) and intentions to drink (both directly and indirectly) only for those subjects who reported having no friends who drink. For the group with non-drinking friends, family rules constrain intentions only indirectly by influencing normative beliefs. For those with friends who drink, however, family rules have a direct (inverse) effect on intentions. It is concluded that exposure to US-produced television programs functions as a limited knowledge source only for those subjects who had little or no personal experience with alcohol while the presence of family rules have limited impact on behavioral intentions. PMID:16433660

  5. Examining the Efficacy of a Brief Group Protective Behavioral Strategies Skills Training Alcohol Intervention With College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    College students’ use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students’ use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women ran...

  6. Reactivity of Titanocene Pendant Si-H Group towards Alcohols. Unexpected Formation of Siloxanes from the Reaction of Hydrosilanes and Ph3COH Catalyzed by B(C6F5)3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Sýkora, Jan; Lamač, Martin; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Gyepes, Robert; Pinkas, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2013), s. 4122-4129. ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1574; GA ČR GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : methanol * hydrosylane reactivity * titanocene hydrides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2013

  7. Depressive Symptoms in People with and without Alcohol Abuse: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Across Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilie Skule; Pål Ulleberg; Hilde Dallavara Lending; Torkil Berge; Jens Egeland; Tim Brennen; Nils Inge Landrø

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- ...

  8. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  9. Novel approach to the preparation of hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Longin, O.; Černý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, SI (2015), s. 67-71. ISSN 0039-128X Grant ostatní: GA MV(CZ) VG20112015045 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : anabolic-androgenic steroid * ester formation * hemisuccinate * tertiary alcohol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.639, year: 2014

  10. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  11. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty

  12. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M; Poulsen, L K; Nielsen, G D

    2000-11-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice were boosted up to three times with OVA (0.1 microg sc) in saline. OVA-specific IgE antibodies were determined by the heterologous mouse rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The results were confirmed by a specific ELISA method. After the first booster, the Al(OH)(3) group and the 10 mg/l SDS group showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production. PMID:11038243

  13. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie eVilenne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old, young adult (17-18 year old and adult (35-55 year old participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7 or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11 drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of stimulation and sedation.Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age.Conclusions: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol.

  14. [Plasma ACTH, STH and other hormone levels in various groups under chlormethiazole, haloperidol or reserpine load in alchohol delirium, alcoholic hallucinations, and chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzański, T; Pieschl, D

    1976-01-01

    Studies of 135 men with safely diagnosed alcohol delirium mostly revealed increased ACTH blood values when sober and increased T4 values in about 1/3 of these patients. There is a correlation between the psychiatric clinical picture of the alcohol delirium and the ACTH content of the plasma. Under load with chloromethiazole, halperidole or with reserpine, there is a significant drop in the increased ACTH and T4 values. In an acute alcoholic hallucinosis (n=16) similar endocrinological changes as in most cases of safely diagnosed alcohol delirium were observed. In a chronic alcoholic hallucinosis (n=11) and in chronic alcoholics (n=31) the endocrinological values were similar to those of patients after alcohol delirium. PMID:181772

  15. Pendant-Drop Surface-Tension Measurement On Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kin Fung; Thiessen, David

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring surface tension of molten metal based on pendant-drop method implemented in quasi-containerless manner and augmented with digital processing of image data. Electrons bombard lower end of sample rod in vacuum, generating hanging drop of molten metal. Surface tension of drop computed from its shape. Technique minimizes effects of contamination.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of co-use of alcohol and tobacco among men in working age group (18-59 years in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between tobacco and alcohol use is very important in making strategies containing use of these products. Alcohol and tobacco use were studied separately in Indian studies, which can undermine their co-occurrences. The objective of the study is to know the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use among men in working age groups.Data Sources: The data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave1 was used. It was a cross sectional household survey, which collected information for adults aged 18 years and above.Results: The prevalence of co-use of tobacco and alcohol among men aged 18-59 years was 23.5%. High use of tobacco was found among alcohol user. Age cohorts were also the important determinants of alcohol and tobacco use. The inverted U or V-shape relation was found between age groups and co-use of tobacco and alcohol. The prevalence was lowest for age groups 18-24 years and 50-59 years. Low education attainment and working in informal sector were the main risk factors for high co-use of these substances among men. The study also tried to look at the relationship between the co-use of alcohol and tobacco with some selected health indicators. Use of alcohol and tobacco was significantly related with under nutrition and increasing blood pressure levels among men in India.Conclusion: To contain the use of alcohol and tobacco to improve heath condition among adult men, policies and strategies must be form keeping the importance of their co-occurrences.

  17. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  18. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets. PMID:16752110

  19. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  20. Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes About Treating Patients With Alcohol Addiction After Attending a Required Mutual Support Group

    OpenAIRE

    Neville, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction.

  1. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II across groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Skule

    Full Text Available This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions.

  2. Preparation of carboxy-group-contained polyvinyl alcohol amidoxime chelate fiber by preirradiation grafting and its adsorbability for Au(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxy-group-contained polyvinyl alcohol amidoxime chelate fiber (PVAAO-AAc) was synthesized by preirradiation graft copolymerization and amidoximation. The radiation dose and ratio of monomers, acrylonitrile and acrylic acid, influence the value of grafting rate, amidoxime group component and adsorption capacity. The properties of adsorbing Au(III) ions was systematic studied in the paper. (author)

  3. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  4. 3D Printing A Pendant with A Logo

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a 3D-print of a pendant that includes a logo. The methods described in this paper involve processing the image of the logo through a Mathematica script. These methods can be applied to many logos and other images. With the Mathematica script, a STereoLithography (.stl) file is created that can be used by a 3D printer. Finally, the object is created on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of ...

  5. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo;

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  6. Mixed Abuse of Alcohol and Drugs in Teenagers in Sweden vs. a Group from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzell, Sture

    1995-01-01

    Examined the subsequent life and development of teenagers under probation who abused alcohol and drugs. Suggests that regardless of the social environment in which they grow up, children, both boys and girls, are in a risk zone if they use alcohol and drugs, and there is an enormous gap in their social adjustment compared with children that do…

  7. Meta-analysis of propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease--a Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease.......The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  8. Measurement of surface and interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joseph D; Neeson, Michael J; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2015-09-15

    Pendant drop tensiometry offers a simple and elegant solution to determining surface and interfacial tension - a central parameter in many colloidal systems including emulsions, foams and wetting phenomena. The technique involves the acquisition of a silhouette of an axisymmetric fluid droplet, and iterative fitting of the Young-Laplace equation that balances gravitational deformation of the drop with the restorative interfacial tension. Since the advent of high-quality digital cameras and desktop computers, this process has been automated with high speed and precision. However, despite its beguiling simplicity, there are complications and limitations that accompany pendant drop tensiometry connected with both Bond number (the balance between interfacial tension and gravitational forces) and drop volume. Here, we discuss the process involved with going from a captured experimental image to a fitted interfacial tension value, highlighting pertinent features and limitations along the way. We introduce a new parameter, the Worthington number, Wo, to characterise the measurement precision. A fully functional, open-source acquisition and fitting software is provided to enable the reader to test and develop the technique further. PMID:26037272

  9. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  10. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol with a Thiol End Group on the Properties of Polyacrylic Dispersions and Spray-dried Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jindong; QIN Shaoxiong; LAN Renhua; CHEN Huanqin

    2007-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of highly shear-stable copolymer dispersions of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate were carried out using poly (vinyl alcohol) with a thiol end group (PVA-SH) as protective colloid. The dispersions can be transformed into corresponding redispersible powder via a spray dryingcooling process. On-line FT-IR monitoring shows that grafting polymer of PVA-g-PMMA was formed mainly at the stage-1 of the emulsion polymerization. TEM images show, the PVA-SH shell was fragmentary when adding SDS at initial stage and integrated when adding at particle growing or final stage. The particle size turns to be smaller when delayed adding SDS surfactant. Triethanolamine, a co-regulator of PVA-SH, controlled the Mn to 50 000-70 000 and reduced the PDI to 1.5-1.7. The acrylic dispersions with 0.8wt%-1.5wt% PVA-SH1 can be spray-dried into super dispersible polymer powder (SDPP), which can easily disperse in water and form reconstituted dispersions with an average particle size smaller than 1 micron.

  11. A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Labeled, Parallel Group Trial of Sildenafil in Alcohol-Associated Erectile Dysfunction: The Impact on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Grinshpoon; Ira Radomislensky; Lev Averbuch; Alexander M. Ponizovsky

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction (ED) and psychosocial outcomes in alcohol-dependent (AD) men, 108 men with these diagnoses were randomly assigned to either take sildenafil (50 mg) as add-on to standard treatment for AD, or the same treatment without sildenafil, for 12 weeks. Only 50 patients in sildenafil group and 51 in control group twice completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and a battery of self-report questionnaires. IIEF scores and psy...

  12. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  13. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E) ) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs ) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E) and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7. PMID:24489741

  14. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs using the experimental values such as densities (ρ and ultrasonic sound velocities (u that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  15. A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences in Adjudicated College Women

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Thompson, Alysha D.; Huchting, Karen; Lac, Andrew; Buckley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    College students who violate campus alcohol policies (adjudicated students) are at high risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences and for undermining campus life. Further, college women may be especially at risk due to differential intoxication effects and sexual consequences experienced mainly by female students. Research on interventions for adjudicated students, especially adjudicated females, has been limited. One hundred and fifteen college women who received a sanction...

  16. On the Odd Gracefulness of Cyclic Snakes With Pendant Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Badr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graceful and odd gracefulness of a graph are two entirely different concepts. A graph may posses one orboth of these or neither. We present four new families of odd graceful graphs. In particular we show an oddgraceful labeling of the linear kC4 − snake e mK1 and therefore we introduce the odd graceful labeling of4 1 kC − snake e mK ( for the general case . We prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC − snake is oddgraceful. We also prove that the subdivision of linear 3 kC − snake with m-pendant edges is odd graceful.Finally, we present an odd graceful labeling of the crown graph n 1 P e mK .

  17. Development and Implementation of CHOICES Group to Reduce Drinking, Improve Contraception, and Prevent Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; Ingersoll, Karen; Pourier, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Public health officials assert that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) should begin before conception, by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk for or planning pregnancy, and/or preventing pregnancy in women who are drinking at risky levels. One such effort is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program. While the OST CHOICES Program has been successfully implemented, a community-based needs assessment determined that the OST CHOICES intervention should expand and be delivered in a group setting using group motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. After extensive group MI and CHOICES group trainings, recruitment for CHOICES Group began and within a ten month period, a total of twelve groups with non-pregnant American Indian women were held for this pilot intervention. Evaluations completed by participants indicated that CHOICES Group sessions positively engaged members, had low levels of anger or tension, and had average levels of avoidance of personal responsibility. An evaluation of the CHOICES Group leaders indicated strengths in certain MI skills, although improvement is needed in some core MI and group leadership skills. This is an important expansion of a successful AEP prevention program (CHOICES), as well as a novel application of MI, and recommendations and future plans for this intervention are outlined. PMID:26265591

  18. Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weichao; Xie Hui; Ou Lailiang; Wang Lianyong; Yu Yaoting; Kong Deling [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun Lisha, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.c, E-mail: kongdeling@nankai.edu.c [General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A new low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent with phosphate groups as the ligand was prepared in this study. Macroporous poly(vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) microspheres were prepared using a free-radical suspension polymerization method. A hydrolysis reaction in sodium hydroxide/methanol changed the materials into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres. Further reaction with phosphorus oxychloride in anhydrous DMF led to the LDL adsorbent PVA-phosphate microspheres. The preparation conditions such as reaction time, temperature and the amount of phosphorus oxychloride were optimized. The adsorption of plasma lipoproteins was examined by in vitro adsorption assays. The influence of adsorption time, plasma volume and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity was investigated. The circulation adsorption showed that the pathogenic lipoproteins in the plasma such as total cholesterol (TC), LDL and triglyceride (TG) could be removed markedly, in which the removal percentages were 42.9%, 45.0% and 44.74%, respectively. However, the reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and other normal plasma components was very slight. For in vivo experiment, rabbits were fed with high-cholesterol food to develop a hyperlipidemia model and treated by extracorporeal blood perfusion using the PVA-phosphate columns. Eight hyperlipidemia rabbits were treated with the PVA-phosphate adsorbent, and the removal of TC, LDL and TG was 45.03 +- 6.64%, 48.97 +- 9.92% and 35.42 +- 14.17%, respectively. The sterilization and storage tests showed that the adsorbent was chemically and functionally stable. It could be easily sterilized by a common method and stored for months without loss of adsorption capacity. Therefore, this new PVA-phosphate-based LDL adsorbent may have potential for application in LDL apheresis.

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  20. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M;

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  1. Alcohol drinking increases the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol and reduces D2 auto-receptor and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor function within the posterior ventral tegmental area of alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J

    2016-10-01

    Repeated local administration of ethanol (EtOH) sensitized the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the local dopamine (DA)-stimulating effects of EtOH. Chronic alcohol drinking increased nucleus accumbens (NAC) DA transmission and pVTA glutamate transmission in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of chronic alcohol drinking by P rats on the (a) sensitivity and response of the pVTA DA neurons to the DA-stimulating actions of EtOH, and (b) negative feedback control of DA (via D2 auto-receptors) and glutamate (via group II mGlu auto-receptors) release in the pVTA. EtOH (50 or 150 mg%) or the D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 or 200 μM) was microinjected into the pVTA while DA was sampled with microdialysis in the NAC shell (NACsh). The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (1 or 10 μM) was perfused through the pVTA via reverse microdialysis and local extracellular glutamate and DA levels were measured. EtOH produced a more robust increase of NACsh DA in the 'EtOH' than 'Water' groups (e.g., 150 mg% EtOH: to ∼ 210 vs 150% of baseline). In contrast, sulpiride increased DA release in the NACsh more in the 'Water' than 'EtOH' groups (e.g., 200 μM sulpiride: to ∼ 190-240 vs 150-160% of baseline). LY341495 (at 10 μM) increased extracellular glutamate and DA levels in the 'Water' (to ∼ 150-180% and 180-230% of baseline, respectively) but not the 'EtOH' groups. These results indicate that alcohol drinking enhanced the DA-stimulating effects of EtOH, and attenuated the functional activities of D2 auto-receptors and group II mGluRs within the pVTA. PMID:27260326

  2. Personality profile and drug of choice; a multivariate analysis using Cloninger's TCI on heroin addicts, alcoholics, and a random population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bon, O; Basiaux, P; Streel, E; Tecco, J; Hanak, C; Hansenne, M; Ansseau, M; Pelc, I; Verbanck, P; Dupont, S

    2004-02-01

    As personality may predispose, precipitate or perpetuate substance abuse and/or dependence, and as it is considered to remain stable across the years in a given subject, potential links with the drug of choice may help screen future patients before drug consumption. The present study compared three groups: 42 patients with heroin dependence (mean age: 31.2; standard deviation (SD): 5.5; 10 females), 37 patients with alcohol dependence (mean age 44.2; SD: 9.1; 9 females) and 83 subjects from a random population sample (mean age: 38.8; SD: 6.9; 20 females). Personality was measured by Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Pillai's MANCOVA with age as a covariate and gender as a cofactor was highly significant. Univariate ANOVA analyses using TCI dimensions as dependent variable showed most variables to vary in parallel for the two patient groups in comparison with controls. Post-hoc tests showed heroin patients to score higher in Novelty-Seeking and Self-Directedness than alcohol patients. Sub-dimensions Exploratory Excitability, Fear of the Uncertain, Responsibility, Congruent Second Nature and Transpersonal Identification were also significantly different in the two patient samples. Logistic regression showed Exploratory Excitability to segregate up to 76% of heroin patients from alcohol patients. In conclusion, personality profiles were linked to some preferential choice of drug and personality screening might be tested in preventive strategies. PMID:14725957

  3. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  5. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  6. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals Estudo das dermatoses e sua prevalencia em individuos comprovadamente alcoolistas comparativamente a um grupo de individuos não alcoolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES: to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women, members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS: Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION: the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. FUNDAMENTOS: A relação direta entre o alcoolismo e as dermatoses vem sendo avaliada em recentes pesquisas. No entanto são poucos os estudos objetivos que demonstram e comprovam uma relação direta entre o álcool e uma determinada dermatose. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de dermatoses em alcoolistas, avaliar as alterações dermatológicas encontradas nesses doentes e sua evolução frente abstin

  7. Effect of an alcohol-based caries detector on the surface tension of sodium hypochlorite preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Guastalli, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an alcohol-based caries detector (Kurakay) on the surface tension of a conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparation, and a product containing a surface-active agent (Chlor-XTRA). The surface tensions of the following solutions were tested: NaOCl, a mixture of NaOCl and Kurakay 9:1 w/w, Chlor-XTRA, a mixture of Chlor-XTRA and Kurakay 9:1 w/w. Ten measurements per test solution were made at 20°C, using an optical method called the "Pendant drop method", with a commercially available apparatus. The addition of Kurakay reduced the surface tension for NaOCl (p0.05). Statistically significant differences between the NaOCl and Chlor-XTRA groups were found (proot canal irrigants in vitro, the related changes in surface tension are a possible source of bias. PMID:25672387

  8. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  9. Studies of Alcoholics Anonymous (and similar self-help group) affiliation in longitudinal samples of treated and untreated problem and dependent drinkers in the U.S. and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Witbrodt, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Background AA has become an important adjunct to alcoholism treatment worldwide. As well, many persons turn to AA as a first (sometimes only) source of help for a drinking problem. Thus, these groups represent a significant resource for the handling of alcohol problems, both at the system level and the individual level. The primary aim of this thesis is to further the knowledge on who benefits from AA (and similar self- help group) affiliation, both proximally and distally. This research is f...

  10. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  11. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  12. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  13. Nanofabrication of Block Copolymers of PDMS/Polyamide having Trichlorogermyl Pendant Using LbL Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block copolymers (AB)x type of aminopropyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (NH2- PDMS) and polyamides trichlorogermyl pendant group were prepared by a solution phase one pot polycondensation method. The prepared block copolymers were assembled with polyethylene-alt- (maleic) anhydride (PEMA) as multilayered thin film assembly through covalently linked Layer by Layer (LbL) technique using dipping method. The prepared thin films had thickness in the range of 15 to 20 nm as measured on an ellipsometers. In the systems where quartz was used as substrate, film growth after each deposition was monitored through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, which substantiated the multilayer film build-up. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) images showed homogeneous and robust film, which were strong enough to endure the force of 400 nN. As the block copolymers are thermally stable and have the capacity to absorb water, so their prepared robust ultra-thin films can show potential of thermally resistant nano thin films, protective hydrophilic coatings in addition to separation membranes. (author)

  14. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  15. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  16. A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Labeled, Parallel Group Trial of Sildenafil in Alcohol-Associated Erectile Dysfunction: The Impact on Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grinshpoon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction (ED and psychosocial outcomes in alcohol-dependent (AD men, 108 men with these diagnoses were randomly assigned to either take sildenafil (50 mg as add-on to standard treatment for AD, or the same treatment without sildenafil, for 12 weeks. Only 50 patients in sildenafil group and 51 in control group twice completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and a battery of self-report questionnaires. IIEF scores and psychosocial functioning, self-esteem and support from friends improved only for sildenafil-treated patients (P < 0.001. The high effect sizes suggest that the observed benefits are unlikely to be a placebo effect, although their unspecific nature could not be ruled out. In men with ED associated with AD, sildenafil improves both ED and psychosocial outcomes. Further placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted.

  17. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  18. The Intersection of All Maximum Stable Sets of a Tree and its Pendant Vertices

    OpenAIRE

    Levit, Vadim E.; Mandrescu, Eugen

    2000-01-01

    A stable set in a graph G is a set of mutually non-adjacent vertices, alpha(G) is the size of a maximum stable set of G, and core(G) is the intersection of all its maximum stable sets. In this paper we demonstrate that in a tree T, of order n greater than 1, any stable set of size greater or equal to n/2 contains at least one pendant vertex. Hence, we deduce that any maximum stable set in a tree contains at least one pendant vertex. Our main finding is the theorem claiming that if T does not ...

  19. Influence of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the -alkylation of the lower rim phenolic-OH groups of -tert-butyl-calix[4]arene to result in amide-pendants: Template action of K+ and the structure of K+ bound tetra-amide derivative crystallized with a -tert-butylcalix[4]arene anion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amjad Ali; Chebrolu P Rao; Philippe Guionneau

    2008-03-01

    Role of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the formation of calix[4]arene-amide derivatives through -alkylation of the lower rim phenolic-OH groups in general and template action of K+ in particular have been explored. Na+ and K+ ions among alkali, and Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions among alkaline earth have shown tetra-amide derivatives bound to metal ion species. Among all these, potassium salts act as template and yields a K+ bound tetra-amide derivative where the charge is counter balanced by a calix[4] arene-monoanion and the product is crystallographically characterized. Change in the amide precursor used in these -alkylation reactions has no effect on the type of the amide derivative formed. Also demonstrated is a direct one-step reaction for the preparation of 1,3-di-amide derivative in high yield and low reaction period using CsHCO3.

  20. Comparing electronic-keypad responses to paper-and-pencil questionnaires in group assessments of alcohol consumption and related attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph; Earleywine, Mitch; Lamb, Toby; Shelesky, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Electronic versions of questionnaires have the potential to improve research and interventions in the addictions. Administering questionnaires electronically to groups, however, has proven difficult without a multitude of computers, but gathering data electronically from a group could make for easy assessment and quick feedback. Using a sample of 107 college students, we examined the validity of wireless keypad survey responses by comparing them to traditional paper-and-pencil questionnaires....

  1. Electroluminescent and photophysical properties of near-infrared luminescent lanthanide(III) monoporphyrinate complexes and pendant polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Garry Brian

    The photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of substituted lanthanide monoporphyrinate complexes were investigated. The lanthanide complexes consisted of a lanthanide (Yb3+) coordinated to a substituted porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin(TMPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TPyP), or 5,10,15,20-tetra(4(2'-ethylhexyloxy)porphyrin (TPP_OEH) and a capping ligand, L. The capping ligand was either an tris-pyrazoylborate (TP), (cyclopentadienyl)tris(diethoxyphosphito-P)cobaltate (L(OEt)3) or quinolinato (Q) anion. The complexes were synthesized to influence the electronic properties of the complex. The optical absorption and emission of these complexes resembled previously studied lanthanide porphyrin complexes, with photoluminescent yields ranging from 0.01 to 0.04. Electroluminescence was observed for the porphyrin complexes blended into polystyrene. External quantum efficiencies were typically 10-4, suggesting that changes to the porphyrin structure have little effect on the electronic nature of the complex. Blending the electron transporting AlQ3 into the device improved the external quantum efficiencies by an order of magnitude, suggesting that carrier transport is the culprit for poor device performance. Conjugated polyacetylenes containing a Zinc porphyrin pendant were synthesized by an insertion type polymerization using [Rh(NBD)Cl]2. The homopolymer (poly(ZnETPP) and copolymers of ethynyl benzene (poly(ZnETPP)-co-(PE)), an oxadiazole containing group (poly(ZnETPP)-co-(PEOXAD), or 1-ethynyl-3,5-trifluoromethylbenzene (poly(ZnETPP)-co-(3,5CF3PE) were synthesized. The optical properties were studied and it was found that the homopolymer exhibited excitonic coupling due to the overlap of the porphyrin pendants. Substitution of other co-monomers reduced this coupling allowing the return of typical ZnTPP optical properties. Neither absorption nor emission from the polyacetylene

  2. Crystal structures of two decavanadates(V with pentaaquamanganese(II pendant groups: (NMe42[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício P. Franco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two heterometallic decavanadate(V compounds, bis(tetramethylammonium decaaquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexadeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidodimanganese(IIdecavanadate(V pentahydrate, (Me4N2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis{[tris(hydroxymethylmethyl]ammonium} decaaquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexadeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidodimanganese(IIdecavanadate(V dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH25]2+ complex units bound to the decavanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the decavanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetramethylammonium and [tris(hydroxymethylmethyl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water molecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water molecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent molecules and, in B, through the `tris' cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N—H...O hydrogen bonds. A number of C—H...O interactions are also observed in both structures.

  3. Enumeration of sugars and sugar alcohols hydroxyl groups by aqueous-based acetylation and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for enumerating hydroxyl groups on analytes in aqueous media is described, and applied to some common polyalcohols (erythritol, mannitol, and xylitol) and selected carbohydrates. The analytes were derivatized in water with vinyl acetate in presence of sodium phosphate buffer. ...

  4. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  5. Protonation Studies of a Mono-Dinitrogen Complex of Chromium Supported by a 12-Membered Phosphorus Macrocycle Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, Michael T.; Pierpont, Aaron W.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; O' Hagan, Molly J.; Chen, Shentan; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2015-05-18

    The first example of a mono-dinitrogen Cr0 complex, Cr(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3), 2(N2), (PPh3NBn3 = 1,5,9-tribenzyl-3,7,11-triphenyl-1,5,9-triaza-3,7,11-triphosphacyclododecane; dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) containing a pentaphosphine coordination environment is described. 2(N2) is supported by a unique facially coordinating 12-membered phosphorus macrocycle containing pendant amine groups in the second coordination sphere. Treatment of 2(N2) at -78 °C with 1 equiv of [H(OEt2)2][B(C6F5)4] results in protonation of the metal center, generating the 7-coordinate Cr(II)-N2 hydride complex, [Cr(H)(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3)][B(C6F5)4], [2(H)(N2)]+. Treatment of 2(15N2) with excess triflic acid at -50 °C afforded a trace amount of 15NH4+ from the reduction of the coordinated 15N2 ligand (electrons originate from Cr). Augmenting the acid reactivity studies, electronic structure calculations evaluated the pKa values of three sites of 2(N2) (metal center, pendant amine, and N2 ligand) to elucidate possible Cr-NxHy intermediates involved in the N2 reduction pathways from the protonation of 2(N2). This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    CERN Document Server

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Irwin, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  7. Copolymerizations of chiral phenylacetylenes having an L-amino alcohol residue and an achiral phenylacetylene having a dodecyl group, used as gas separation membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three novel polyphenylacetylene gas separation membranes were synthesized. • The copolymers adopted one-handed helical conformations. • The separation selectivity factor of CO2/N2 was 17.9. • The CO2 permeability coefficient of CO2/N2 was 77 Barrers. - Abstract: Three chiral phenylacetylenes having an L-amino alcohol residue and two hydroxymethyl groups and an achiral phenylacetylene having two hydroxyl groups and a dodecyl group were copolymerized by using an achiral catalyst ((nbd)Rh+[η6-(C6H5)B−(C6H5)3]) (nbd = norbornadiene) to produce copolymers with Mw of 0.5 × 104–15.2 × 104. The copolymers exhibited the Cotton effect at wavelengths assignable to the main chain, indicating that the copolymers adopted one-handed helical conformations. Self-supporting membranes of the resulting copolymers were prepared by the solution casting method. We measured the gas permeabilities (CO2/N2, CO2/CH4) of the copolymer membranes. The separation selectivity factor of CO2/N2 was 17.9, and the CO2 permeability coefficient of CO2/N2 was 77 Barrers

  8. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols and esters with esters containing tertiary alcohols ethers (chemical group 6 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 6 consists of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols and esters with esters containing tertiary alcohols ethers, of which 13 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The high use level proposed by the applicant for linalool (25 mg/kg complete feed is safe for salmonids, veal calves, cattle for fattening and pets (excluding cats without a margin of safety with the exception of dogs (SF = 1.4. The safe use level for pigs and dairy cows is 20, for piglets 12 and for poultry 10 mg/kg complete feed. The high use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for linalyl acetate, linalyl butyrate, linalyl formate, linalyl propionate, linalyl isobutyrate, terpineol, α-terpineol and terpineol acetate and 4-terpinenol is safe for all species with a margin of safety of 1.2 to 12. For nerolidol, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4-methylphenylpropan-2-ol, the maximum safe concentration is 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species. The absence of a margin of safety would not allow the simultaneous administration in feed and water for drinking of the following compounds: linalool, nerolidol, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4methylphenylpropan-2-ol. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 6 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. All compounds of CG 6 are predicted to be safe to the soil compartment when used at levels safe to the target species. Using predictions based on chemical structure, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4-methylphenylpropan-2-ol were estimated to be safe to aquatic compartments. In the absence of experimental data, safety to aquatic compartments could not be established for linalyl butyrate, linalyl isobutyrate, terpineol acetate, 4

  10. Synthetic transformations of a pendant nitrile moiety in group 4 metallocene complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Císařová, I.; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Lamač, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 19 (2013), s. 7101-7110. ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P200 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : structural characterization * chemistry * functional titanocenes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2013

  11. Intramolecular activation of a pendant nitrile group in Ti and Zr metallocene complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal; Gyepes, Robert; Císařová, I.; Pinkas, Jiří; Kubišta, Jiří; Lamač, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 787, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 56-64. ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : metallocene * titanium * zirconium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2014

  12. Polythiophenes based on pyrene as pendant group: Synthesis, structural characterization and luminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Juárez, E.; Güizado-Rodríguez, M.; Barba, V.; Melgoza-Ramírez, M.; Rodríguez, M.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Maldonado, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Novel polythiophenes (PTs) derived from 3-alkylthiophenes (R = hexyl, octyl) and a thiophene functionalized with pyrene chromophore were synthesized. A homopolymer and copolymers were obtained by using different stoichiometric ratios, and their photophysical properties were investigated. Physicochemically characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, DSC-TGA and GPC as well as fluorescence spectroscopy, the new PTs reached moderate molecular weight distributions, exhibited good thermal properties and were easily processable for depositing films of satisfactory optical quality with third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of approximately 10-12 esu. The new PTs showed absorption and emission bands ranging from 346 to 430 nm, and from 450 to 570 nm, respectively, with quantum yields between 0.07 and 0.25. In addition, nanoparticles were obtained from the PTs by using the mini-emulsion technique. Their spectroscopic characteristics and morphology were determined by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and SEM analysis.

  13. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of [Cp′Co(COD)] Complexes Bearing Pendant N-Containing Groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiel, I.; Lamač, Martin; Jiao, H.; Spannenberg, A.; Hapke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2013), s. 3415-3418. ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P200 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : FUNCTIONALIZED CYCLOPENTADIENYL LIGANDS * SANDWICH COBALT COMPLEXES * METALLOCENE COMPLEXES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2013

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol fibers with functional phosphonic acid group. Synthesis and adsorption of uranyl (VI) ions in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PVA functionalized with vinylphosphonic acid was prepared as a new adsorbent for uranyl (VI) adsorption from aqueous solutions. The vinylphosphonic acid was cografted onto PVA fibers by preirradiation grafting technique. The adsorbent were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorbent was observed to possess a fibrous structure and was bonded with phosphonic acid groups successfully. The adsorbent was used for the adsorption of low levels uranyl (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of analytical parameters including pH, adsorption time, amount of adsorbent, metal ion concentration, and temperature were investigated on the recovery of uranyl (VI) ion in aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacity (32.1 mg g-1) and fast equilibrium time (30 min) were achieved at pH of 4.5 at room temperature. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH° = 2.695 kJ mol-1; ΔS° = 31.15 J mol-1 K-1; ΔG° = -6.748 kJ mol-1) show the adsorption of an exothermic process and spontaneous nature, respectively. The possible coordination mechanism was illustrated. Adsorption and desorption coexist in aqueous solutions and then the system becomes equilibrium. (author)

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  16. Hole-transporting and emitting pendant polymers for organic electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Mutaguchi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Nagamatsu, Daisuke; Tanaka, Masatake; Okumoto, Kenji; Ohsedo, Yutaka; Shirota, Yasuhiko

    2006-08-01

    New hole-transporting pendant polymers with high glass-transition temperatures (Tgs) above 200 °C were designed and synthesized. Multilayer organic electroluminescent (EL) devices using the new polymers as the hole-transport layer and quinacridone-doped tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum as the emitting layer exhibited high performance. One of the hole-transporting polymers functioned well as a hole injection buffer layer in organic EL devices. New green- and orange-emitting pendant polymers with high Tgs and desired ambipolar character were also designed and synthesized. Organic EL devices using these emitting polymers also exhibited good performance. One of the hole-transporting polymer showed a high hole carrier mobility of over 10 -3 cm2V -1s -1 at an electric field of 1.0 × 10 5 Vcm -1, as determined by a time-of-flight method.

  17. "Alcohol Myopia," Expectations, Social Interests, and Sorority Pledge Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines "alcohol myopia" (an increased use of alcohol in the face of increased negative consequences of use) in freshman college women with or without sorority pledge status. Increased alcohol use and alcohol myopia were present in the sorority pledge group. Both groups showed anomalous myopic behavior as alcohol use increased. (RJM)

  18. A poly(p-phenylene ethynylene vinylene) with pendant fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Ramos, A.; Rispens, M.T; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, R. A. J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to obtain a predefined nanoscopic phase segregation of semiconducting polymers and fullerenes for application in photovoltaic devices we have prepared a conjugated polymer with dangling fullerenes. For this purpose an oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) with acetylene end groups has been polymerized with a diiodo-aryl-fullerene derivative via a Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction. Photoinduced absorption (PIA) and photoluminescence spectra give evidence of a photoinduced electron transfer in this...

  19. Use of the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Y. Arashiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the pendant drop method to measure interfacial tension between molten polymers is reviewed. A typical pendant drop apparatus is presented. The algorithms used to infer interfacial tension from the geometrical profile of the pendant drop are described in details, in particular a new routine to evaluate correctly the value of the radius at the apex of the drop, necessary to the calculation of interfacial tension is presented. The method was evaluated for the possibility of measuring the interfacial tension between polyethylene and polystyrene. It is shown that the method is unsuitable for the measurement of interfacial tension between high density polyethylene and polystyrene due possibly to a too small difference of density between the two polymers. Values of interfacial tension between low density polyethylene (LDPE and polystyrene (PS as a function of the molecular weight of PS are presented. It was shown that the interfacial tension between LDPE and PS increased as a function of molecular weight of PS up to values of molecular weight of roughly 40,000 g/mol, value for which entanglements occur.

  20. Controlled release of volatile secondary and tertiary alcohols by neighboring group participation: stepwise cyclization and re-opening of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Alain; Govoni, Alexandra; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Frérot, Eric; Herrmann, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    Bioactive, volatile, secondary and tertiary fragrance alcohols are efficiently released by intramolecular neighboring-group-assisted hydrolysis of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH. The stepwise cyclization of 2,2'-[(methylimino)bis(propane-3,1-diylcarbamoyl)]dibenzoates is followed by the re-opening of the intermediately formed diphthalimide and proceeds in an overall four-step consecutive reaction sequence. Kinetic rate constants for all four reaction steps could be determined pairwise by reversed-phase HPLC. At neutral pH, secondary alcohols were released by one order of magnitude faster than the tertiary alcohols, and the rate constants for the re-opening of the diphthalimides were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the release of the tertiary alcohols. Dynamic headspace analysis on a dry cotton surface finally confirmed the efficient release of tertiary alcohols under mild reaction conditions generally encountered for applications in functional perfumery. PMID:19089821

  1. Low clinical relevance of risky alcohol consumption in a selected group of high adherent HIV-infected patients attended in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gonzalez Baeza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, associated factors and its impact on the brain is not well established in clinically stable HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Within the PIVOT neurocognitive sub-study, effectively suppressed HIV-infected adults on either standard cART or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT designed to detect risky alcohol consumption. They also completed a brief neuropsychological assessment (NPZ 5 composed by five measures. For this cross-sectional analysis, we calculated rates of hazardous (AUDIT=8–15 or harmful (AUDIT=16–19 consumption and likely dependence (AUDIT>20. We explored the association between risky alcohol intakes (AUDIT>8 and clinical/demographical variables, conducting logistic regressions when significant association was found (p<.05. Also, the association between cognitive performance and alcohol consumption was calculated and adjusted by potential confounders. Results: Of the 146 included participants, the majority were male (86.3%, white (81.5% and educated (mean years on formal education=15, SD=3.9. Average age was 47.6 years (SD=8.7, and 36.3% had risky consumption (29.5% hazardous, 6.2% harmful, 0.7% likely dependence. White ethnicity and male sex were positively associated with risky consumption (Table 1. After adjustments, white ethnicity remained significantly associated with risky consumption (1.64 [95% CI 0.34–2.95]; p=0.013. Better cognitive performance was associated with risky alcohol consumption in the univariate analysis (p<.001. After adjustment by ethnicity, sex and years of education, cognitive performance and risky alcohol consumption maintained significant association (0.45 [95% CI 0.19–0.70] p=0.001. Conclusions: Despite the substantially high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, it was not associated with worse adherence, immunological or quality of life measures in this cohort of

  2. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a....... The second type copolymers have diblock architecture with one.of the blocks being sulfopropyl~ed. They were synthesized via ATRP of 2,3,4,5,6pentafluorostyrene (FS) initiated by PTFMS-macroinitiator followed by demethylation and sulfopropylation performed on the TFMS-block (Scheme 1). The) copolymers...

  3. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  4. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  5. Características individuales y de la estructura familiar de un grupo de adolescentes abusadores de alcohol y/o marihuana Individual and family structure characteristics of a group of adolescents abusers of alcohol and/or cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Reginald Rees; Alejandra Valenzuela

    2003-01-01

    Antecedentes. Entre los factores más importantes para la comprensión y tratamiento del abuso y/o adicción a alcohol y/o marihuana se encuentran los rasgos de la personalidad del sujeto, las variables sociales y las características de su estructura familiar. Objetivos. Describir características de la personalidad y otras variables individuales de un grupo de adolescentes consumidores de alcohol y/o marihuana y las características estructurales de sus familias. Método. 16 adolescentes con sus f...

  6. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  8. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  9. “Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Simon Chapman

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We ...

  10. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélie eVilenne; Etienne eQuertemont

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old), young adult (17-18 year old) and adult (35-55 year old)...

  11. Explicit and Implicit Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Problem and Non-Problem Drinkers: Differences Across Age Groups from Young Adolescence to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old), young adult (17-18 year old), and adult (35-55 year ol...

  12. Histomorphologic liver abnormalities in a group of alcoholic patients Alteraciones histomorfológicas hepáticas en un grupo de pacientes alcohólicos

    OpenAIRE

    Merlyn Arce Núñez.; Libán Álvarez Cáceres; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola

    2010-01-01

    Background: the ingestion of alcohol has been directly involved in the development of liver diseases. Nowadays, the liver damage by ethanol is a serious health problem all over the world. To achieve satisfactory results In order to face it, it is necessary to provide multidisciplinary attention. Objective: to determine the histomorphologic liver impairments in alcoholic patients. Methods: an observational, ...

  13. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  14. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  15. Ethnicity and Health Disparities in Alcohol Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Karen; Caetano, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in alcohol research continue to build our understanding of alcohol consumption and related consequences for U.S. ethnic minority groups. National surveys show variations across ethnicities in drinking, alcohol use disorders, alcohol problems, and treatment use. Higher rates of high-risk drinking among ethnic minorities are reported for Native Americans and Hispanics, although within–ethnic group differences (e.g., gender, age-group, and other subpopulations) also are evident f...

  16. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  17. Design of Novel β-Carboline Derivatives with Pendant 5-Bromothienyl and Their Evaluation as Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamil, Dalia S.; Ahmed, Nermin S.; Gary, Bernard D.; Piazza, Gary A.; Engel, Matthias; Hartmann, Rolf W.; Abadi, Ashraf H.

    2016-01-01

    New derivatives with the tetrahydro-β-carboline-imidazolidinedione and tetrahydro-β-carboline-piperazinedione scaffolds and a pendant bromothienyl moiety at C-5/C-6 were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit PDE5 in vitro. The following SAR can be concluded: The tetracyclic scaffold is essential for PDE5 inhibition; the ethyl group is the most suitable among the adopted N-substituents on the terminal ring (hydantoin/piperazinedione); the appropriate stereochemistry of C-5/C-6 derived from the aldehyde rather than C-11a/C-12a derived from tryptophan appears crucial for inhibition of PDE5; surprisingly, derivatives with the hydantoin terminal ring are more active than their analogs with the piperazinedione ring; the selectivity versus PDE5 relative to PDE11 with cGMP as a substrate is mainly a function of the substitution and stereochemistry pattern of the external ring, in other words of the interaction with the H-loop residues of the isozymes. Thirteen derivatives showed PDE5 inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 0.16–5.4 μm. Compound 8 was the most potent PDE5 inhibitor and showed selectivity towards PDE5 versus other PDEs, with a selectivity index of 49 towards PDE5 rather than PDE11 with cGMP as the substrate. PMID:23307609

  18. Non-Destructive investigation of a scalenohedral hematite pendant from Bahrain, c. 1800 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Parisatto, Matteo; Højlund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    A scalenohedral hematite pendant (presumably a pseudomorph after a calcite crystal), excavated on Bahrain (ancient Dilmun) in the Persian Gulf from layers dated to c.1800 bc, was investigated using X-ray computed microtomography. The internal porosity was studied in 3D, showing a preferential...... concentration of small pores in the central part, where carbonate remnants might still be present, and larger, flattened, elongated voids in the subsurface portion. Part of the scalenohedron can be described as an intergrowth of platy hematite crystals. Microtomography also yielded data on pore...

  19. Lasing characteristics of a pendant drop deformed by an applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, X Y; Lee, W K

    2000-04-01

    The lasing properties of an oval-shaped resonant cavity (ORC) with a continuously variable aspect ratio have been studied. The ORC was formed with a dye-doped pendant drop placed inside a variable static electric field. When the drop ORC was pumped by a nitrogen laser, lasing from the ORC was found to have strong directional emission characteristics and an intensity enhancement factor as great as 19.5. Calculated results of light rays escaping from ORC's by refraction are in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:18064081

  20. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 63, Revision 2 (FGE.63Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th and 69th meetings) structurally related to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.07Rev4

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 20 aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated b...

  1. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment in Testing the Effectiveness of an Alcohol Intervention: A Two-Arm Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. Methods Data were used from a two-arm paralle

  2. EFSA Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87 Revision 1 (FGE.87Rev1): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47 (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 17 bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by...

  3. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87, Revision 2 (FGE.87Rev2): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47Rev1 (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2014-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 19 bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by...

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 51, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to alicyclic ketones secondary alcohols and related esters in FGE.09Rev3 (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 20 alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluate...

  5. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  6. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  7. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drop excited by surface acoustic waves: gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussonière, Adrien; Brunet, Philippe; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2016-01-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or more generally by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In...

  8. Ionic polymer cluster energetics: Computational analysis of pendant chain stiffness and charge imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Lisa Mauck; Leo, Donald J.

    2005-06-01

    In recent years there has been considerable study of the potential mechanisms underlying the electromechanical response of ionic-polymer-metal composites. The most recent models have been based on the response of the ion-containing clusters that are formed when the material is synthesized. Most of these efforts have employed assumptions of uniform ion distribution within spherical cluster shapes. This work investigates the impact of dispensing with these assumptions in order to better understand the parameters that impact cluster shape, size, and ion transport potential. A computational micromechanics model applying Monte Carlo methodology is employed to predict the equilibrium state of a single cluster of a solvated ionomeric polymer. For a constant solvated state, the model tracks the position of individual ions within a given cluster in response to ion-ion interaction, mechanical stiffness of the pendant chain, cluster surface energy, and external electric-field loading. Results suggest that cluster surface effects play a significant role in the equilibrium cluster state, including ion distribution; pendant chain stiffness also plays a role in ion distribution but to a lesser extent. Moreover, ion pairing is rarely complete even in cation-rich clusters; this in turn supports the supposition of the formation of anode and cathode boundary layers.

  9. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  10. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non‐alcoholic malnourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luciana P; Guilherme Vannucchi Portari; Gilberto João Padovan; Alceu Afonso Jordão; Vivian Suen; Julio Sergio Marchini

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group) and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group) were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol), both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutrit...

  11. Parental Alcohol Involvement and Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Alcohol Involvement in Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children’s drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children’s alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9–11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of communit...

  12. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no ...

  13. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  14. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  15. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14466 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  17. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  18. The Influence of the Combination of Carboxylate and Phosphinate Pendant Arms in 1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-Based Chelators on Their 68Ga Labelling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Máté

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the coordination properties of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn derivatives bearing varying numbers of phosphinic/carboxylic acid pendant groups towards 68Ga, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-7-acetic-1,4-bis(methylenephosphinic acid (NOPA and 1,4,7- triazacyclononane-4,7-diacetic-1-[methylene(2-carboxyethylphosphinic] acid (NO2AP were synthesized using Mannich reactions with trivalent or pentavalent forms of H-phosphinic acids as phosphorus components. Stepwise protonation constants logK1–3 12.06, 3.90 and 1.95, and stability constants with GaIII and CuII, logKGaL 24.01 and logKCuL 16.66, were potentiometrically determined for NOPA. Both ligands were labelled with 68Ga and compared with NOTA (tacn-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid and NOPO, a TRAP-type [tacn-N,N′,N″- tris(methylenephosphinic acid] chelator. At pH 3, NOPO and NOPA showed higher labelling efficiency (binding with lower ligand excess at both room temperature and 95 °C, compared to NO2AP and NOTA. Labelling efficiency at pH = 0–3 correlated with a number of phosphinic acid pendants: NOPO >> NOPA > NO2AP >> NOTA; however, it was more apparent at 95 °C than at room temperature. By contrast, NOTA was found to be labelled more efficiently at pH > 4 compared to the ligands with phosphinic acids. Overall, replacement of a single phosphinate donor with a carboxylate does not challenge 68Ga labelling of TRAP-type chelators. However, the presence of carboxylates facilitates labelling at neutral or weakly acidic pH.

  19. Biological evaluation of 153Sm and 166Ho complexes with macrocyclic ligands containing acetate pendant arms as potential agents for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals it is essential to choose the appropriate beta-emitter as well as the carrier biomolecule. Different carrier biomolecules, namely antibodies and peptides, have been linked to different beta-emitters (153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu) using tetraaza macrocycles as bifunctional chelators. The cavity size of these chelators, the rigidity of the macrocyclic backbone and the nature of the pendant arms seems to play an important role on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the radiocomplexes and on their biological behaviour. In our research group we have been exploring the possibility of using tetraazamacrocycles with different cavity size, pendant arms and rigidity for preparing 153Sm and 166Ho complexes useful for therapeutical applications and/or bone pain palliation. In this communication we present the results obtained when we reacted trita and teta with 153Sm and 166Ho. The complexes are formed in good yields (> 98%), are hydrophilic and present an overall negative charges, as well as low plasmatic protein binding. Good in vitro stability in physiological media and human serum was also found for all the complexes. The biodistribution studies in mice are also presented and have shown that 153Sm/166Ho-trita and 166Ho-teta have rapid tissue clearance, comparably to the corresponding dota complexes. In contrast, 153Sm-teta has a significant lower total excretion and a significant liver and muscle uptake. Our results indicate that 153Sm/166Ho-trita form very stable complexes in vivo. However, teta, which has a larger cavity size, forms less stable complexes with the larger ion Sm3+. The biological profile of 153Sm/166Ho-trita is very interesting for the evaluation of these complexes as therapeutical agents when conjugated to biomolecules

  20. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  1. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group: study in rats Efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre cárie dentária e sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans: estudo em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Zanini Kantorski; Daniela Martins de Souza; Verônica Quispe Yujra; Juliana Campos Junqueira; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge; Rosilene Fernandes da Rocha

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG), 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG), and water (Control Group, CG). After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/m...

  2. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haisong; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Hailei; Bai, Libin; Wu, Yonggang; Wang, Sujuan; Ba, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin is a potential natural anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The aqueous solubility of curcumin is enhanced by means of modification with the carbohydrate units. Polymerization of the curcumin-containing monomer with carbohydrate-containing monomer gives the water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues. The obtained copolymers (P1 and P2) having desirable water solubility were well-characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The copolymer P2 with a molar ratio of 1:6 (curcumin/carbohydrate) calculated from the proton NMR results exhibits a similar anticancer activity compared to original curcumin, which may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the field of anticancer medicine. PMID:27098211

  3. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciucălău Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mureș-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  4. Stress au travail et santé : situation chez les indépendants

    OpenAIRE

    Algava, Elisabeth; Chouanière, Dominique; Cohidon, Christine; Dubré, Jean-Yves; Kittel, France; Leclerc, Annette; Le Moal, Michel; Loriol, Marc; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Pezet-Langevin, Valérie; Sermet, Catherine; Sultan-Taieb, Hélène; Weibel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Dans de nombreux secteurs d’activité, le stress au travail est considéré comme faisant partie des risques pour la santé auxquels peuvent être confrontés les travailleurs salariés et non-salariés ou indépendants. [br/] Le terme de "stress" peut avoir plusieurs définitions en fonction des disciplines médicales, biologiques, médico-sociales, des sciences humaines et sociales qui y font référence. Quelle que soit l’approche disciplinaire, le stress peut être considéré comme un élément d’un ...

  5. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  6. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  7. Withdrawal symptoms in a long-term model of voluntary alcohol drinking in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölter, S M; Linthorst, A C; Reul, J M; Spanagel, R

    2000-05-01

    Long-term voluntary alcohol drinking with repeated alcohol deprivation episodes has been suggested as animal model for some aspects of alcoholism. Using a radiotelemetric system, the present study investigated the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms in long-term voluntarily alcohol drinking Wistar rats with (repeated alcohol deprivation group) and without (first alcohol deprivation group) prior alcohol deprivation experience. Six days after transmitter implantation, alcohol bottles were removed, and returned 4 days later. Alcohol deprivation induced hyperlocomotion in both groups. In the repeated alcohol deprivation group, hyperlocomotion was increased at the beginning of the alcohol deprivation phase and decreased during the following dark phase, suggesting that removal of the alcohol bottles might have become a conditioned withdrawal stimulus for this group. Both groups showed an enhanced alcohol intake after representation of alcohol bottles compared to preabstinence intakes (alcohol deprivation effect). However, alcohol intake of the repeated alcohol deprivation group was significantly increased compared to the first alcohol deprivation group at the end of the experiment. It is concluded that repeated alcohol deprivation experience might promote the development of alcohol addiction because of its latent stimulating effect on alcohol drinking that can be unveiled by (presumably mildly stressful) experimental situations. PMID:10837854

  8. Measurement of interfacial tension by use of pendant drop video techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herd, M.D.; Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Lassahn, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes an instrument to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) of aqueous surfactant solutions and crude oil. The method involves injection of a drop of fluid (such as crude oil) into a second immiscible phase to determine the IFT between the two phases. The instrument is composed of an AT-class computer, optical cell, illumination, video camera and lens, video frame digitizer board, monitor, and software. The camera displays an image of the pendant drop on the monitor, which is then processed by the frame digitizer board and non-proprietary software to determine the IFT. Several binary and ternary phase systems were taken from the literature and used to measure the precision and accuracy of the instrument in determining IFTs. A copy of the software program is included in the report. A copy of the program on diskette can be obtained from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, P.O. Box 1020, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-1020. The accuracy and precision of the technique and apparatus presented is very good for measurement of IFTs in the range from 72 to 10{sup {minus}2} mN/m, which is adequate for many EOR applications. With modifications to the equipment and the numerical techniques, measurements of ultralow IFTs (<10{sup {minus}3} mN/m) should be possible as well as measurements at reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The instrument has been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support the research program on microbial enhanced oil recovery. Measurements of IFTs for several bacterial supernatants and unfractionated acid precipitates of microbial cultures containing biosurfactants against medium to heavy crude oils are reported. These experiments demonstrate that the use of automated video imaging of pendant drops is a simple and fast method to reliably determine interfacial tension between two immiscible liquid phases, or between a gas and a liquid phase.

  9. [Drugs, a current problem. Alcohol dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a socially accepted drug which is commercialized in multiple products including wine, cognac, gin, beer, anisette, vermouth, rum, etc. and which can be consumed in small quantities without producing harmful effects on one's health; nonetheless, women are more susceptible to alcohol's damages and an abusive consumption of alcohol creates dependence and chronic diseases. Ten percent of those people who consume alcohol develop dependency and comprise the leading group of drug addicts in many countries. PMID:16493852

  10. LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN UNIVERSITARIOS, ADOLESCENTES Y ALCOHÓLICOS EN RECUPERACIÓN DE UN GRUPO DE ALCOHÓLICOS ANÓNIMOS (AA/ SOCIAL ABILITIES IN ADOLESCENTS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY IN A GROUP OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nava Quiroz***

    2010-03-01

    were distributed as follows: 58 adolescents (high school students, 55 members of AA and 44college students. Significant differences were found between some subscales and different reference groups. Most of thesedifferences were found in terms of cutting social cognitive skills. The group of alcoholics AA made the difference, showingthem a higher score on the subscales that indicate «fear» or «concern» in certain social situations. We discuss these findingsand their implications for treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  11. Histomorphologic liver abnormalities in a group of alcoholic patients Alteraciones histomorfológicas hepáticas en un grupo de pacientes alcohólicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Arce Núñez.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ingestion of alcohol has been directly involved in the development of liver diseases. Nowadays, the liver damage by ethanol is a serious health problem all over the world. To achieve satisfactory results In order to face it, it is necessary to provide multidisciplinary attention. Objective: to determine the histomorphologic liver impairments in alcoholic patients. Methods: an observational, descriptive, co-relational and prospective study conducted in 23 patients with an alcoholism diagnosis at the Provincial University Hospital "Arnaldo Milián Castro" in Villa Clara. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into account. The variables studied were: laparoscopic evolution, period of time consuming alcohol (in years, histologic evolution and alanine aminotransferase. Results: both trough laparoscopic and liver biopsy, the most frequent diagnosis was steatosis, followed by chronic hepatitis. In one patient cirrhosis was diagnosed through laparoscopy: a biopsy was not performed in this case. Conclusion: there were a high proportion of patients with impaired liver aminotransferases and severe histological diagnoses, especially those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.Fundamento: la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas ha estado directamente implicada en la producción de enfermedad hepática. En la actualidad el daño hepático por etanol constituye un serio problema de salud en el mundo. Para lograr enfrentar satisfactoriamente este padecimiento se requiere de atención multidisciplinaria. Objetivo: determinar cuáles son las alteraciones hepáticas histomorfológicas en pacientes alcohólicos. Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo-correlacional, prospectivo en 23 pacientes con el diagnóstico de alcoholismo, pertenecientes al Hospital Provincial Universitario "Arnaldo Milián Castro

  12. Drugs of abuse and alcohol consumption among different groups of population on the Greek Island of Lesvos through sewage-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidou, Georgia; Kinyua, Juliet; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse, their metabolites, and the alcohol metabolite ethyl sulphate was investigated in raw sewage samples collected during the non-touristic season from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), which serve different sizes and types of population in the Greek island of Lesvos. Using the sewage-based epidemiology approach, the consumption of these substances was estimated. Five target analytes, cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) were detected at concentrations above their limit of quantification, whereas the rest eighteen target compounds were not detected. THC-COOH was detected in most of the samples with concentrations ranging between difference was not statistically significant. Consumption of THC differed significantly among the three STPs. PMID:27236142

  13. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  14. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  15. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...... examined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The participation rate for our populations was 20-30%. We found no consistent association between any semen variable and alcohol consumption, which was low/moderate in this group (median weekly intake 8 units), either for total consumption or consumption...

  16. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  17. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in a baby born to a mother whose pregnancy was complicated by alcohol consumption. A broader term ...

  20. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, T F; Fox, G A; Reynolds, J

    1998-12-22

    Removal and immobilization of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg2+ extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl- ,4,&l 1,14- pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg2+ was determined to be 95+% with a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg*+, competing ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, A13+, and Fe3+. even in the presence of high concentrations of The bound Hg2+ ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity.

  1. Synthesis of poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog for promoting neurite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongming; Ma, Lie; Gao, Changyou

    2014-10-01

    The modification of biodegradable polyesters with bioactive molecules has become an important strategy for controlling neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth in nerve regeneration. In this study we report a biodegradable poly(ester-carbonate) with a pendant acetylcholine analog, which a neurotransmitter for the enhancement of neuron adhesion and outgrowth. The acetylcholine-functionalized poly(ester-carbonate) (Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)) was prepared by copolymerizing l-lactide (LA) and 5-methyl-5-chloroethoxycarbonyl trimethylene carbonate (ClTMC), followed by quaternization with trimethylamine. The acetylcholine analog content could be modulated by changing the molar feeding fraction of ClTMC. The incorporation of the acetylcholine analog improved the hydrophilicity of the films, but the acetylcholine analog content did not significantly influence the surface morphology of the acetylcholine-functionalized films. The results of PC12 cell culture showed that the acetylcholine analog promoted cell viability and neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner. The longest length of neurite and the percentage of cells bearing neurites were obtained on the Ach-P(LA-ClTMC)-10 film. All the results indicate that the integration of the acetylcholine analog at an appropriate fraction could be an effective strategy for optimizing the existing biodegradable polyesters for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:24998182

  2. Continuous production of photovoltaic silicon ribbons by the new pendant drop growth (PDG) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, J.; Duffar, T.

    1985-01-01

    In this work major aspects of the new crystallization process ''Pendant Drop Growth'' (PDG) method for crystalline silicon ribbonlike strips have been investigated. Apparatus and procedure were significantly improved and theoretical considerations led to a stable process as well as the possibility of manufacturing strips thinner than the lip thickness. The study of materials provided an ideal crucible, which is made of graphite with a specific gravity of at least 1.8 and is internally lined with SiC or pyrocarbon. The concible powder feeding system involving a vibrating bowl has also been markedly improved. A constant rate of output within +- 1.5% is obtained between 1 and 100 g/hr. The response of the concible to a temperature adjustment is immediate. Ribbons up to 500 mm long and 50 mm wide have been manufactured at an extrusion rate of as much as 90 cm/hr. Actual cost estimates showed that ribbons could be produced at less than 500 FF/m/sup 2/. Subsequent research has to be carried out in the following areas: reduction of thickness, automation, study and control of ribbon cooling, deduction of drawing lip external wetting.

  3. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by surface acoustic waves: Gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussonnière, A.; Baudoin, M.; Brunet, P.; Matar, O. Bou

    2016-05-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed, the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or, more generally, by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In turn, we elucidate the origin of the resonance frequency shift, as well as the origin of the strong correlation between oscillatory and translational motion. We show that for sessile drops, the velocity is mainly determined by the amplitude of oscillation and that the saturation observed is due to the nonlinear dependence of the drop response frequency on the dynamically induced stretching.

  4. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4 (FGE.09Rev4: Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group 8 and 30, and an ester of a phenol derivative from chemical group 25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC No 1565/2000. The present revision of FGE.09 includes the assessment of four additional flavouring substances, p-menthan-3-one [FL-no: 07.059], 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-one [FL-no: 07.202], l-piperitone [FL-no: 07.255] and menthol 1-and 2-propylene glycol carbonate [FL-no: 09.843]. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that the 20 substances [FL-no: 02.070, 02.075, 02.135, 02.167, 06.136, 07.059, 07.202, 07.203, 07.255, 09.154, 09.355, 09.520, 09.618, 09.619, 09.621, 09.843, 09.870, 09.929, 09.935 and 09.949] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining candidate substance [FL-no: 07.207], additional toxicity data are requested (further metabolism and/or toxicity studies. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all candidate substances.

  5. Fragrance material review on isodecyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of isodecyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Isodecyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659639

  6. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism. PMID:22937578

  7. Reaction with glutathione. A possible mechanism involved in rodent brain retention of a 99mTc SNS/S complex containing a pendant ester functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis, characterization of MvO([CH3CH2N(CH2CH2S)2](p-S-Ph-COOCH2-CH3)) (M:99mTc: I, Re: II) is presented in this work, where a pendant ester function is attached to the monothiolate ligand. Chemical structure of I is established after chromatographic comparison with II, synthesized in macroscopic amounts. Complex II is fully characterized by classical methods of analysis showing that the compound adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration around the metal. The two sulfur atoms of the tridentate ligand and the oxo group form the basal plane, while the remaining nitrogen atom of the tridentate ligand and the sulfur atom of the monothiolate ligand occupy the apices of the bipyramid. In vitro challenge experiments with glutathione (GSH) in neutral aqueous medium demonstrate, that I suffers nucleophilic attack by GSH and thereby transformation to a more hydrophilic daughter metal compound. Formation of the latter depends on time and GSH concentration. Tissue distribution in mice shows minor retention in brain. As rodent brain presents no esterases to hydrolyze the ester group of I, while the intracerebral content in GSH amounts to 2 mM, the above described mechanism is suspected for the observed brain retention. However, in primate brain cells retention of I may additionally involve the hydrolysis of the ester function to the corresponding acid, as already revealed by preliminary in vitro experiments using esterase incubates. (author)

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3 (FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 3 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, the SCF Opinion on benzoic acid. Furthermore information on stereoisomeric composition for two substances [FL-no: 06.104 and 09.570] and new information to support the re-allocation of the structural class for the candidate substance piperonyl alcohol [FL-no: 02.205] has been submitted. The 41 flavou...

  9. Polymerization of propene with modified constrained geometry complexes. Double-bond isomerization in pendant alkenyl groups attached to cyclopentadienyl ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, OKB; Beetstra, DJ; Jekel, AP; Hessen, B; Teuben, JH; Stepnicka, P; Gyepes, R; Horacek, M; Pinkas, J; Mach, K; Beetstra, Dirk J.; Štěpnička, Petr; Horáček, Michal; Štepnicka, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polymerization of propene with dimethylsilylene-bridged (amidocyclopentadienyl) dichlorotitanium( IV) complexes [TiCl2 {eta(5)-1-(t-BuSiMe2N-kappaN)- 2,3,4- Me-3 -5- R-C-5}], where R =Me (1), H (2), Ph (3), 4-fluorophenyl (4), but-2-en-2-yl (5), and butyl (6), combined with excess methylaluminoxane

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  11. Synthesis of Polystyrene-Based Random Copolymers with Balanced Number of Basic or Acidic Functional Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Pairs of polystyrene-based random copolymers with balanced number of pendant basic or acidic groups were synthesized utilizing the template strategy. The same poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-ran-styrene] was used as a template backbone for modification. Two different synthetic approaches for the function......Pairs of polystyrene-based random copolymers with balanced number of pendant basic or acidic groups were synthesized utilizing the template strategy. The same poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-ran-styrene] was used as a template backbone for modification. Two different synthetic approaches for the...

  12. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake...

  13. Two types of novel tetra-iron substituted sandwich-type arsenotungastates with supporting lanthanide pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xing; Luo, Jie; Zhao, Junwei

    2015-07-28

    Two classes of novel tetra-iron substituted sandwich-type arsenotungastates (ATs) with supporting lanthanide (Ln) pendants KNa2 [Ln(H2O)7][Fe4(H2O)10(B-β-AsW9O33)2]·21H2O [Ln = La(III) (1), Pr(III) (2), Nd(III) ()3, Sm(III) (4)] and [Ln(H2O)8]2[Fe4(H2O)8(l-thr)2(B-β-AsW9O33)2]·20H2O [Ln = La(III) (5), Pr(III) ()6, Nd(III) (7), Sm(III) (8), Eu(III) (9), Gd(III) (10), Tb(III) (11), Dy(III) (12), Er(III) (13)] (l-thr = l-threonine) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of the [As2W19O67(H2O)](14-) precursor with Fe(3+) cations and Ln(3+) cations in the presence of l-thr or l-leucine and l-alanine, and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses indicate that 1-4 display the inorganic 2-D sheet architecture constructed from tetra-iron sandwiched AT [Fe4(H2O)10(B-β-AsW9O33)2](6-) fragments by bridging [Ln(H2O)7](3+) cations whereas the molecular structures of the isostructural 5-13 consist of an organic-inorganic hybrid tetra-iron substituted sandwich-type AT [Fe4(H2O)8(l-thr)2(B-β-AsW9O33)2](6-) fragment and two pendant [Ln(H2O)8](3+) cations. As far as we know, 1-4 represent the rare inorganic 2-D extended ATs based on transition-metal substituted sandwich-type polyoxometalate units and Ln linkers and 5-13 are the first Fe-Ln heterometallic ATs with amino acid ligands. The solid state photoluminescence (PL) measurements of 9 and 11 have been performed at room temperature. The PL emission of 9 is mainly derived from the characteristic (5)D0 → (7)F2 (J = 4-0) transitions of the Eu(III) cations whereas the PL behavior of 11 stems from the common contribution of the (5)D4 → (7)FJ (J = 5-3) transitions of the Tb(III) ions and oxygen-to-metal (O → W) charge-transfer transitions of AT segments. The thermogravimetric (TG) analyses of 1-4 and 6-12 have been investigated. PMID:26066321

  14. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes: synthesis, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J G; Baumann, T F; Nelson, A J; Fox, G A

    2000-07-21

    Removal of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg{sup 2+} extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl-1,4,8,11,14-pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg{sup 2+} was determined to be 95% at a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg{sup 2+}, even in the presence of high concentrations of competing ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The bound Hg{sup 2+} ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity. The binding of Hg{sup 2+} to the polymer has been examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The thiacrown appears unaffected by incorporation into the polymer and the Hg{sup 2+} appears to be bound to the polymer complex in a similar manner as Hg{sup 2+} is bound in monomeric thiacrowns containing five sulfur atoms.

  15. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: ► The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. ► The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105. ► The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. ► Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 105 and can endure 108 read cycles under −1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  16. Synthesis and light-emitting properties of disubstituted polyacetylenes carrying chromophoric naphthylethynylphenyl pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jacky W Y; Qin, Anjun; Dong, Yongqiang; Hong, Yuning; Jim, Cathy K W; Liu, Jianzhao; Dong, Yuping; Kwok, Hoi Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2008-09-11

    Poly(1-phenyl-1-alkyne)s bearing chromophoric pendants and containing alkyl spacers (-{(C 6H 5)CC[(CH 2) m OCOC 6H 4CCNp]} n - [P 1( m) ( m = 3, 4, 9); Np = 1-naphthyl]) were synthesized, and the effects of structural variations on the optical properties, especially electroluminescence, of the polymers were investigated. The monomers were prepared in high yields by esterification and coupling reactions of n-phenyl-( n - 1)-alkyn-1-ols. Selective polymerizations of the 1-phenyl-1-alkyne unit of the monomers were effected by WCl 6-Ph 4Sn catalyst, affording polymers with high molecular weights ( M w up to 63 000) in high yields (up to 83%). Structures and properties of the polymers were characterized and evaluated by IR, NMR, TGA, UV, PL, and EL analyses. All the polymers are thermally very stable, losing almost no weight when heated up to 400 degrees C. Photoexcitation of the polymer solutions induces strong blue light emission at 460 nm, with quantum yields up to 98%. No aggregation quenching was observed when the polymers were fabricated into solid films. Multilayer EL devices with the configuration of ITO/P 1( m):PVK/BCP/Alq 3/LiF/Al were fabricated, which emitted blue light with luminance up to 498 cd/m (2). The device performance varied with the spacer length ( m), with P 1(4) giving the highest external quantum efficiency of 0.47%. The value was further enhanced to 0.86% by optimizing the layer thickness and inserting a hole-injection layer. PMID:18707168

  17. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  18. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Jordão, António M.; Alice Vilela; Fernanda Cosme

    2015-01-01

    The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challe...

  19. Influence of alcohol intake on postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, C; Jensen, L M; Tønnesen, H

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy was prospectively studied in 229 consecutive patients in our departments. The incidence of alcohol abuse (greater than 60 gm of alcohol daily) and social drinking (between 25 and 60 gm of alcohol daily) was 6.5% for each. When compared with the social...... drinkers and the control group, the alcohol abuse group had significantly more complications (80% vs 27% and 80% vs 13%, respectively)....

  20. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  1. Developing cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Slevin, Terry; Pratt, Iain S; Glance, David; Liang, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence of the increased cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption, but this is not well understood by the general public. This study investigated the acceptability among drinkers of cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Australian drinkers to develop a series of cancer-related warning statements for alcohol products. Eleven cancer warning statements and one general health warning statement were subse...

  2. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  3. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the s...... Panel concluded that the 14 substances [FL-no: 13.001, 13.002, 13.003, 13.005, 13.018, 13.019, 13.025, 13.038, 13.057, 13.062, 13.067, 13.068, 13.073 and 13.128] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach....

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    group 7. Seven of the nine flavouring substances possess one or more chiral centres and additionally, and due to the presence of a double bond, one of these substances can exist as geometric isomer. For two of these substances, the stereoisomeric composition has not been specified. The nine flavouring...... precise information that would enable the Panel to make a more realistic estimate of the intakes of the flavouring substances, the Panel has decided also to perform an estimate of the daily intakes per person using a “modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake” (mTAMDI) approach based on the normal...... precise data on use and use levels. According to the default MSDI approach, the nine flavouring substances in this group have intakes in Europe from 0.011 to 43 micrograms/capita/day, which are below the threshold of concern value for structural class I (1800 micrograms/person/day) substances. The...

  5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular, the Panel was requested to evaluate nine flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2), using the Procedure as referred to in the ...

  6. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  7. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  8. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  10. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  11. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  12. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 1 (CG 1 consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, decanol, dodecanol, decyl acetate and dodecyl acetate. The remaining substances are considered safe for all animal species at 5 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety between 1 and 120 and at 25 mg/kg complete feed (ethyl acetate and hexyl acetate, with a margin of safety between 2 and 6; and at 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species (ethylacrylate, ethyl hex-3-enoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, methyl isovalerate, hexyl isobutyrate, methyl 2-methyl butyrate, pentyl isovalerate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl isovalerate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl 2-methyl butyrate and methyl 2-methylvalerate. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 1 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as skin sensitizers. No risk for the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since all 85 compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes (chemical group 2 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 2 consists of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes, of which 34 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of 2-methylpropionic acid, isopentyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl butyrate and 2-methylbutyl acetate is safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and at 5 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. 2-Methylpropan-1-ol, isopentanol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylvaleric acid, 2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid, 4-methyloctanoic acid, isobutyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, 3-methylbutyl propionate, 3-methylbutyl formate, glyceryl tributyrate, isobutyl isobutyrate, isopentyl isobutyrate, isobutyl isovalerate, isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate and 2-methylbutyl butyrate are safe at the proposed use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for all animal species. 3,7-Dimethyloctan-1-ol, 2-methylundecanal, 4-methylnonanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl dodecanoate, 3-methylbutyl octanoate and 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate are safe at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals and of 1.0 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  15. Effect of Contact Time and Gas Component on Interfacial Tension of CO2/Crude Oil System by Pendant Drop Method

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Lifeng Liu; Zengmin Lun; Chengyuan Lv; Rui Wang; Haitao Wang; Dong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Pendant drop method has been used to measure the equilibrium interfacial tension and dynamic interfacial tension of CO2/crude oil system under the simulated-formation condition, in which the temperature is 355.65 K and pressure ranges from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. The test results indicated that the equilibrium interfacial tension of CO2/crude oil systems decreased with the increase of the systematic pressure. The dynamic interfacial tension of CO2/original oil, CO2/remaining oil, and CO2/produced oi...

  16. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 4 (FGE.20Rev4): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 45 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 4 (FGE.20Rev4), using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision 4 is made due to inclusion of four additional substances, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde [FL no: 05.026, 05.028 and 05.029] and phenylmethyl 2-methyl-2-butenoate [FL no: 09.858]. None of the su...

  17. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  18. Geochemical Investigation of Saddlebag Lake Roof Pendant and Lee Vining Intrusive Suite Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderly, A.; Canchola, J.; Putirka, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    Our study is to determine to what extent volcanic rocks from the Saddlebag Lake Roof Pendant (SLRP) represent the erupted complement of the Sierra Nevada Batholith (SNB). SLRP formation is thought to be prior to or synchronous with Sierra Nevada orogeny. Age dates of the SLRP are similar to age dates from the Lee Vining Intrusive Suite (LVIS), so the LVIS may be the plutonic equivalent of the SLRP (Kistler and Fleck 1994). A hypothesized analog between SLRP-LVIS is the Wilson Ridge Pluton (WRP)-River Mountains (RM) complex in southern Nevada, which is a dismembered volcanic complex offset by normal faulting (Honn and Smith, 2008). WRP and RM trace element data from Honn and Smith plot very similar on a Hf-Th-Ta ternary diagram, and Sr and Nd isotope analyses also indicate that the Nevada rocks are co-magmatic. Our goal is to conduct geochemical tests to determine whether the SLRP and LVIS are co-genetic. Our preliminary data support the possibility that the SLRP may provide a window into the magmatic evolutionary processes that led to the development of the LVIS, and the SNB generally. Eighteen samples were collected from the SLRP; major element compositions of whole rocks yield similar weight percents of major oxides for some published data from the LVIS (Bateman et al. 1984). Our SLRP samples, though, trend to higher MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, and CaO, lower in SiO2 and Na2O+K2O. If the SLRP and LVIS are indeed related, the SLRP samples may represent some of the less-differentiated liquids from which the LVIS was derived. We were only able to find one basalt (51.2 wgt % SiO2), albeit with very low MgO (2.17 wt %), which may give clues as to the origin of the LVIS. If the mafic enclaves in the LVIS were once liquid, then the SLRP basalts should be comparable to mafic enclaves in composition. We are also analyzing mafic enclaves from the LVIS to explore whether these are liquid precursors to Sierra Nevada Batholith granites.

  19. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 67, Revision 1 (FGE.67Rev.1): Consideration of 40 furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers evaluated by JECFA at the 65th meeting (JECFA, 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 33 furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers evaluated by the JECFA. In the...

  20. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  1. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  2. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  3. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  4. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  7. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.;

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion...... A compared with group C. The changes in water balance induced by chronic alcohol consumption were reversible within a few days when the rats received water instead of 15% alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic alcohol consumption has an antidiuretic effect in rats. The percentage of total ingested fluid leaving...... and certain renal functions in rats during a period of 12 months. ANIMALS AND STUDY DESIGN: Male Wistar rats received either alcohol (15% v/v; group A, n = 65) or tap water (group C, n = 35) as drinking fluid. Urine and faeces were collected from 6 rats of each group during 7 days, at monthly intervals...

  8. Subjective and Neural Responses to Intravenous Alcohol in Young Adults with Light and Heavy Drinking Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We ...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, Ann

    The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the…

  10. Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David S.; Janosik, Steven M.

    An instrument to help administrators assess the liability resulting from alcohol-related activities on the college campus is presented. The hazards and associated liability of these events can be reduced by developing an aggressive risk management strategy designed to inform, educate, and coordinate the actions of individuals and groups associated…

  11. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  12. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  13. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  14. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  15. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  16. Inequality, deprivation and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, M

    1997-03-01

    There are major social inequalities in health within societies. Alcohol and tobacco are major preventable causes of ill health. Using data from the United Kingdom, this paper examines the social distribution of tobacco and alcohol consumption; the role that tobacco and alcohol may play in mediating or modifying social inequalities in health; and the implications of social distribution for policies to reduce harm associated with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. In the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, there is clear inverse association between socio-economic position and consumption of cigarettes. Over the past three decades, the decline in smoking has been more rapid in men and women in higher socio-economic groups. United Kingdom suggest that among employed men and women, the prevalence of non-drinking shows an inverse association with occupational status; heavy drinking differs little; and moderate drinking is more common among those of higher socio-economic status. Smoking accounts for perhaps 25% of the social class difference in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, more for lung cancer, less for some other diseases. healthier patterns of drinking may contribute to the lower CHD rates of higher social classes. Although other factors are clearly important in generating social inequalities, it is important to take the social distribution of alcohol and tobacco into account when formulating policy. For cigarette consumption, there is evidence that in lower socio-economic groups demand is more sensitive to price; higher socio-economic groups are more responsive to health education. There has been less research of this nature for alcohol. Available analyses suggest that price responsiveness of heavy drinking may be greatest in young men and in those with lower incomes. A pricing strategy has important equity implications. PMID:9167283

  17. Ankle fractures and alcoholism. The influence of alcoholism on morbidity after malleolar fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Pedersen, A; Jensen, M R; Møller, A; Madsen, J C

    1991-01-01

    The postoperative morbidity after osteosynthesis of malleolar fractures was investigated retrospectively by comparing 90 alcohol abusers with 90 controls. The two groups were selected from 626 male patients and were matched regarding trauma, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary and endocrine...... diseases, age, weight, smoking habits, anaesthesia and duration of surgery. The alcohol abusers developed significantly more early complications, especially infections, after surgery. Follow-up at six, nine and 12 weeks after surgery also revealed a significantly higher morbidity among the alcoholics....

  18. Photoacylation of alcohols in neutral medium

    OpenAIRE

    Débieux, Jean-Luc; Cosandey, Anne; Helgen, Céline; Christian G. Bochet

    2007-01-01

    We report here conditions which allow the photoacylation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols with N-acetyl-5,7-dinitroindoline under exceptionally mild conditions, at wavelengths harmless to most functional groups, including otherwise photosensitive ones.

  19. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  20. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  1. Clozapine chronically suppresses alcohol drinking in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, David T; Gulick, Danielle; Xie, Haiyi; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is common in patients with schizophrenia and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Preliminary reports from our group and others suggest that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine may decrease alcohol use in these patients. We have previously shown that clozapine suppresses alcohol consumption for 9 days in Syrian golden hamsters. Here, we assessed the effects of clozapine on alcohol consumption in hamsters over a 27-day period, using a continuous access, 2-bottle (15...

  2. Tobacco and alcohol consumption in relation to oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P. K.; Agrawal, N.; Bariar, L. M.

    2003-01-01

    The present case control study was done on 50 cases of oral cancer and 50 controls These two groups are compared after taking the history in detail with special emphasis on the tobacco and alcohol intake. My various statistical tests, we correlated the strength of association between tobacco/alcohol intake and development of oral cancer. Tobacco only and combined exposure to tobacco and alcohol was found to be strongly related to the development of oral cancer but alcohol alone does not have ...

  3. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Lekhansh Shukla; Tulika Shukla; Spandana Bokka; Arun Kandasamy; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy; Prabhat Chand

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and ...

  4. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases--a systematic Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Jacobs, Bradly P; Iaquinto, Gaetano;

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle (MT) or MT constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or hepatitis B and/or C liver diseases....

  5. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  6. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  7. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  8. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  9. Cyclam kappa4 to kappa3 ligand denticity change upon mono-n-substitution with a carboxypropyl pendant arm in a ruthenium nitrosyl complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, Fábio G; Castellano, Eduardo E; Moraes, Luiz A B; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tfouni, Elia

    2008-05-19

    The complex fac-[Ru(NO)Cl2(kappa(3)N(4),N(8),N(11)(1-carboxypropyl)cyclam)]Cl.H2O (1-carboxypropyl)cyclam=3-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan-1-yl)propionic acid) was prepared in a one pot reaction by mixing equimolar amounts of RuNOCl 3 and (1-carboxypropyl)cyclam and was characterized by X-ray crystallography, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), elemental analysis, NMR, and electronic and vibrational (IR) spectroscopies. fac-[Ru(NO)Cl 2(kappa(3)N(4),N(8),N(11)(1-carboxypropyl)cyclam)]Cl.H2O crystallizes in the triclinic, space group P1, No. 2, with unit cell parameters of a=8.501(1) A, b=9.157(1) A, c=14.200(1) A, alpha=72.564(5) degrees , beta=82.512(5) degrees , gamma=80.308(5) degrees , and Z=2. The Ru-N interatomic distance and bond angle in the [Ru-NO] unit are 1.739(2) A and 167.7(2) degrees , respectively. ESI-MS/MS shows characteristic dissociation chemistry that initiates by HCl or NO loss. The IR spectrum displays a nu(NO) at 1881 cm(-1) indicating a nitrosonium character. The electronic spectrum shows absorptions bands at 264 nm (log epsilon=3.27), 404 nm (log epsilon=2.53), and 532 nm (log epsilon=1.88). (1)H and (13)C NMR are in agreement with the proposed molecular structure, which shows a very singular architecture where the cyclam ring N (with the carboxypropyl pendant arm) is not coordinated to the ruthenium resulting in a kappa(3) instead of the expected kappa(4) denticity. PMID:18399626

  10. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  11. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Graaf

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  12. Corrections to the article "The metric dimension of graph with pendant edges" [Journal of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computing, 65 (2008) 139--145

    CERN Document Server

    Kuziak, D; Yero, I G

    2010-01-01

    We show that the principal results of the article "The metric dimension of graph with pendant edges" [Journal of Combinatorial Mathematics and Combinatorial Computing, 65 (2008) 139--145] do not hold. In this paper we correct the results and we solve two open problems described in the above mentioned paper.

  13. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S; Bennett, Patrick; Micic, S; Svenstrup, Bo; Hardt, F

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were......, elevated concentrations of oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and reduced levels of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), while women with non-alcoholic cirrhosis had significantly elevated concentrations of SHBG and reduced levels of oestrone sulphate, DHT, androstenedione and...

  14. Syntheses and Properties of New Pendant-armed Calix[ 4 ] areneDerivatives as Cesium Selective Ionophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yah-Jun; ZHOU Zhi-Xian; WU Yang-Jie

    2001-01-01

    Two new pendant-armed calix[4] arene derivatives 5 and 6 have been synthesized.The study of alkali metal picrates ex- traction indicates that both compounds show prefereoce of ce- sium cation, compounnd 6 in 1,3-altermate conformation has better extractibility for Cs+ than compound 5.The coordina- tion behavior of compound 6 with cesium cation was studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy.The Cs+ selective elctrode based on compound 6 exhibits a linear, near Nernstian response characteristics, the slope is 56.4 mV/decade in the concentra- tion range of 10-4-10-1 mol/L, the selectivity coefficient (log Kdot,Na.) is -3.39.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure, computational and photophysical studies of new hydrazono-thiazole derivatives decorated with N-methyl tetrahydrocarbazole pendant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-one, obtained from 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) oxidation of tetrahydrocarbazole, on methylation with N, N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) furnish N-methyl derivative. The thiosemicarbazone of N-methyl derivative on reaction with 2-bromopropionic acid, ethyl bromopyruvate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) afford hydrazono-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives with tetrahydrocarbazole pendant. X-ray diffraction and DFT studies of (Z)-5-methyl-2-((E)-(9-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-ylidene)hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one 5 have been reported. The reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) and ethyl bromopyruvate take place without any catalyst and organic solvent. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by means of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  16. Etude des interactions plasma–surface pendant la gravure du silicium dans des plasmas HBr/Cl2/O2

    OpenAIRE

    Kogelschatz, Martin

    2004-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est de comprendre les interactions plasma-surface pendant la gravure du silicium dans des chimies HBr/Cl2/O2. Dans ces procédés, une couche se dépose sur les parois du réacteur et mène à la dérive du procédé. La nature chimique et les mécanismes de formation de cette couche ont été étudiés par sa gravure ultérieure avec un plasma Ar/SF6 et l'analyse résolue en temps des produits de gravure par les diagnostics d'émission optique et de spectrométrie de masse. Il a été m...

  17. Impact of Pendant 1, 2, 3-Triazole on the Synthesis and Properties of Thiophene-Based Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarjuna, G.; Yurt, Serkan; Jadhav, Kedar G.; Venkataraman, D.

    2010-10-12

    π-Conjugated moieties are often attached to conjugated polymers to systematically alter their electronic properties. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of a thiophene polymer bearing a triazole moiety in the third position. Through NMR-based quenching studies, we show that the placement of the triazole moiety alters reaction pathway of the Ni(0)-mediated Grignard metathesis polymerization possibly through chelation. When compared with a triazole on the main chain, the pendant triazole moiety acts as an electron donor and lowers the band gap of the polymer. The triazole moiety also does not hinder the packing of the conjugated backbone. We also show that the fluorescence of this polymer is quenched with PCBM, indicating its potential as a candidate for organic photovoltaic devices.

  18. Three-State Single-Molecule Naphthalenediimide Switch: Integration of a Pendant Redox Unit for Conductance Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghai; Baghernejad, Masoud; Qusiy, Al-Galiby; Zsolt Manrique, David; Zhang, Guanxin; Hamill, Joseph; Fu, Yongchun; Broekmann, Peter; Hong, Wenjing; Wandlowski, Thomas; Zhang, Deqing; Lambert, Colin

    2015-11-01

    We studied charge transport through core-substituted naphthalenediimide (NDI) single-molecule junctions using the electrochemical STM-based break-junction technique in combination with DFT calculations. Conductance switching among three well-defined states was demonstrated by electrochemically controlling the redox state of the pendent diimide unit of the molecule in an ionic liquid. The electrical conductances of the dianion and neutral states differ by more than one order of magnitude. The potential-dependence of the charge-transport characteristics of the NDI molecules was confirmed by DFT calculations, which account for electrochemical double-layer effects on the conductance of the NDI junctions. This study suggests that integration of a pendant redox unit with strong coupling to a molecular backbone enables the tuning of charge transport through single-molecule devices by controlling their redox states. PMID:26403214

  19. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  20. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 63, Revision 1 (FGE.63Rev1: Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th and 69th meetings structurally related to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.07Rev4 (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA, and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 19 aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th and 69th meetings in 2002 and 2008. This revision is made due to inclusion of six additional substances, 4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol, 6-methylhepta-3,5-dien-2-one, octa-1,5-dien-3-one, (E,E-3,5-octadien-2-one, (3Z-4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadiene-2-one and 4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-yl acetate [FL-no: 02.252, 07.099, 07.190, 07.247, 07.256 and 09.936] cleared for genotoxicity concern. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel agrees with the application of the Procedure as performed by the JECFA for all 19 substances considered in this FGE and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach.

  1. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  2. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  3. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  4. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  5. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  6. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  7. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  10. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  12. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  13. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while ...

  14. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  17. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  18. Do cigarette and alcohol affect semen analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are a number of studies about the effect of cigarette and alcohol on semen parameters in the literature. There is not a consensus on the relationship between use of cigarette and alchol and semen parameters in those studies. The number of studies in which cigarette and alcohol use are evaluated together is limited. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cigarette and/or alcohol use on semen parameters. Methods: In this prospective study, 762 patients who applied to an hospital urology polyclinic between January 2015 and March 2015 due to infertility, were questioned for alcohol and cigarette use in anamnesis. The remaining 356 patients were included in our study. Then, semen analysis of the patients was performed. The patients were divided into five groups according to cigarette use, into five groups according to alcohol use and into four groups according to cigarette and/or alcohol use. Significant differences were analyzed between the groups in terms of semen volume, semen concentration, total motility, forward motility and morphological (normality, head anomaly, neck anomaly, tail anomaly values. Results: According to cigarette use, only in group 4 (who use more than 20 package-years cigarette semen volume was significantly lower than the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.009. There was no significant difference in any of the other parameters and groups compared with the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p > 0,05 Conclusion:According to our study, using more than 20 package- years cigarette decreases semen volume. The reason of this result might be the fact that the threshold value, from which the effect of cigarette and alcohol use on the semen parameters has to be determined.

  19. Changes in blood alcohol concentration and driving ability after alcohol intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 张岫竹; 赵新才; 朱秉忠; 周继红; 王正国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the amount of consumed alcohol, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and driving ability among a part of the population in Southwest China and to provide reference for the formulation of the legal limits for safe driving. Methods: Seventy-six randomly selected volunteer drivers each had three times of alcohol intake ( 100 fl each time). After each drank, BAC was measured with gas chromatograph and driving ability was evaluated.The drivers were grouped according to age, weight, alcohol tolerance and driving experience respectively and changes in BAC and driving ability were analyzed. Results: Average BAC and the percentage of drivers showing impaired driving ability in the groups increased after each intake of 100 ml alcohol. BAC in Group≤60 kg was more susceptible to alcohol than that in Group > 60 kg. When each drank, alcohol had greater influence on drivers who had comparatively shorter driving experience. Conclusion: Volume of consumed alcohol, BAC and driving ability have direct associations among one another and are all under the influence of various factors including individual conditions. To set an appropriate legal BAC limit for safe driving should take an overall consideration of all factors.

  20. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  1. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  2. Determinants of alcohol usage among youth in Kotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijepčević Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A significant number of alcohol users is being recorded among young people while the limit when young people resorting to alcohol is approaching younger age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the general prevalence and structure of young consumers, as well as risk factors for alcohol use among adolescents. Method: The study included 200 respondents. The sample is defined out of classes of all secondary schools at the territory, where one class per school out all four high school grades entered the sample by random choice. The survey instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and response rate of the classes was 100%. Results: The survey showed that almost half of high school Kotor confirmed to have consumed alcohol. Among children who consume alcohol, almost one half indicated that their parents also use alcoholic beverages and the data show a statistically significant association between alcohol use among parents and their children. Respondents, who do not consume alcoholic beverages, consider the presence of smoking among their friends more often. Students who do not consume alcohol, more frequently point to the harmful effects of using these substances on health and a statistically significant difference between the attitudes of students who do not consume alcohol and those who do was demonstrated in relation to the harmful effects of alcohol on health. Conclusions: Alcohol use is widespread among young people and at the same time there is a significant association between alcohol consumption in parents and their children. The use of alcohol among young people in correlation with the use of tobacco, and the young who consume alcohol are more often found in the company of peers who smoke, compared to their friends who do not use alcohol. Children who do not use alcohol more frequently emphasize the harmful effects of its using on health.

  3. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  4. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  5. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant ... birth defects. Learn about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Stanford Prematurity Research Center Launch 3:25 Newborn ...

  6. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  7. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  8. Suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent Danes attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk Petersen, Christina; Grønbæk, Morten; Bussey Rask, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    , were more often lowly educated, and had more physical and psychiatric problems. Traumatic childhood experience related to physical or sexual abuse was found as a major predictor for suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent patients. We found no significant difference in the effect of treatment in....... Characteristics of, predictors for and outcome among suicidal patients were studied. Alcohol-dependent patients with a history of suicide attempts were found to constitute a highly selected group in alcohol abuse treatment as they often had a more severe course of alcohol dependence, were unemployed, younger...... that suicidal patients in treatment for alcohol abuse are treated effectively within the present treatment settings....

  9. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B;

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... without liver diseases. For comparison a control group of eight previous drinkers was tested. The skin test responses were modest initially with a median area of response of 12 mm2 (range 0-31) in the heavy alcoholics and 3 mm2 (0-15) in the moderate drinkers. It improved significantly in both groups...... months of abstinence. The results suggest that while 2 weeks of abstinence from alcohol will improve the depressed cellular immunity, 2 months of sobriety is necessary to normalize it....

  10. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V;

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  11. The Effectiveness of the 'What Do You Drink' Web-based Brief Alcohol Intervention in Reducing Heavy Drinking among Students: A Two-arm Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention 'What Do You Drink' (WDYD) among heavy drinking students at 1- and 6-month post-intervention. Additionally, it was investigated whether certain subgroups would benefit more than others from the WDYD intervention. Methods:

  12. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geshi, Masayo; Hirokawa, Kumi; TANIGUCHI, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38) or a control group (n=33). The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and ...

  13. Atmospheric lifetime of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, DA; Martin, JW; Mabury, SA;

    2003-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with a series of fluorotelomer alcohols, F(CF2CF2)(n)-CH2CH2OH (n = 2, 3, 4), in 700 Torr of N-2 or air, diluent at 296 +/- 2K. The length of the F(CF2CF2)(n)- group had no discernible impact on...

  14. Alcohol, head injury, and pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M A; Janson, S; Seago, J A

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in rates of pulmonary complications (e.g., aspiration, pneumonia) in head-injured patients with and without concomitant alcohol intoxication. The records of 98 consecutive patients admitted over a 1-year period to a Level I Trauma Center were reviewed. The patients were grouped into three subsets: acutely intoxicated (n = 26), acutely intoxicated with a diagnosis of chronic alcoholism (n = 14), and non-intoxicated (n = 58). Alcohol intoxication was defined as a blood alcohol level (BAL) > or = 0.08 mg/dl. Admission BALs and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were tabulated at admission. Frequency of arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements, need for an artificial airway/mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance. Intergroup differences in breath sounds were compared by using the nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis technique. We found no statistical difference between groups in terms of pulmonary sequelae despite the remarkably high BALs observed in the study groups. Similarly, there was no statistically greater LOS in the groups with alcohol intoxication than in alcohol-free cohorts. Despite a great deal of BAL science research to support our hypothesis, we failed to demonstrate a significantly higher rate of pulmonary problems in inebriated individuals with head injuries. We found that our strict exclusion criteria (no concomitant chest, abdominal, or pelvic trauma) limited the sample to only those patients without significant intracranial bleeding, whereas most complications in blood alcohol neuroscience research have been associated with much larger mass lesions (e.g., epidural or subdural hematomas). In addition, we found the characterizations of patients as chronically alcoholic were cumbersome and inaccurate in many cases. Future research should allow for a greater range of concomitant injuries that might suggest a positive or negative relationship to acute

  15. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  16. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  17. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  18. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested...

  19. Effects of pairwise, self-associating functional side groups on polymer solubility, solution viscosity, and mist control

    OpenAIRE

    David, R. L. Ameri; Wei, Ming-Hsin; Liu, David; Bathel, Brett F.; Plog, Jan P.; Ratner, Albert; Kornfield, Julia A.

    2009-01-01

    Solution properties are reported for homologous series of narrowly distributed polymers with systematically varied content of self-associating groups. Anionically polymerized polybutadienes of two lengths (510 and 1250 kg/mol) serve as prepolymers that are modified by incorporation of carboxylic acid side groups using thiol−ene coupling to pendant vinyl groups. Carboxylic acid groups strongly reduce polymer solubility in hydrocarbon solvents, restricting the extent of functionalization that c...

  20. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  1. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  2. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  3. Explanations of social class differences in alcoholism among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn;

    1998-01-01

    factors for alcoholism, such as risk use of alcohol, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, parental divorce, low emotional control and contact with police and child care authorities, seemed to be more common among those who were recruited to blue-collar occupations compared to those who were recruited to......The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood and...... adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, was collected among 49,323 men, born 1949-1951, at conscription for compulsory military training 1969/1970. Data on socio-economic group was obtained from the 1975 census and data on alcoholism diagnoses from the national in-patient care register 1976-1983. Several risk...

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  5. 15. La protection sociale des personnes âgées dépendantes en Europe et ses enjeux économiques

    OpenAIRE

    Joël, Marie-Eve

    2015-01-01

    Le vieillissement de la population a confronté l’ensemble des pays européens à la question de la dépendance. L’Europe compte aujourd’hui 9 millions de personnes âgées très dépendantes, soit 3 % de la population totale. Parmi celles-ci, 7,6 millions de personnes âgées bénéficient déjà d’une protection sociale, au titre de la dépendance, en espèces ou en nature (Pacolet, 1999). La dépendance s’accroît avec l’âge. Parmi les plus de 65 ans, de 3 à 5 % des personnes sont très dépendantes ; parmi l...

  6. Ethique de la population : l'apport des critères de bien-être dépendant du rang

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Cet article présente l'intérêt que peuvent avoir des critères de bien-être dépendant du rang dans le cadre de l'éthique de la population. Ce champ de recherche s'intéresse à l'évaluation et à la comparaison d'allocations lorsque des populations de tailles différentes sont en jeu. On montre que les critères de bien-être dépendant du rang ne sont pas sujets à plusieurs écueils auxquels sont confrontés les critères utilitaristes (généralisés) habituellement étudiés dans ce champ....

  7. The Role of Race/Ethnicity in Alcohol-attributable Injury in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Liu, Xianfang C.; Cerda, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of injuries worldwide are attributable to alcohol consumption, and US estimates indicate that the drinking patterns of racial/ethnic groups vary considerably. The authors reviewed evidence from 19 publications regarding racial/ethnic differences in overall alcohol-attributable injury as well as percent blood alcohol content positivity for injury deaths in the United States. They found that Native Americans evidence higher rates of alcohol-attributable motor vehicle crash fatality, suicide, and falls compared with other racial/ethnic groups; conversely, Asians evidence lower rates of alcohol-attributable injury than other racial/ethnic groups. The rate of alcohol positivity and intoxication among Hispanics is disproportionately high relative to estimates of alcohol use. Black subgroups also evidence higher rates of alcohol positivity than would be expected given estimates of alcohol use, including for alcohol positivity among drivers of fatally injured black children and homicide. These findings highlight the continued need for public health focus on Native American populations with respect to alcohol consumption and injury. Further, the disparity in alcohol-attributable injury mortality among black and Hispanic groups relative to their reported rates of alcohol consumption is an overlooked area of research. The authors review potential social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-attributable injuries and identify directions for further research on these patterns. PMID:21930592

  8. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K.

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  9. Buoyancy-driven detachment of a wall-bound pendant drop: interface shape at pinchoff and nonequilibrium surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorgese, A; Mauri, R

    2015-09-01

    We present numerical results from phase-field simulations of the buoyancy-driven detachment of an isolated, wall-bound pendant emulsion droplet acted upon by surface tension and wall-normal buoyancy forces alone. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model for partially miscible binary mixtures which has been extended to include the influence of static contact angles other than 90^{∘}, based on a Hermite interpolation formulation of the Cahn boundary condition as first proposed by Jacqmin [J. Fluid Mech. 402, 57 (2000)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112099006874]. In a previous work, this model has been successfully employed for simulating triphase contact line problems in stable emulsions with nearly immiscible components, and, in particular, applied to the determination of critical Bond numbers for buoyancy-driven detachment as a function of static contact angle. Herein, the shapes of interfaces at pinchoff are investigated as a function of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition. Furthermore, we show numerical results on the nonequilibrium surface tension that help to explain the discrepancy between our numerically determined static contact angle dependence of the critical Bond number and its sharp-interface counterpart based on a static stability analysis of equilibrium shapes after numerical integration of the Young-Laplace equation. Finally, we show the influence of static contact angle and distance to the critical condition on the temporal evolution of the minimum neck radius in the necking regime of drop detachment. PMID:26465476

  10. Particle-laden interfaces: direct calculation of interfacial stress from a discrete particle simulation of a pendant drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chuan; Botto, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of solid particles to fluid interfaces is exploited in several multiphase flow technologies, and plays a fundamental role in the dynamics of particle-laden drops. A fundamental question is how the particles modify the effective mechanical properties of the interface. Using a fast Eulerian-Lagrangian model for interfacial colloids, we have simulated a pendant drop whose surface is covered with spherical particles having short-range repulsion. The interface curvature induces non-uniform and anisotropic interfacial stresses, which we calculate by an interfacial extension of the Irving-Kirkwood formula. The isotropic component of this stress, related to the effective surface tension, is in good agreement with that calculated by fitting the drop shape to the Young-Laplace equation. The anisotropic component, related to the interfacial shear elasticity, is highly non uniform: small at the drop apex, significant along the drop sides. The reduction in surface tension can be substantial even below maximum surface packing. We illustrate this point by simulating phase-coarsening of a two-phase mixture in which the presence of interfacial particles ``freezes'' the coarsening process, for surface coverage well below maximum packing This work is supported by the EU through the Marie Curie Grant FLOWMAT (618335).

  11. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  12. Bottled memories: on how alcohol affects eyewitness recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica; Hjelmsäter, Emma Roos Af; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated how different doses of alcohol affected eyewitness recall. Participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to three groups with different blood alcohol concentration (BAC), either a control group (mean BAC 0.00%, N = 42), a lower alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.04%, N = 40), or a higher alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.06%, N = 44). After consumption, participants witnessed a movie of a mock crime and were interviewed one week later. The main results showed that witnesses with the higher intoxication level recalled fewer details compared to witnesses with the lower intoxication level. The amount of alcohol consumed did not have an impact on the accuracy rate. No sex differences were found. The results are discussed in the light of past research. We conclude that more studies are needed before recommendations can be made to an applied setting. PMID:23384077

  13. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.;

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion...... fed the low-protein/high-fat diet. The reduced urine excretion was not due to lower liquid consumption and the pattern of daily excretion of faeces was comparable with that observed for urine excretion. Both sodium and potassium excretion and the diuretic response to an acute water load were...... significantly reduced in group A compared with group C. The changes in water balance induced by chronic alcohol consumption were reversible within a few days when the rats received water instead of 15% alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic alcohol consumption has an antidiuretic effect in rats. The percentage of total...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  15. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  16. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  17. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  18. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  19. What is alcoholic fermentation? A study about the alcoholic fermentation conception through the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. F. Cardoso

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the historical development of the alcoholic fermentation conception, based on expe-rimental results obtained from European scientists, from Renascence to the beginning of 20th century(1930. From this, ve concepts were identied for the phenomenon: putrefactive, spiritual, chemical,biological and biochemical. The current conception of alcoholic fermentation was also evaluated. Forthis proposal, three groups of teachers were interviewed through the question? What is alcoholicfermentation? The P group (pilot, n=12 made of professionals that teach on secondary and highschools, group A composed of PhDs from the Center of Technology Education - NUTES (n=9 andgroup B from Department of Medical Biochemistry (called group B, n=41 both of Federal Universityof Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Key words associated with the fermentative process were identiedidentify in the interviewees answers. The group A components mentioned only six key words andpointed out the alcoholic fermentation products. Dierently, subjects from P and B groups cited ahigher number and also more unusual key words (n = 9 and 12, respectively. We also analyzedtheir answers throughout fermentative descriptive words (sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, anaerobic,yeast and ATP. These words were established after an evaluation of alcoholic fermentation conceptstated in the Biology/Biochemistry books most adopted in high schools and Universities. Our analysisshowed that group A used only three descriptive words (sugar, alcohol and yeast while componentsof group B used all the selected descriptive words. However, only one interviewee used all the sixwords together. From this analysis, we proposed that the chemical concept of alcoholic fermentationprevailed on the other concepts found on the historical research (spiritual, putrefactive, biological ebiochemical.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  1. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  2. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  3. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  4. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  5. Alcoholic hepatitis—the case for intensive management

    OpenAIRE

    O'Beirne, J; Patch, D; Holt, S; Hamilton, M.; Burroughs, A.

    2000-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a common condition with a high mortality. Although treatment options for established alcoholic hepatitis are limited, many of the complications of this condition are preventable. This case report and discussion illustrate the important role of early diagnosis and intervention in this patient group. Important management points are stressed to aid physicians who may encounter this condition rarely.


Keywords: alcoholic hepatitis; ascites; hepatorenal syndrome; cirrhosis...

  6. Family care to individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Keity Laís Siepmann Soccol; Marlene Gomes Terra; Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon-Perlini; Danilo Bertasso Ribeiro; Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva; Lucia Amabile Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, which aimed to describe the family care given to the individual dependent on alcohol and other drugs. For data collection we used the interview, open, free and recorded, which was performed in August and September 2011. The 11 subjects were relatives of the individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs, involved in family groups conducted at the Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. From the content analysis of these in...

  7. Reducing Youth Exposure to Alcohol Ads: Targeting Public Transit

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure. To address this problem, the Marin Institute, an alcohol industry watchdog group in Northern California, conduct...

  8. Anxiety and alcohol involvement across the substance use continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Kristin Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The link between anxiety disorders and alcohol abuse and dependence has been established in adults, but the relationship between anxiety and adolescent alcohol involvement is less clear. In this dissertation, we compared explanatory models of substance use including the self-medication hypothesis, the social learning model, and the rebound hypothesis to characterize the association between anxiety and alcohol use in groups with various levels of experience with drinking. Additionally, we incl...

  9. Fetal alcohol exposure and temporal vulnerability regional differences in alcohol-induced microencephaly as a function of the timing of binge-like alcohol exposure during rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S E; Chen, W J; Miller, J A; West, J R

    1997-11-01

    In humans, microcephaly (small head for body size) is a common feature of fetal alcohol syndrome. An analogous measure, termed microencephaly (small brain for body size), can be used for evaluating the detrimental effects of the differential timing of alcohol exposure on brain development in animal model systems. Timed-pregnant rats were exposed to binge-like alcohol during either the first 10 days (first trimester equivalent) or second 10 days of gestation (second trimester equivalent), or the combination of first and second trimesters equivalent for prenatal treatments. Offspring from some of the animals exposed to alcohol during the combined first and second trimesters equivalent were raised artificially from postnatal day (P) 4 through P9 (part of the third trimester equivalent), and also received binge-like alcohol during this period, producing animals that were exposed to alcohol during all three trimesters equivalent. Offspring from untreated dams were also raised artificially and received alcohol only from P4 to P9, thus creating animals that were exposed to alcohol only during part of the third trimester equivalent. All pups were perfused on P10. Appropriate controls (nutritional and normally reared) were used for every alcohol treatment combination. Peak blood alcohol concentrations were not different among the treatment groups for a given sampling time. Significant somatic growth deficits occurred in offspring exposed to alcohol for the equivalent of all three trimesters, compared with offspring exposed to alcohol during other periods. Brain growth in offspring also was significantly affected by the timing of alcohol exposure. The whole brain, forebrain, and cerebellum to body weight ratios of pups exposed to alcohol during the third trimester had more significant brain growth deficits than pups in groups exposed to alcohol during other times of brain development. Although alcohol exposure during the third trimester had a significant detrimental impact

  10. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  11. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  12. Chapitre IX. Promouvoir une politique pétrolière indépendante

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher-Marboeuf, Eric

    2013-01-01

    I. LES « INVENTEURS » DU PÉTROLE FRANÇAIS En accédant aux responsabilités ministérielles, Jean-Marcel Jeanneney entre en contact avec le petit groupe des artisans du pétrole saharien. Il est impossible de comprendre son action dans ce domaine sans se référer à des hommes dont les pouvoirs ont été supérieurs à ceux de nombreux ministres de l’industrie de la IVe et de la Ve République. De la Libération aux années 1970, le destin du pétrole français s’est joué entre quelques hommes passionnés qu...

  13. Pendant triazole ring assisted mesogen containing side chain liquid crystalline polymethacrylates: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Palani; C Saravanan; P Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Two series of click chemistry assisted alkoxymethyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazol-1-yl containing sidechain liquid-crystalline polymethacrylates were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique. Mesogen was linked to backbone through various spacer units. Monomers and polymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR spectral techniques. Thermal stability of polymers was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Mesomorphic property and phase transition temperature of polymers were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. Phase transition temperature and mesomorphic property of polymers with respect to insertion of polar alkoxy group on terminal triazole ring and spacer length between backbone and mesogen were investigated. Polymers exhibited grainy like textures under polarized optical microscopy. Spacer length between mesogen and backbone alters phase transition temperature of the polymers.

  14. Synthetic strategies for efficient conjugation of organometallic complexes with pendant protein reactive markers

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    Site-directed conjugation of metal centers to proteins is fundamental for biological and bioinorganic applications of transition metals. However, methods for the site-selective introduction of metal centers remain scarce. Herein, we present broadly applicable synthetic strategies for the conjugation of bioactive molecules with a range of organometallic complexes. Following three different synthetic strategies, we were able to synthesize a small library of metal conjugated protein markers featuring different types of protein reactive sites (epoxides, phenylphosphonates, fluorosulfonates and fluorophosphonate groups) as well as different late transition metals (iron, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and platinum). The products were isolated in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction of the metalated protein markers corroborates structural integrity of the metal complex and the protein reactive site. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocatalytic synthesis and in vitro release of biodegradable linear polyesters with pendant ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Na; Li, Chao; Li, Kun; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2010-12-13

    Enzyme-catalyzed polycondensation for the synthesis of polyester prodrugs of ketoprofen was reported. Lipase acrylic resin from Candida antarctica (CAL-B) was used to synthesize the linear polyesters with pendent ketoprofen groups based on ketoprofen glycerol ester, poly(ethylene glycol), and divinyl sebacate. The products were characterized by GPC and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the molecular weight and yields of the polyesters depend on experimental conditions such as temperature and feed ratio. The in vitro study showed that the drug release from the polyester was slow under physiological conditions, which indicated that the polyester could be a promising prodrug with extended pharmacological effects by delayed release of ketoprofen. PMID:21053944

  16. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  17. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  18. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  19. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness. PMID:9883098

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 51, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to alicyclic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 20 alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) in 2002. This revision is made due to inclusion of seven additional substances...

  1. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  3. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  5. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  6. What is alcoholic fermentation? A study about the alcoholic fermentation conception through the history

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. F. Cardoso; E. Kurtenbach

    2004-01-01

    This work shows the historical development of the alcoholic fermentation conception, based on expe-rimental results obtained from European scientists, from Renascence to the beginning of 20th century(1930). From this, ve concepts were identied for the phenomenon: putrefactive, spiritual, chemical,biological and biochemical. The current conception of alcoholic fermentation was also evaluated. Forthis proposal, three groups of teachers were interviewed through the question? What is alcoholicfer...

  7. Biointerfacial impedance characterization of reduced graphene oxide supported carboxyl pendant conducting copolymer based electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report, a comprehensive physical and biointerfacial electrochemical characteristics of electrodeposited poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) (PPy-PPa) copolymer film on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets attached over a silane modified indium-tin-oxide coated glass, for biosensing applications. The highly specific cardiac myoglobin protein antibody, Ab-cMb, has been covalently immobilized on the copolymer film through its pendent carboxyl group by carbodiimide coupling reaction. The factor ‘n’ describing divergence of the system from ideal capacitor characteristics exhibits a low value (n = 0.59) in a constant phase element of the impedance. This low value of ‘n’ showing a porous rough microstructure of PPy-PPa film on RGO exhibiting a diffusive characteristic that has been replaced by dominant charge transfer characteristic (Ret) with n = 0.78 on biomolecular immobilization and subsequent immunoreaction. The bioelectrode exhibits a linear impedance response to human cardiac cMb marker in the range of 10 ng mL−1 to 1 μg mL−1 in phosphate buffer solution (PBS; pH 7.4) at a low frequency region of et sensitivity of 70.30 Ω cm2 per decade

  8. The polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxane containing both alkyl cyanide and oligo ethylene oxide pendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomers (3-cyanopropyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4CN) and (3-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)propyl) methylsiloxane cyclics (D4TEG) were prepared by a hydrosilylation reaction of 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) with allyl cyanide and tri(ethylene glycol) methyl allyl ether (allyl TEG), respectively, in toluene using a platinum(0)-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane complex as the catalyst. The new crosslinkable polymers with alkyl cyanide and ethylene oxide groups as the pendent were synthesized by ring opening polymerization and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. And then, the crosslinked solid polymer electrolyte was prepared by UV radiation curing. The conductivities of samples were measured by impedance spectroscopy using an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. As the results, the maximum ionic conductivities of the polymer were 1.15 x 10-5 S cm-1 at 20 deg. C and 1 x 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 deg. C. The electrolyte was stable electrochemically to 5 V versus Li+/Li at room temperature

  9. Images of alcoholism among adolescents in individualistic and collectivistic geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Sara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This article compares adolescents’ images of alcoholism in two different drinking geographies, namely Helsinki (Finland and Turin (Italy, with the aim to better understand the persisting variance in youth drinking within Europe. DESIGN - Altogether 28 focus group interviews were conducted at schools among 15-year-old pupils (N=145. To assure reliable qualitative comparison across language boundaries, we applied a structured qualitative focus-group methodology called the Reception Analytical Group Interview (RAGI. CONCLUSIONS - Collectivist images of alcoholism can be considered more protective in terms of alcohol-related risk behaviour as they 1 emphasise interpersonal responsibility, 2 enhance the value of norms and traditions, and 3 highlight causes of alcoholism which are beyond the control of the individual (that is, contextual, social and inherent in the substance, making the attitude towards alcohol more cautious. A greater emphasis on the individual competence may correspondingly result in a lower perception about the risks of drinking

  10. Context Effects and False Memory for Alcohol Words in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (81 male) 10th grade students, ages 14–16 (M = 15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental – Group E, n = 92) or only Neutral (Control – Group C, n = 79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two’s. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhib...

  11. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  12. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  13. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-01

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school

  14. Late First-Row Transition-Metal Complexes Containing a 2-Pyridylmethyl Pendant-Armed 15-Membered Macrocyclic Ligand. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Seven-Coordinate Cobalt(II) Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Peter; Drahoš, Bohuslav; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2016-06-20

    The 2-pyridylmethyl N-pendant-armed heptadentate macrocyclic ligand {3,12-bis(2-methylpyridine)-3,12,18-triaza-6,9-dioxabicyclo[12.3.1]octadeca-1,14,16-triene = L} and [M(L)](ClO4)2 complexes, where M = Mn(II) (1), Fe(II) (2), Co(II) (3), Ni(II) (4), and Cu(II) (5), were prepared and thoroughly characterized, including elucidation of X-ray structures of all the compounds studied. The complexes 1-5 crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Sohncke space groups as racemic compounds. The coordination numbers of 7, 6 + 1, and 5 were found in complexes 1-3, 4, and 5, respectively, with a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal (1-4) or square pyramidal (5) geometry. On the basis of the magnetic susceptibility experiments, a large axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) was found for 2, 3, and 4 (D(Fe) = -7.4(2) cm(-1), D(Co) = 34(1) cm(-1), and D(Ni) = -12.8(1) cm(-1), respectively) together with a rhombic ZFS (E/D = 0.136(3)) for 4. Despite the easy plane anisotropy (D > 0, E/D = 0) in 3, the slow relaxation of the magnetization below 8 K was observed and analyzed either with Orbach relaxation mechanism (the relaxation time τ0 = 9.90 × 10(-10) s and spin reversal barrier Ueff = 24.3 K (16.9 cm(-1))) or with Raman relaxation mechanism (C = 2.12 × 10(-5) and n = 2.84). Therefore, compound 3 enlarges the small family of field-induced single-molecule magnets with pentagonal-bipyramidal chromophore. The cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in 1-3 and 5, except for the Ni(II) complex 4, where a quasi-reversible process was dominantly observed. Presence of the two 2-pyridylmethyl pendant arms in L with a stronger σ-donor/π-acceptor ability had a great impact on the properties of all the complexes (1-5), concretely: (i) strong pyridine-metal bonds provided slight axial compression of the coordination sphere, (ii) substantial changes in magnetic anisotropy, and (iii) stabilization of lower oxidation states. PMID:27245288

  15. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24152092

  16. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  17. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  18. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  19. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  20. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  1. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  2. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  3. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  4. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  5. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  8. Optic nerve hypoplasia in fetal alcohol syndrome: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinazo-Duran, M D; Renau-Piqueras, J; Guerri, C; Strömland, K

    1997-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia was detected in up to one half of a group of Swedish children born to alcoholic mothers. Using an experimental model of pre- and postnatal alcohol exposure in rats fed a liquid diet, reduced optic nerve size from gestational day 21 (294 +/- 26 x 10(2) microns2 vs 502 +/- 16 x 10(2) microns2; n = 6; p alcohol levels achieved in dams and their offspring. Altered glial cells and degenerating and atrophic optic axons, myelin sheaths and ganglion cells were frequent in the alcohol-exposed optic nerves. Smaller optic nerve (1.918 +/- 61 x 10(2) microns2 vs 2.195 +/- 40 x 10(2) microns2; n = 4; p alcohol exposure. In summary, alcohol as a major teratogenic agent may induce dysmorphogenesis and irremediable damage to the retina and optic nerve, which frequently manifests itself as hypoplastic optic nerve. PMID:9352281

  9. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  10. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  11. Intoxicación por alcoholes Alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roldán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación etílica es la primera toxicomanía en muchos países del mundo. Afecta a todos los tramos de edad, en los dos sexos y en casi todos los grupos sociales. La mortalidad asociada sólo a la intoxicación etílica aguda es excepcional, pero puede ser un importante factor si coexiste con ingesta de otras drogas de abuso. Es responsable directo de más de la mitad de los accidentes de tráfico. El diagnóstico es fácil por la anamnesis y la clínica y se puede confirmar determinando el nivel de etanol en sangre. El tratamiento es de sostén, intentando proteger al paciente de complicaciones secundarias. El metanol o alcohol de quemar se utiliza como disolvente, encontrándose también como adulterante de bebidas alcohólicas. La intoxicación vía oral es la más frecuente. Oxidado en el hígado a través de la enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa, la toxicidad se debe a sus metabolitos, formaldehído y ácido fórmico. La clínica consiste fundamentalmente en cefalea, náuseas, vómitos, hipotensión y depresión del SNC. El nervio óptico es especialmente sensible pudiendo producirse una ceguera total e irreversible. El etilenglicol se utiliza como disolvente y anticongelante; la toxicidad se debe a la acumulación de sus metabolitos. La clínica incluye síntomas comunes con la intoxicación metílica. Puede ocurrir fallo renal por necrosis tubular y depósito de cristales de oxalato.Alcohol intoxication is the principal drug addiction in many countries of the world. It affects all age groups, both sexes and almost all social groups. Mortality associated with acute alcohol poisoning on its own is exceptional, but it can be an important factor if it coexists with recreational drugs. It is directly responsible for more than half of traffic accidents. Diagnosis is easy by means of anamnesis and clinical examination, and can be confirmed by determining the level of ethanol in the bloodstream. Supportive care is the best therapy in order to

  12. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, whi...

  13. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  14. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications. PMID:26646575

  15. Transferable force field for alcohols and polyalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Teuler, Jean-Marie; Boutin, Anne

    2009-04-30

    A new force field has been developed for alcohol and polyalcohol molecules. Based on the anisotropic united-atom force field AUA4 developed for hydrocarbons, it only introduces one new anisotropic united atom corresponding to the hydroxyl group OH. In the case of polyalcohols and complex molecules, the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy is revisited. These interactions are calculated between charges belonging to the different local dipoles of the molecule, one dipole being defined as a group of consecutive charges globally neutral. This new method allows avoiding the use of empirical scaling parameters commonly introduced to calculate 1-4 electrostatic interactions. The transferability of the proposed potential is demonstrated through the simulation of a wide variety of alcohol families: primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol), secondary alcohols (propan-2-ol), tertiary alcohols (2-methylpropan-2-ol), phenol, and diols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol). Monte Carlo simulations carried out in the Gibbs ensemble lead to a good agreement between calculated and experimental data for the thermodynamic properties along the liquid/vapor saturation curve, for the critical point coordinates and for the liquid structure at room temperature. Additional simulations were performed on the methanol + n-butane system showing the capability of the proposed potential to reproduce the azeotropic behavior of such mixtures with a good agreement. PMID:19344171

  16. Prevention of alcohol abuse-related birth effects--II. Targeting and pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L

    1998-01-01

    Current public health measures to reduce the occurrence of fetal alcohol abuse syndrome (FAAS) and alcohol abuse-related birth effects (AARBEs) have been ineffective, because they target alcohol consumption, rather than alcohol abuse. The present discussion contends that the most effective public health strategy for reducing FAAS and AARBEs is a combination of more specific public health messages that target alcohol abuse, coupled with higher taxes on alcohol beverages. Although alcohol consumption by alcohol abusers has been thought to be inelastic to price changes, recent studies have found that both heavy drinking and binge drinking are sensitive to alcohol price changes, and price elasticities are relatively high for heavy drinkers who are aware of the consequences of their drinking. Although price increases may have a disproportionate impact on lower socioeconomic groups, this article concludes that they are justifiable from both a utilitarian and a categorical imperative perspective. PMID:9719401

  17. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term health impact…

  18. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  19. The Neighborhood Alcohol Environment and Alcohol-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Theall, Katherine P.; Scribner, Richard; Cohen, Deborah; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Schonlau, Matthias; Lynch, Sara; Farley, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and individual self-reported alcohol-related health outcomes in the last year—sexually transmitted infections (STI), motor vehicle accidents, injury, liver problems, hypertension and experienced violence; (2) to determine whether the relationship between morbidity and alcohol outlet density is mediated by individual alcohol consumption; and (3) to explore the role of alcohol outlet den...

  20. Keep Kids Alcohol Free: Strategies for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendehack, Mary, Ed.; Green, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide was produced by the Leadership To Keep Children Alcohol Free, a coalition of governors' spouses, federal agencies, and public and private organizations which aims to alert the nation of and mobilize action to prevent this critical public health problem. It is the only national effort that focuses on this age group. The guide is an…

  1. [Prevalence and psychosocial patterns of alcohol consumption in Cantabria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E; Vázquez Barquero, J L; Lequerica Puente, J; Alonso Sánchez, M

    1991-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional community survey directed to investigate aspects related ot the alcohol consumption of 1,816 persons, of 16-65 years of age, representative of the population of Cantabria. It was found, among other things, that 7% of the male and 23% of the female were abstinent, being the prevalence for excessive alcohol consumption of 14.36% for males and of 0.22% for females. We also found, especially among the younger age groups, a growing female incorporation into the masculine patterns of alcohol consumption. It was also analyzed in the study the characteristics of the patterns of alcohol consumption. We found, in this respect, for the different socio-demographic groups of this community, specific profiles of alcohol consumption. PMID:1807100

  2. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N; Gluud, C

    1989-01-01

    both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs....... 28%, P less than 0.001) and miscarriages (23% vs. 8%, P less than 0.05) than controls, but due to a higher number of pregnancies in the alcoholic group the proportion of abortions and miscarriages did not differ significantly. No differences existed between the groups regarding frequency of difficult...... conception. Social classification had no independent influence on the results. The study shows that chronic alcoholic women are more prone to menstrual abnormalities and are at greater risk of gynecological interventions, while they do not seem to have reduced fertility....

  3. Behavior of alcoholics and spouses in a simulation game situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D L

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of alcoholics and their spouses in a simulation game was systematically observed and compared to the behavior of nonalcoholic couples. Overall, 28 couples played a mixed-motive bargaining game, the "tax game," which is a modification of Kelly's "game of nines." Alcohol couples as a group did not manifest a distinct game "style." They were less uniform in this respect than "normal" couples and a mixed group of "psychiatrically disturbed" couples. Subgroup trends without the alcoholic sample were suggested and discussed. Extreme behavior, rigidity, and lack of communication were common features in the game behavior of alcoholic couples that did not appear to relate to a particular game style, but did distinguish the game play of alcoholic couples from that of nonalcoholic couples. PMID:1245845

  4. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  5. Concevoir l'instrumentation gestionnaire de la gouvernance territoriale de l'aide aux proches aidants de personnes âgées dépendantes

    OpenAIRE

    Gand, Sébastien; Periac, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    National audience Les problématiques liées à la perte d'autonomie de personnes âgées occupent une place aujourd'hui reconnue dans l'espace des politiques publiques sanitaires et sociales mais leur traitement reste insuffisant au regard du vieillissement démographique entamé et futur. Cette communication se centre sur la problématique des proches aidants de personnes âgées dépendantes, souvent leur conjoint ou enfant. Celle-ci s'est légitimée progressivement jusqu'à voir de nombreuses actio...

  6. Prélèvement vaginal positif à Candida albicans pendant la grossesse‎ : enquête auprès des professionnels

    OpenAIRE

    Cocho, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Le portage vaginal à Candida albicans (CA) est très fréquent chez la femme et notamment pendant la grossesse qui constitue un facteur favorisant. Une candidose est responsable d'un inconfort pour la patiente mais ne présente pas de risques pour le nouveau-né à terme. Environ 35% des femmes enceintes ont des prélèvements vaginaux (PV) positifs à CA. La rupture de l'équilibre vaginal en faveur du CA conduit à la multiplication des levures et à leur invasion épithéliale. Les candidoses génitales...

  7. DOTASA, an Asymmetrical Derivative of DOTA Substituted at one Acetate pendant Arm: 1H NMR and Potentiometric Studies of the Ligand and its Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Brücher, Ernö; Kiraly, Robert; Carvalho, Rui A.; Mäcke, Helmut; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    2005-01-01

    The ligand H5dotasa (=(alphaRS)-alpha-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) is a H4dota-like macrocyclic ligand with a carboxymethyl CH2COOH substituent moiety at the C(alpha) atom of one of the four acetate pendant arms of H4dota (=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), present as a racemic mixture of (alphaR) and (alphaS) enantiomers. The protonation constants of the ligand were determined by potentiometry, giving values close to H4dot...

  8. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  9. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, the combined use of alcohol and tobacco greatly increases the risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Written January 2016 ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  11. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  12. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  13. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  14. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  15. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  16. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  17. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  18. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lead and pregnancy Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  19. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are trying to lose weight, you can boost your efforts by cutting back on alcoholic drinks. ... goes in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra ...

  20. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant again? Preterm labor and premature birth Lead and ... pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can cause your baby to be born with ...

  1. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)], E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Singh, Prerna; Banerjee, Shibdas; Mehtab, Sameena [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-02-02

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L{sub 1}) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L{sub 2}) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 1}: PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 1} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb{sup 3+} ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 5.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb{sup 3+} ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb{sup 3+} ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  2. La fiaccola e la maschera: didascalie in immagini per il pensiero. Un esemplare pendant di Paolo De Matteis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Sintesi caleidoscopica dell’eros latino, le Metamorfosi di Ovidio sono state fondamentale riferimento sin dall’antichità per molti pittori che ne hanno ripreso i temi, cimentandosi anche nel non facile compito di rappresentare nella fissità della realizzazione pittorica la narrazione di ciò che, per definizione, è in movimento: la metamorfosi. Un pendant di dipinti, diviso ora fra Italia e Stati Uniti, raffigurante Apollo e Dafne e Pan e Siringa, rappresenta un significativo caso studio per dare avvio a una riflessione sui sottili rapporti che intercorrono fra l’invenzione del soggetto dovuta al poeta Ovidio, la modalità teorica con cui debba essere rappresentato tale soggetto, elaborata dal filosofo e committente inglese Conte di Shaftesbury e la realizzazione artistica di tale teoria dovuta al pittore cilentano Paolo De Matteis. Scopo ultimo della riflessione è quello di meglio comprendere, tanto storicamente quanto fenomenologicamente, l’intelligenza propria di un linguaggio pittorico che struttura dall’interno le immagini, rendendo efficace la loro capacità di mostrare sia ciò che le parole narrano sia ciò che il pensiero teorizza.   A kaleidoscopic synthesis of the Latin eros, Ovid’s Metamorphoses have been a fundamental point of reference, since ancient times, for the many painters who drew their subject-matter from this text and also undertook the far from simple task of using the static nature of the pictorial medium to represent the narration of what is – by definition – in motion: metamorphosis. A pair of paintings, now divided between Italy and the United States, depicting Apollo and Daphne and Pan and Syrinx, offers a significant case study for an initial reflection on the subtle relationships between the invention of a subject, a text by the poet Ovid, the theoretical mode of representing such a subject, devised by the English philosopher and patron, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and the artistic

  3. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  4. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  5. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  6. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Motaghinejad; Mohammad Yasan Bangash; Ozra Motaghinejad

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 group...

  7. Online alcohol interventions, sexual violence and intimate partner violence: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Robert J; Simon Lenton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual and intimate partner violence (IPV) is a leading cause of disease burden, with alcohol use strongly related to these behaviors. Online interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing both alcohol use and some alcohol-related problems. These programs are widely available especially to university students, a particularly high-risk group for sexual or IPV. Aim: We aimed to systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions in ...

  8. YOUNG DRIVERS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Topolšek, Darja; Andrijana MOĆIĆ; Knez, Matjaž; Sternad, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    We have to consider the fact that alcohol is a legal drug. The spread of alcohol consumption reflects also in the road traffic safety; nevertheless, alcohol is a significant factor in traffic accidence occurrence, especially in those with serious consequences. In the last few years traffic crashes with fatalities are just following one another and are mostly caused by drivers who consumed alcohol. Adolescents between ages 15 and 24 are one of the most endangered groups of people in traffi...

  9. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wakana Momino; Têmis Maria Félix; Alberto Mantovani Abeche; Denise Isabel Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer Scheibler; Christina Chambers; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Renato Zamora Flores; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well a...

  10. The effect of alcohol on emotional inertia: a test of alcohol myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol myopia (AM) has emerged as one of the most widely researched theories of alcohol's effects on emotional experience. Given this theory's popularity, it is notable that a central tenet of AM has not been tested-namely, that alcohol creates a myopic focus on the present moment, limiting the extent to which the present is permeated by emotions derived from prior experience. We tested the impact of alcohol on moment-to-moment fluctuations in affect, applying advances in emotion assessment and statistical analysis to test this aspect of AM without drawing the attention of participants to their own emotional experiences. We measured emotional fluctuations using autocorrelation, a statistic borrowed from time-series analysis measuring the correlation between successive observations in time. High emotion autocorrelation is termed emotional inertia and is linked to negative mood outcomes. Social drinkers (N = 720) consumed alcohol, placebo, or control beverages in groups of 3 over a 36-min group formation task. We indexed affect using the Duchenne smile, recorded continuously during the interaction (34.9 million video frames) according to the Facial Action Coding System (P. Ekman, W. V. Friesen, & J. C. Hager, 2002). Autocorrelation of Duchenne smiling emerged as the most consistent predictor of self-reported mood and social bonding when compared with Duchenne smiling mean, standard deviation, and linear trend. Alcohol reduced affective autocorrelation, and autocorrelation mediated the link between alcohol and self-reported mood and social outcomes. Findings suggest that alcohol enhances the ability to freely enjoy the present moment untethered by past experience and highlight the importance of emotion dynamics in research examining affective correlates of psychopathology. PMID:24016015

  11. Alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid and proteins in cerebral tissues from fetuses subject to alcohol in utero

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-de-Ochoa, J.A.F. (J.A.F.); Villa-Elizaga, I. (Ignacio); Frizell, E. (E.); Fresnillo, M. (M.); Ballesteros, A.; Olazabal, A. (A.); Sierrasesumaga, L. (Luis)

    1989-01-01

    Critical period for intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR), and biochemical parameters for tissue growth were studied in an animal model of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in rats. Our research used 40 animals, fed Lieber and DeCarli liquid diets, distributed into 4 groups: C, or control--non-alcoholic--, ad libitum; E, or alcoholic, fed ad libitum; F, or alcoholic, pair fed to E; and P, non-alcoholic, pair fed to E and F. Fetuses of group E were exposed to ethanol during the organogenic period...

  12. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL INTAKE ON PENILE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of alcohol intake on penile structure and function in rats.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and alcohol intake group. They were administered with 2 mL of normal saline and 40% alcohol solution respectively through gastric tubes every day. Three months later, the animal model of alcohol intake was evaluated by modified Nayagida's method, and the effects of alcohol on the rats were studied by sexual behavior, the number of apomorphine-induced penile erection,level of testosterone in the sera, and the content of penile smooth muscle.Results The scores of animal model of alcohol intake evaluated by Nayagida's method were 0. 66 ± 2. 05 in the control group and 9. 26 ± 5.50 in the alcohol intake group (P < 0.05 ), which indicated that an animal model of alcohol intake was successfully established. Sexual behavior, the number of apomorphine-induced penile erection, testosterone level in the sera, and the content of penile smooth muscle of the alcohol intake group were all statistically different as compared with the control group ( P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Alcohol intake induces sexual dysfunction in rats, which may be due to the decline of testosterone level in the sera and decline of penile smooth muscle.

  13. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  14. Alcohol consumption in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hannes Hagstr(o)m; Per St(a)l; Knut Stokkeland; Annika Bergquist

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the alcohol drinking patterns in a cohort of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients and the possible influence on the development of fibrosis.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with PSC were evaluated with a validated questionnaire about a patient's lifetime drinking habits:the lifetime drinking history (LDH) questionnaire.In addition,clinical status,transient elastography and biochemistry values were analysed and registered.Patients were defined as having either significant or non-significant fibrosis.Significant fibrosis was defined as either an elastography value of ≥ 17.3 kPa or the presence of clinical signs of cirrhosis.Patients were divided into two groups depending on their alcohol consumption patterns; no/low alcohol consumption (one drink or unit/d) and moderate/high alcohol consumption (≥ 1 drink or unit/d).LDH data were calculated to estimate lifetime alcohol intake (LAI),current alcohol intake,drinks per year before and after diagnosis of PSC.We also calculated the number of episodes of binge-drinking (defined as consuming ≥ 5 drinks per occasion) in total,before and after the diagnosis of PSC.RESULTS:The mean LAI was 3882 units of alcohol,giving a mean intake after onset of alcohol consumption of 2.6 units per week.Only 9% of patients consumed alcohol equal to or more than one unit per day.Current alcohol intake in patients with significant fibrosis (n =26) was less than in patients without significant fibrosis (n =70),as shown by lower values of phosphatidylethanol (B-PEth) (0.1 μmol/L vs 0.33 μmol/L,respectively,P =0.002) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)(0.88% vs 1.06%,respectively,P =0.02).Self-reported LAI was similar between the two groups.Patients with significant fibrosis reduced their alcohol intake after diagnosis from 103 to 88 units per year whereas patients without fibrosis increased their alcohol intake after PSC diagnosis from 111 to 151 units/year.There were no correlations between elastography

  15. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause......-specific mortality data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol. Of the...

  16. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Weiner, Michael W.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  17. Alcohol, drugs and much more in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Hulse Gary K

    2002-01-01

    Elderly adults are greater consumers of prescription and 'over the counter' medications than any other age group and polypharmacy, including the co-use of alcohol, is common in this group. Age related physiological changes which influence drug concentrations, metabolism, polypharmacy and interaction of other drugs with alcohol can negatively influence functional capacity, psychomotor ability, and cognition, including attention and memory, placing the older person at greater risk of accident, ...

  18. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (Palcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  19. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  20. Correlates of baclofen effectiveness in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhansh Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201 or Baclofen (348. ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75 and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19; t (547 = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables - dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ′dose of baclofen′ and ′average alcohol intake′ explain a significant amount of variance in ′time to first drink′. [F (1, 345 = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2 adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier.

  1. Prior alcohol consumption does not impair go/no-go discrimination learning, but causes over-responding on go trials, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Charles L; Fisher, Hayley; Bright, Nicholas; Gallo, Mark; Ray, Madelyn H; Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Prior alcohol use is associated with impaired response inhibition in humans, including in laboratory go/no-go discrimination tasks. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol would alter go/no-go discrimination learning. Rats received 4-6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol (alone or accompanied by saline or 1.5g/kg alcohol injections) or water. Rats then began discrimination training 4-5days after the end of the alcohol access. Each lever was available for 40s with one lever intermittently reinforced ("active lever") and the other lever non-reinforced ("inactive lever"). The rats given access to alcohol without concurrent alcohol injections drank ∼10g/kg/24-h on average during the last three weeks of alcohol access. The groups given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection groups) exhibited suppressed drinking, but the Alcohol+Injection groups exhibited higher blood alcohol spikes than all other alcohol groups (195 vs. 85-90mg/dl, respectively). We found no evidence for impaired go/no-go discrimination learning in either experiment. However, the alcohol access groups with moderate-to-high average alcohol consumption (>3g/kg/24-h) exhibited over-responding to the active lever compared to the water-only groups. One group given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection group) that exhibited very low voluntary drinking (<1g/kg/24-h) did not exhibit the over-responding effect, suggesting that the total 24-h alcohol dose matters more than short-lived blood alcohol spikes. Our findings are in accord with previous research showing that repeated alcohol withdrawal causes over-responding for responses that lead to limited reinforcement. Future work will determine the psychological and neurobiological basis of this behavioral change. PMID:27327103

  2. Colloidal systems of silver nanoparticles and high-regioregular cationic polythiophene with ionic-liquid-like pendant groups: Optical properties and SERS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazim, Samrana; Pfleger, Jiří; Procházka, M.; Bondarev, D.; Vohlídal, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 354, č. 2 (2011), s. 611-619. ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500652; GA ČR GA203/07/0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ionic conjugated polymer * polythiophene polyelectrolyte * plasmonic nanoparticle Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  3. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  4. Radiology of the foot in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reviewed the radiographic patterns of the foot in 28 patients affected by neuropathic joint disease complicating alcoholism, out of a series of 82 chronic ethylic patients. Sixteen of them were also affected by diabetes mellitus. On the basis of X-ray findings, lesion were divided into tree groups, reflecting the evolution of the disease: 1) early changes, especially affecting the soft tissue and joints;2) definite lesions, consisting of fractures, osteolysis, bone destruction and amputation, periarticulardebris; 3)''healing'' signs, simulating degenerative joint disease, which cause severe and weakening deformities. Tabe dorsalis and diabetic osteoarthropathy must be differentiated from alcohol-induced syndrome. Even though a correct differential diagnosis is often difficult to reach, it must be kept in mind that focal/diffuse osteopenia is the most characteristic manifestation of alcoholic osteopathy, whereas different radiographic findings simulate chronic degenerative arthropathies

  5. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  6. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  7. Sensibilité des œufs de truite arc-en-ciel aux chocs mécaniques pendant la phase de durcissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILLARD R.

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Des œufs de Truite arc-en-ciel en provenance de plusieurs femelles ont été transférés en eau douce après insémination et soumis à une agitation mécanique pendant une heure. Généralement on observe après 30 mn d'agitation une diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés qui est significative (P < 0,001 et P < 0,05. Cependant dans le cas d'une femelle la diminution n'était pas significative (fig. 1. Si l'agitation est appliquée seulement entre la 30e et la 60e minute après le transfert en eau douce, il n'y a pas de diminution du pourcentage d'œufs embryonnés (fig. 3. Il n'y a donc pas de phases plus sensibles que d'autres ; la durée totale d'agitation étant le facteur le plus important. La manipulation des œufs pendant une heure après leur transfert en eau douce apparaît au moins dans certains cas préjudiciable au développement embryonnaire et doit donc être évitée

  8. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group: study in rats Efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre cárie dentária e sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans: estudo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Zanini Kantorski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG, 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG, and water (Control Group, CG. After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10³ were: 8.17 (AG, 9.78 (IG, and 5.63 (CG. There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58 was similar to that in the AG (2.06 and in the CG (1.14, and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14, IG (2.00 and CG (0.43. The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans e sobre cárie dentária na cavidade bucal de ratos. Quarenta animais foram divididos em 3 grupos conforme a dieta líquida administrada: solução de etanol a 20% (Grupo álcool, GA, solução de sacarose a 27% (Grupo isocalórico, GI e água (Grupo controle, GC. Após 56 dias, amostras bucais foram coletadas e semeadas em ágar Mitis Salivarius Bacitracina para contagem de unidades formadoras de col

  9. A comparison of responses to alcohol expectancy questionnaire (CEOA) of Indian and Malaysian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaraja, B; Ramesh, Bhat M; Kotian, M S

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a social problem faced by every country worldwide. Young people are more at risk of this menace. In spite of a clear knowledge and message about the effects of alcohol on individual health and social fabric, it is hard to curb the overuse of this beverage. In the present study, we compared the outcome of a survey using Comprehensive effects of Alcohol (CEOA) in two private Medical institutions in two Asian countries, viz. KMC, Mangalore, India (n=180) and AIMST, Kedah, Malaysia (n=170). The study included both males and female students. The result suggested that the negative reinforcement responses were rated higher in both the study groups. But those who have tasted alcohol before had a higher rating that alcohol may cause positive reinforcement. Both groups of respondents showed similar trend suggesting that the alcohol expectancies are similar in Indian students and Malaysian students. From the results we could conclude that the responses of the two sample groups were comparable to each other. While the male respondents were inclined show higher affinity towards acceptance of alcohol females are very much less so. However, the respondents of both groups appeared to be well aware of the negative aspects of alcohol. Importantly previous exposure to alcohol intake dramatically changed the perception and showed increased inclination towards alcoholism. This study thus provides an important clue to the clinician, counselors and parents regarding the importance of guiding the young people about the alcoholism. PMID:21409864

  10. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positi...

  11. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Motaghinejad; Majid Asadi Ghaleni; Ozra Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of po...

  12. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Shanmugam; K Mallikarjuna; K Sathyavelu Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group): normal control (NC), alcohol treatment (At), d...

  13. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  14. Chronic periadolescent alcohol consumption produces persistent cognitive deficits in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M Jerry; Taffe, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Although human alcoholics exhibit lasting cognitive deficits, it can be difficult to definitively rule out pre-alcohol performance differences. For example, individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and are also behaviorally impaired. Animal models of controlled alcohol exposure permit balanced group assignment, thereby ruling out the effects of pre-existing differences. Periadolescent male rhesus macaques (N = 5) consumed alcohol during 200 drinking sessions (M-F) across a 10-month period (mean daily alcohol consumption: 1.38 g/kg/day). A control group (N = 5) consumed a fruit-flavored vehicle during the same period. Spatial working memory, visual discrimination learning and retention and response time behavioral domains were assessed with subtests of the Monkey CANTAB (CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). Spatial working memory performance was impaired in the alcohol group after 120 drinking sessions (6 mo) in a manner that depended on retention interval. The chronic alcohol animals were also impaired in retaining a visual discrimination over 24 hrs when assessed 6-8 weeks after cessation of alcohol drinking. Finally, the presentation of distractors in the response time task impaired the response time and accuracy of the chronic alcohol group more than controls after 6 months of alcohol cessation. Chronic alcohol consumption over as little as 6 months produces cognitive deficits, with some domains still affected after acute (6-8 wks) and lasting (6 mo) discontinuation from drinking. Animals were matched on alcohol preference and behavioral performance prior to exposure, thus providing strong evidence for the causal role of chronic alcohol in these deficits. PMID:25018042

  15. Présences mémorielles et carences fictionnelles : L’espace du deuil dans le cinéma indépendant new-yorkais post-11/09

    OpenAIRE

    Souladié, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Alors que les majors hollywoodiennes ont observé une distance prudente à l’égard de l’évocation et de la représentation des attentats du onze septembre, plusieurs cinéastes indépendants new-yorkais ont pour leur part choisi de tourner rapidement des films dont les récits se situent explicitement dans le contexte immédiat de l’après-catastrophe et dans le décor meurtri de New York. Les films indépendants se caractérisent principalement par leur absence de contraintes artistiques imposées, par ...

  16. Alcohol expectancy responses from first year medical students: Are they prone to alcoholism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganaraja B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Context : Modern life style and affluence lead to changes in people′s outlook on various habits, including alcohol intake. Some of them will fall prey to the addictive nature of the drink. Aims: Present study was done to evaluate the responses to comprehensive alcohol expectancy questionnaire (comprehensive effects of alcohol - CEOA in order to test the tendency towards alcohol intake among the First Year Medical (MBBS students of our college - that is, to assess the positive or negative reinforcement they would expect if they consumed alcohol. Settings and Design : The study was done by giving a set of questionnaires to be answered by the students. Materials and Methods : Questionnaires of CEOA had 38 responses, in which both negative and positive feelings were represented. All questions were again grouped into four groups of positive and three groups of negative responses. Each question was rated to what degree they agreed, by 4-point Likert-type scale (1 = disagree, 2 = slightly disagree, 3 = slightly agree, 4 = agree. The positive and negative responses were analyzed to group them into agreeing or disagreeing type. Statistical Analysis Used : Analysis of responses by Student ′t′ test and 2-way ANOVA was done to analyze the results. ′P′< 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results : Results showed that negative expectancies outweighed positives significantly (2.8017 ± 0.58554 vs. 2.3055 ± 0.67604, t = 7.526; P< 0.001.. Females rated the negatives more firmly (P< 0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference with respect to different religious beliefs, places of origin or incomes of the respondents. An experience of alcohol had a significant effect on the responses where they had stronger positive expectancy, which is an important point revealed in this study. Conclusions : In this study, we have observed a general acceptance that alcohol could provide positive reinforcement, especially among those who have had a

  17. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  18. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  20. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  1. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  2. A Psychosocial Comparison of Drunk Drivers and Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Melvin L.; And Others

    A self-administered questionnaire was used to compare selected driving, personality, and psychosocial variables of 306 convicted male drunk drivers with those of 289 alcoholics and 269 controls. The drunk driver group fell between the other groups on many parameters but resembled the control group on as many others. While some 40% of the drunk…

  3. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  4. Reconsidering the Relationship between Alcohol and Lethal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott; Matusko, Jacqueline; Tomasovic, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Prior event-based research regarding the relationship between alcohol and violence suffers from important limitations, including the absence of a comparison group, an inappropriate comparison group, or a comparison group that could be considered appropriate but does not control for potential confounders. To overcome such limitations, we use a…

  5. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami,Norito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38 or a control group (n=33. The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and a lecture by an ex-alcoholic. The control group received health education regarding smoking. The students. knowledge regarding alcohol, their drinking behavior, and problem drinking (CAGE were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and at a two-month follow-up. A repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA of those who completed the follow-up indicated the education sessions. significant intervention (group*time effect on the scores related to knowledge of alcohol-related health problems (p=0.035, with a greater increase in the scores of the intervention group at the follow-up. No significant intervention eff ect was observed regarding drinking behavior or problem drinking as measured by CAGE (p>0.05. Alcohol-related education can be considered an effective way to increase awareness of alcohol-related health problems, but less effective for changing drinking the behavior of Japanese junior college students.

  6. Adolescent Characters and Alcohol Use Scenes in Brazilian Movies, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structured assessment of 193 scenes depicting substance use from a convenience sample of 50 Brazilian movies was performed. Logistic regression and analysis of variance or multivariate analysis of variance models were employed to test for two different types of outcome regarding alcohol appearance: The mean length of alcohol scenes in seconds and the prevalence of alcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescent characters was associated with a higher prevalence of alcohol use scenes compared to nonalcohol use scenes. The presence of adolescents was also associated with a higher than average length of alcohol use scenes compared to the nonalcohol use scenes. Alcohol use was negatively associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other drugs use. However, when the use of cannabis, cocaine, or other drugs was present in the alcohol use scenes, a higher average length was found. This may mean that most vulnerable group may see drinking as a more attractive option leading to higher alcohol use. PMID:27166357

  7. Effects of gestational alcohol exposure on the fatty acid composition of umbilical cord serum in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Y M; Woods, J; Whitty, J E; Hannigan, J H; Martier, S S; Sokol, R J; Salem, N

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal periconceptional alcohol intake on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations in human neonates. The area percentage of each fatty acid in cord blood serum from 12 infants born to control women (who consumed alcohol intake averaged > or = 30mL absolute ethanol/d. Periconceptional alcohol use was associated with a 30% increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in cord blood (3.0% of total lipid in control infants compared with 3.9% in alcohol-exposed infants; P alcohol-exposed infants increased 54% (P alcohol-exposed group (25%, P fetal alcohol syndrome and other alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders may be due in part to PUFA dysregulation. PMID:10617986

  8. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  9. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  10. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  11. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  12. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  13. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  14. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  15. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  17. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  19. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993...

  20. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...