WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol pendant groups

  1. Synthesis and photooxidation of styrene copolymer bearing camphorquinone pendant groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszner, Norbert; Lukáč, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Summary (±)-10-Methacryloyloxycamphorquinone (MCQ) was synthesized from (±)-10-camphorsulfonic acid either by a known seven-step synthetic route or by a novel, shorter five-step synthetic route. MCQ was copolymerized with styrene (S) and the photochemical behavior of the copolymer MCQ/S was compared with that of a formerly studied copolymer of styrene with monomers containing the benzil (BZ) moiety (another 1,2-dicarbonyl). Irradiation (λ > 380 nm) of aerated films of styrene copolymers with monomers containing the BZ moiety leads to the insertion of two oxygen atoms between the carbonyl groups of BZ and to the formation of benzoyl peroxide (BP) as pendant groups on the polymer backbone. An equivalent irradiation of MCQ/S led mainly to the insertion of only one oxygen atom between the carbonyl groups of camphorquinone (CQ) and to the formation of camphoric anhydride (11) covalently bound to the polymer backbone. While the decomposition of pendant BP groups formed in irradiated films of styrene copolymers with pendant BZ groups leads to crosslinking, only small molecular-weight changes in irradiated MCQ/S were observed. PMID:22509202

  2. Synthesis of polynorbornene with pendant moiety bearing azide and terminal alkyne groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Zhang; Zhi Wei Peng; Kun Zeng Fan

    2011-01-01

    A powerful approach to the synthesis of an unprecedented polynorbornene with pendant moiety bearing azide and terminal alkyne groups is developed. Two key intermediates, namely, 3-azido-5-(2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl) benzyl alcohol and 4-(4-aza-tricyclo [5.2.1.02.6]dec-8-en-4-yl) benzoic acid, were optimally synthesized for convergent synthesis of the corresponding monomer.

  3. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  4. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainab Ngaini; Khairul Aidil Azlin Abd Rahman; Nazlina Shaari; Hasnain Hussain; Norhaizat Sundin; Jingxin, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  5. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  6. Group 4 metallocene complexes with pendant nitrile groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Gyepes, R.; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Lamač, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 696, 11-12 (2011), s. 2364-2372 ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P200; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallocene * group 4 elements * nitrile Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.384, year: 2011

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo, E-mail: zghu@htu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10{sup −4} mg/mL and 3.9 × 10{sup −5} mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  8. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10 −4 mg/mL and 3.9 × 10 −5 mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability

  9. Electronic and steric influences of pendant amine groups on the protonation of molybdenum bis (dinitrogen) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heiden, Zachariah M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mock, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The synthesis of a series of PEtPNRR' (PEtPNRR' = Et₂PCH₂CH₂P(CH₂NRR')₂, R = H, R' = Ph or 2,4-difluorophenyl; R = R' = Ph or iPr) diphosphine ligands containing mono- and disubstituted pendant amine groups, and the preparation of their corresponding molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') is described. In situ IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies monitoring the stepwise addition of (HOTf) to trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes in THF at -40 °C show that the electronic and steric properties of the R and R' groups of the pendant amines influence whether the complexes are protonated at Mo, a pendant amine, a coordinated N2 ligand, or a combination of these sites. For example, complexes containing mono-aryl substituted pendant amines are protonated at Mo and pendant amine to generate mono- and dicationic Mo–H species. Protonation of the complex containing less basic diphenyl-substituted pendant amines exclusively generates a monocationic hydrazido (Mo(NNH₂)) product, indicating preferential protonation of an N₂ ligand. Addition of HOTf to the complex featuring more basic diisopropyl amines primarily produces a monocationic product protonated at a pendant amine site, as well as a trace amount of dicationic Mo(NNH₂) product that contain protonated pendant amines. In addition, trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(depe) (depe = Et₂PCH₂CH₂PEt₂) without a pendant amine was synthesized and treated with HOTf, generating a monocationic Mo(NNH₂) product. Protonolysis experiments conducted on select complexes in the series afforded trace amounts of NH₄⁺. Computational analysis of the series of trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes provides further insight into the proton affinity values of the metal center, N

  10. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer...... was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR...

  11. Phosphoric acid doped polysulfone membranes with aminopyridine pendant groups and imidazole cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hink, Steffen; Elsøe, Katrine; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2015-01-01

    Udel polysulfone based membranes with 4-aminopyridine pendant groups and cross-linking imidazole units are synthesized in a simple two step reaction. The ratio of 4-aminopyridine and imidazole is varied and the materials are extensively characterized. The average phosphoric acid uptake (in 85 wt%...

  12. Novel polyketones with pendant imidazolium groups as nanodispersants of hydrophobic antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Hermosilla, Esteban; Orellana, Sandra L.; Toncelli, Claudio; Picchioni, Francesco; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a new method to nanodisperse the pH-sensitive antibiotics oxolinic acid and flumequine by the use of a pH-sensitive synthetic polyketone derivative with amphiphilic characteristics. The pH-sensitive polymer bears imidazolium residues on pendant groups as weak acids, and its

  13. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David

    2015-01-01

    . A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  14. Synthesis and Preliminary Properties of Novel Poly(aryl ethers Containing β-Naphthalene Pendant Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel poly(aryl ethers containing β-naphthalene pendant group were synthesized and the structures of these polymers were confirmed by 1HNMR spectroscopy. The polymers exhibited good thermal stabilities with high Tg of 256°C and 274°C, respectively. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, such as DMAc, DMSO, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3, and can be electrospun into microfiber (1–5 µm with lots of nanopores (<100 nm from CHCl3 solution. These fibers showed high hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of fibers is above 120°.

  15. Novel poly (arylene-ether-ether-ketone)s containing preformed imide unit and pendant long chain alkyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyed, Maheboob M.; Maldar, Noormahmad N.

    2010-01-01

    The studies were carried out to get preformed imide unit containing PEEKs and Co-PEEKs with pendant long chain alkyl group. Thus two new bisphenols; N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl) pyromellitimide (HPI) (I) and N,N'-bis (4-hydroxy 2-pentadecyl phenyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic imide (HBI) (II) containing imide unit, pendant C-15 alkyl substituents were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and polycondensed with 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone (DFB) to yield several PEEK and Co-PEEKs. The polymers were characterized by FTIR, inherent viscosity, solubility, and XRD. The polymers were obtained in good yields and had inherent viscosities up to 0.65 dL/g in NMP. Polymerization of mixture of two bisphenols; [(I) and BPA]; and [(II) and BPA] in various mol%, with DFB gave number of the copolymers viz. Co-PEEK-BPAPI and Co-PEEK-BPABI. Many of the Co-PEEKs had good solubility in polar solvents. The solubility of PEEK containing bulky pendant alkyl substituents did not much improve probably due to simultaneous presence of rigid imide structures. XRD analysis indicated that PEEK and Co-PEEKs were partially crystalline or amorphous depending on the nature and % content of imide-bisphenol. These new PEEK materials can be used as high performance films, coatings, gas separation membranes, in aerospace and nuclear industries.

  16. Data on synthesis and thermo-mechanical properties of stimuli-responsive rubber materials bearing pendant anthracene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Jakob; Ayalur-Karunakaran, Santhosh; Radl, Simone; Oesterreicher, Andreas; Moser, Andreas; Ganser, Christian; Teichert, Christian; Pinter, Gerald; Kern, Wolfgang; Griesser, Thomas; Schlögl, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    The photo-reversible [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene moieties represents a convenient strategy to impart wavelength dependent properties into hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR) networks. The present article provides the 1 H NMR data on the reaction kinetics of the side chain functionalization of HXNBR. 2-(Anthracene-9-yl)oxirane with reactive epoxy groups is covalently attached to the polymer side chain of HXNBR via ring opening reaction between the epoxy and the carboxylic groups. Along with the identification, 1 H NMR data on the quantification of the attached functional groups are shown in dependence on reaction time and concentration of 2-(anthracene-9-yl)oxirane. Changes in the modification yield are reflected in the mechanical properties and DMA data of photo-responsive elastomers are illustrated in dependence on the number of attached anthracene groups. DMA curves over repeated cycles of UV induced crosslinking ( λ >300 nm) and UV induced cleavage ( λ =254 nm) are further depicted, demonstrating the photo-reversibility of the thermo-mechanical properties. Interpretation and discussion of the data are provided in "Design and application of photo-reversible elastomer networks by using the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene groups" (Manhart et al., 2016) [1].

  17. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Michiue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  18. Data on synthesis and thermo-mechanical properties of stimuli-responsive rubber materials bearing pendant anthracene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Manhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The photo-reversible [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene moieties represents a convenient strategy to impart wavelength dependent properties into hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR networks. The present article provides the 1H NMR data on the reaction kinetics of the side chain functionalization of HXNBR. 2-(Anthracene-9-yloxirane with reactive epoxy groups is covalently attached to the polymer side chain of HXNBR via ring opening reaction between the epoxy and the carboxylic groups. Along with the identification, 1H NMR data on the quantification of the attached functional groups are shown in dependence on reaction time and concentration of 2-(anthracene-9-yloxirane. Changes in the modification yield are reflected in the mechanical properties and DMA data of photo-responsive elastomers are illustrated in dependence on the number of attached anthracene groups. DMA curves over repeated cycles of UV induced crosslinking (λ>300 nm and UV induced cleavage (λ=254 nm are further depicted, demonstrating the photo-reversibility of the thermo-mechanical properties. Interpretation and discussion of the data are provided in “Design and application of photo-reversible elastomer networks by using the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene groups” (Manhart et al., 2016 [1].

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyamide-ethers based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Saadati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyamide-ethers (PAEs based on bis-imidazole containing bulky aryl pendant groups was prepared by direct polycondensation of a diamine, 4-(1-(4-(4-(2-(4-aminophenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-ylphenoxyphenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylbenzenamine (DABI, and various dicarboxylic acids. All the resulting polyamide-ethers were amorphous with inherent viscosities ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 dL/g and were readily soluble in many organic solvents which could be solution-cast into transparent and tough films. The glass transition temperatures (Tg of these polymers were affected considerably by their chemical structure and ranged from 230 to 310 ºC. They had useful levels of thermal stability associated with relatively high temperatures of 10% weight loss (T10 in the range of 329-399 ºC in air atmosphere.

  20. Monoanionic 99mTc-tricarbonyl-aminopolycarboxylate complexes with uncharged pendant groups: Radiosynthesis and evaluation as potential renal tubular tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Jarkas, Nashwa; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: 99m Tc(CO) 3 -nitrilotriacetic acid, 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA), is a new renal tubular agent with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to those of 131 I-OIH but the clearance of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) and 131 I-OIH is still less than the clearance of PAH, the gold standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. At physiological pH, dianionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) has a mononegative inner metal-coordination sphere and a mononegative uncoordinated carboxyl group. To evaluate alternate synthetic approaches, we assessed the importance of an uncoordinated carboxyl group, long considered essential for tubular transport, by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of three analogs with the 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) metal-coordination sphere but with uncharged pendant groups. Methods: 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes with N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (ADA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HDA) and N-(fluoroethyl)iminodiacetic acid (FEDA) were prepared using a tricarbonyl kit and isolated by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley rats, with 131 I-OIH as an internal control; urine was analyzed for metabolites. Plasma protein binding and erythrocyte uptake were determined from the 10 min blood samples. Re(CO) 3 (FEDA), the analog of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA), was prepared and characterized. Results: 99m Tc(CO) 3 (ADA), 99m Tc(CO) 3 (HDA) and 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA) were efficiently prepared as a single species with high radiochemical purities (>99%). These new monoanionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 tracers with uncharged dangling groups all showed rapid blood clearance and high specificity for renal excretion. Activity in the urine, as a percent of 131 I-OIH at 10 and 60 min, was 96% and 99% for ADA, 96% and 100% for HDA, and 100% and 99% for FEDA, respectively. Each new tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine. The Re(CO) 3 (FEDA) structure adds compelling evidence that such 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) analogs have metal-coordination spheres identical to that of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA

  1. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Michiue; Makoto Mitani; Terunori Fujita

    2015-01-01

    In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’)2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl), after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenyl)zirconium dichloride (1), rac-dimethyls...

  2. Transmissive-to-black fast electrochromic switching from a long conjugated pendant group and a highly dispersed polymer/SWNT

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-03

    In this study, a novel conjugated polymer, denoted as ECPblack, is synthesized. ECPblack demonstrated a unique electrochromic behavior with an ultrahigh contrast ratio (over 80%) in most of the visible regions, boasting an ultrahigh integrated contrast ratio of 71.8% between 380 nm and 880 nm. The long conjugated pendant group (pyrene) in ECPblack enhances the absorption in the blue region in its second oxidized state and results in transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching between the neutral state and the oxidized state. The transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching polymer with an ultrahigh contrast ratio could be especially attractive for applications in electronic displays. In addition, when polytriarylamine/nanotube (SWNT/P2) dispersion is doped in ECPblack, the response time of its electrochemical and electrochromic behaviors is further reduced. The electrochromic switching and bleaching time of SWNT/P2/ECPblack decreased by 73% and 80%, respectively. The improvement is caused by the phase separation of the rigid SWNT and the flexible polymer, which generates a rough surface morphology and provides more pathways for faster diffusion of counterions (ClO4-). The polymer/SWNT doping technique provides a simple way to accelerate ion diffusion in anodically coloring materials.

  3. Transmissive-to-black fast electrochromic switching from a long conjugated pendant group and a highly dispersed polymer/SWNT

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang; Tsai, Chou-Yi; Abidin, Taufik; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang; Shie, Wan-Ru; Li, Lain-Jong; Liaw, Der-Jang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel conjugated polymer, denoted as ECPblack, is synthesized. ECPblack demonstrated a unique electrochromic behavior with an ultrahigh contrast ratio (over 80%) in most of the visible regions, boasting an ultrahigh integrated contrast ratio of 71.8% between 380 nm and 880 nm. The long conjugated pendant group (pyrene) in ECPblack enhances the absorption in the blue region in its second oxidized state and results in transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching between the neutral state and the oxidized state. The transmissive-to-black electrochromic switching polymer with an ultrahigh contrast ratio could be especially attractive for applications in electronic displays. In addition, when polytriarylamine/nanotube (SWNT/P2) dispersion is doped in ECPblack, the response time of its electrochemical and electrochromic behaviors is further reduced. The electrochromic switching and bleaching time of SWNT/P2/ECPblack decreased by 73% and 80%, respectively. The improvement is caused by the phase separation of the rigid SWNT and the flexible polymer, which generates a rough surface morphology and provides more pathways for faster diffusion of counterions (ClO4-). The polymer/SWNT doping technique provides a simple way to accelerate ion diffusion in anodically coloring materials.

  4. Donor-π-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qing; Wei, Youxiu; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  5. Monoanionic 99mTc-tricarbonyl-aminopolycarboxylate complexes with uncharged pendant groups: Radiosynthesis and evaluation as potential renal tubular tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Jarkas, Nashwa; Marzilli, Luigi G; Taylor, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    99m Tc(CO) 3 -nitrilotriacetic acid, 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA), is a new renal tubular agent with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to those of 131 I-OIH but the clearance of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) and 131 I-OIH is still less than the clearance of PAH, the gold standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. At physiological pH, dianionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) has a mononegative inner metal-coordination sphere and a mononegative uncoordinated carboxyl group. To evaluate alternate synthetic approaches, we assessed the importance of an uncoordinated carboxyl group, long considered essential for tubular transport, by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of three analogs with the 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) metal-coordination sphere but with uncharged pendant groups. 99m Tc(CO) 3 complexes with N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (ADA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HDA) and N-(fluoroethyl)iminodiacetic acid (FEDA) were prepared using a tricarbonyl kit and isolated by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats, with 131 I-OIH as an internal control; urine was analyzed for metabolites. Plasma protein binding and erythrocyte uptake were determined from the 10min blood samples. Re(CO) 3 (FEDA), the analog of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA), was prepared and characterized. 99m Tc(CO) 3 (ADA), 99m Tc(CO) 3 (HDA) and 99m Tc(CO) 3 (FEDA) were efficiently prepared as a single species with high radiochemical purities (>99%). These new monoanionic 99m Tc(CO) 3 tracers with uncharged dangling groups all showed rapid blood clearance and high specificity for renal excretion. Activity in the urine, as a percent of 131 I-OIH at 10 and 60min, was 96% and 99% for ADA, 96% and 100% for HDA, and 100% and 99% for FEDA, respectively. Each new tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine. The Re(CO) 3 (FEDA) structure adds compelling evidence that such 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA) analogs have metal-coordination spheres identical to that of 99m Tc(CO) 3 (NTA). New tracers lacking the negatively

  6. Effects of Cationic Pendant Groups on Ionic Conductivity for Anion Exchange Membranes: Structure Conductivity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojeong; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Won Bo

    Anion exchange membranes(AEMs) have been widely studied due to their various applications, especially for Fuel cells. Previous proton exchange membranes(PEMs), such as Nafions® have better conductivity than AEMs so far. However, technical limitations such as slow electrode kinetics, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of metal catalysts, high methanol crossover and high cost of Pt-based catalyst detered further usages. AEMs have advantages to supplement its drawbacks. AEMs are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient. Based on the well-defined block copolymer, self-assembled morphology is expected to have some relationship with its ionic conductivity. Recently AEMs based on various cations, including ammonium, phosphonium, guanidinium, imidazolium, metal cation, and benzimidazolium cations have been developed and extensively studied with the aim to prepare high- performance AEMs. But more fundamental approach, such as relationships between nanostructure and conductivity is needed. We use well-defined block copolymer Poly(styrene-block-isoprene) as a backbone which is synthesized by anionic polymerization. Then we graft various cationic functional groups and analysis the relation between morphology and conductivity. Theoretical and computational soft matter lab.

  7. ToF-SIMS analysis of a polymer microarray composed of poly(meth)acrylates with C6 derivative pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Andrew L; Scurr, David J

    2016-04-01

    Surface analysis plays a key role in understanding the function of materials, particularly in biological environments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) provides highly surface sensitive chemical information that can readily be acquired over large areas and has, thus, become an important surface analysis tool. However, the information-rich nature of ToF-SIMS complicates the interpretation and comparison of spectra, particularly in cases where multicomponent samples are being assessed. In this study, a method is presented to assess the chemical variance across 16 poly(meth)acrylates. Materials are selected to contain C 6 pendant groups, and ten replicates of each are printed as a polymer microarray. SIMS spectra are acquired for each material with the most intense and unique ions assessed for each material to identify the predominant and distinctive fragmentation pathways within the materials studied. Differentiating acrylate/methacrylate pairs is readily achieved using secondary ions derived from both the polymer backbone and pendant groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the SIMS spectra of the 16 polymers, whereby the resulting principal components are able to distinguish phenyl from benzyl groups, mono-functional from multi-functional monomers and acrylates from methacrylates. The principal components are applied to copolymer series to assess the predictive capabilities of the PCA. Beyond being able to predict the copolymer ratio, in some cases, the SIMS analysis is able to provide insight into the molecular sequence of a copolymer. The insight gained in this study will be beneficial for developing structure-function relationships based upon ToF-SIMS data of polymer libraries. © 2016 The Authors Surface and Interface Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of pendant group length upon metal ion complexation in acetonitrile by di-ionized calix[4]arenes bearing two dansyl fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Ummühan; Ocak, Miraç; Shen, Xin; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Bartsch, Richard A

    2009-11-01

    A series of three di-ionizable calix[4]arenes with two pendant dansyl (1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl) groups linked to the lower rims was synthesized. Structures of the three ligands were identical except for the length of the spacers which connected the two dansyl groups to the calix[4]arene scaffold. Following conversion of the ligands into their di-ionized di(tetramethylammonium) salts, absorption and emission spectrophotometry were utilized to probe the influence of metal cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Ag+, Cd2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+) complexation in acetonitrile. Upon complexation with these metal cations, emission spectra underwent marked red shifts and quenching of the dansyl group fluorescence for the di-ionized ligand with the shortest spacer. A similar effect was noted for the di-ionized ligand with an intermediate spacer for all of the metal ions, except Ba2+. For the di-ionized ligand with the longest spacer, the metal cations showed different effects on the emission spectrum. Li+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ caused enhancement of emission intensity with a red shift. Other metal cations produce quenching with red shifts in the emission spectra. Transition metal cations interacted strongly with all three di-ionized ligands. In particular, Fe3+ and Hg2+ caused greater than 99% quenching of the dansyl fluorescence in the di-ionized ligands.

  9. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures, and phosphate ester cleavage properties of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine copper(II) complexes with guanidinium pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousoff, Matthew J; Tjioe, Linda; Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone

    2008-10-06

    Three new derivatives of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (DPA) featuring ethylguanidinium (L (1)), propylguanidinium (L (2)), or butylguanidinium (L (3)) pendant groups have been prepared by the reaction of N, N- bis(2-pyridylmethyl)alkane-alpha,omega-diamines with 1 H-pyrazole-1-carboxamidine hydrochloride. The corresponding mononuclear copper(II) complexes were prepared by reacting the ligands with copper(II) nitrate and were isolated as [Cu(LH (+))(OH 2)](ClO 4) 3. xNaClO 4. yH 2O ( C1: L = L (1), x = 2, y = 3; C2: L = L (2), x = 2, y = 4; C3: L = L (3), x = 1, y = 0) following cation exchange purification. Recrystallization yielded crystals of composition [Cu(LH (+))(X)](ClO 4) 3.X ( C1': L = L (1), X = MeOH; C2': L = L (2), X = H 2O; C3': L = L (3), X = H 2O), which were suitable for X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of C1', C2', and C3' indicate that the DPA moieties of the ligands coordinate to the copper(II) centers in a meridional fashion, with a water or methanol molecule occupying the fourth basal position. Weakly bound perchlorate anions located in the axial positions complete the distorted octahedral coordination spheres. The noncoordinating, monoprotonated guanidinium groups project away from the Cu(II)-DPA units and are involved in extensive charge-assisted hydrogen-bonding interactions with cocrystallized water/methanol molecules and perchlorate anions within the crystal lattices. The copper(II) complexes were tested for their ability to promote the cleavage of two model phosphodiesters, bis( p-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNPP) and uridine-3'- p-nitrophenylphosphate (UpNP), as well as supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBR 322). While the presence of the guanidine pendants was found to be detrimental to BNPP cleavage efficiency, the functionalized complexes were found to cleave plasmid DNA and, in some cases, the model ribose phosphate diester, UpNP, at a faster rate than the parent copper(II) complex of DPA.

  10. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  11. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Hossain, Md. Awlad; Lee, Soonho; Lim, Jinseong; Jang, Hohyoun; Hong, Taehoon; Kim,; Kim, Whangi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  12. A novel branched side-chain-type sulfonated polyimide membrane with flexible sulfoalkyl pendants and trifluoromethyl groups for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinchao; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhen; Zhou, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    A novel branched side-chain-type sulfonated polyimide (6F-s-bSPI) membrane with accessible branching agents of melamine, hydrophobic trifluoromethyl groups (sbnd CF3), and flexible sulfoalkyl pendants is prepared by a high-temperature polycondensation and post-sulfonation method for use in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The chemical structure of the 6F-s-bSPI membrane is confirmed by ATR-FTIR and 1H NMR spectra. The physico-chemical properties of the as-prepared 6F-s-bSPI membrane are systematically investigated and found to be strongly related to the specially designed structure. The 6F-s-bSPI membrane offers a reduced cost and possesses a significantly lowered vanadium ion permeability (1.18 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) compared to the linear SPI (2.25 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) and commercial Nafion 115 (1.36 × 10-6 cm2 min-1) membranes, prolonging the self-discharge duration of the VRFBs. In addition, the VRFB assembled with a 6F-s-bSPI membrane shows higher coulombic (98.3%-99.7%) and energy efficiencies (88.4%-66.12%) than that with a SPI or Nafion 115 membrane under current densities ranging from 20 to 100 mA cm-2. Moreover, the VRFB with a 6F-s-bSPI membrane delivers a stable cycling performance over 100 cycles with no decline in coulombic and energy efficiencies. These results show that the branched side-chain-type structure is a promising design to prepare excellent proton conductive membranes.

  13. Polyethene with pendant fullerene moieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, XC; Sieval, AB; Hummelen, JC; Hessen, B; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2005-01-01

    Polyethene with fullerene moieties pendant on short-chain branches was prepared by the catalytic copolymerisation of ethene and a fullerene-containing vinylic comonomer, yielding polyethene copolymers containing up to 25 wt% of C-60.

  14. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies.

  15. Déphaseur large bande à phase indépendante de la fréquence à base de circuit actif à temps de propagation de groupe négatif

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelo , Blaise ,; Le Roy , Marc; Pérennec , André

    2009-01-01

    National audience; Un nouveau principe de déphaseur actif à phase constante est proposé. Ce déphaseur est obtenu par l'association de dispositifs à Temps de Propagation de Groupe (TPG) positif et négatif de même valeur absolue. Pour le concevoir, nous avons ainsi associé une ligne de transmission classique avec un circuit actif à TPG négatif développé récemment. Après réalisation d'un prototype en technologie planaire hybride, nous avons mesuré une phase constante (indépendante de la fréquenc...

  16. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  17. The effect of alcoholism on secretor status of blood groups A and B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty were alcoholics and one hundred and fifty non-alcoholics served as controls. In the alcoholic group, seventy five were blood group B while seventy five were blood group A. Fifty out of the seventy five (67%) group A alcoholics were secretors, while 25 (33%) were non-secretors. Fourty two out of the ...

  18. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from......The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...

  19. Colloidal systems of silver nanoparticles and high-regioregular cationic polythiophene with ionic-liquid-like pendant groups: Optical properties and SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Samrana; Pfleger, Jiří; Procházka, Marek; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Vohlídal, Jiří

    2011-02-15

    We report tuning of structure dependent optical properties of colloidal systems of borate-stabilized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and polythiophene-based cationic polyelectrolyte with ionic-liquid like side groups: poly{3-[6-(1-methylimidazolium-3-yl)hexyl]thiophene-2,5-diyl bromide} (PMHT-Br) towards obtaining local electromagnetic field enhancement effects. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies showed that the strong electromagnetic field enhancement is related to the formation of aggregates of Ag NPs achieved at the components ratio providing the charge balance between Ag NPs and cationic polythiophene, at which Ag NPs are nearly single-polymer-layer coated, their zeta potential is close to zero and they easily form aggregates in which the mean inter-particle distance enables the occurrence of desired plasmonic effects. Fluorescence quenching is efficient only in the systems with low concentrations of PMHT-Br, in which almost all polymer chains directly interact with the Ag NPs surface. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nano-anisotropic surface coating based on drug immobilized pendant polymer to suppress macrophage adhesion response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P

    2015-04-01

    Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar π-π* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA

  1. Individual Popularity, Peer Group Popularity Composition and Adolescents? Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Gommans, Rob; M?ller, Christoph M.; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age?=?14.73; SDage?=?1.00; 51.6?% girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that dri...

  2. Constructing maturity through alcohol experience - Focus group interviews with teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2006-01-01

    Danish 14- and 15-year-olds are at the top of the European list when it comes to drinking and drunkenness. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how the struggle for social recognition–with alcohol as the central marker–transpires in groups of teenagers in Denmark. This article shows how alco...... with Danish teenagers. This article represents a close reading of two of the interviews. Theoretically, the analysis is inspired by symbolic interactionism, Erwin Goffman's dramaturgical approach to social interaction and the post-structuralist reasoning of Judith Butler...

  3. Macroporous modified poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with charged groups for tissue engineering: Preparation and in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdova, Maria G., E-mail: drozdovamg@gmail.com [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria S. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Akasov, Roman A. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Trubetskaya str., 8/2, Moscow 119048 (Russian Federation); Golunova, Anna S.; Artyukhov, Alexander A. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Udartseva, Olga O.; Andreeva, Elena R. [Institute of Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Khoroshevskoe Shosse 76a, Moscow 123007 (Russian Federation); Lisovyy, Denis E.; Shtilman, Michael I. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are widely employed for various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, due to their biocompatibility, high water solubility, low protein adsorption, and chemical stability. However, non-charged surface of PVA-based hydrogels is not optimal for cell adhesion and spreading. Here, cross-linked macroporous hydrogels based on low molecular weight acrylated PVA (Acr-PVA) was synthesized by modification of the pendant alcohol groups on the PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). To enhance cell affinity, charged groups were introduced to the hydrogel composition. For this purpose, Acr-PVA was copolymerized with either negatively charged acrylic acid (AA) or positively charged 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) monomers. A surface charge of the obtained hydrogels was found to be in function of the co-monomer type and content. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed that adhesion and spreading of both mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the modified Acr-PVA-AA and Acr-PVA-DEAEMA hydrogels were better than those on the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel. The increase of DEAEMA monomer content from 5 to 15 mol% resulted in the enhancement of cell viability which was 1.5-fold higher for Acr-PVA-DEAEMA-15 hydrogel than that of the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel sample. - Highlights: • To enhance cell affinity, acrylated PVA hydrogel was modified with AA or DEAEMA monomers. • Cell adhesion and spreading were found to depend on the co-monomer type and content. • Proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and stem cells increased on the modified hydrogels.

  4. Macroporous modified poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with charged groups for tissue engineering: Preparation and in vitro evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdova, Maria G.; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria S.; Akasov, Roman A.; Golunova, Anna S.; Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Udartseva, Olga O.; Andreeva, Elena R.; Lisovyy, Denis E.; Shtilman, Michael I.; Markvicheva, Elena A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are widely employed for various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, due to their biocompatibility, high water solubility, low protein adsorption, and chemical stability. However, non-charged surface of PVA-based hydrogels is not optimal for cell adhesion and spreading. Here, cross-linked macroporous hydrogels based on low molecular weight acrylated PVA (Acr-PVA) was synthesized by modification of the pendant alcohol groups on the PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). To enhance cell affinity, charged groups were introduced to the hydrogel composition. For this purpose, Acr-PVA was copolymerized with either negatively charged acrylic acid (AA) or positively charged 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) monomers. A surface charge of the obtained hydrogels was found to be in function of the co-monomer type and content. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed that adhesion and spreading of both mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the modified Acr-PVA-AA and Acr-PVA-DEAEMA hydrogels were better than those on the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel. The increase of DEAEMA monomer content from 5 to 15 mol% resulted in the enhancement of cell viability which was 1.5-fold higher for Acr-PVA-DEAEMA-15 hydrogel than that of the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel sample. - Highlights: • To enhance cell affinity, acrylated PVA hydrogel was modified with AA or DEAEMA monomers. • Cell adhesion and spreading were found to depend on the co-monomer type and content. • Proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and stem cells increased on the modified hydrogels.

  5. Individual Popularity, Peer Group Popularity Composition and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Rob; Müller, Christoph M; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age  = 14.73; SD age  = 1.00; 51.6 % girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that drinking was higher among popular than unpopular adolescents, higher among popular adolescents surrounded by less popular classmates, and lower in classrooms with more variability in popularity. Thus, beyond individual popularity, peer group popularity composition also should be taken into account when investigating antisocial and health risk behaviors in adolescence such as drinking.

  6. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  7. Pendant unit effect on electron tunneling in U-shaped molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Chakrabarti, Subhasis; Waldeck, David H.; Oliver, Anna M.; Paddon-Row, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    The electron transfer reactions of three U-shaped donor-bridge-acceptor molecules with different pendant groups have been studied in different solvents as a function of temperature. Analysis of the electron transfer kinetics in nonpolar and weakly polar solvents provides experimental reaction Gibbs energies that are used to parameterize a molecular solvation model. This solvation model is then used to predict energetic parameters in the electron transfer rate constant expression and allow the electronic coupling between the electron donor and electron acceptor groups to be determined from the rate data. The U-shaped molecules differ by alkylation of the aromatic pendant group, which lies in the 'line-of-sight' between the donor and acceptor groups. The findings show that the electronic coupling through the pendant group is similar for these molecules

  8. A comparative study of cerebral atrophy in various alcoholic groups, based on CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tomoyuki

    1983-01-01

    The alcoholics were diagnosed and classified based on the criteria, offered at the Alcoholism Diagnostic Conference (1977) which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Grade of cerebral atrophy was estimated. Measurement items on the Computed Tomography (CT Scan) which contributed to discrimination among these groups were investigated simultaneously. The study consisted of seventy-five alcoholic patients and control group of ninety-four who were devoid of any evidence for alcoholism. Influential factors which were involved in cerebral atrophy of the alcoholic groups were investigated and factorial analysis was completed. There was a definite increase in cerebral atrophy during the aging process in patients with long term durations of drinking alcohol. There was a close correlation between age and duration of drinking alcohol. After the results of canonical discriminant analysis against 9 CT items, the Ventricle index definitely contributed both in the discrimination between the alcoholics and the controls and in the discrimination between alcoholic dementia and other alcoholic psychoses. Furthermore, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle contributed to the latter discrimination, while the Evans' index contributed to the former discrimination. Therefore, the Ventricle index and the Evans' index turn out as the most valuable diagnostic criteria, as well as the CT index against cerebral atrophy in the alcoholics; however, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle is useful in comparing among alcoholic psychoses. (J.P.N.)

  9. Comparative study of cerebral atrophy in various alcoholic groups, based on CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Tomoyuki (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1983-02-01

    The alcoholics were diagnosed and classified based on the criteria, offered at the Alcoholism Diagnostic Conference (1977) which was held under the auspices of the Ministry of Welfare, Japan. Grade of cerebral atrophy was estimated. Measurement items on the Computed Tomography (CT Scan) which contributed to discrimination among these groups were investigated simultaneously. The study consisted of seventy-five alcoholic patients and control group of ninety-four who were devoid of any evidence for alcoholism. Influential factors which were involved in cerebral atrophy of the alcoholic groups were investigated and factorial analysis was completed. There was a definite increase in cerebral atrophy during the aging process in patients with long term durations of drinking alcohol. There was a close correlation between age and duration of drinking alcohol. After the results of canonical discriminant analysis against 9 CT items, the Ventricle index definitely contributed both in the discrimination between the alcoholics and the controls and in the discrimination between alcoholic dementia and other alcoholic psychoses. Furthermore, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle contributed to the latter discrimination, while the Evans' index contributed to the former discrimination. Therefore, the Ventricle index and the Evans' index turn out as the most valuable diagnostic criteria, as well as the CT index against cerebral atrophy in the alcoholics; however, the horizontal diameter of the third ventricle is useful in comparing among alcoholic psychoses.

  10. Summary of the 2016 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Ju, Cynthia; Agudelo, Marisela; Parira, Tiyash; Cannon, Abigail; Davis, Booker; Eby, Jonathan; Cresci, Gail; Samuelson, Derrick R; Shukla, Pradeep; Alrefai, Waddah A; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Pandey, Subhash C; Schnabl, Bernd; Curtis, Brenda J; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-02-01

    On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome. Presentations in all sessions of the meeting explored putative underlying causes for chronic diseases and mortality associated with alcohol consumption, shedding light on future work and potential therapeutic targets to alleviate the negative effects of alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Referent group proximity, social norms, and context: alcohol use in a low-use environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jared M; Bates, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived normative use of alcohol and reported consumption in an environment where relatively little alcohol use occurs. A total of 585 undergraduate students completed an online survey on alcohol use in March 2006. Participants reported personal alcohol use and perceptions of use by "friends," "the average student," and "the average student who drinks." Due to the large number of students reporting zero alcohol use, zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to analyze the data. Results showed that perceptions of use and beliefs about the acceptability of use by proximal groups were strongly and positively correlated with personal alcohol use. Perceptions of distal groups were either not correlated or were correlated negatively with personal use. These findings suggest that the use of distal referent groups for a social norms campaign in a low-use environment may have paradoxical effects.

  12. Summary of the 2017 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsebus, Holly J; Curtis, Brenda J; Molina, Patricia E; Afshar, Majid; Boule, Lisbeth A; Morris, Niya; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kolls, Jay K; Yeligar, Samantha M; Price, Michael E; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-06-01

    On June 24, 2017, the 22nd annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held as a satellite conference during the annual Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Scientific Meeting in Denver, Colorado. The 2017 meeting focused broadly on mechanisms that link alcohol to tissue injury and inflammation, and how this research can be translated to improve human health. Two plenary sessions composed the meeting, which first explored the association between alcohol and trauma/tissue injury, and finished with a discussion of alcohol and mucosal inflammation. The presentations encompassed diverse areas of alcohol research, from effects on the brain, to airway and pulmonary systems, to gut barrier disruption. The discussions also thoughtfully highlighted how current laboratory and clinical research can be used to prevent or treat alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal and Dielectric Behavior Studies of Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfones with Sulfonated and Phosphonated Pendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoga D. Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the aspects of the synthesizing valeric acid based poly(ether sulfones with active carboxylic acid pendants (VALPSU from solution polymerization technique via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation reaction among 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (BHPA. The conditions necessary to synthesize and purify the polymer were investigated in some detail. The synthesized poly(ether sulfones comprise sulfone and ether linkages in addition to reactive carboxylic acid functionality; these active carboxylic acid functional groups were exploited to hold the phenyl sulphonic acid and phenyl phosphonic acid pendants. The phenyl sulphonic acid pendants in VALPSU were easily constructed by altering active carboxylic acid moieties by sulfanilic acid using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC mediated mild synthetic route, whereas the latter one was built in two steps. Initially, polyphosphoric acid condensation with VALPSU by 4-bromoaniline and next straightforward palladium catalyzed synthetic route, in both of which acidic pendants are clenched by polymer backbone via amide linkage. Without impairing the primary polymeric backbone modified polymers were prepared by varying the stoichiometric ratios of respective combinations. All the polymers were physicochemically characterized and pressed into tablets; electrical contacts were established to study the dielectric properties. Finally, the influence of the acidic pendants on the dielectric properties was examined.

  14. Social anxiety and alcohol use across the university years: Adaptive and maladaptive groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-05-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  18. A model of alcohol drinking under an intermittent access schedule using group-housed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Smutek

    Full Text Available Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule, they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ∼ 10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors.

  19. Synthesis and Reactivity of Tripodal Complexes Containing Pendant Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Pegis, Michael L.; Raugei, Simone; Kaminsky, Werner; Forget, Amelie; Cook, Sarah; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S.; Mayer, James M.

    2014-09-02

    The synthesis of a new tripodal ligand family is reported, with tertiary-amine groups in the second-coordination sphere. The ligands are tris(amido)amine derivatives, with the pendant amines attached via a peptide coupling strategy. They were designed to be used in new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), in which the pendant acid/base group could improve catalyst performance. Two members of the new ligand family were each metallated with Co(II) and Zn(II) to afford trigonal monopyramidal complexes. Reaction of the cobalt complexes, [Co(L)]-, with dioxygen reversibly generates a small amount of a Co(III)-superoxo species, which was characterized by EPR. Protonation of the zinc complex Zn[N{CH2CH2NC(O)CH2N(CH2Ph)2}3)-– ([Zn(TNBn)]-) with one equivalent of acid occurs with displacement and dissociation of an amide ligand. Addition of excess acid to the any of the complexes [M(L)]- results in complete proteolysis and formation of the ligands H3L. This decomposition limits the use of these complexes as catalysts for the ORR. An alternative ligand with two pyridyl arms was also prepared but could not be metallated. These studies highlight the importance of stability of the primary-coordination sphere of ORR electrocatalysts to both oxidative and acidic conditions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Unrecorded alcohol use: a global modelling study based on nominal group assessments and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Merey, Aaron; Rylett, Margaret; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-27

    Alcohol use is among the most important risk factors for burden of disease globally. An estimated quarter of the total alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded. However, due partly to the challenges associated with its assessment, evidence concerning the magnitude of unrecorded alcohol use is sparse. This study estimated country-specific proportions of unrecorded alcohol used in 2015. A statistical model was developed for data prediction using data on the country-specific proportion of unrecorded alcohol use from nominal group expert assessments and secondary, nationally representative survey data and country-level covariates. Estimates were calculated for the country level, for four income groups and globally. A total of 129 participants from 49 countries were included in the nominal group expert assessments. The survey data comprised 66 538 participants from 16 countries. Experts completed a standardized questionnaire assessing the country-specific proportion of unrecorded alcohol. In the national surveys, the number of standard drinks of total and unrecorded alcohol use was assessed for the past 7 days. Based on predictions for 167 countries, a population-weighted average of 27.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.4-44.9%] of the total alcohol consumed in 2015 was unrecorded. The proportion of unrecorded alcohol was lower in high (9.4%, 95% CI = 2.4-16.4%) and upper middle-income countries (18.3%, 95% CI = 9.0-27.6%) and higher in low (43.1%, 95% CI = 26.5-59.7%) and lower middle-income countries (54.4%, 95% CI = 38.1-70.8%). This corresponded to 0.9 (high-income), 1.2 (upper middle-income), 3.2 (lower middle-income) and 1.8 (low-income) litres of unrecorded alcohol per capita. A new method for modelling the country-level proportion of unrecorded alcohol use globally showed strong variation among geographical regions and income groups. Lower-income countries were associated with a higher proportion of unrecorded alcohol than higher-income countries

  2. Ethnic group variations in alcohol-related hospital admissions in England: does place matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Eleanor; Laverty, Anthony A; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The health burden of alcohol use is socially and geographically patterned in many countries. Less is known about variations in this burden between ethnic groups and whether this differs across place of residence. National cross-sectional study using hospital admission data in England. Alcohol-related admission rates, where an alcohol-related condition was either the primary diagnosis (considered as the reason for admission) or a comorbidity, were calculated using ethnic group specific rates for English regions. In 2010/11 there were a total of 264,870 alcohol-related admissions in England. Admission rates were higher in the North of England than elsewhere (e.g. for primary diagnosis 161 per 100,000 population in the North vs. 62 per 100,000 in the South). These patterns were not uniform across ethnic groups however. For example, admission rates for alcohol-related comorbidity were four times higher among White Irish in London compared with those in the South of England (306 to 76 per 100,000) and four times higher in Indians living in the Midlands compared with those in the South of England (128 to 29 per 100,000). These patterns were similar for admissions with a comorbid alcohol-related condition. Geographical location may be an important determinant of within and between ethnic group variations in alcohol-related hospital admissions in England. While a number of factors were not examined here, this descriptive analysis suggests that this heterogeneity should be taken into account when planning interventions and services for the prevention and management of alcohol misuse.

  3. Individual popularity, peer group popularity composition and adolescents' alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Müller, C.M.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking.

  4. Proceedings of the 2009 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Kane, Cynthia J M; Smith, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    The annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was held on June 20, 2009 in San Diego, CA, as a satellite of the Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting. The FASDSG membership includes clinical, basic, and social scientists who meet to discuss recent advances and issues in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders research. The main theme of the meeting was "Epigenetics and Development." Two keynote speakers, Dr. Randy Jirtle and Dr. Michael Skinner, addressed the role of epigenetics and environmental inputs, including alcohol, during critical stages of development and their potential critical and long-lasting effects. Members of the FASDSG provided new findings through brief "FASt" data reports, and national agency representatives provided updates on activities and funding priorities. Scientific presentations were made by recipients of the Student Research Merit Award and Rosett Award. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of life changes in an alcoholics anonymous self-help group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDRĖ DIRGĖLIENĖ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of alcohol addiction is one of the most pressing in contemporary society as it causes an effect in the context of poverty, violence and suicidal behaviour. After the restoration of Lithuania‘s Independence a new helping profession such as social worker appeared: they were expected to provide professional help to people in order to help them find inner motivation for positive socialization or re-socialization. The issue of alcohol addiction/dependence was first viewed systemically, with the understanding of the need for systemic help: social, psychological, spiritual and medical. Long-term rehabilitation centres have been created and self-help groups formed: those of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA, Al-anon (self – help groups for friends and families who have relatives suffering from alcohol and ACA (Adult Children of Alcoholics self-help group. The article analyzes the quality of life changes in an Alcoholics Anonymous self-help group. Qualitative survey data are presented in this article. Six life stories of people attending Alcoholics Anonymous (AA self-help groups are provided. The age of the participants ranges from 31 to 58. The main criterion to participate in the research is: people who have or have had problems because of alcohol usage and who are Alcoholics Anonymous self-help group (AA participants that have reached Step 12. This means they are ready to spread the message about recovering from this abuse to people who suffer from it. Deep analysis interview has been used to collect the data. Interview notional blocks are: 1 childhood experiences; 2 addiction to alcohol period and crisis; 3 changes of life quality when attending AA groups. The study data have been provided using content analysis through the deduction method. The theoretical basis is a systematic approach to a person in the course of his life‘ spiritual concepts and stages of recovery (May, 2004; Linn, Linn, 2003; Kubler-Ross, 2008 and the theory of integrated

  6. Alcohol Use among Italian University Students: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Peer Group Norms and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…

  7. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Methods A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC. Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii outside the arenas (≥200 attempts and (iii inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts, and (iv frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts. Discussion There

  8. The shape, stability and breakage of pendant liquid bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padday, J. F.; Pétré, G.; Rusu, C. G.; Gamero, J.; Wozniak, G.

    1997-12-01

    Pendant liquid bridges are defined as pendant drops supporting a solid axisymmetric endplate at their lower end. The stability and shape properties of such bridges are defined in terms of the capillary properties of the system and of the mass and radius of the lower free-floating endplate. The forces acting in the pendant liquid bridge are defined exactly and expressed in dimensionless form. Numerical analysis has been used to derive the properties of a given bridge and it is shown that as the bridge grows by adding more liquid to the system a maximum volume is reached. At this maximum volume, the pendant bridge becomes unstable with the length of the bridge increasing spontaneously and irreversibly at constant volume. Finally the bridge breaks with the formation of a satellite drop or an extended thread. The bifurcation and breakage processes have been recorded using a high-speed video camera with a digital recording rate of up to 6000 frames per second. The details of the shape of the bridge bifurcation and breakage for many pendant bridge systems have been recorded and it is shown that satellite drop formation after rupture is not always viscosity dependent. Bifurcation and breakage in simulated low gravity demonstrated that breakage was very nearly symmetrical about a plane through the middle of the pendant bridge.

  9. Enhanced catalytic four-electron dioxygen (O2) and two-electron hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction with a copper(II) complex possessing a pendant ligand pivalamido group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Saya; Peterson, Ryan L; Ohkubo, Kei; Karlin, Kenneth D; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-01

    A copper complex, [(PV-tmpa)Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (1) [PV-tmpa = bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl){[6-(pivalamido)pyrid-2-yl]methyl}amine], acts as a more efficient catalyst for the four-electron reduction of O2 by decamethylferrocene (Fc*) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (CF3COOH) in acetone as compared with the corresponding copper complex without a pivalamido group, [(tmpa)Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (2) (tmpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The rate constant (k(obs)) of formation of decamethylferrocenium ion (Fc*(+)) in the catalytic four-electron reduction of O2 by Fc* in the presence of a large excess CF3COOH and O2 obeyed first-order kinetics. The k(obs) value was proportional to the concentration of catalyst 1 or 2, whereas the k(obs) value remained constant irrespective of the concentration of CF3COOH or O2. This indicates that electron transfer from Fc* to 1 or 2 is the rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of the four-electron reduction of O2 by Fc* in the presence of CF3COOH. The second-order catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) for 1 is 4 times larger than the corresponding value determined for 2. With the pivalamido group in 1 compared to 2, the Cu(II)/Cu(I) potentials are -0.23 and -0.05 V vs SCE, respectively. However, during catalytic turnover, the CF3COO(-) anion present readily binds to 2 shifting the resulting complex's redox potential to -0.35 V. The pivalamido group in 1 is found to inhibit anion binding. The overall effect is to make 1 easier to reduce (relative to 2) during catalysis, accounting for the relative k(cat) values observed. 1 is also an excellent catalyst for the two-electron two-proton reduction of H2O2 to water and is also more efficient than is 2. For both complexes, reaction rates are greater than for the overall four-electron O2-reduction to water, an important asset in the design of catalysts for the latter.

  10. The influence of pendant carboxylic acid loading on surfaces of statistical poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    . In particular, aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups differ by 92°C in Tg• Contact angle measurements onspin coated films have shown a maximum effect of the functional groups in the advancing contact angle at a 75/100 copolymer loading. In addition to this, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence...

  11. Students' drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladekjær Larsen, Eva; Smorawski, Gitte Andsager; Kragbak, Katrine Lund; Stock, Christiane

    2016-04-29

    High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines and limiting consumption during the introduction week primarily due to avoiding social exclusion of students who do not drink. Some international students perceived the level of consumption as too high and distinguished between situations where they perceived drinking as unusual. The study showed that alcohol is a central part of students' lives. When developing and implementing alcohol policies on campus, seeking student input in the process and addressing alcohol policies in the larger community will likely improve the success of the policies.

  12. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  13. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-31

    Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and 'nannyist', or inessential to government policy. Support varied among

  14. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  15. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarty Andrea S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47% and sport-related (56%. Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%, or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%, or content (22%. Public health professionals (47% appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%. Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or

  16. Dilemmas and countertransference considerations in group psychotherapy with adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannicelli, M

    1991-07-01

    This article will explore special leader issues that emerge in psychodynamically oriented therapy groups with adult children of alcoholics. Particular focus will be on countertransference feelings that get stirred up in group leaders and techniques for dealing with some of these special dilemmas. Specific issues include (a) assumption of sameness between the therapist and the patient (the therapist assuming that he or she "understands" because of having also grown up in an alcoholic family); (b) the "will to restore," which may be destructive when the therapist, whose own self-esteem is dependent on the patient's progress in therapy, forces a "rush to recovery" on the patient; (c) other personal issues in the life of the therapist that may also resonate with experiences of the patient; (d) "countertransference goodness and availability" as it affects therapists' abilities to set reasonable limits on their patients, as well as reasonable expectations for themselves; and (e) special issues regarding therapist transparency and self-disclosure.

  17. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  18. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-09-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  20. Polythiophenes Comprising Conjugated Pendants for Polymer Solar Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ju Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polythiophene (PT is one of the widely used donor materials for solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs. Much progress in PT-based PSCs can be attributed to the design of novel PTs exhibiting intense and broad visible absorption with high charge carrier mobility to increase short-circuit current density (Jsc, along with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO levels to achieve large open circuit voltage (Voc values. A promising strategy to tailor the photophysical properties and energy levels via covalently attaching electron donor and acceptor pendants on PTs backbone has attracted much attention recently. The geometry, electron-donating capacity, and composition of conjugated pendants are supposed to be the crucial factors in adjusting the conformation, energy levels, and photovoltaic performance of PTs. This review will go over the most recent approaches that enable researchers to obtain in-depth information in the development of PTs comprising conjugated pendants for PSCs.

  1. The effects of alcohol on the emotional displays of Whites in interracial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A; Levine, John M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Creswell, Kasey G

    2013-06-01

    Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined the impact of alcohol on displays of discomfort among 92 White individuals interacting in all-White or interracial groups. We used the Facial Action Coding System and comprehensive content-free speech analyses to examine affective and behavioral dynamics during these 36-min exchanges (7.9 million frames of video data). Among Whites consuming nonalcoholic beverages, those assigned to interracial groups evidenced more facial and speech displays of discomfort than those in all-White groups. In contrast, among intoxicated Whites there were no differences in displays of discomfort between interracial and all-White groups. Results highlight the central role of self-presentational concerns in interracial discomfort and offer new directions for applying theory and methods from emotion science to the examination of intergroup relations.

  2. Prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols with a group contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Rarey, Jurgen; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The prediction of solubility of pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols was presented. ► Improved group contribution method UNIFAC was proposed for 42 binary mixtures. ► Infinite activity coefficients were used in a model. ► A semi-predictive model with one experimental point was proposed. ► This model qualitatively describes the temperature dependency of Pharms. -- Abstract: An improved group contribution approach using activity coefficients at infinite dilution, which has been proposed by our group, was used for the prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols [B. Moller, Activity of complex multifunctional organic compounds in common solvents, PhD Thesis, Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2009]. The solubility of 16 different pharmaceuticals in water, ethanol and octan-1-ol was predicted over a fairly wide range of temperature with this group contribution model. The predicted values, along with values computed with the Schroeder-van Laar equation, are compared to experimental results published by us previously for 42 binary mixtures. The predicted solubility values were lower than those from the experiments for most of the mixtures. In order to improve the prediction method, a semi-predictive calculation using one experimental solubility value was implemented. This one point prediction has given acceptable results when comparison is made to experimental values

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  4. Reactivity of Titanocene Pendant Si-H Group towards Alcohols. Unexpected Formation of Siloxanes from the Reaction of Hydrosilanes and Ph3COH Catalyzed by B(C6F5)3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Sýkora, Jan; Lamač, Martin; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Gyepes, Robert; Pinkas, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2013), s. 4122-4129 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1574; GA ČR GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : methanol * hydrosylane reactivity * titanocene hydrides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2013

  5. Factors associated with attendance in 12-step groups (Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous) among adults with alcohol problems living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Samet, Jeffrey H; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Saitz, Richard

    2011-01-15

    Despite the value of 12-step meetings, few studies have examined factors associated with attendance among those living with HIV/AIDS, such as the impact of HIV disease severity and demographics. This study examines predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need on attendance at Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings among those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Secondary analysis of prospective data from the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study, a cohort of 400 adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Factors associated with AA/NA attendance were identified using the Anderson model for vulnerable populations. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with self-reported AA/NA attendance. At study entry, subjects were 75% male, 12% met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, 43% had drug dependence and 56% reported attending one or more AA/NA meetings (past 6 months). In the adjusted model, female gender negatively associated with attendance, as were social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs, while presence of HCV antibody, drug dependence diagnosis, and homelessness associated with higher odds of attendance. Non-substance abuse related barriers to AA/NA group attendance exist for those living with HIV/AIDS, including females and social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs. Positive associations of homelessness, HCV infection and current drug dependence were identified. These findings provide implications for policy makers and treatment professionals who wish to encourage attendance at 12-step meetings for those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or other substance use problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  7. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to

  8. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: a focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Adam J; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-11-23

    UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people's attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Analysis indicated that participants' objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to 'punish' the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at 'problem' and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to public support. Findings also suggest that clearer

  9. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  10. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty Andrea S; Chapman Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in ...

  11. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse.Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers.Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis.We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  12. New photoresponsive (meth)acrylate (co)polymers containing azobenzene pendant sidegroups with carboxylic and dimethylamino substituents .2. Synthesis and characterization of polymers and copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, HJ; Buruma, R; VanEkenstein, GORA; Tan, YY; Challa, G

    1996-01-01

    The title (co)polymers, used for our investigations on their photoresponsive behaviour were obtained by free radical (co)polymerization. The monomer was either an acrylate or a methacrylate to which an azobenzene group, modified with a para-placed dimethylamino or a carboxylic pendant group, was

  13. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Josephson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI, is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT.

  14. Drinking, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Treatment Access and Utilization Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Wang-Schweig, Meme; Caetano, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Data from approximately 140 articles and reports published since 2000 on drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), correlates of drinking and AUD, and treatment needs, access, and utilization were critically examined and summarized. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates alcohol-related disparities across U.S. racial/ethnic groups. American Indians/Alaska Natives generally drink more and are disproportionately affected by alcohol problems, having some of the highest rates for AUD. In contrast, Asian Americans are less affected. Differences across Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are more nuanced. The diversity in drinking and problem rates that is observed across groups also exists within groups, particularly among Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Research findings also suggest that acculturation to the United States and nativity affect drinking. Recent studies on ethnic drinking cultures uncover the possible influence that native countries' cultural norms around consumption still have on immigrants' alcohol use. The reasons for racial/ethnic disparities in drinking and AUD are complex and are associated with historically rooted patterns of racial discrimination and persistent socioeconomic disadvantage. This disadvantage is present at both individual and environmental levels. Finally, these data indicate that admission to alcohol treatment is also complex and is dependent on the presence and severity of alcohol problems but also on a variety of other factors. These include individuals' sociodemographic characteristics, the availability of appropriate services, factors that may trigger coercion into treatment by family, friends, employers, and the legal system, and the overall organization of the treatment system. More research is needed to understand facilitators and barriers to treatment to improve access to services and support. Additional directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on

  15. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  16. Adding an alcohol-related risk score to an existing categorical risk classification for older adults: sensitivity to group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra R; Fink, Arlene; Verghese, Shinu; Beck, John C; Nguyen, Khue; Lavori, Philip

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate a new alcohol-related risk score for research use. Using data from a previously reported trial of a screening and education system for older adults (Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey), secondary analyses were conducted comparing the ability of two different measures of risk to detect post-intervention group differences: the original categorical outcome measure and a new, finely grained quantitative risk score based on the same research-based risk factors. Three primary care group practices in southern California. Six hundred sixty-five patients aged 65 and older. A previously calculated, three-level categorical classification of alcohol-related risk and a newly developed quantitative risk score. Mean post-intervention risk scores differed between the three experimental conditions: usual care, patient report, and combined report (Ptrinary risk classification. The additional clinical value of the risk score relative to the categorical measure needs to be determined.

  17. Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups in The Netherlands: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marlies J.; Ikram, Umar Z.; Derks, Eske M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of

  18. Synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes with quaternary ammonium groups for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Yu; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Li, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Jui-Che

    2010-01-01

    2-[(acryloyloxy)ethyl]Trimethylammonium chloride (AETMAC) was grafted onto poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as a redox initiator. A series of graft co-polymer (PVA-g-PAETMAC) membranes with different contents of AETMAC were prepared with a casting method. The incorporation of AETMAC into PVA chains was confirmed by element analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of grafting on the thermal properties, water take, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), contact angle, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of PVA-g-PAETMAC membranes were investigated. The experiment results showed that PVA-g-PAETMAC membrane has a higher equilibrium swelling ratio, surface hydrophilicity and WVTR than pure PVA membrane. Moreover, the higher the content of AETMAC, the higher were equilibrium swelling ratio, surface hydrophilicity and WVTR. In vitro bacterial adhesion study demonstrated a significantly reduced number of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on PVA-g-PAETMAC surfaces when compared to PVA surface. In addition, no significant difference in the in vitro cytotoxicity was observed between PVA and PVA-g-PAETMAC membranes. The presence of quaternary ammonium groups did not reduce L929 cell growth. Therefore, the PVA-g-PAETMAC membranes have the potential for wound-dressing application.

  19. Individual versus group female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Litt, Mark D

    2018-05-01

    To test group-based Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (G-FS-CBT) for women with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) against an individual Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-FS-CBT). This aims of this paper are to describe G-FS-CBT development, content, feasibility, acceptability, group process, engagement in treatment, and within- and post-treatment outcomes. Women with AUD (n=155) were randomly assigned to 12 manual-guided sessions of G-FS-CBT or I-FS-CBT; 138 women attended at least one treatment session. Women in G-FS-CBT attended fewer sessions (M=7.6) than women in I-FS-CBT (M=9.7; p<.001). Women in both conditions reported high satisfaction with the treatments. Independent coders rated high fidelity of delivery of both G-FS-CBT and I-FS-CBT. Therapeutic alliance with the therapist was high in both conditions, with I-FS-CBT being slightly but significantly higher than G-FS-CBT. In the first six weeks of treatment, women in both treatment conditions significantly reduced their percent drinking days (PDD) and percent heavy days drinking (PHD) by equivalent amounts, maintained through the rest of treatment and the 12month follow up with no treatment condition effects. Women reported significant improvement in all but one of the secondary outcomes during treatment; gains made during treatment in depression, anxiety, autonomy, and interpersonal problems were maintained during the follow-up period, while gains made during treatment in use of coping skills, self-efficacy for abstinence, self-care, and sociotropy deteriorated over follow up but remained improved compared to baseline. Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a group format for female-specific CBT for AUD, a new 12-session, single gender, community friendly, group therapy with programming specifically for women. Similar, positive outcomes for individual and group treatment formats were found for drinking, mood, coping skills, self-confidence, interpersonal

  20. [Mindfulness-based-relapse prevention (MBRP): Evaluation of the impact of a group of Mindfulness Therapy in alcohol relapse prevention for alcohol use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, D; Romo, L; Bouthillon-Heitzmann, P; Limosin, F

    2015-12-01

    For several years, the learning of mindfulness has developed in a psychological intervention perspective, particularly in the field of addiction. Presently, the management of addictions with substances is centered on two questions: the motivation in the change of behaviour and in a significant change in alcohol consumption. Concerning alcohol dependence, the evolution of behaviour is variable and characterized by forgiveness episodes and relapses. Over many years, a treatment for the abuse of substance associated with techniques based on full consciousness (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al., 2002) Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) was developed by Marlatt et al. (2011). The prevention of the relapse therapy, based on full consciousness, is a program of eight sessions integrating techniques of "mindfulness" into the techniques of prevention of the relapse. However, not much research has focused on the MBRP, the publication of the manual regarding this intervention is too recent (Bowen S et al., 2011). We are interested in the active mechanisms, which are at stake in the MBRP. Indeed, the meditation acts presents many mechanisms in the addicting disorders. Our non-controlled research was based on a protocol in order to evaluate the alcohol consummation, mindfulness, impulsiveness, automatic thoughts, anxiety and abilities to cope. The first results are interesting: reduction of alcohol consummation, increase of mindfulness, reduction of trigger relapse, increasing cognitive flexibility and high degree of satisfaction among participants. An intervention MBRP was proposed to 26 patients who were assigned to three groups. They were questioned about their alcohol consumption and assessed by a protocol of seven evaluations before and after the group MBRP: Five Facets Mindfulness (FFMQ), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-A, STAI-B), Questionnaire of the automatic thoughts (QPA), and

  1. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group. Study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorski, Karla Zanini; de Souza, Daniela Martins; Yujra, Verônica Quispe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG), 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG), and water (Control Group, CG). After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10(3)) were: 8.17 (AG), 9.78 (IG), and 5.63 (CG). There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58) was similar to that in the AG (2.06) and in the CG (1.14), and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14), IG (2.00) and CG (0.43). The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.

  2. Preparation of Macroporous Poly (vinyl alcohol-co-triallyl isocyanurate) Beads Bearing Aminocarboxylic Acid as Functional Groups by Suspension Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous poly (vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) beads were prepared with suspension polymerization method. The copolymer beads were then transformed into poly (vinyl alcohol-co-triallyl isocyanurate) by ester exchange reaction. Aminocarboxylic acids were immobilized on the copolymer beads by the esterification of hydroxyl groups with diethyl-lenetriaminepentaacetic bisanhydride. The weak acid exchange capacities, specific surface areas and mean pore diameters of the resultant resin beads were measured.

  3. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  4. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  5. Novel approach to the preparation of hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Longin, O.; Černý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, SI (2015), s. 67-71 ISSN 0039-128X Grant - others:GA MV(CZ) VG20112015045 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : anabolic-androgenic steroid * ester formation * hemisuccinate * tertiary alcohol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.513, year: 2015

  6. Feasibility and acceptability of shared decision-making to promote alcohol behavior change among women Veterans: Results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Traci H; Wright, Patricia; White, Penny; Booth, Brenda M; Cucciare, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Although rates of unhealthy drinking are high among women Veterans with mental health comorbidities, most women Veterans with mental comorbidities who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking do not receive alcohol-related care. Barriers to alcohol-related treatment could be reduced through patient-centered approaches to care, such as shared decision-making. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a telephone-delivered shared decision-making intervention for promoting alcohol behavior change in women Veterans with unhealthy drinking and co-morbid depression and/or probable post-traumatic stress disorder. We used 3, 2-hour focus group discussions with 19 women Veterans to identify barriers and solicit recommendations for using the intervention with women Veterans who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking and mental health comorbidities. Transcripts from the focus groups were qualitatively analyzed using template analysis. Although participants perceived that the intervention was feasible and acceptable for the targeted patient population, they identified the treatment delivery modality, length of telephone sessions, and some of the option grid content as potential barriers. Facilitators included strategies for enhancing the telephone-delivered shared decision-making sessions and diversifying the treatment options contained in the option grids. Focus group feedback resulted in preliminary adaptations to the intervention that are mindful of women Veterans' individual preferences for care and realistic in the everyday context of their busy lives.

  7. Scientific publications and research groups on alcohol consumption and related problems worldwide: authorship analysis of papers indexed in PubMed and Scopus databases (2005 to 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Castelló-Cogollos, Lourdes; Castellano-Gómez, Miguel; Agullo-Calatayud, Víctor; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Alvarez, Francisco Javier; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The research of alcohol consumption-related problems is a multidisciplinary field. The aim of this study is to analyze the worldwide scientific production in the area of alcohol-drinking and alcohol-related problems from 2005 to 2009. A MEDLINE and Scopus search on alcohol (alcohol-drinking and alcohol-related problems) published from 2005 to 2009 was carried out. Using bibliometric indicators, the distribution of the publications was determined within the journals that publish said articles, specialty of the journal (broad subject terms), article type, language of the publication, and country where the journal is published. Also, authorship characteristics were assessed (collaboration index and number of authors who have published more than 9 documents). The existing research groups were also determined. About 24,100 documents on alcohol, published in 3,862 journals, and authored by 69,640 authors were retrieved from MEDLINE and Scopus between the years 2005 and 2009. The collaboration index of the articles was 4.83 ± 3.7. The number of consolidated research groups in the field was identified as 383, with 1,933 authors. Documents on alcohol were published mainly in journals covering the field of "Substance-Related Disorders," 23.18%, followed by "Medicine," 8.7%, "Psychiatry," 6.17%, and "Gastroenterology," 5.25%. Research on alcohol is a consolidated field, with an average of 4,820 documents published each year between 2005 and 2009 in MEDLINE and Scopus. Alcohol-related publications have a marked multidisciplinary nature. Collaboration was common among alcohol researchers. There is an underrepresentation of alcohol-related publications in languages other than English and from developing countries, in MEDLINE and Scopus databases. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. The Effects of Alcohol on the Emotional Displays of Whites in Interracial Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Levine, John M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Creswell, Kasey G.

    2013-01-01

    Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined th...

  9. Homogeneous groups of plants, development scenarios, and basic configurations on the cogeneration systems optimization from the alcohol sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Walter, A.C. da; Bajay, S.V.; Carrillo, J.L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of introducing or diffusing new technologies at a macro economic level using micro economic information can be carried out through the careful selection of a small number of homogeneous groups of plants from the point of view of the main technical parameters being considered. In this paper this concept is applied to the study of cogeneration in sugar and alcohol producing plants. The statistical techniques of Cluster Analysis, regressions and mean value testing are used. Basic cogeneration plant designs are proposed for alternatives development scenarios for this industrial branch. These scenarios are based upon differing assumptions about the expansion of alcohol market, use of surplus sugar cane bagasse as saleable commodity, as a fuel or raw material, and price expectations for the sale of surplus power from the cogeneration plants to the local grid. (author)

  10. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie eVilenne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old, young adult (17-18 year old and adult (35-55 year old participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7 or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11 drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of stimulation and sedation.Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age.Conclusions: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol.

  11. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Azary

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral of sporadic retinoblastoma.Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children's Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424 were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma.Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5-20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors.

  12. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished

  13. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health.

  14. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  15. Association between copy number variation losses and alcohol dependence across African American and European American ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Alvaro E; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor M; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-05-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American (AA) population. This study considers 2 CNV data sets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands, and specific losses in CNV regions. Results from the discovery data set showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53 × 10(-3) ). An overlapping CNV region from the validation data set exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid, and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9 × 10(-3) ) in our discovery data set. Although not observed in the validation data set, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Overall, our study provides

  16. Synthesis and photochemical properties of a novel iron-sulfur-nitrosyl cluster derivatized with the pendant chromophore protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrado, Christa L; Wecksler, Stephen; Egler, Christian; Magde, Douglas; Ford, Peter C

    2004-09-06

    The novel Roussin red-salt ester (PPIX-RSE) with a pendant porphyrin chromophore was prepared and investigated as a precursor for the photochemical generation of nitric oxide. PPIX-RSE has the general formula Fe(2)(NO)(4)[(mu-S,mu-S')P] (where (S,S')P is the bis(2-thiolatoethyl) diester of protoporphyrin IX. The photoexcitation of PPIX-RSE with 436- or 546-nm light in an aerated chloroform solution led to the photodecomposition of the cluster with the respective quantum yields (5.2 +/- 0.7) x 10(-4) and (2.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-4)) and the concomitant release of NO. PPIX-RSE is a significantly more effective NO generator at longer wavelength excitation than are other Fe(2)(mu-SR)(2)(NO)(4) esters for which R is a simple alkyl group such as CH(3)CH(2)- because of the much higher absorptivity of the pendant PPIX chromophore at these wavelengths and a modestly higher quantum yield. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime data indicate that the photoexcited porphyrin of PPIX-RSE is largely quenched by the energy transfer to the Fe(2)S(2)(NO)(4) cluster's core. However, a small fraction of this emission is not quenched, and it is proposed that PPIX-RSE may exist in solution as two conformers.

  17. No 129-L'exercice physique pendant la grossesse et le postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gregory A L; Wolfe, Larry A; Mottola, Michelle F; MacKinnon, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    Énoncer une directive canadienne visant à informer les fournisseurs de soins obstétricaux des répercussions, pour la mère, le fœtus et le nouveau-né, des exercices de conditionnement aerobique et musculaire pendant la grossesse. RéSULTATS ATTENDUS: Effets sur la morbidité maternelle, fœtale et néonatale et mesures de la forme physique maternelle. Une recherche sur MEDLINE des articles, publiés en anglais de 1966 à 2002, appartenant aux catégories suivantes : études sur le conditionnement aérobique et musculaire chez des femmes ne faisant pas jusque-là d'exercice et chez des femmes actives avant leur grossesse, ainsi que des études sur les répercussions du conditionnement aérobique et musculaire sur les issues précoces et tardives de la grossesse ou sur les issues néonatales; rapports de synthèse et méta-analyses portant sur l'exercice pendant la grossesse. Les résultats recueillis ont été revus par la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada (Comité de la pratique clinique - obstétrique), avec la participation de la Société canadienne de physiologie de l'exercice, et ils ont été classés suivant les critères d'évaluation des preuves établis par le Groupe de travail canadien sur l'examen de santé périodique. VALIDATION: Cette directive a été approuvée par le Comité de pratique clinique - obstétrique de la SOGC, par le Comité exécutif et par le Conseil de la SOGC, ainsi que par le Conseil d'administration de la Société canadienne de physiologie de l'exercice. PARRAINé PAR: la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada et par la Société canadienne de physiologie de l'exercice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Les trotskystes grecs pendant la seconde guerre Mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Hen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment les deux courants du trotskysme grec, pourchassés dès les années 30, ont-ils réagi face à l'occupation de leur pays et à la résistance d'obédience communiste ?Les trotskystes en Grèce étaient divisés, malgré des discussions d’unification dans les camps de Metaxas. Ils refusèrent de soutenir la Grèce contre l’intervention italo-allemande en 1940-1941 et s’opposèrent aux illusions dans les démocraties alliées. Fin 1942 ils reprirent une activité clandestine, refusant de se joindre à la Résistance mais aussi de choisir un côté militaire dans les affrontements avec l’occupant et ses supplétifs. En octobre 1944, les trotskystes s'agitèrent contre les Britanniques pendant que l’EAM les laissait entrer dans Athènes. Le KKE exécuta des dizaines de trotskystes. Ceux-ci restèrent neutres dans la guerre civile de décembre 1944. Leur sectarisme contribua à les stériliser lorsque, après les accords de Varkiza en février 1945, la direction du KKE était vulnérable aux accusations qu’elle avait conduit la révolution à la défaite.Trotskyists in Greece were divided, despite unification discussions in Metaxas’ concentration camps. They refused to support Greece against the 1940-41 Italo-German intervention and opposed illusions in Allied democracies. At the end of 1942 they resumed underground activity, refusing to join the Resistance but also to take a military side in the fighting against the occupiers and their local proxy forces. In October 1944 the Trotskyists agitated against the British while the EAM let them into Athens. The KKE executed dozens of Trotskyists. The Trotskyists remained neutral in the December 1944 civil war. Their sectarianism contributed to sterilize them when, after the February 1945 Varkiza Agreement, the KKE leadership was vulnerable to accusations of having led the revolution to defeat.

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  20. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  1. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, M.Y.; Chung, S.L.; Telhada, M.A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  2. PREPARATION AND PROPERTY OF POLYMERIC PENDANT Ru(bpy)32+ COMPLEXES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xiaohuai; Masao Kaneko; Akira Yamada

    1984-01-01

    Polymeric pendant Ru(bpy)32+ complexes were prepared from homopolymer and copolymers of 4-methyl-4'-vinyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Vbpy). Vbpy was prepared from 4-methylpyridine. The comonomers were styrene (St), acrylic acid (AA), N-vinylpyrrolidone (Pyr), 4-vinylpyridine (Vpy), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), acrylonitrile (AN) and N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridium bromide (EQ-Vpy). The fraction of the pendant Ru(bpy)32+ repeating unit in the polymeric complex was 0.022 to 0.052. Absorption maximum, molar extinction coefficient, emission maximum and relative emission intensity of the polymeric complexes were studied.

  3. Ordering non-bipartite unicyclic graphs with pendant vertices by the least Q-eigenvalue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Guang Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A unicyclic graph is a connected graph whose number of edges is equal to the number of vertices. Fan et al. (Discrete Math. 313:903-909, 2013 and Liu et al. (Electron. J. Linear Algebra 26:333-344, 2013 determined, independently, the unique unicyclic graph whose least Q-eigenvalue attains the minimum among all non-bipartite unicyclic graphs of order n with k pendant vertices. In this paper, we extend their results and determine the first three non-bipartite unicyclic graphs of order n with k pendant vertices ordering by least Q-eigenvalue.

  4. Morphological and glucose metabolism abnormalities in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome: group comparisons and individual analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Pitel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS. Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker.

  5. Supramolecular assembly of group 11 phosphorescent metal complexes for chemosensors of alcohol derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintang, H. O.; Ghazalli, N. F.; Yuliati, L.

    2018-04-01

    We report on systematic study on vapochromic sensing of ethanol by using phosphorescent trinuclear metal pyrazolate complexes with supramolecular assembly of weak intermolecular metal-metal interactions using 4-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-3,5-dimethyl pyrazole ligand (1) and group 11 metal ions (Cu(I), Ag(I), Au(I)). Upon excitation at 284, the resulting complexes showed emission bands with a peak centered at 616, 473 and 612 nm for 2(Cu), 2(Ag) and 2(Au), respectively. Chemosensor 2(Cu) showed positive response to ethanol vapors in 5 mins by blue-shifting its emission band from 616 to 555 nm and emitting bright orange to green. Otherwise 2(Au) gave shifting from its emission band centered at 612 to 587 nm with Δλ of 25 nm (41%) and color changes from red-orange to light green-orange while 2(Ag) showed quenching in its original emission intensity at 473 nm in 40% with color changes from dark green to less emissive. These results demonstrate that sensing capability of chemosensor 2(Cu) with suitable molecular design of ligand and metal ion in the complex is due to the formation of a weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction of O atom at the methoxy of the benzyl ring with the OH of the vapors at the outside of the molecules.

  6. Exploring the role of pendant amines in transition metal complexes for the reduction of N2 to hydrazine and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Papri; Prokopchuk, Demyan E.; Mock, Michael T.

    2017-03-01

    This review examines the synthesis and acid reactivity of transition metal dinitrogen complexes bearing diphosphine ligands containing pendant amine groups in the second coordination sphere. This manuscript is a review of the work performed in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. EPR studies on Fe were performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. DOE.

  7. An Analysis of the Role of Preexisting Internal Factors in Collegiate Alcohol Abuse within Membership of Social Groups/Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusilier, Kristy D.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the administration of the CORE Drug and Alcohol Survey long form, with the inclusion of 10 additional questions to assess prior history of behaviors, social organization membership status, and reasons for utilization of alcohol, to a representative sample of 2500 college students within a single university in order to determine…

  8. Meta-analysis of propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease--a Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease.......The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  9. Magnetic properties and thermodynamics of decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei, E-mail: liwei-b09@mails.gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gong Shoushu [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao Yang [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Su Gang, E-mail: gsu@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-05-31

    The decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin and the single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The solutions reveal abundant novel properties than the conventional one-dimensional Ising model. It is compared with the experimental data of a necklace-like molecule-based magnet, that gives a qualitative consistency.

  10. Magnetic properties and thermodynamics of decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Gong Shoushu; Chen Ziyu; Zhao Yang; Su Gang

    2010-01-01

    The decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin and the single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The solutions reveal abundant novel properties than the conventional one-dimensional Ising model. It is compared with the experimental data of a necklace-like molecule-based magnet, that gives a qualitative consistency.

  11. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  12. Classification of alcohol use disorders among nightclub patrons: associations between high-risk groups, sociodemographic factors and illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Raissa; Baldin, Yago; Carlini, Claudia M; Sanchez, Zila M

    2015-01-01

    Nightclubs are favorable environments for alcohol abuse and the use of other drugs among patrons. To identify patterns of alcohol use in a high-risk population and their relationship with sociodemographic factors and illicit drug use. A portal survey technique was used to recruit patrons in 31 nightclubs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A two stage sampling method allowed the selection of nightclubs and patrons within a nightclub. A total of 1057 patrons answered to a three stages-survey (nightclub entrance and exit face-to-face interviews and a day-after online questionnaire). Entrance survey offered information on sociodemographic data and history of drug use. The day-after survey used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT) that identified patterns of alcohol abuse disorders. Data were modeled using an ordered logit regression analysis, considering sample weights. Almost half of the nightclub patrons presented any alcohol use disorder (AUDIT score ≥8). Being male (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.09-2.60) and single (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.05-2.76) increased the chances for more severe alcohol use disorders. Having a graduate degree (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.38-0.87) and age ≥35 years (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.85) decreased the chances of patrons' alcohol use disorders. The prevalence rates of past-year marijuana, cocaine and inhalants use increased with the increased level of alcohol use disorders. Patrons of nightclubs show higher prevalence rates for any alcohol use disorders than the general population. Patrons could benefit from governmental brief intervention or referral to treatment for alcohol used disorders disclosed in nightclubs.

  13. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  14. Does the response to alcohol taxes differ across racial/ethnic groups? Some evidence from 1984-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Sturm, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Excessive alcohol use remains an important lifestyle-related contributor to morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. It is well documented that drinking patterns differ across racial/ethnic groups, but not how those different consumption patterns would respond to tax changes. Therefore, policy makers are not informed on whether the effects of tax increases on alcohol abuse are shared equally by the whole population, or policies in addition to taxation should be pursued to reach certain sociodemographic groups. To estimate differential demand responses to alcohol excise taxes across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Individual data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 1984-2009 waves (N= 3,921,943, 39.3% male; 81.3% White, 7.8% African American, 5.8% Hispanic, 1.9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 1.4% Native American, and 1.8% other race/multi-race) are merged with tax data by residential state and interview month. Dependent variables include consumption of any alcohol and number of drinks consumed per month. Demand responses to alcohol taxes are estimated for each race/ethnicity in separate regressions conditional on individual characteristics, state and time fixed effects, and state-specific secular trends. The null hypothesis on the identical tax effects among all races/ethnicities is strongly rejected (P ethnicities, the estimated tax effects on consumption are large and significant among light drinkers (1-40 drinks per month), but shrink substantially for moderate (41-99) and heavy drinkers (≥ 100). Extensive research has been conducted on overall demand responses to alcohol excise taxes, but not on heterogeneity across various racial/ethnic groups. Only one similar prior study exists, but used a much smaller dataset. The authors did not identify differential effects. With this much larger dataset, we found some evidence for different responses across races/ethnicities to alcohol taxes, although we lack precision for individual group

  15. [A comparison of self-esteem in alcohol-dependent women and women who have become abstinent, against a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Angélique; Chauveau-Clerc, Charlyne; Courtois, Robert; Bacq, Yannick; Maugé, Damien; Ballon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Women's addiction to alcohol remains a taboo subject, whereas one third of alcohol-dependent people are female. Social representations concerning them are very unfavorable. Their alcoholism is usually accompanied by strong feelings of guilt, depreciation and lowered self-esteem. There is little existing work about self-esteem in women who have become abstinent. This study's goal is to compare the self-esteem of women who are alcohol-dependent and the self-esteem of women who have become abstinent in various domains (social, familial, professional). The sample contained 71 women divided into three groups: 31 alcohol-dependent women (average age of 44.9); 20 alcohol-dependent women who had become abstinent for at least two months (average age of 44.7) and 20 women who formed the control group (average age of 44.4). The material was put together from the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI, adult version of Coopersmith 1981). It includes 58 items divided into four sub-categories (general self-esteem, social, familial and professional) and a scale for falsehoods. The SEI was self-administered. The statistics were produced entirely with non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitley U Test for the comparison of two independent samples and Kruskal-Wallis Anova for the comparison of three independent samples. A significant difference was found for general self-esteem (P=0.001), familial (P=0.01) and professional (P=0.03) between the three groups of women (alcohol-dependent, alcohol-dependent who had become abstinent and women from the control group). There was no statistical difference for social self-esteem or the lying scale. There was a difference between alcohol-dependent women and the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.0001), familial self-esteem (P=0.01) and professional self-esteem (P=0.002), as well as between women who had become abstinent and women from the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.02), familial self-esteem (P=0.005) and professional self-esteem (P=0.07; ns

  16. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  17. IR-UV double resonance spectroscopic investigation of phenylacetylene-alcohol complexes. Alkyl group induced hydrogen bond switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Chandra; Patwari, G Naresh

    2008-06-12

    The electronic transitions of phenylacetylene complexes with water and trifluoroethanol are shifted to the blue, while the corresponding transitions for methanol and ethanol complexes are shifted to the red relative to the phenylacetylene monomer. Fluorescence dip infrared (FDIR) spectra in the O-H stretching region indicate that, in all the cases, phenylacetylene is acting as a hydrogen bond acceptor to the alcohols. The FDIR spectrum in the acetylenic C-H stretching region shows Fermi resonance bands for the bare phenylacetylene, which act as a sensitive tool to probe the intermolecular structures. The FDIR spectra reveal that water and trifluoroethanol interact with the pi electron density of the acetylene C-C triple bond, while methanol and ethanol interact with the pi electron density of the benzene ring. It can be inferred that the hydrogen bonding acceptor site on phenylacetylene switches from the acetylene pi to the benzene pi with lowering in the partial charge on the hydrogen atom of the OH group. The most significant finding is that the intermolecular structures of water and methanol complexes are notably distinct, which, to the best of our knowledge, this is first such observation in the case of complexes of substituted benzenes.

  18. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  19. Alcohol-related hospital admissions: Missed opportunities for follow up? A focus group study about general practitioners' experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lid, Torgeir Gilje; Oppedal, Kristian; Pedersen, Bolette

    2012-01-01

    in the hospital had been recognised by the GP and how this knowledge affected their follow up of the patient's alcohol problem. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Findings: A majority of the GPs had experienced patients with already recognised alcohol problems being rediscovered...... by the hospital staff. Still, they presented examples of how seeing the patient in a different context might present new opportunities. Few participants had received adequate information from the hospital about their patient's alcohol status, and they emphasised that a report about what had happened and what...

  20. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs using the experimental values such as densities (ρ and ultrasonic sound velocities (u that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  1. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E) ) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs ) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E) and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  2. “Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Chapman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Policies affecting alcohol’s price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. Method From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18–25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. Results Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol’s price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. Conclusions News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol’s price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well as facilitate

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a ...

  4. Modification of polysulfone with pendant carboxylic acid functionality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polysulfone (PSF) by in situ generated chloromethyl radical in presence of stannic chloride in tetrachloroethane and .... vert the nitrile group to carboxylic acid was reported (Reddy ..... PEG molecular weight vs rejection at 35 psi pressure.

  5. Influence of functional group on the electrical transport properties of polyvinyl alcohol grafted multiwall carbon nanotube composite thick film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Das, Amit; Dharmana, Reuben; Mukherjee, Ayan; Baba, Koumei; Hatada, Ruriko; Kumar Meikap, Ajit

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel technique to obtain a higher or lower value of dielectric constant due to the variation of a functional group on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) for a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) grafted MWCNT system. We have prepared PVA grafted pristine and different types of functionalized (-COOH, -OH, and -NH2) MWCNT nanocomposite films. The strong interfacial interaction between the host PVA matrix and nanofiller is characterized by different experimental techniques. The frequency variation of the electrical transport properties of the composite films is investigated in a wide temperature range (303 ≤ T ≤ 413 K) and frequency range (20 Hz ≤ f ≤ 1 MHz). The dielectric constant of the amine (-NH2) functionalized MWCNT incorporated PVA film is about 2 times higher than that of the pristine MWCNT embedded PVA film. The temperature variation of the dielectric constant shows an anomalous behaviour. The modified Cole-Cole equation simulated the experimentally observed dielectric spectroscopy at high temperature. The ac conductivity of the composite films obeys the correlated barrier hopping model. The imaginary part of the electric modulus study shows the ideal Debye-type behaviour at low frequency and deviation of that at high frequency. To illustrate the impedance spectroscopy of the nanocomposite films, we have proposed an impedance based battery equivalent circuit model. The current-voltage characteristic shows hysteresis behaviour of the nanocomposite films. The trap state height for all composite films is evaluated by simulating the current density-electric field data with the Poole-Frenkel emission model. This investigation opens a new avenue for designing electronic devices with a suitable combination of cost effective soft materials.

  6. Associations between intakes of individual nutrients or whole food groups and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Mi; Jo, An Na; Lee, Seung Min; Bae, Hyun Suk; Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Ahn, Sang Bong; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Seong Woo; Jang, Eun Chul

    2014-06-01

    Dietary factors are closely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Asian and Western diets differ in energy-nutrient composition, fatty-acid composition, and main nutritional sources; therefore, the implications would be limited if the Western-oriented study results were applied to Asian patients. We aimed to identify the nutrient and food group intakes of a typical Asian diet and assess their effects on NAFLD risk. In total, 348 subjects were recruited from 5 participating hospitals. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors were obtained through face-to-face interviews. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Dietary intakes were assessed with a 24-h recall applying a multiple-pass approach and 4-day food records that included 1 or 2 weekend days. There were no significant differences in health-related behaviors between the cases and controls except for smoking behavior. The cases had elevated triacylglycerol, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the controls. In men, after adjusting for variables, low intakes of vitamin C (odds ratio [OR], 4.23), vitamin K (OR, 3.93), folate (OR, 3.37), omega-3 fatty acids (OR, 2.16), and nuts and seeds (OR, 3.66) were associated with a significantly higher risk for developing NAFLD. In women, vitamin K (OR, 2.54) and vegetable (OR, 4.11) intakes showed a significant beneficial effect for lowering NAFLD risk. Adequate intakes of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, nuts and seeds, and vegetables may help in preventing NAFLD in Korean adults.

  7. Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weichao; Xie Hui; Ou Lailiang; Wang Lianyong; Yu Yaoting; Kong Deling [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun Lisha, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.c, E-mail: kongdeling@nankai.edu.c [General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A new low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent with phosphate groups as the ligand was prepared in this study. Macroporous poly(vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) microspheres were prepared using a free-radical suspension polymerization method. A hydrolysis reaction in sodium hydroxide/methanol changed the materials into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres. Further reaction with phosphorus oxychloride in anhydrous DMF led to the LDL adsorbent PVA-phosphate microspheres. The preparation conditions such as reaction time, temperature and the amount of phosphorus oxychloride were optimized. The adsorption of plasma lipoproteins was examined by in vitro adsorption assays. The influence of adsorption time, plasma volume and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity was investigated. The circulation adsorption showed that the pathogenic lipoproteins in the plasma such as total cholesterol (TC), LDL and triglyceride (TG) could be removed markedly, in which the removal percentages were 42.9%, 45.0% and 44.74%, respectively. However, the reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and other normal plasma components was very slight. For in vivo experiment, rabbits were fed with high-cholesterol food to develop a hyperlipidemia model and treated by extracorporeal blood perfusion using the PVA-phosphate columns. Eight hyperlipidemia rabbits were treated with the PVA-phosphate adsorbent, and the removal of TC, LDL and TG was 45.03 +- 6.64%, 48.97 +- 9.92% and 35.42 +- 14.17%, respectively. The sterilization and storage tests showed that the adsorbent was chemically and functionally stable. It could be easily sterilized by a common method and stored for months without loss of adsorption capacity. Therefore, this new PVA-phosphate-based LDL adsorbent may have potential for application in LDL apheresis.

  8. Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weichao; Xie Hui; Ou Lailiang; Wang Lianyong; Yu Yaoting; Kong Deling; Sun Lisha

    2009-01-01

    A new low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent with phosphate groups as the ligand was prepared in this study. Macroporous poly(vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) microspheres were prepared using a free-radical suspension polymerization method. A hydrolysis reaction in sodium hydroxide/methanol changed the materials into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres. Further reaction with phosphorus oxychloride in anhydrous DMF led to the LDL adsorbent PVA-phosphate microspheres. The preparation conditions such as reaction time, temperature and the amount of phosphorus oxychloride were optimized. The adsorption of plasma lipoproteins was examined by in vitro adsorption assays. The influence of adsorption time, plasma volume and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity was investigated. The circulation adsorption showed that the pathogenic lipoproteins in the plasma such as total cholesterol (TC), LDL and triglyceride (TG) could be removed markedly, in which the removal percentages were 42.9%, 45.0% and 44.74%, respectively. However, the reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and other normal plasma components was very slight. For in vivo experiment, rabbits were fed with high-cholesterol food to develop a hyperlipidemia model and treated by extracorporeal blood perfusion using the PVA-phosphate columns. Eight hyperlipidemia rabbits were treated with the PVA-phosphate adsorbent, and the removal of TC, LDL and TG was 45.03 ± 6.64%, 48.97 ± 9.92% and 35.42 ± 14.17%, respectively. The sterilization and storage tests showed that the adsorbent was chemically and functionally stable. It could be easily sterilized by a common method and stored for months without loss of adsorption capacity. Therefore, this new PVA-phosphate-based LDL adsorbent may have potential for application in LDL apheresis.

  9. Synthetic transformations of a pendant nitrile moiety in group 4 metallocene complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Císařová, I.; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Lamač, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 19 (2013), s. 7101-7110 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P200 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : structural characterization * chemistry * functional titanocenes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2013

  10. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of [Cp′Co(COD)] Complexes Bearing Pendant N-Containing Groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiel, I.; Lamač, Martin; Jiao, H.; Spannenberg, A.; Hapke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2013), s. 3415-3418 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P200 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : FUNCTIONALIZED CYCLOPENTADIENYL LIGANDS * SANDWICH COBALT COMPLEXES * METALLOCENE COMPLEXES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2013

  11. Intramolecular activation of a pendant nitrile group in Ti and Zr metallocene complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal; Gyepes, Robert; Císařová, I.; Pinkas, Jiří; Kubišta, Jiří; Lamač, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 787, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 56-64 ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : metallocene * titanium * zirconium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.336, year: 2015

  12. [Detection of alcoholism in the medical office: applicability of the CAGE questionnaire by the practicing physician. Group of Medical Practitioners PMU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdrix, A; Decrey, H; Pécoud, A; Burnand, B; Yersin, B

    1995-09-23

    The general practitioner (GP) plays a very important role in early detection of alcoholism. Clinical evaluation is often the only method used, although it has been suggested that any systematic patient history should include the CAGE test. We compare the effectiveness of these two approaches and attempt to determine the applicability of the CAGE test in a general practitioner's usual practice. 12 GPs took part in this study during 6 months. They looked for possible alcohol abuse in each new patient by a standard patient history and clinical examination. Patients were randomized into 2 groups, one of which was given the CAGE test and the other not. For each patient in the CAGE group the applicability of the test was quantified by the GP. 416 patients were included; 214 were randomized into the "CAGE group" and 202 into the control group. On a clinical basis, 15 patients in the control group and 16 in the "CAGE group" (14 men, 2 women) were suspected of alcohol abuse. The CAGE test was positive in 15 patients (7%); among these, 6 were not suspect on a clinical basis. In patients aged 18-34, the detection rate of alcohol-related problems more than doubled when the CAGE test was used. The age of the patients influenced performance of the CAGE test and clinical evaluation. Only 2% of women had a positive CAGE test. Administration of the CAGE test was considered easy in 112 patients and average to difficult in 50, while the test was inapplicable with 52 patients. The latter proportion was higher than that observed in institutions (hospitals, outpatient departments) of the same region. Applicability was influenced neither by the sex nor the age of the patients, but varied greatly according to the physician (from 38% to 100%). The CAGE test increases the number of patients detected with alcohol problems by 37% and seems to be especially useful when administered to young people. The number of women with alcohol problems is probably underestimated by both clinical evaluation

  13. Polystyrene with pendant mixed functional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2002-01-01

    A vinyl substituted 2,2:6,2-terpyridine and a mixed, bifunctional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complex bearing a vinyl and a hydroxymethyl group are utilized as comonomers for radical copolymerization with styrene. The resulting polymers are characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and gel

  14. Pendant triazole ring assisted mesogen containing side chain liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal stability of polymers was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Mesomorphic property and phase transition temperature of polymers were ... group and investigated their mesomorphic property and their structure–property relationships. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials. Methanol, ethanol, phenol, THF, diethyl ether, ...

  15. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kychakoff, George [Maple Valley, WA; Afromowitz, Martin A [Mercer Island, WA; Hogle, Richard E [Olympia, WA

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  16. Redox reactions of [FeFe]-hydrogenase models containing an internal amine and a pendant phosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dehua; Wang, Mei; Chen, Lin; Wang, Ning; Sun, Licheng

    2014-02-03

    A diiron dithiolate complex with a pendant phosphine coordinated to one of the iron centers, [(μ-SCH2)2N(CH2C6H4-o-PPh2){Fe2(CO)5}] (1), was prepared and structurally characterized. The pendant phosphine is dissociated together with a CO ligand in the presence of excess PMe3, to afford [(μ-SCH2)2N(CH2C6H4-o-PPh2){Fe(CO)2(PMe3)}2] (2). Redox reactions of 2 and related complexes were studied in detail by in situ IR spectroscopy. A series of new Fe(II)Fe(I) ([3](+) and [6](+)), Fe(II)Fe(II) ([4](2+)), and Fe(I)Fe(I) (5) complexes relevant to Hox, Hox(CO), and Hred states of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site were detected. Among these complexes, the molecular structures of the diferrous complex [4](2+) with the internal amine and the pendant phosphine co-coordinated to the same iron center and the triphosphine diiron complex 5 were determined by X-ray crystallography. To make a comparison, the redox reactions of an analogous complex, [(μ-SCH2)2N(CH2C6H5){Fe(CO)2(PMe3)}2] (7), were also investigated by in situ IR spectroscopy in the absence or presence of extrinsic PPh3, which has no influence on the oxidation reaction of 7. The pendant phosphine in the second coordination sphere makes the redox reaction of 2 different from that of its analogue 7.

  17. Protonation of Ferrous Dinitrogen Complexes Containing a Diphosphine Ligand with a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Mock, Michael T.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-04-01

    The addition of protons to pendant amine containing ferrous dinitrogen complexes, of the type [FeX(N2)(PEtNMePEt)(dmpm)]+ (X = H, Cl, or Br; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2 and dmpm = Me2PCH2PMe2), was found to protonate at the pendant amine as opposed to the dinitrogen ligand. This protonation increased the νN2 of the complex by about 25 cm-1, shifting the Fe(II/I) couple 330 mV to a more positive potential. A similar shift was observed in the case of [FeX(CO)(PEtNMePEt)(dmpm)]+ (X = H, Cl, or Br). Computational analysis verified these experimental results and showed the coordination of N2 to Fe(II) centers increases the basicity of N2 (vs. free N2) by 13 and 20 pKa units for the trans halides and hydrides, respectively. Although the iron center was found to increase the basicity of the bound N2 ligand, coordinated N2 is not sufficiently basic to be protonated. In the case of ferrous dinitrogen complexes containing a basic pendant methylamine, the amine site was determined to be the most basic site by 30 pKa units compared to protonation at the N2 ligand. To increase the basicity of the N2 ligand in order to promote proton transfer from the pendant amine to the N2 ligand, chemical reduction of these ferrous dinitrogen complexes was performed and found to result in oxidative addition of the methylene C-H bond of the PEtNMePEt ligand to Fe, preventing isolation of a reduced Fe(0) N2 complex. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...

  19. Reprint of: Pendant allyl crosslinking as a tunable shape memory actuator for vascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boire, Timothy C; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Lee, Sue Hyun; Balikov, Daniel A; Kim, Kwangho; Bellan, Leon M; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) can be programmed to fit into small-bore incisions and recover their functional shape upon deployment in the body. This property is of significant interest for developing the next generation of minimally-invasive medical devices. To be used in such applications, SMPs should exhibit adequate mechanical strengths that minimize adverse compliance mismatch-induced host responses (e.g. thrombosis, hyperplasia), be biodegradable, and demonstrate switch-like shape recovery near body temperature with favorable biocompatibility. Combinatorial approaches are essential in optimizing SMP material properties for a particular application. In this study, a new class of thermo-responsive SMPs with pendant, photocrosslinkable allyl groups, x%poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-y%(α-allyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (x%PCL-y%ACPCL), are created in a robust, facile manner with readily tunable material properties. Thermomechanical and shape memory properties can be drastically altered through subtle changes in allyl composition. Molecular weight and gel content can also be altered in this combinatorial format to fine-tune material properties. Materials exhibit highly elastic, switch-like shape recovery near 37 °C. Endothelial compatibility is comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and 100%PCL in vitro and vascular compatibility is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating promising suitability for vascular applications. With the ongoing thrust to make surgeries minimally-invasive, it is prudent to develop new biomaterials that are highly compatible and effective in this workflow. Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) have great potential for minimally-invasive applications because SMP medical devices (e.g. stents, grafts) can fit into small-bore minimally-invasive surgical devices and recover their functional shape when deployed in the body. To realize their potential, it is imperative to devise

  20. Pendant allyl crosslinking as a tunable shape memory actuator for vascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boire, Timothy C; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Lee, Sue Hyun; Balikov, Daniel A; Kim, Kwangho; Bellan, Leon M; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2015-09-01

    Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) can be programmed to fit into small-bore incisions and recover their functional shape upon deployment in the body. This property is of significant interest for developing the next generation of minimally-invasive medical devices. To be used in such applications, SMPs should exhibit adequate mechanical strengths that minimize adverse compliance mismatch-induced host responses (e.g. thrombosis, hyperplasia), be biodegradable, and demonstrate switch-like shape recovery near body temperature with favorable biocompatibility. Combinatorial approaches are essential in optimizing SMP material properties for a particular application. In this study, a new class of thermo-responsive SMPs with pendant, photocrosslinkable allyl groups, x%poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-y%(α-allyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (x%PCL-y%ACPCL), are created in a robust, facile manner with readily tunable material properties. Thermomechanical and shape memory properties can be drastically altered through subtle changes in allyl composition. Molecular weight and gel content can also be altered in this combinatorial format to fine-tune material properties. Materials exhibit highly elastic, switch-like shape recovery near 37°C. Endothelial compatibility is comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and 100%PCL in vitro and vascular compatibility is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating promising suitability for vascular applications. With the ongoing thrust to make surgeries minimally-invasive, it is prudent to develop new biomaterials that are highly compatible and effective in this workflow. Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) have great potential for minimally-invasive applications because SMP medical devices (e.g. stents, grafts) can fit into small-bore minimally-invasive surgical devices and recover their functional shape when deployed in the body. To realize their potential, it is imperative to devise

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II, Cu(II and Co(III complexes with polyamine-containing macrocycles bearing an aminoethyl pendant arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. SIDDIQI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of [M(ppn2]X2 (where M = Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and ppn = 1,3-diaminopropane with formaldehyde and ethylenediamine in methanol results in the ready formation of a 16-membered macrocyclic complex. The complexes were characterized by elemental anlysis, IR, EPR, electronic spectral data, magnetic moments and conductance measurements. The Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(III complexes are coordinated axially with both pendant groups of the hexadentate macrocycle. These pendant donors are attached to the macrocycle by a carbon chain. The electrical conductivities of the Cu(II and Ni(II chelates indicated them to be 1:2 electrolytes whilst those of Co(III is a 1:3 electrolyte in DMSO. The EPR spectrum of the copper complex exhibited G at 3.66, which indicates a considerable exchange interaction in the complex. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that in all of the complexes the metal ion is in an octahedral environment.

  3. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals Estudo das dermatoses e sua prevalencia em individuos comprovadamente alcoolistas comparativamente a um grupo de individuos não alcoolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES: to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women, members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS: Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION: the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. FUNDAMENTOS: A relação direta entre o alcoolismo e as dermatoses vem sendo avaliada em recentes pesquisas. No entanto são poucos os estudos objetivos que demonstram e comprovam uma relação direta entre o álcool e uma determinada dermatose. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de dermatoses em alcoolistas, avaliar as alterações dermatológicas encontradas nesses doentes e sua evolução frente abstin

  4. Disordered gambling among racial and ethnic groups in the US: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, A A; Petry, N M; Hasin, D S; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, B F; Blanco, C

    2009-03-01

    Prior research suggests that racial minority groups in the United States are more vulnerable to develop a gambling disorder than whites. However, no national survey on gambling disorders exists that has focused on ethnic differences. Analyses of this study were based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large (N=43,093) nationally representative survey of the adult (> or =18 years of age) population residing in households during 2001-2002 period. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision diagnoses of pathological gambling, mood, anxiety, drug use, and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Prevalence rates of disordered gambling among blacks (2.2%) and Native/Asian Americans (2.3%) were higher than that of whites (1.2%). Demographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity differed among Hispanic, black, and white disordered gamblers. However, all racial and ethnic groups evidenced similarities with respect to symptom patterns, time course, and treatment seeking for pathological gambling. The prevalence of disordered gambling, but not its onset or course of symptoms, varies by racial and ethnic group. These varying prevalence rates may reflect, at least in part, cultural differences in gambling and its acceptability and accessibility. These data may inform the need for targeted prevention strategies for high-risk racial and ethnic groups.

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Murase, a NEDO's director, outlines R and D of techniques for hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy systems, high-efficiency power generation by wastes, reutilization of combustible wastes as fuels, high-efficiency clean energy vehicles and pioneer techniques for utilization of supercritical fluids, and commercialization of waste water treatment techniques for prevention of global warming, in the report entitled (General situations of the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology development group). The researchers presented the R and D results of development of externally circulating type fluidized bed, demonstration tests therefor by a pilot plant, phase 1 WE-NET project, phase 1 hydrogen-fueled turbine, phase 1 closed type high-efficiency gas turbine system equipped with a CO2 recovery system, and simple systems for cleaning up industrial wastes. (NEDO)

  6. Moving protons with pendant amines: proton mobility in a nickel catalyst for oxidation of hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Molly; Shaw, Wendy J; Raugei, Simone; Chen, Shentan; Yang, Jenny Y; Kilgore, Uriah J; DuBois, Daniel L; Bullock, R Morris

    2011-09-14

    Proton transport is ubiquitous in chemical and biological processes, including the reduction of dioxygen to water, the reduction of CO(2) to formate, and the production/oxidation of hydrogen. In this work we describe intramolecular proton transfer between Ni and positioned pendant amines for the hydrogen oxidation electrocatalyst [Ni(P(Cy)(2)N(Bn)(2)H)(2)](2+) (P(Cy)(2)N(Bn)(2) = 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane). Rate constants are determined by variable-temperature one-dimensional NMR techniques and two-dimensional EXSY experiments. Computational studies provide insight into the details of the proton movement and energetics of these complexes. Intramolecular proton exchange processes are observed for two of the three experimentally observable isomers of the doubly protonated Ni(0) complex, [Ni(P(Cy)(2)N(Bn)(2)H)(2)](2+), which have N-H bonds but no Ni-H bonds. For these two isomers, with pendant amines positioned endo to the Ni, the rate constants for proton exchange range from 10(4) to 10(5) s(-1) at 25 °C, depending on isomer and solvent. No exchange is observed for protons on pendant amines positioned exo to the Ni. Analysis of the exchange as a function of temperature provides a barrier for proton exchange of ΔG(‡) = 11-12 kcal/mol for both isomers, with little dependence on solvent. Density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental observations, suggesting metal-mediated intramolecular proton transfers between nitrogen atoms, with chair-to-boat isomerizations as the rate-limiting steps. Because of the fast rate of proton movement, this catalyst may be considered a metal center surrounded by a cloud of exchanging protons. The high intramolecular proton mobility provides information directly pertinent to the ability of pendant amines to accelerate proton transfers during catalysis of hydrogen oxidation. These results may also have broader implications for proton movement in

  7. Rapid Deceleration-Driven Wetting Transition during Pendant Drop Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Paxson, Adam T.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2011-01-01

    A hitherto unknown mechanism for wetting transition is reported. When a pendant drop settles upon deposition, there is a virtual “collision” where its center of gravity undergoes rapid deceleration. This induces a high water hammer-type pressure that causes wetting transition. A new phase diagram shows that both large and small droplets can transition to wetted states due to the new deceleration driven and the previously known Laplace mechanisms, respectively. It is explained how the attainment of a nonwetted Cassie-Baxter state is more restrictive than previously known.

  8. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  9. Fluorinated poly(ether sulfone) ionomers with disulfonated naphthyl pendants for proton exchange membrane applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoxia; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Xulve; Yan, Xiaobo; Li, Na; Chen, Shouwen

    2018-06-01

    Proton exchange membranes based on fluorinated poly(ether sulfone)s with disulfonated naphthyl pendants (sSPFES) have been successfully prepared by post functionalization through polymeric SNAr reaction. Copolymer structure was confirmed by H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the physico-chemical properties of the sSPFES membranes were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, gel permeation chromatography, electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fenton, water-swelling and fuel cell test. The pendant grafting degree was controlled by varying the feeding amount of the disulfonaphthols, resulting in the ion exchange capacity about 1.28-1.73 mmol/g. The obtained sSPFES membranes were thermal stable, mechanical ductile, and exhibited dimensional change less than 17%, water uptake below 70%, and proton conductivity as high as 0.17-0.28 S/cm at 90°C in water. In a single H2/O2 fuel cell test at 80°C, the sSPFES-B-3.2 membrane (1.61 mmol/g) showed the maximum power output of 593-658 mW/cm2 at 60%-80% relative humidity, indicating their rather promising potential for fuel cell applications.

  10. Proton Transfer in Perfluorosulfonic Acid Fuel Cell Membranes with Differing Pendant Chains and Equivalent Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Joseph E; Lawler, Christian M; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-05-04

    Proton transfer in the nanoscopic water channels of polyelectrolyte fuel cell membranes was studied using a photoacid, 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid sodium salt (HPTS), in the channels. The local environment of the probe was determined using 8-methoxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid sodium salt (MPTS), which is not a photoacid. Three fully hydrated membranes, Nafion (DuPont) and two 3M membranes, were studied to determine the impact of different pendant chains and equivalent weights on proton transfer. Fluorescence anisotropy and excited state population decay data that characterize the local environment of the fluorescent probes and proton transfer dynamics were measured. The MPTS lifetime and anisotropy results show that most of the fluorescent probes have a bulk-like water environment with a relatively small fraction interacting with the channel wall. Measurements of the HPTS protonated and deprotonated fluorescent bands' population decays provided information on the proton transport dynamics. The decay of the protonated band from ∼0.5 ns to tens of nanoseconds is in part determined by dissociation and recombination with the HPTS, providing information on the ability of protons to move in the channels. The dissociation and recombination is manifested as a power law component in the protonated band fluorescence decay. The results show that equivalent weight differences between two 3M membranes resulted in a small difference in proton transfer. However, differences in pendant chain structure did significantly influence the proton transfer ability, with the 3M membranes displaying more facile transfer than Nafion.

  11. Intracellular drug delivery nanocarriers of glutathione-responsive degradable block copolymers having pendant disulfide linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Behnoush; Lapointe, Gabriel; Brett, Christopher; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2013-06-10

    Self-assembled micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers (ABPs) with stimuli-responsive degradation (SRD) properties have a great promise as nanotherapeutics exhibiting enhanced release of encapsulated therapeutics into targeted cells. Here, thiol-responsive degradable micelles based on a new ABP consisting of a pendant disulfide-labeled methacrylate polymer block (PHMssEt) and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block were investigated as effective intracellular nanocarriers of anticancer drugs. In response to glutathione (GSH) as a cellular trigger, the cleavage of pendant disulfide linkages in hydrophobic PHMssEt blocks of micellar cores caused the destabilization of self-assembled micelles due to change in hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. Such GSH-triggered micellar destabilization changed their size distribution with an appearance of large aggregates and led to enhanced release of encapsulated anticancer drugs. Cell culture results from flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy for cellular uptake as well as cell viability measurements for high anticancer efficacy suggest that new GSH-responsive degradable PEO-b-PHMssEt micelles offer versatility in multifunctional drug delivery applications.

  12. Monitoring protein phosphorylation by acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ in various plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka eBekesova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to rationalize acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ in-gel discrimination of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated plant protein species with standard immunoblot analysis, and optimize sample preparation, efficient electrophoretic separation and transfer. We tested variants of the method including extraction buffers suitable for preservation of phosphorylated protein species in crude extracts from plants and we addressed the importance of the cation (Mn2+ or Zn2+ used in the gel recipe for efficient transfer to PVDF membranes for further immunoblot analysis. We demonstrate the monitoring of Medicago sativa stress-induced mitogen activated protein kinase (SIMK in stress-treated wild type plants and transgenic SIMKK RNAi line. We further show the hyperosmotically-induced phosphorylation of the previously uncharacterized HvMPK4 of barley. The method is validated using inducible phosphorylation of barley and wheat α-tubulin and of Arabidopsis MPK6. Acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ offers a flexible tool for studying protein phosphorylation in crops and Arabidopsis circumventing radioactive labeling and the use of phosphorylation specific antibodies.

  13. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  14. A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Labeled, Parallel Group Trial of Sildenafil in Alcohol-Associated Erectile Dysfunction: The Impact on Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grinshpoon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction (ED and psychosocial outcomes in alcohol-dependent (AD men, 108 men with these diagnoses were randomly assigned to either take sildenafil (50 mg as add-on to standard treatment for AD, or the same treatment without sildenafil, for 12 weeks. Only 50 patients in sildenafil group and 51 in control group twice completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and a battery of self-report questionnaires. IIEF scores and psychosocial functioning, self-esteem and support from friends improved only for sildenafil-treated patients (P < 0.001. The high effect sizes suggest that the observed benefits are unlikely to be a placebo effect, although their unspecific nature could not be ruled out. In men with ED associated with AD, sildenafil improves both ED and psychosocial outcomes. Further placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted.

  15. Solid-phase extraction of the alcohol abuse biomarker phosphatidylethanol using newly synthesized polymeric sorbent materials containing quaternary heterocyclic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Jagadeesan, Kishore Kumar; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Laurell, Thomas; Ekström, Simon

    2017-10-13

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an interesting biomarker finding increased use for detecting long term alcohol abuse with high specificity and sensitivity. Prior to detection, sample preparation is an unavoidable step in the work-flow of PEth analysis and new protocols may facilitate it. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a versatile sample preparation method widely spread in biomedical laboratories due to its simplicity of use and the possibility of automation. In this work, SPE was used for the first time to directly extract PEth from spiked human plasma and spiked human blood. A library of polymeric SPE materials with different surface functionalities was screened for PEth extraction in order to identify the surface characteristics that control PEth retention and recovery. The plasma samples were diluted 1:10 (v/v) in water and spiked at different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5μM. The library of SPE materials was then evaluated using the proposed SPE method and detection was done by LC-MS/MS. One SPE material efficiently retained and recovered PEth from spiked human plasma. With this insight, four new SPE materials were formulated and synthesized based on the surface characteristics of the best SPE material found in the first screening. These new materials were tested with spiked human blood, to better mimic a real clinical sample. All the newly synthetized materials outperformed the pre-existing commercially available materials. Recovery values for the new SPE materials were found between 29.5% and 48.6% for the extraction of PEth in spiked blood. A material based on quaternized 1-vinylimidazole with a poly(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) backbone was found suitable for PEth extraction in spiked blood showing the highest analyte recovery in this experiment, 48.6%±6.4%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haisong; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Hailei; Bai, Libin; Wu, Yonggang; Wang, Sujuan; Ba, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin is a potential natural anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The aqueous solubility of curcumin is enhanced by means of modification with the carbohydrate units. Polymerization of the curcumin-containing monomer with carbohydrate-containing monomer gives the water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues. The obtained copolymers (P1 and P2) having desirable water solubility were well-characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The copolymer P2 with a molar ratio of 1:6 (curcumin/carbohydrate) calculated from the proton NMR results exhibits a similar anticancer activity compared to original curcumin, which may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the field of anticancer medicine.

  17. Synthesis and in vivo antimalarial activity of novel naphthoquine derivatives with linear/cyclic structured pendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ling; Bei, Zhuchun; Song, Yabin; Xu, Likun; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Dongna; Dou, Yuanyuan; Lv, Kai; Wang, Hongquan

    2017-07-01

    Naphthoquine (NQ) was discovered by our institute as an antimalarial candidate in 1980s, and currently employed as an artemisinin-based combination therapy partner drug. Resistance to NQ was found in mouse model in laboratory, and might emerge in future as widely used. We herein report the design and synthesis of NQ derivatives by replacing t-butyl moiety with linear/cyclic structured pendants. All the target compounds 6a-l and intermediates 5a-h were tested for their in vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei K173 strain in mice. Compounds 6a and 6j were found to have a comparable or slightly more potent activity (the 50% effective dose [ED 50 ], which is required to decrease parasitemia by 50%: 0.38-0.43 mg/kg) than NQ (ED 50 : 0.48 mg/kg). The newly designed compounds 6a and 6j might be promising antimalarial candidates for further research.

  18. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  19. First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

  20. Measurement of interfacial tension by use of pendant drop video techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Melvin D.; Thomas, Charles P.; Bala, Gregory A.; Lassahn, Gordon D.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes an instrument to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) of aqueous surfactant solutions and crude oil. The method involves injection of a drop of fluid (such as crude oil) into a second immiscible phase to determine the IFT between the two phases. The instrument is composed of an AT-class computer, optical cell, illumination, video camera and lens, video frame digitizer board, monitor, and software. The camera displays an image of the pendant drop on the monitor, which is then processed by the frame digitizer board and non-proprietary software to determine the IFT. Several binary and ternary phase systems were taken from the literature and used to measure the precision and accuracy of the instrument in determining IFT's. A copy of the software program is included in the report. A copy of the program on diskette can be obtained from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, P.O. Box 1020, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-1020. The accuracy and precision of the technique and apparatus presented is very good for measurement of IFT's in the range from 72 to 10(exp -2) mN/m, which is adequate for many EOR applications. With modifications to the equipment and the numerical techniques, measurements of ultralow IFT's (less than 10(exp -3) mN/m) should be possible as well as measurements at reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The instrument has been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to support the research program on microbial enhanced oil recovery. Measurements of IFT's for several bacterial supernatants and unfractionated acid precipitates of microbial cultures containing biosurfactants against medium to heavy crude oils are reported. These experiments demonstrate that the use of automated video imaging of pendant drops is a simple and fast method to reliably determine interfacial tension between two immiscible liquid phases, or between a gas and a liquid phase.

  1. Enumeration of sugars and sugar alcohols hydroxyl groups by aqueous-based acetylation and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for enumerating hydroxyl groups on analytes in aqueous media is described, and applied to some common polyalcohols (erythritol, mannitol, and xylitol) and selected carbohydrates. The analytes were derivatized in water with vinyl acetate in presence of sodium phosphate buffer. ...

  2. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  3. The influence of trifluoromethyl groups on the miscibility of fluorinated alcohols with water : A molecular dynamics simulation study of 1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioroni, M.; Burger, K.; Mark, A.E.; Roccatano, D

    2003-01-01

    1,1,1-Trifluoro-propan-2-ol (TFIP) alcohol has been used to study the influence of trifluoromethyl groups (CF3) on the physicochemical properties of fluorinated organic molecules. TFIP contains both a CF3 and a methyl (CH3) group. An atomistic study of TFIP thus can provide insight into the behavior

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Chemical group 1 (CG 1) consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic...

  5. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  6. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  7. Bromide-free TEMPO-mediated oxidation of primary alcohol groups in starch and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragd, P L; Besemer, A C; van Bekkum, H

    2000-09-22

    TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation of potato starch and methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MGP) was performed in the absence of sodium bromide (NaBr) as co-catalyst, solely using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as the primary oxidant. The low reaction rate associated with a bromide-free process was increased by performing the oxidation at increased temperatures. The reaction proceeded stoichiometrically and with high selectivity and with only minor depolymerisation, provided that temperature and pH were kept or = 25 degrees C) and under more alkaline conditions (pH > or = 9.0) degradation of the starch skeleton occurred. Simultaneously, side-reactions of the nitrosonium ion lowered the yield of the oxidation. Despite the absence of the NaBr catalyst, the reaction rate-controlling step was found to be the oxidation of the primary hydroxyl groups with the nitrosonium ion. The reaction was first-order in MGP and in TEMPO.

  8. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  9. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 22, 2013... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  10. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 13, 2012. Time: 8 a.m... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  11. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 7-8, 2010. Time: 8 a.... Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  12. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 9-10, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  13. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635...

  14. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism; Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: March 15-16, 2011... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, marmillotp...

  15. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville...

  16. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 2-3, 2010. Time..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  17. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 6, 2013. Time: 8:00... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  18. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee. Date..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  19. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2014. Time: 8... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, T508, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas...

  20. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037...

  1. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 5, 2013. Time: 8..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  2. Effect of thiol pendant conjugates on plasmid DNA binding, release, and stability of polymeric delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalocostantis, Irene; Mane, Viraj P; Kang, Michael S; Goodley, Addison S; Muro, Silvia; Kofinas, Peter

    2012-05-14

    Polymers have attracted much attention as potential gene delivery vectors due to their chemical and structural versatility. However, several challenges associated with polymeric carriers, including low transfection efficiencies, insufficient cargo release, and high cytotoxicity levels have prevented clinical implementation. Strong electrostatic interactions between polymeric carriers and DNA cargo can prohibit complete cargo release within the cell. As a result, cargo DNA never reaches the cell's nucleus where gene expression takes place. In addition, highly charged cationic polymers have been correlated with high cytotoxicity levels, making them unsuitable carriers in vivo. Using poly(allylamine) (PAA) as a model, we investigated how pH-sensitive disulfide cross-linked polymer networks can improve the delivery potential of cationic polymer carriers. To accomplish this, we conjugated thiol-terminated pendant chains onto the primary amines of PAA using 2-iminothiolane, developing three new polymer vectors with 5, 13, or 20% thiol modification. Unmodified PAA and thiol-conjugated polymers were tested for their ability to bind and release plasmid DNA, their capacity to protect genetic cargo from enzymatic degradation, and their potential for endolysosomal escape. Our results demonstrate that polymer-plasmid complexes (polyplexes) formed by the 13% thiolated polymer demonstrate the greatest delivery potential. At high N/P ratios, all thiolated polymers (but not unmodified counterparts) were able to resist decomplexation in the presence of heparin, a negatively charged polysaccharide used to mimic in vivo polyplex-protein interactions. Further, all thiolated polymers exhibited higher buffering capacities than unmodified PAA and, therefore, have a greater potential for endolysosomal escape. However, 5 and 20% thiolated polymers exhibited poor DNA binding-release kinetics, making them unsuitable carriers for gene delivery. The 13% thiolated polymers, on the other hand

  3. Ionic solubility and solutal advection governed augmented evaporation kinetics of salt solution pendant droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vivek; Harikrishnan, A. R.; Khurana, Gargi; Dhar, Purbarun

    2018-01-01

    The presence of dispersed inclusions is known to modify the interfacial characteristics in liquids by adsorption-desorption of the ions at interfaces. The present article reports the influencing role of dissolved ions in a polar fluid on its evaporation dynamics. The evaporation dynamics of pendant droplets of aqueous solutions of variant simple salts and concentrations have been experimentally studied. The presence of salts is observed to enhance the evaporation rate (obeying the classical D2 law), and the enhancement has been found to hold a direct proportionality to the concentration of the dissolved salt. Furthermore, it is observed that the degree of enhancement in the evaporation rate is also directly proportional to the solubility of the salt in question. The phenomenon is explained based on the chemical kinetics and thermodynamics of hydration of the ionic species in the polar fluid. The classical evaporation rate constant formulation is found to be inadequate in modeling the enhanced species transport. Additional probing via particle image velocimetry reveals augmented internal circulation within the evaporating salt based drops compared to pure water. Mapping the dynamic surface tension reveals that a salt concentration gradient is generated between the bulk and periphery of the droplet and it could be responsible for the internal advection cells visualized. A thermo-solutal Marangoni and Rayleigh convection based mathematical formulation has been put forward, and it is shown that the enhanced solute-thermal convection could play a major role in enhanced evaporation. The internal circulation mapped from experiments is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. Scaling analysis further reveals that the stability of the solutal Marangoni convection surpasses the thermal counterpart with higher salt concentration and solubility. The present article sheds insight into the possible domineering role of conjugate thermohydraulic and

  4. A new DRAM-type memory devices based on polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Li Hua; Li Najun; Zhao Ying; Zhou Qianhao; Xu Qingfeng; Lu Jianmei; Wang Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. Highlights: ► The side-functional moieties of pBVMA regularly arranged in film state. ► The device exhibits volatile memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 10 5 . ► The film thickness has nothing to do with the device's memory behavior. ► Physical theoretical models and molecular simulation supported the memory mechanism. - Abstract: A polymethacrylate containing pendant 2-methylbenzothiazole (pBVMA) with good thermal stability was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The devices based on pBVMA possess a sandwich structure comprising bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode and top Al electrode. The as-fabricated device exhibits the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio up to 10 5 and can endure 10 8 read cycles under −1 V pulse voltage. The effect of the film thickness on the device performance was investigated and the devices fabricated with 75 nm and 45 nm thick pBVMA films were both found to exhibit DRAM type memory behaviors, which may indicate that the Al nanoparticles had no penetration into the thin film during the vacuum-deposition process. The molecular simulation and physical theoretical models were analyzed and the mechanism of the DRAM performance may be attributed to the weak electron withdrawing ability of the molecule.

  5. Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alexopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

  6. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 63, Revision 1 (FGE.63Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th and 69th meetings) structurally related to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 19 aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th and 69th meetings in 2002 and 2008. This revision is made due to inclusion of six...

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2016. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 51, Revision 2 (FGE.51Rev2): Consideration of alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (59th meeting, ) structurally related to alicyclic ketones secondary alcohols and related esters in FGE.09Rev6 (2015b)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    on metabolism and toxicity. The present consideration concerns a group of 24 alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting in 2002 and 63rd meeting in 2004). This revision is made due to inclusion of four additional substances cleared for genotoxicity concern...

  8. EFSA Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87 Revision 1 (FGE.87Rev1): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 17 bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 63rd meeting in 2004. This revision of FGE.87 is made due to consideration of two additional...

  9. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 87, Revision 2 (FGE.87Rev2): Consideration of bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting, ) structurally related to bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.47Rev1 (2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 19 bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 63rd meeting in 2004. This revision of FGE.87 is made due to inclusion of two additional...

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 51, Revision 1: Consideration of alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to alicyclic, ketones secondary alcohols and related esters in FGE.09Rev3 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 20 alicyclic ketones and secondary alcohols and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) in 2002. This revision is made due to inclusion of seven additional substances...

  11. Synthesis, physico-chemical and antimicrobial screening studies on 14 and 16-membered hexaazamacrocyclic complexes bearing pendant amine groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a series of 14 and 16-membered hexaazamacrocyclic complexes, which were obtained via template condensation of 1,2- diaminoethane or 1,3-diaminopropane, formaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of first row transition metal salts are reported. Complexes of the types, [ML¹(NO32]; [CuL¹](NO32 and [ML²Cl2]; [CuL²]Cl2 (where M = Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, were obtained. Elemental analyses, IR spectra, ¹H NMR, EPR, UV-Vis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements have ascertained the overall geometry and stereochemistry of the complexes. An octahedral geometry has been suggested for all the complexes, except for copper compounds, in which the metal centre coordinates to the four nitrogen atoms of macrocyclic ligand in a square planar fashion. These complexes were screened against different fungi and bacteria in vitro and were found to be potentially active in the concentration 5 mg mL-1.

  12. Polymerization of propene with modified constrained geometry complexes. Double-bond isomerization in pendant alkenyl groups attached to cyclopentadienyl ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, OKB; Beetstra, DJ; Jekel, AP; Hessen, B; Teuben, JH; Stepnicka, P; Gyepes, R; Horacek, M; Pinkas, J; Mach, K; Beetstra, Dirk J.; Štěpnička, Petr; Horáček, Michal; Štepnicka, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polymerization of propene with dimethylsilylene-bridged (amidocyclopentadienyl) dichlorotitanium( IV) complexes [TiCl2 {eta(5)-1-(t-BuSiMe2N-kappaN)- 2,3,4- Me-3 -5- R-C-5}], where R =Me (1), H (2), Ph (3), 4-fluorophenyl (4), but-2-en-2-yl (5), and butyl (6), combined with excess methylaluminoxane

  13. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  14. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  15. Thermo- and pH-Responsive Copolymers Bearing Cholic Acid and Oligo(ethylene glycol) Pendants: Self-Assembly and pH-Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-Guang; Zhu, X X

    2015-11-11

    A family of block and random copolymers of norbornene derivatives bearing cholic acid and oligo(ethylene glycol) pendants were prepared in the presence of Grubbs' catalyst. The phase transition temperature of the copolymers in aqueous solutions may be tuned by the variation of comonomer ratios and pH values. Both types of copolymers formed micellar nanostructures with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) shell and a hydrophobic core containing cholic acid residues. The micellar size increased gradually with increasing pH due to the deprotonation of the carboxylic acid groups. These micelles were capable of encapsulating hydrophobic compounds such as Nile Red (NR). A higher hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity ratio in both copolymers resulted in a higher loading capacity for NR. With similar molecular weights and monomer compositions, the block copolymers showed a higher loading capacity for NR than the random copolymers. The NR-loaded micelles exhibited a pH-triggered release behavior. At pH 7.4 within 96 h, the micelles formed by the block and random of copolymers released 56 and 97% NR, respectively. Therefore, these micelles may have promise for use as therapeutic nanocarriers in drug delivery systems.

  16. A cluster randomized trial to determine the effectiveness of a novel, digital pendant and voice reminder platform on increasing infant immunization adherence in rural Udaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Ruchit; Venkat, Preethi; Stone, Logan D; Engel, Kyle A; Sadda, Praneeth; Shahnawaz, Mohammed

    2017-11-18

    Five hundred thousand children under the age of 5 die from vaccine preventable diseases in India every year. More than just improving coverage, increasing timeliness of immunizations is critical to ensuring infant health in the first year of life. Novel, culturally appropriate community engagement strategies are worth exploring to close the immunization gap. In our study, a digital NFC (Near Field Communication) pendant worn on black thread and voice call reminder system was tested for the effectiveness in improving DTP3 adherence within 2 monthly camps from DTP1 administration. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 96 village health camps were randomized to 3 arms: NFC sticker, NFC pendant, and NFC pendant with voice call reminder in local dialect. Randomization was done across 5 blocks in the Udaipur District serviced by Seva Mandir from August 2015 to April 2016. In terms of our three primary outcomes related to DTP3 adherence, point estimates show conflicting results. Two outcomes presented adherence in the control. DTP3 completion within two camps after DTP1 showed higher adherence in the Control (Sticker) (74.2%) arm compared to the Pendant (67.2%) and Pendant and Voice arms (69.3%). Likewise, the estimate for DTP3 completion within 180 days of birth in the Control (Sticker) (69.4%) arm was higher than estimates in the Pendant (57.4%) and Pendant and Voice arms (58.7%). However, one outcome displayed higher adherence in the intervention. DTP3 completion within two months from the time of registration was higher in the Pendant (37.7%) and Pendant and Voice arms (38.7%) compared to the Control (Sticker) arm (27.4%). In all primary outcomes, differences in adherence were statistically insignificant both before and after controlling for confounding factors. In terms of secondary outcomes, our results suggest that providing a necklace generated significant community discussion (H = 8.8796, df = 2, p = .0118), had strong

  17. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  18. [High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.

  19. Intercalation of alcohols into barium phenylphosphonate: Influence of the number and position of funcitonal groups in the guests on their arrangement in the intercalates.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Zima, Vítězslav; Svoboda, J.; Růžička, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 251, July (2017), s. 211-216 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13368S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : intercalation * barium phosphonate * alcohol s Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.299, year: 2016

  20. If you're high status and you know it: Teasing apart the within- and between-person effects of peer- and self-reported status in the drinking group on alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Davis, Jordan P; Merrin, Gabriel J; Puccia, Maria; Blustein, Dayna

    2018-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, we disentangled within- and between-persons effects in the relationship between university students' status in their drinking group and alcohol-related behavior. We further examined the role of self-perceived and peer-reported status, with the hypothesis that only when students' peers reported them as of a higher status, and they were aware of their high status (via self-report), would they experience increased heavy episodic drinking (HED). University students (N = 118; Mage = 19.40, SD = 1.49; 60.2% women) were recruited in their natural drinking groups (N = 27). All group members completed surveys at 3 time points during the school year, each 2 months apart. We fitted a taxonomy of multilevel growth curve models predicting students' self-reported HED and the extent to which they encouraged other group members to consume alcohol (peer-reported). Between-persons results demonstrated that students who reported higher status compared to their group members experienced more HED on average and students who were peer-reported as of a higher status relative to their group members played a more salient role in encouraging others to drink. Notably, and consistent with hypotheses, a within-person interaction revealed that at time points when students were higher in peer-reported status relative to their average, and they were aware of their increase in status (via self-reports), they also engaged in more HED. Results emphasize the importance of considering within-person effects and highlight the need for university alcohol-prevention programming to focus on students' status-related motives and concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prognostic value of insulinlike growth factor I and its binding protein in patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. EMALD group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    Insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) is a single-polypeptide chain with important anabolic and endocrine activities. The liver is the major source of IGF-I and its binding protein, IGFBP-3. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are decreased in patients with chronic liver disease...... and correlate with the severity. The aim of this study was to assess the additional prognostic value of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in patients entered in a large multicenter study (EMALD). Three hundred thirty-seven patients with alcohol-induced liver disease were studied in a randomized placebo-controlled trial...... of malotilate with a mean follow-up period of 569 days (range, 7-1,544). A multivariate Cox regression analysis of pertinent clinical and biochemical variables showed a significant independent prognostic value of years of alcohol intake, coagulation factors 2, 7, and 10, alkaline phosphatases, serum creatinine...

  2. Drugs of abuse and alcohol consumption among different groups of population on the Greek Island of Lesvos through sewage-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidou, Georgia; Kinyua, Juliet; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse, their metabolites, and the alcohol metabolite ethyl sulphate was investigated in raw sewage samples collected during the non-touristic season from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), which serve different sizes and types of population in the Greek island of Lesvos. Using the sewage-based epidemiology approach, the consumption of these substances was estimated. Five target analytes, cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) were detected at concentrations above their limit of quantification, whereas the rest eighteen target compounds were not detected. THC-COOH was detected in most of the samples with concentrations ranging between drugs among city population than rural and University population with average values of 9.5 and 1.2mgday(-1) per 1000 inhabitants for COC (95% CI: -1.43-20.4) and MDMA (95% CI: 0.52-1.85), respectively, and 2.8gday(-1) per 1000 inhabitants for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (95% CI: 2.4-3.1), the active ingredient of cannabis. Alcohol consumption was observed to be higher in the city population (5.4mL pure alcohol per day per inhabitant) than in the rural population (3.4mL pure alcohol per day per inhabitant), but the difference was not statistically significant. Consumption of THC differed significantly among the three STPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  4. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: June 12, 2012. Time... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, [email protected

  5. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review Subcommittee... & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-3037...

  6. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  7. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group. Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcoholism, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-451-2067...

  8. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635 Fishers...

  9. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  10. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852...

  11. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 443-4032...

  12. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2012... Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 443-2861, [email protected

  13. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  14. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  15. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical ...

  16. Consommation de caféine pendant la grossesse : retentissements maternels, foetaux, néonatals et infantiles

    OpenAIRE

    ALTIERI, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : La caféine, essentiellement présente dans le café, le thé, les boissons énergisantes, le cola, le cacao et certains médicaments, est la substance psychoactive la plus consommée pendant la grossesse. Elle traverse la barrière placentaire et présente une élimination ralentie chez la femme enceinte, le foetus et le nourrisson. Les études animales ont mis en évidence sa tératogénicité et sa toxicité pour la gestation et la santé des progénitures. Qu’en est-il du déroulement de la g...

  17. Erratum to : Modeling of complex interfaces for pendant drop experiments (Rheologica Acta, , 55, 10, (801-822), 10.1007/s00397-016-0956-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, C.; Hulsen, M.A.; Tervoort, T.A.; Anderson, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. Theo A. Tervoort was not listed among the authors. The correct information is given above. In Balemans et al. (2016), an axisymmetric finite element model is presented to study the behaviour of complex interfaces in pendant drop

  18. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  19. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  20. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  2. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  3. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  4. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  5. Modification of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies in alcohol-dependent patients with mild or major neurocognitive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijen, A.; Rinck, M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Becker, E.S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced

  6. Diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders: Consensus statement from the Study Group of Liver and Metabolism, Chinese Society of Endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%–33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%–30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:23560695

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  8. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  9. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  10. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  11. LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN UNIVERSITARIOS, ADOLESCENTES Y ALCOHÓLICOS EN RECUPERACIÓN DE UN GRUPO DE ALCOHÓLICOS ANÓNIMOS (AA/ SOCIAL ABILITIES IN ADOLESCENTS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY IN A GROUP OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nava Quiroz***

    2010-03-01

    were distributed as follows: 58 adolescents (high school students, 55 members of AA and 44college students. Significant differences were found between some subscales and different reference groups. Most of thesedifferences were found in terms of cutting social cognitive skills. The group of alcoholics AA made the difference, showingthem a higher score on the subscales that indicate «fear» or «concern» in certain social situations. We discuss these findingsand their implications for treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  12. Alcoolismo e fam��lia: a vivência de mulheres participantes do grupo de autoajuda Al-Anon Alcoholism and family: the experience of women members who participate in self-help group Al-Anon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Alves Filzola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender a vivência de familiares que frequentam o grupo de apoio Al-Anon diante da experiência do alcoolismo. MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada com 6 mulheres, das 10 convidadas, que frequentam o grupo de autoajuda Al-Anon. A coleta de dados se deu através de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os referenciais teórico e metodológico que embasaram a análise qualitativa foram o Interacionismo Simbólico e a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, em seus passos iniciais. RESULTADOS: Os dados resultaram em 3 categorias conceituais: 1 Negando o alcoolismo e sofrendo suas consequências; 2 Buscando ajuda, aprendendo com o grupo; e 3 Esperando a cura, experimentando a sobriedade e enfrentando as recaídas. Além do apoio da própria família e da religião, as mulheres apontaram a importância do grupo de autoajuda para ampará-las no enfrentamento dos problemas decorrentes do alcoolismo. CONCLUSÃO: Esperamos que os resultados desta pesquisa possam contribuir para a valorização do suporte oferecido pelo Al-Anon, estimular novos estudos na área e fortalecer, entre os profissionais de saúde, o reconhecimento do grupo como recurso importante de apoio efetivo às famílias.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the experience of family members who participate in Al-Anon support group in relation to alcoholism. METHOD: The research was accomplished with 6 women, 10 invited, attending the group of self-help Al-Anon. The data collection was through semi-structured interviews. The theoretical and methodological reference to the qualitative analysis was based on Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory in Data, in its initial steps. RESULTS: The data resulted in 3 conceptual categories: 1 Denying alcoholism and suffering yours consequences; 2 Searching for help, learning with the support group; 3 Waiting for cure, experiencing sobriety and facing relapses. Besides the support of family and religion, women pointed to the importance of self-help group to support

  13. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  14. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  15. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  16. Difluorobenzothiadiazole based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with triphenylamine substituted moieties as pendants for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three donor/acceptor (D/A-type two-dimensional polythiophenes (PTs; PBTFA13, PBTFA12, PBTFA11 featuring difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT derivatives as the conjugated (acceptor units in the polymer backbone and tertbutyl–substituted triphenylamine (tTPA-containing moieties as (donor pendants have been synthesized and characterized. These PTs exhibited good thermal stabilities, broad absorption spectra, and narrow optical band gaps. The cutoff wavelength of the UV–Vis absorption band was red-shifted upon increasing the content of the DFBT units in the PTs. Bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active layer comprising blends of the PTs and fullerene derivatives [6,6] phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM/PC71BM were fabricated; their photovoltaic performance was strongly dependent on the content of the DFBT derivative in the PT. Incorporating a suitable content of the DFBT derivative in the polymer backbone enhanced the solar absorption ability and conjugation length of the PTs. The photovoltaic properties of the PBTFA13-based solar cells were superior to those of the PBTFA11- and PBTFA12-based solar cells.

  17. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    The hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring. PMID:25298534

  18. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  19. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  20. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    .1-32.2) higher free testosterone than men with a weekly intake between 1 and 10 units. Alcohol intake was not significantly associated with serum inhibin B, FSH or LH levels in either group of men. The study is the largest of its kind and has sufficient power to detect changes in semen quality and reproductive......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  1. Benefícios de técnicas cognitivocomportamentais em terapia de grupo para o uso indevido de álcool e drogas Benefits of cognitive behavior techniques in group therapy for alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Robbe Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A entrevista motivacional e a prevenção de recaída são abordagens de tratamento para pessoas com problemas relativos ao uso indevido de álcool e drogas. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o caso de um paciente demonstrando a utilização das duas abordagens associadas em tratamento em grupo e descrevemos o uso das técnicas, as várias etapas do tratamento e os resultados alcançados. São discutidos os resultados encontrados e as vantagens das técnicas.Motivational Interviewing and relapse prevention are treatment approaches for individuals with alcohol or drug abuse problems. This article describes a group therapy treatment case, showing the association of both techniques. Each step of the treatment techniques is demonstrated and exemplified as long as their results. Results and advantages of the techniques are discussed.

  2. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  3. Macrocyclic Gd(3+) complexes with pendant crown ethers designed for binding zwitterionic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Logothetis, Nikos K; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-07-27

    A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1) between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2) between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7 mM(-1)  s(-1) at 60 MHz, 310 K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH 7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (≈80 %) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  5. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...

  6. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  7. Synthetic strategies for efficient conjugation of organometallic complexes with pendant protein reactive markers

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    Site-directed conjugation of metal centers to proteins is fundamental for biological and bioinorganic applications of transition metals. However, methods for the site-selective introduction of metal centers remain scarce. Herein, we present broadly applicable synthetic strategies for the conjugation of bioactive molecules with a range of organometallic complexes. Following three different synthetic strategies, we were able to synthesize a small library of metal conjugated protein markers featuring different types of protein reactive sites (epoxides, phenylphosphonates, fluorosulfonates and fluorophosphonate groups) as well as different late transition metals (iron, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and platinum). The products were isolated in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction of the metalated protein markers corroborates structural integrity of the metal complex and the protein reactive site. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic strategies for efficient conjugation of organometallic complexes with pendant protein reactive markers

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik; Marziale, Alexander N.; Reiner, Thomas; Kraus, Florian; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Raba, Andreas; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    Site-directed conjugation of metal centers to proteins is fundamental for biological and bioinorganic applications of transition metals. However, methods for the site-selective introduction of metal centers remain scarce. Herein, we present broadly applicable synthetic strategies for the conjugation of bioactive molecules with a range of organometallic complexes. Following three different synthetic strategies, we were able to synthesize a small library of metal conjugated protein markers featuring different types of protein reactive sites (epoxides, phenylphosphonates, fluorosulfonates and fluorophosphonate groups) as well as different late transition metals (iron, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and platinum). The products were isolated in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction of the metalated protein markers corroborates structural integrity of the metal complex and the protein reactive site. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lanthanide-binding peptides with two pendant aminodiacetate arms: impact of the sequence on chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Cisnetti, Federico; Lebrun, Colette; Gateau, Christelle; Delangle, Pascale

    2012-03-21

    Lanthanide complexes with a series of hexapeptides-incorporating two unnatural chelating amino acids with aminodiacetate groups, Ada(1) and Ada(2)-have been examined in terms of their speciation, structure, stability and luminescence properties. Whereas Ada(2) acts as a tridentate donor in all cases, Ada(1) may act as a tetradentate donor thanks to the coordination of the amide carbonyl function assisted by the formation of a six-membered chelate ring. The position of the Ada(1) residue in the sequence is demonstrated to be critical for the lanthanide complex speciation and structure. Ada(1) promotes the coordination of the backbone amide function to afford a highly dehydrated Ln complex and an S-shape structure of the peptide backbone, only when found in position 2.

  10. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Monteiro, Maristela; Roerecke, Michael; Smith, Blake; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  12. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Shield

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH. The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality. RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012 compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost, especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  13. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-06-11

    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  14. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    St?rmer, T; Wang-Gohrke, S; Arndt, V; Boeing, H; Kong, X; Kreienberg, R; Brenner, H

    2002-01-01

    MaeIII Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in exon 3 of the alcohol dehydrogenase II was assessed in serum from 467 randomly selected German women and 278 women with invasive breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between a polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption and risk for breast cancer. In both groups, usual consumption of different alcoholic beverages was asked for using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic ...

  15. Biointerfacial impedance characterization of reduced graphene oxide supported carboxyl pendant conducting copolymer based electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Nidhi; Niazi, Asad; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    We report, a comprehensive physical and biointerfacial electrochemical characteristics of electrodeposited poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) (PPy-PPa) copolymer film on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets attached over a silane modified indium-tin-oxide coated glass, for biosensing applications. The highly specific cardiac myoglobin protein antibody, Ab-cMb, has been covalently immobilized on the copolymer film through its pendent carboxyl group by carbodiimide coupling reaction. The factor ‘n’ describing divergence of the system from ideal capacitor characteristics exhibits a low value (n = 0.59) in a constant phase element of the impedance. This low value of ‘n’ showing a porous rough microstructure of PPy-PPa film on RGO exhibiting a diffusive characteristic that has been replaced by dominant charge transfer characteristic (R et ) with n = 0.78 on biomolecular immobilization and subsequent immunoreaction. The bioelectrode exhibits a linear impedance response to human cardiac cMb marker in the range of 10 ng mL −1 to 1 μg mL −1 in phosphate buffer solution (PBS; pH 7.4) at a low frequency region of et sensitivity of 70.30 Ω cm 2 per decade

  16. Temporal distribution of alcohol related facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai H; Qiu, Michael; Sun, Jiandong

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to address 2 important aspects of temporal pattern in alcohol-related facial fractures: (1) comparison of temporal pattern of alcohol-related facial fracture (alcohol group) presentation with non-alcohol-related fracture (non-alcohol group) presentation; (2) temporal pattern of patient demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and surgical management in the alcohol group presentation. This study retrospectively examined the Victorian admitted episodes data set (VAED) for the years 2010 to 2013. VAED is a standardized set of data collected during all hospital presentations in Victoria. The study found higher incidence of alcohol-related facial fracture presentations during weekends and during the summer and spring months compared with non-alcohol-related fractures (statistically significant). Alcohol-related facial fractures are more likely to involve male patients in the 20- to 29-year age group, occur as a result of interpersonal violence, and require shorter hospital stays during weekend admissions (statistically significant). No statistically significant relationship has been observed in seasonal variation across all variables. This study found distinct characteristics in temporal distribution of alcohol-related facial fractures. These characteristics are, in particular, significant in weekend trauma admissions. Such information is important in workforce planning, resource distribution, and implementation of injury prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  18. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism.

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs....... However, this does not preclude evaluation of the flavouring substances in the present group using the Procedure (SCF, 1999a). It is considered that on the basis of the default MSDI approach these nine flavouring substances would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated levels of intake arising...

  20. Analogical reasoning abilities of recovering alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J

    1989-08-01

    This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.

  1. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilin K. Erevik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms, social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later (p < 0.001, when no covariates were controlled for. Frequent disclosure of content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol predicted stable or slightly increased alcohol use at Time 2 (p < 0.01, even when all covariates (i.e., demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media use were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure

  2. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were...... and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) (p less than 0.05). The observed changes may be a consequence of liver disease since similar changes were observed in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, but an additional effect of alcohol cannot be excluded....... significantly (p less than 0.05) younger at the time of natural menopause than controls. Compared to controls, non-cirrhotic alcoholic women had significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced levels of DHAS, significantly (p less than 0.05) more alcoholic cirrhotic women had detectable oestradiol concentrations...

  3. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  4. Congenital malformations in mice induced by addiction to alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the teratogenic effect of either alcohol alone, cocaine alone, or a combination of both alcohol and cocaine on mice foetuses. Design: Eighty pregnant mice were divided into four equal groups. In the first (alcohol) group, the pregnant females were given absolute ethanol at 2.5gm/100 gm twice daily by ...

  5. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Public Health Implications of Alcohol Industry Corporate Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Among other things, researchers will assess: - what influence these have over health scientists; - which groups ... in the alcohol industry, focusing on the main alcohol companies in each country; - conduct a stakeholder survey; ... Site internet.

  7. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna; Banerjee, Shibdas; Mehtab, Sameena

    2009-02-02

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L(1)) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L(2)) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L(1): PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(1) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb(3+) ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10(-8)mol L(-1) for PME and 5.7 x 10(-9)mol L(-1) for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10s and 8s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb(3+) ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb(3+) ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  8. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)], E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Singh, Prerna; Banerjee, Shibdas; Mehtab, Sameena [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-02-02

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L{sub 1}) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L{sub 2}) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 1}: PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 1} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb{sup 3+} ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 5.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb{sup 3+} ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb{sup 3+} ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  9. Development of electrochemical sensors for nano scale Tb(III) ion determination based on pendant macrocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna; Banerjee, Shibdas; Mehtab, Sameena

    2009-01-01

    The two macrocyclic pendant ligands 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11, 15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetramethylacrylate -1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-di ene (L 1 ) and 3,4,5:12,13,14-dipyridine-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,7,10,16-tetra(2-cyano ethane)-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadeca-3,13-diene (L 2 ) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Tb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 1 : PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 6: 32: 58: 4 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 1 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Tb 3+ ions with limits of detection of 3.4 x 10 -8 mol L -1 for PME and 5.7 x 10 -9 mol L -1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-7.5 for PME and 2.0-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb 3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in various samples. It can also be used in direct determination of Tb 3+ ions in tap water and various binary mixtures with quantitative results

  10. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  11. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  12. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  13. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  15. EFSA Panel on F ood Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 63, Revision 2 (FGE.63Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59 th and 6 9 th meeting s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 20 aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th and 69th meetings in 2002 and 2008. This revision is made due to inclusion of one...

  16. Japan Flavour and Fragrance Materials Association's (JFFMA) safety assessment of food-flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan that belong to the class of aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2017-09-01

    We performed a safety evaluation using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the following four flavouring substances that belong to the class of 'aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals, and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups' and are uniquely used in Japan: butyl butyrylacetate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and methyl hydroxyacetate. Although no genotoxicity study data were found in the published literature, none of the four substances had chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity. All four substances were categorised as class I by using Cramer's classification. The estimated daily intake of each of the four substances was determined to be 0.007-2.9 μg/person/day by using the maximised survey-derived intake method and based on the annual production data in Japan in 2001, 2005 and 2010, and was determined to be 0.250-600.0 μg/person/day by using the single-portion exposure technique and based on average-use levels in standard portion sizes of flavoured foods. Both of these estimated daily intake ranges were below the threshold of toxicological concern for class I substances, which is 1800 μg/person/day. Although no information from in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies for the four substances was available, these substances were judged to raise no safety concerns at the current levels of intake.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  18. Alcohol application natural drying of umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.F.; Ali, S.; Roshan, E.; Jamal, S.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the outcome, between the application of Alcohol and natural drying to umbilical stump in low risk newborns. Newborns delivered in Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi were randomized into group A (70% Alcohol) and group B (No antiseptic). In group A, 70% Alcohol was applied once daily to the umbilical stump, whereas no antiseptic was applied in group B. These newborns were followed till four weeks of life. Age at separation of umbilical cord was noted. Cases showing signs of neonatal sepsis and omphalitis were documented. Of 100 singleton full-term newborns enrolled, 90 completed the study. No newborn in either group developed a cord infection or neonatal sepsis. The difference of cord separation time between the two groups was statistically significant. Evidence does not support continued use of alcohol for low risk newborn cord care. (author)

  19. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  1. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  2. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordey, T.; Sunstrum, M.

    2006-01-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases--a systematic Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Jacobs, Bradly P; Iaquinto, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle (MT) or MT constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or hepatitis B and/or C liver diseases....

  5. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  6. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  7. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  8. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  9. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  11. Genetics of Lesch's typology of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samochowiec, Jerzy; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Grzywacz, Anna; Pelka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Mak, Monika; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-02-15

    It is widely accepted that dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission can be critically involved in the development of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Lesch's typology of alcoholism has been gaining increasing popularity as it qualitatively differentiates patients into different treatment response subgroups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible genetic background of Lesch's typology with special emphasis placed on dopamine- and serotonin-related genes. 122 alcoholics (the mean age: 35+/-9 years) were investigated. According to Lesch's typology, 58 patients were of type I, 36 patients of type II, 11 patients of type III, and 17 patients of type IV. Alcohol drinking and family history was assessed by means of a structured interview, based on the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. 150 control subjects without psychiatric disorders were also recruited. The control group was ethnically-, age- and gender-matched to the patients. The DRD2 TaqIA, exon 8, and promoter -141C ins/del polymorphisms as well as COMT Val158Met, 5HTT 44 bp del in promoter, and DAT 40 bp VNTR polymorphisms were detected by means of PCR. No significant differences were observed when the whole group of alcoholics and the controls were compared. Similarly, there were no differences between either the Lesch type I or type II alcoholics and the control subjects. No significant differences were observed between type I and type II alcoholics. Alleles frequencies were not calculated for the Lesch type III and type IV alcoholics since the number of patients was too small. The present results argue against any major role of the investigated polymorphisms in either Lesch type I or type II alcoholism. More comprehensive studies are needed to define the role of the investigated polymorphisms in Lesch type III and type IV alcoholism.

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3 (FGE.09Rev3): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 17 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs...

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4 (FGE.09Rev4): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revi...

  14. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  16. Cu(ll) mediated ATRP of MMA by using a novel tetradentate amine ligand with oligo(ethylene glycol) pendant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Founier, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    A novel tetradentate amine ligand namely N,N,N,N,N;,N;-hexaoligo(ethylene glycol) triethylenetetramine (HOEGTETA) was employed in the homogenous ATRP of MMA in anisole using CuBr and CuBr2 as the catalyst and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as an initiator. The effect of the polymerization

  17. Preparation of Water-soluble Polyion Complex (PIC Micelles Covered with Amphoteric Random Copolymer Shells with Pendant Sulfonate and Quaternary Amino Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Nakahata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An amphoteric random copolymer (P(SA91 composed of anionic sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS, S and cationic 3-acrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride (APTAC, A was prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT radical polymerization. The subscripts in the abbreviations indicate the degree of polymerization (DP. Furthermore, AMPS and APTAC were polymerized using a P(SA91 macro-chain transfer agent to prepare an anionic diblock copolymer (P(SA91S67 and a cationic diblock copolymer (P(SA91A88, respectively. The DP was estimated from quantitative 13C NMR measurements. A stoichiometrically charge neutralized mixture of the aqueous P(SA91S67 and P(SA91A88 formed water-soluble polyion complex (PIC micelles comprising PIC cores and amphoteric random copolymer shells. The PIC micelles were in a dynamic equilibrium state between PIC micelles and charge neutralized small aggregates composed of a P(SA91S67/P(SA91A88 pair. Interactions between PIC micelles and fetal bovine serum (FBS in phosphate buffered saline (PBS were evaluated by changing the hydrodynamic radius (Rh and light scattering intensity (LSI. Increases in Rh and LSI were not observed for the mixture of PIC micelles and FBS in PBS for one day. This observation suggests that there is no interaction between PIC micelles and proteins, because the PIC micelle surfaces were covered with amphoteric random copolymer shells. However, with increasing time, the diblock copolymer chains that were dissociated from PIC micelles interacted with proteins.

  18. Colloidal systems of silver nanoparticles and high-regioregular cationic polythiophene with ionic-liquid-like pendant groups: Optical properties and SERS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazim, Samrana; Pfleger, Jiří; Procházka, M.; Bondarev, D.; Vohlídal, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 354, č. 2 (2011), s. 611-619 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500652; GA ČR GA203/07/0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ionic conjugated polymer * polythiophene polyelectrolyte * plasmonic nanoparticle Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  19. Unexpectedly Facile Rh(I) Catalyzed Polymerization of Ethynylbenzaldehyde Type Monomers: Synthesis of Polyacetylenes Bearing Reactive and Easy Transformable Pendant Carbaldehyde Groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, J.; Havelková, L.; Zedník, J.; Coufal, R.; Faukner, T.; Balcar, Hynek; Brus, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 1600792. ISSN 1022-1336 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09637S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Ethynylbenzaldehydes * Inhibition of polymerization * Polyacetylenes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.265, year: 2016

  20. MR imaging of chronic alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Kumagai, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Furusawa, N.; Haga, T.; Hoshi, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Yamaguchi, K. (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology Consultant Radiologists of Wakamiya Hospital (Japan) Wakamiya Hospital (Japan). Depts. of Psychiatry and Radiology Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    We evaluated the brain lesions of patients with chronic alcoholism in comparison with age-and sex-matched controls by MR imaging. T1-weighted sagittal and axial images and T2-weighted axial images were obtained with a 0.5 T superconducting MR unit. Various brain measurements were then performed, and the presence of regions of abnormal signal intensity was also compared between the two groups. The brain measurements revealed significant cerebral atrophy as well as significant cerebellar atrophy in the alcoholic group. These changes were more prominent in patients in their fifties and sixties than in those aged in the thirties and forties. Focal hypointense lesions were observed in 20.6% of the alcoholics and in 5% of the controls, while focal hyperintense lesions were observed in 61.8% of the alcoholics and in 20% of the controls. The severity of the MR findings correlated well with the age of the patients. These observations suggest that alcohol is an important promotor of brain aging. (orig.).

  1. Grasping the thistle: The role of alcohol brief interventions in Scottish alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lesley J C; Mackinnon, Donna

    2010-11-01

    Scotland has experienced a substantial rise in alcohol-related harm, which is now one of the biggest public health challenges it faces. Alcohol problems in Scotland are described along with national alcohol policy response in addressing them. The role of a program of Alcohol Brief Interventions is discussed therein. In Scotland, considerable proportions of the population are drinking hazardously or harmfully, common across different age and socioeconomic groups. Rising consumption has been set in wider environmental changes with alcohol becoming more available and affordable. Scotland has had one of the fastest growing chronic liver disease mortality rates in the world at a time when rates in most of Western Europe are falling. Scotland's alcohol policy has an explicit aim to reduce population consumption and includes legislative measures to tackle price and availability. A national program to deliver Alcohol Brief Interventions for hazardous drinkers is a key plank of this wider strategy. A portfolio of studies will monitor and evaluate national policy and, through contribution analysis, describe the role Alcohol Brief Interventions play in reducing alcohol misuse. Effective alcohol policy recognises that determinants of health not only lie at individual level, but include wider social, environmental and economic factors. Scotland's policy is addressing these determinants with both population-based and population-targeted interventions. Scotland has a serious problem with alcohol. A comprehensive, evidence-based, resourced alcohol policy is being implemented, which will need continual review to ensure it remains anchored in evidence while maintaining its ambition.[Graham LJC, MacKinnon D. GRASPING THE THISTLE: The role of alcohol brief interventions in Scottish alcohol policy. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  3. Replication analysis of genetic association of the NCAN-CILP2 region with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian and Pacific ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonvisut, Supichaya; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Saho; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Lkhagvasuren, Munkhtulga; Kagawa, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2016-01-13

    The Neurocan-cartilage intermediate layer protein 2 (NCAN-CILP2) region forms a tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and is associated with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in individuals of European descent but not in the Malay and Japanese ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide resequence studies identified a missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs58542926) of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) gene in the NCAN-CILP2 region related to hepatic triglyceride content. This study aims to analyze the influences of SNPs in this region on NAFLD and plasma lipid levels in the Asian and Pacific ethnic groups and to reveal the reasons behind positive and negative genetic associations dependent on ethnicity. Samples and characteristic data were collected from 3,013 Japanese, 119 Palauan, 947 Mongolian, 212 Thai and 401 Chinese people. Hepatic sonography data was obtained from the Japanese individuals. Genotyping data of five SNPs, rs58542926, rs735273, rs1009136, rs1858999, and rs16996148, were used to verify the effect on serum lipid levels by multiple linear regression, and the association with NAFLD in the Japanese population was examined by logistic regression analysis. rs58542926 showed significant association with the plasma triglyceride (TG) level in Japanese (P = 0.0009, effect size = 9.5 (± 3.25) mg/dl/allele) and Thai (P = 0.0008, effect size = 31.6 (± 11.7) mg/dl/allele) study subjects. In Mongolian individuals, there was a significant association of rs58542926 with total cholesterol level (P = 0.0003, 11.7 (± 3.2) mg/dl/allele) but not with TG level. In multiple comparisons in Chinese individuals, rs58542926 was weakly (P = 0.022) associated with TG levels, although the threshold for statistical significance was not reached. In Palauan individuals, there was no significant association with the studied SNPs. rs58542926 also showed significant association with Japanese NAFLD. The minor allele (t) increased

  4. Culture and alcohol use: historical and sociocultural themes from 75 years of alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Barrera, Manuel; Mena, Laura A; Aguirre, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    For the period of almost 75 years, we examined the literature for studies regarding the influences of culture on alcohol use and misuse. This review is a chronology of research articles published from 1940 to 2013. From a structured literature search with select criteria, 38 articles were identified and 34 reviewed. This analysis revealed a progression across this period of research from studies that began as descriptive ethnographic evaluations of one or more indigenous societies or cultural groups, evolving to studies using complex multivariate models to test cross-cultural effects in two or more cultural groups. Major findings across this period include the assertions that (a) a function of alcohol use may be to reduce anxiety, (b) certain cultural groups possess features of alcohol use that are not associated with negative consequences, (c) the disruptive effects of acculturative change and the stressors of new demands are associated with an increase in alcohol consumption, (d) cultural groups shape expectations about the effects of alcohol use and their definition of drunkenness, and (e) the hypothesized relationships of culture with alcohol use and misuse have been demonstrated in multivariate model analyses. Across this 75-year period, the early proposition that culture is an important and prominent correlate of alcohol use and misuse has persisted. Within the current era of alcohol studies, this proposition has been supported by multivariate model analyses. Thus, the proposition that culture might affect alcohol use remains prominent and is as relevant today as it was when it was first proposed nearly 75 years ago.

  5. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms), social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often) disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later ( p social media use) were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure. Disclosing content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol was the only independent variable that could predict further alcohol use when other factors, like baseline alcohol use, were held constant. This finding suggests that disclosure of alcohol content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol might

  6. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  7. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. This research will evaluate alcohol control policy and legislation in five African countries to provide evidence-based research to policymakers, researchers, and lobby groups working to reduce alcohol use.

  8. Locus of Control and Neuropsychological Performance in Chronic Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, M. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined correlated neuropsychological performance in male chronic alcoholics and non-alcoholic controls. Results showed external locus of control (LOC-E) scores to predict performance on neuropsychological tests in alcoholics but not in controls. Suggests the LOC-E variables cannot account for the widespread differences between the groups on…

  9. Prenatal alcohol use: the role of lifetime problems with alcohol, drugs, depression, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Heather A; Chermack, Stephen T

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a broader array of lifetime factors that theoretically may be associated with prenatal alcohol use than have previously been studied together, including family history of alcohol-use problems, history of physical or sexual abuse, lifetime major depressive disorder, alcohol-use disorder, illicit-drug-use problems, and partner violence. A total of 186 pregnant women, all of whom used alcohol in the year before pregnancy, were initially recruited in prenatal care settings. Women who reported no prenatal alcohol use (n = 96) were compared with women who drank 1-10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 75) and with women who drank more than 10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 13), considered to be a higher risk group, on the lifetime risk variables. Because of the public health implications, secondary analyses compared women who abstained during pregnancy with those who used any alcohol. Significant intercorrelations were found among most of the lifetime risk factors studied. Multivariate analyses showed that drug-use problems and partner violence were most strongly associated with prenatal alcohol use than any other variable studied. Consistent with a life span risk framework for alcohol-use problems, results of this study show that childhood abuse, familial alcoholism, lifetime major depressive disorder, and alcohol- and drug-use problems are interrelated. However, when considered together, only lifetime partner violence and drug use are significantly related to various levels of prenatal alcohol use. Identification, assessment, and intervention efforts should integrate these important factors.

  10. Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children's decision making about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Johnson, K K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the immediate and delayed effects of media literacy training on third-grade children's perceptions of alcohol advertising, alcohol norms, expectancies for drinking, and behaviors toward alcohol. A Solomon four-group style experiment (N = 225) with two levels of the treatment factor assessed the effectiveness of in-school media literacy training for alcohol. The experiment compared a treatment that included the viewing of a videotape about television advertising along with the viewing of video clips of alcohol ads and discussion pertaining to alcohol advertising specifically versus one that included the viewing of the same general purpose media literacy videotape along with video clips of non-alcohol advertising and then discussion of advertising in general. The treatment had both immediate and delayed effects. Immediate effects included the children's increased understanding of persuasive intent, viewing of characters as less similar to people they knew in real life and less desirable, decreased desire to be like the characters, decreased expectation of positive consequences from drinking alcohol, and decreased likelihood to choose an alcohol-related product. Indirect effects also were found on their perceptions of television's realism and their views of social norms related to alcohol. Delayed effects were examined and confirmed on expectancies and behavior. The treatment was more effective when alcohol-specific, and it also was more effective among girls than boys.

  11. Protection of aliphatic alcohols by thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanobashivili, E.M.; Chirakadze, G.G.; Panchvidze, M.V.; Gvilava, S.E.; Khidesheli, G.I.

    1973-01-01

    Study was made of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and penthyl alcohols. The aqueous solutions of the alcohols were X-irradiated. Results are presented of the action of high-energy particles on the solutions of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols in the presence and absence of the minor amounts of ethanthiol. Protective effect of the -SH group was established. Addition of 1.10 -6 mol/1 of ethanthiol to butyl alcohol protects it completely against radiation conversions up to a dose of 8.10 19 eV/ml. Consideration is given to the effect of thioalcohol additives on the formation of some products of alcohol radiation oxidation. Introduction of mercaptans to the system or that of the -SH group to the organic compound molecule enhances its radiation resistance [ru

  12. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  13. Clinical utility of red cell distribution width in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Sandra; Mikolasević, Ivana; Radić, Mladen; Hauser, Goran; Stimac, Davor

    2011-09-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of red blood cell width that is reported as apart of standard complete blood count. Red blood cell distribution width results are often used together with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) results to figure out mixed anemia. The aim of our study was to compare the values of RDW in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to determine if RDW follows the severity of disease according to Child-Pugh score. We retrospectively analyzed 241 patients (176 men and 65 women) with liver cirrhosis and anemia, defined as a hemoglobin value reference range is 11-15%. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis had 204 patients (85%) while non-alcoholic cirrhosis had 37 patients (15%). In group of alcoholic cirrhosis the average RDW was 16.8%. In relation to severity of disease the average RDW for Child-Pugh A was 16.80%, for Child-Pugh B was 16.92%, for Child-Pugh C was 17.10%. In the group of non-alcoholic cirrhosis the average RDW was 16.73% and in relation to severity of disease for Child-Pugh A was 16.25%, for Child-Pugh B 17.01% and for Child-Pugh C was 16.87%. We didn't find statistically significant difference of RDW between alcoholic and non alcoholic cirrhosis (p > 0.05) and we didn't proved any statistically significant increase of RDW in relation to severity of disease in group of alcoholic cirrhosis (p = 0.915) nor in group of patients with non-alcoholic cirrhosis (p = 0.697). Our study showed that RDW had not any clinical value in differentiation of anemia neither in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis nor in severity of liver disease.

  14. College Men and Alcohol Use: Positive Alcohol Expectancies as a Mediator Between Distinct Masculine Norms and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men ( Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of "Playboy" and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men.

  15. Pendant chain engineering to fine-tune the nanomorphologies and solid state luminescence of naphthalimide AIEEgens: application to phenolic nitro-explosive detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Niranjan; Iyer, Parameswar Krishnan

    2017-06-08

    Strategically, a series of five angular "V" shaped naphthalimide AIEEgens with varying pendant chains (butyl, hexyl, octyl, cyclohexyl and methylcyclohexyl) have been synthesized to fine-tune their nanomorphological and photophysical properties. With similar aromatic cores and electronic states, unexpected tuning of the condensed state emission colors and nanomorphologies (reproducible on any kind of surface) of naphthalimides has been achieved for the first time simply by varying their side chains. Conclusive analysis by various spectroscopic techniques (SC-XRD, powder-XRD, DLS, FESEM) and DFT computational studies confirmed the full control of the pendant chain (in terms of bulkiness around the naphthalimide core, which restricts the ease of intermolecular π-π interactions) over the nanoaggregate morphology and solid state emissive properties of the AIEEgens; this can be rationalized to all aggregation-prone systems. These comprehensive studies establish a conceptually unique yet simple and effective method to precisely tune the nanomorphologies and the emission colors of aggregation-prone small organic molecules by judicious choice of the non-conjugated pendant chain. Thus, considering the prime role of the active layer nanomorphology in all organic optoelectronic devices, this methodology may emerge as a promising tool to improve device performance. Among all the congeners, the hexyl chain-containing congener (HNQ) forms well-defined nanoribbons with smaller diameters (as confirmed from DLS: 166 nm and FESEM: 150 nm) and provides a larger surface area. Consequently, the HNQ-nanoribbons were employed as a fluorescent sensor for the discriminative detection of trinitrophenol (TNP) in pure aqueous media. FE-SEM images revealed that, upon gradual addition of TNP (10 nM to 100 μM), these nanoribbons undergo an aggregation/disaggregation process, forming non-fluorescent co-aggregates with TNP, and provide highly enhanced sensitivity compared to existing state

  16. Effect of monohydric alcohols on structural properties of macromolecular solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, R.; Wanderlingh, F.; Cordone, L.; Cupane, A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the effects of monohydric alcohols on the thixotropic properties of a 1% (by weight) BSA solution is given. The presence of alcohols in the solution medium, even in a very small amount, weakens the structure responsible for the thixotropic properties: this effect increases with increasing alcohol concentration and alkyl group size. Indirect evidence relating the observed effects to the alteration, in the presence of alcohol, of protein-solvent hydrophobic interactions is also presented

  17. Alcohol consumption and Tax Differentials Between Beer, Wine and Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    Several public health interest groups in the United States have recently called for equalization of the federal tax on a unit of alcohol in beer, in wine and in spirits. This paper provides some new empirical evidence of what effect alcohol tax differentials have on total alcohol consumption. The data indicate that the greatest decrease in alcohol consumption results from an increase in spirits taxes, followed by beer taxes and then wine taxes. This suggests that the existing generally accept...

  18. Alcohol and cancer: a position statement from Cancer Council Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Margaret H; Pratt, Iain S; Chapman, Kathryn; Griffin, Hayley J; Croager, Emma J; Olver, Ian N; Sinclair, Craig; Slevin, Terry J

    2011-05-02

    The Cancer Council Australia (CCA) Alcohol Working Group has prepared a position statement on alcohol use and cancer. The statement has been reviewed by external experts and endorsed by the CCA Board. Alcohol use is a cause of cancer. Any level of alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing an alcohol-related cancer; the level of risk increases in line with the level of consumption. It is estimated that 5070 cases of cancer (or 5% of all cancers) are attributable to long-term chronic use of alcohol each year in Australia. Together, smoking and alcohol have a synergistic effect on cancer risk, meaning the combined effects of use are significantly greater than the sum of individual risks. Alcohol use may contribute to weight (fat) gain, and greater body fatness is a convincing cause of cancers of the oesophagus, pancreas, bowel, endometrium, kidney and breast (in postmenopausal women). The existing evidence does not justify the promotion of alcohol use to prevent coronary heart disease, as the previously reported role of alcohol in reducing heart disease risk in light-to-moderate drinkers appears to have been overestimated. CCA recommends that to reduce their risk of cancer, people limit their consumption of alcohol, or better still avoid alcohol altogether. For individuals who choose to drink alcohol, CCA recommends that they drink only within the National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for alcohol consumption.

  19. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxide Content of Rat Liver and Brain. ... one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally once a day for 6 weeks.

  20. Flax reinforced thermoset composites from polyfurfuryl alcohol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Composites from Polyfurfuryl Alcohol Rakesh Kumar and Rajesh Anandjiwala CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Nonwovens and Composites Group, Port Elizabeth Port Elizabeth 11th ICAM, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, September 20-25, 2009 © CSIR 2007...

  1. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  2. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Virgin Islands Zimbabwe INFORMATION ABOUT A.A. What Is ... Young People's Animation Video On the Beach A Group of People Just Like Me Full-Length Videos ...

  3. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2014-10-06

    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  5. Transferrin metabolism in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, B.J.; Chapman, R.W.; Nunes, R.M.; Sorrentino, D.; Sherlock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of transferrin was studied using purified 125 I-labeled transferrin in 11 alcoholic patients; six with fatty liver and five with cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects whose alcohol intake was les than 40 gm daily were studied as a control group. There were no significant differences in the mean fractional catabolic rate and plasma volume in the alcoholic groups when compared with control subjects. A significantly decreased mean serum transferrin concentration was found in the alcoholic cirrhotic patients (1.8 +/- 0.3 gm per liter vs. 2.9 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01), resulting from diminished total body synthesis (0.9 +/- 0.2 mg per kg per hr vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the patients with alcoholic fatty liver, the mean total body transferrin synthesis (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg per kg per hr) was significantly increased when compared with controls (p less than 0.05). For all the alcoholic patients, the serum transferrin correlated with transferrin synthesis (r = +0.70; p less than 0.01) but the serum iron did not. These results suggest that, in alcoholic cirrhosis, transferrin synthesis is decreased, probably reflecting diminished synthetic capacity by the liver. In contrast, in patients with alcoholic fatty liver, transferrin turnover is accelerated

  6. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2012-04-17

    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  9. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  10. The discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder in well-functioning men with hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, H.; Korzec, A.; Arndt, T.; van den Brink, W.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses within a population of well-functioning male heavy drinkers. A group of 57 subjects with a consumption of at least 28 alcoholic units (AU)/week was recruited from wine-tasting clubs. Within

  11. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  12. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Alcohol Preferences and Event-Related Potentials to Alcohol Images in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurin, Kyle; Ceballos, Natalie A; Graham, Reiko

    2017-11-01

    Research on attentional biases to alcohol images has used heterogeneous sets of stimuli (e.g., an isolated beer can or a group of people drinking). However, alcoholic beverage preferences play an important part in determining an individual's alcohol use pattern and may influence attentional biases, especially for inexperienced drinkers. The current study examined whether alcoholic beverage preferences affect event-related potential (ERP) indices of cue reactivity to different types of alcohol images (e.g., beer, wine, and distilled spirits) in heavy episodic drinkers. ERPs were recorded in 14 heavy episodic drinkers (7 male) who completed a Go/No-Go task using preferred and nonpreferred alcohol images with nonalcoholic beverage images as controls. Larger N2 amplitudes for preferred alcohol images were observed relative to control images and to nonpreferred alcohol images, indicating increased attentional capture by preferred beverages. P3 amplitudes and latencies were not sensitive to preferences, but latencies were delayed and amplitudes were enhanced on No-Go trials (i.e., trials requiring response inhibition). These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference is a factor influencing alcohol cue reactivity in heavy-episodic-drinking college students. This information has methodological significance and may also be applied to improve treatment and prevention programs that focus on attentional bias modification and inhibitory control training.

  14. Polybenzimidazole Membranes Containing Benzimidazole Side Groups for High Temprature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Xueyuan; Xu, Yizin

    2013-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated temperat......Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated...... temperatures without humidification. At an acid doping level of 13.1 mol H3PO4 per average molar repeat unit, the PBI membranes with a benzimidazole grafting degree of 10.6% demonstrated a conductivity of 0.15 S cm-1 and a H2-air fuel cell peak power density of 378 mW cm-2 at 180 oC at ambient pressure without...

  15. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  16. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  17. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  18. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  19. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  20. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  1. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the regulatory environment (national ... Predicting and evaluating policy impact. PA. N ... constrain the use of a holistic approach engaging ... alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, ... Alcohol and Other Drugs, 2003.

  2. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  3. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  4. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  5. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  7. A profile of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive prescription drug use in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Quilliam, Brian J; Lapane, Kate L

    2008-09-01

    The risk of adverse events among alcohol-interactive medication users can occur with one standard alcoholic drink. Research on the extent to which this occurs is scant. To examine the prevalence and correlates of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive (AI) medication use across different levels of risk for an alcohol-related adverse event in a nationally representative sample of American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of past year, self-reported drinking history as well as past month, self-reported and visually inspected prescription drug use data from the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 NHANES questionnaire section (n = 8,246). Medications were considered AI if concurrent use of alcohol and the prescription drug could intensify the effects of alcohol, resulting in increased sedation, drowsiness, or dizziness. Weighted prevalence estimates and polytomous logistic regression accounted for the complex survey design. Overall, 13.5% took prescription AI medications, of which 5.6% reported alcohol consumption of three or more drinks on each drinking occasion. Correlates of such use were being a man [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-10.35], between the ages of 20 and 54 (AOR=12.28; 95% CI: 3.12-48.25), and currently smoking (AOR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.28-5.29), with alcohol-abstaining AI users as the referent group. Combining alcohol and AI medications is a common phenomenon, and the risk of alcohol-related adverse drug events may be nontrivial. Screening for alcohol use before prescribing AI medications would be prudent. Better communication regarding the dangers of mixing alcohol with AI medications is warranted.

  8. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  9. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  10. Alcohol under the radar: do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Taylor, Benjamin J; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization, the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol should be reduced. This paper summarizes and evaluates the evidence base about policy and intervention options regarding unrecorded alcohol consumption. A systematic review of the literature using electronic databases. The literature on unrecorded consumption was sparse with less than 30 articles about policy options, mostly based on observational studies. The most simplistic option to reduce unrecorded consumption would be to lower recorded alcohol prices to remove the economic incentive of buying unrecorded alcohol. However, this may increase the net total alcohol consumption, making it an unappealing public health policy option. Other policy options largely depend on the specific sub-group of unrecorded alcohol. The prohibition of toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol) can improve health outcomes associated with surrogate alcohol consumption. Cross-border shopping can be reduced by either narrowing the tax differences, or stricter control. Actions limiting illegal trade and counterfeiting include introduction of tax stamps and electronic surveillance systems of alcohol trade. Education campaigns might increase the awareness about the risks associated with illegal alcohol. The most problematic category appears to be the home and small-scale artisanal production, for which the most promising option is to offer financial incentives to the producers for registration and quality control. Even though there are suggestions and theories on how to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, there is currently no clear evidence base on the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of available policy options. In addition, the differences in consumption levels, types of unrecorded alcohol, culture and tradition point to different measures in different parts of the world. Thus, the recommendation of a framework for moving forward in decision making

  11. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  12. Electronic Interactions of n-Doped Perylene Diimide Groups Appended to Polynorbornene Chains: Implications for Electron Transport in Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh T; Biberdorf, Joshua D; Holliday, Bradley J; Jones, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    A polymer consisting of a polynorbornene backbone with perylene diimide (PDI) pendant groups on each monomeric unit is synthesized via ring opening metathesis polymerization. The PDI pendant groups along the polymer backbone, studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in addition to electrochemical methods, show evidence of molecular aggregation and corresponding electronic coupling with neighboring groups, which forms pathways for efficient electron transport from one group to another in a specific reduced form. When n-doped, the title polymer shows redox conductivity of 5.4 × 10 -3 S cm -1 , comparable with crystalline PDI materials, and is therefore a promising material for use in organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  14. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  15. Determinants of alcohol usage among youth in Kotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijepcevic Aleksandar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A significant number of alcohol users is being recorded among young people while the limit when young people resorting to alcohol is approaching younger age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the general prevalence and structure of young consumers, as well as risk factors for alcohol use among adolescents. METHOD: The study included 200 respondents. The sample is defined out of classes of all secondary schools at the territory, where one class per school out all four high school grades entered the sample by random choice. The survey instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and response rate of the classes was 100%. RESULTS: The survey showed that almost half of high school Kotor confirmed to have consumed alcohol. Among children who consume alcohol, almost one half indicated that their parents also use alcoholic beverages and the data show a statistically significant association between alcohol use among parents and their children. Respondents, who do not consume alcoholic beverages, consider the presence of smoking among their friends more often. Students who do not consume alcohol, more frequently point to the harmful effects of using these substances on health and a statistically significant difference between the attitudes of students who do not consume alcohol and those who do was demonstrated in relation to the harmful effects of alcohol on health. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is widespread among young people and at the same time there is a significant association between alcohol consumption in parents and their children. The use of alcohol among young people in correlation with the use of tobacco, and the young who consume alcohol are more often found in the company of peers who smoke, compared to their friends who do not use alcohol. Children who do not use alcohol more frequently emphasize the harmful effects of its using on health

  16. Tackling alcohol misuse: purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis; McKenzie, Lynda; Farrar, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    , the lowest income households are the most likely to purchase cheap alcohol. However, when combined with the fact that the lowest income households are the least likely to purchase any off-trade alcohol, they have the lowest probability of purchasing cheap off-trade alcohol at the population level. Moderate purchasing households in all income quintiles are the group predicted as least likely to purchase cheap alcohol. The predicted average quantity of low-cost off-trade alcohol reveals similar patterns. The results suggest that heavier household purchasers of alcohol are most likely to be affected by the introduction of a 'minimum price per unit of alcohol' policy. When we focus only on those households that purchase off-trade alcohol, lower income households are the most likely to be affected. However, minimum pricing in the UK is unlikely to be significantly regressive when the effects are considered for the whole population, including those households that do not purchase any off-trade alcohol. Minimum pricing will affect the minority of low-income households that purchase off-trade alcohol and, within this group, those most likely to be affected are households purchasing at a harmful level.

  17. Perceptions of Alcohol Advertising Among High Risk Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas F

    2018-01-03

    Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the influence of alcohol advertising, such as youth, need special protections, yet little research has been done to determine if other vulnerable groups exist. Secondary data analysis was conducted to determine if perceptions of alcohol advertising differ between groups based on their alcohol use and whether the definition of "vulnerable" should be expanded beyond demographic categories. Students (n = 326) from 2 U.S. colleges viewed 5 alcohol ads and rated them using a scale designed to detect violations of the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes. Individuals with a history of excessive alcohol use, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were considered potentially vulnerable to alcohol advertising and were compared against individuals without a history of excessive alcohol use. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine between-group differences in 4 dependent variables (ad appeal, perceived alcohol consumption, perceived excessive drinking, and perceived responsible drinking). All models were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, sex, and parental alcohol use. AUDIT risk categories were positively associated with ad appeal (p advertising.

  18. Consumption of alcohol and risk of alcohol addiction among students in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Witowski, Łukasz; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Krysta, Krzysztof; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in our society is a known, and a widely discussed problem, due to the proven negative impact of excessive usage of spirits on health. Aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of consumption, and risk of an alcoholic disease among Polish students. Study was carried out using an authors' own questionnaire, made of a queries about amount and frequency of alcohol consumption, risky behaviors and knowledge about alcoholism. Research was conducted through community portals (f.e. facebook.com), and within 3 weeks time (from a 10(th) of January to 31(st) of January 2013) 1300 students from different Polish universities participated in it. Out of them, after removal of inadequate questionnaires, group of 1259 students (822 females, 437 males) was selected for further analysis. Average age equaled to 21.5, with the maximum of 27 and minimum of 18 years. For the statistical analysis StatSoft "Statistica" 10.0 software was used. The study shows that 95.5% of students use alcohol (mostly beer and vodka) and they tend to overuse it. 28.86% of respondents drank excessively more than 3 times during the month preceding research, 46% of subjects also had an alcoholic palimpsest more than once, 12.7% need an alcohol to enjoy a party and 0.83% of respondents can't control the amount of a one-time alcohol consumption. 3.32% of students may be in the group of a high alcoholism risk. Alcohol consumption is a common problem among Polish students. Most of respondents, mostly males, drink excessively and potentially risky for their health. There is a remarkable group of students endangered with alcohol addiction.

  19. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  20. Do cigarette and alcohol affect semen analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are a number of studies about the effect of cigarette and alcohol on semen parameters in the literature. There is not a consensus on the relationship between use of cigarette and alchol and semen parameters in those studies. The number of studies in which cigarette and alcohol use are evaluated together is limited. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cigarette and/or alcohol use on semen parameters. Methods: In this prospective study, 762 patients who applied to an hospital urology polyclinic between January 2015 and March 2015 due to infertility, were questioned for alcohol and cigarette use in anamnesis. The remaining 356 patients were included in our study. Then, semen analysis of the patients was performed. The patients were divided into five groups according to cigarette use, into five groups according to alcohol use and into four groups according to cigarette and/or alcohol use. Significant differences were analyzed between the groups in terms of semen volume, semen concentration, total motility, forward motility and morphological (normality, head anomaly, neck anomaly, tail anomaly values. Results: According to cigarette use, only in group 4 (who use more than 20 package-years cigarette semen volume was significantly lower than the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.009. There was no significant difference in any of the other parameters and groups compared with the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p > 0,05 Conclusion:According to our study, using more than 20 package- years cigarette decreases semen volume. The reason of this result might be the fact that the threshold value, from which the effect of cigarette and alcohol use on the semen parameters has to be determined.

  1. [Alcohol withdrawal syndrome dynamics during treatment with nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Buzik, O Zh; Rychkova, O V; Smyshlyaev, A V; Rumbesht, V V

    2018-01-01

    To study the efficacy of nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas) in alcohol withdrawal syndrome assessed by clinical and biochemical characteristics. A multicenter, open, randomized, comparative study of nooclerin in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome included 90 patients. The patients were randomized into nooclerin group (n=55) and control group (n=35). Nooclerin reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms more significantly throughout the whole study period. There were significant between-group differences on the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (МFI-20). However, patients exhibited no excessive activity. No adverse side-effects were observed.

  2. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Donadon; F.L. Osório

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence...

  3. Vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: a policy brief with implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Noel, Jonathan K; Ritson, E Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status. Developmental theory and research suggest that groups defined by younger age, incomplete neurocognitive development and a history of alcohol dependence may be particularly vulnerable because of the disproportionate harm they experience from alcohol and their increased susceptibility to alcohol marketing. Children may be more susceptible to media imagery because they do not have the ability to compensate for biases in advertising portrayals and glamorized media imagery. Young people and people with a history of alcohol dependence appear to be especially vulnerable to alcohol marketing, warranting the development of new content and exposure guidelines focused on protecting those groups to improve current self-regulation codes promoted by the alcohol industry. If adequate protections cannot be implemented through this mechanism, statutory regulations should be considered. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  5. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  6. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  8. Computed tomography in alcoholic cerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubek, A; Lee, K [Hvidovre Hospital Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology; Municipal Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology)

    1979-01-01

    This is a controlled CT evaluation of the infratentorial region in 41 male alcoholics under age 35. Criteria for the presence of atrophy are outlined. Twelve patients had cerebellar atrophy. Vermian atrophy was present in all. Atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres was demonstrated in eight patients as well. The results are statistically significant when compared to an age-matched group of 40 non-alcoholic males among whom two cases of vermian atrophy were found. There were clinical signs of alcoholic cerebellar atrophy in one patient only. The disparity between the clinical and the radiological data are discussed with reference to previous pneumoencephalographic findings. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO.

  9. Process for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for making alcohols comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalyst comprising: (1) as a first component, at least one element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and tungsten in free or combined form; (2) as a second component, at least one element selected from the group consisting of cobalt and nickel in free or combined form; (3) as a third component, a promoter comprising an alkali or alkaline earth element in free or combined form; the catalyst excluding rhodium and ruthenium and containing less than two (2) weight percent copper; at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and at conditions sufficient to form an alcohol fraction boiling in the range of motor gasoline in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the alcohol fraction containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  10. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  11. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  12. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  13. Typology of alcohol users based on longitudinal patterns of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F; Ramsey, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance. However, heterogeneity among alcohol users has been widely recognized. This paper presents a typology of alcohol users based on an implementation of idiographic methodology to examine longitudinal daily and cyclic (weekly) patterns of alcohol use at the individual level. A secondary data analysis was performed on the pre-intervention data from a large randomized control trial. A time series analysis was performed at the individual level, and a dynamic cluster analysis was employed to identify homogenous longitudinal patterns of drinking behavior at the group level. The analysis employed 180 daily observations of alcohol use in a sample of 177 alcohol users. The first order autocorrelations ranged from -.76 to .72, and seventh order autocorrelations ranged from -.27 to .79. Eight distinct profiles of alcohol users were identified, each characterized by a unique configuration of first and seventh autoregressive terms and longitudinal trajectories of alcohol use. External validity of the profiles confirmed the theoretical relevance of different patterns of alcohol use. Significant differences among the eight subtypes were found on gender, marital status, frequency of drug use, lifetime alcohol dependence, family history of alcohol use and the Short Index of Problems. Our findings demonstrate that individuals can have very different temporal patterns of drinking behavior. The daily and cyclic patterns of alcohol use may be important for designing tailored interventions for problem drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of alcohol-related expectations and emotional expressivity for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavinskienė, Justina; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of alcohol-dependent patients' emotional expressivity, alcohol-related expectations and socio-demographic factors for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. The study sample consisted of 136 alcohol-dependent patients (100 men and 36 women) undergoing treatment in Kaunas center for addictive disorders. Only higher expression of negative alcohol-related expectations (std. beta=0.192, P=0.023), higher emotional impulse intensity (std. beta=0.229, P=0.021) and higher expression of positive emotional expressiveness (std. beta=0.021, P=0.020) as well as gender (std. beta=0.180, P=0.049), education (std. beta=-0.137, P=0.038) and alcohol dependency treatment conditions (members of support group after rehabilitation program) (std. beta=0.288, P=0.001; std. beta=0.608, P=0.001) were significant factors for predicting the different level of alcohol-dependent patients motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. Negative alcohol-related expectations, emotional impulse intensity and positive emotional expressiveness were significant even though quite weak triggers for alcohol-dependent patients' different level of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. An assumption could be made that by changing these triggers it is possible to change addictive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric lifetime of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, DA; Martin, JW; Mabury, SA

    2003-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with a series of fluorotelomer alcohols, F(CF2CF2)(n)-CH2CH2OH (n = 2, 3, 4), in 700 Torr of N-2 or air, diluent at 296 +/- 2K. The length of the F(CF2CF2)(n)- group had no discernible impact...

  16. Mechanisms of neuroimmune gene induction in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P

    2016-05-01

    Alcoholism is a primary, chronic relapsing disease of brain reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry. It is characterized by an individual's continued drinking despite negative consequences related to alcohol use, which is exemplified by alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the expression of innate immune signaling molecules (ISMs) in the brain that alter cognitive processes and promote alcohol drinking. Unraveling the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroimmune gene induction is complicated by positive loops of multiple cytokines and other signaling molecules that converge on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and activator protein-1 leading to induction of additional neuroimmune signaling molecules that amplify and expand the expression of ISMs. Studies from our laboratory employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess mRNA, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to assess protein expression, and others suggest that ethanol increases brain neuroimmune gene and protein expression through two distinct mechanisms involving (1) systemic induction of innate immune molecules that are transported from blood to the brain and (2) the direct release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in the brain. Released HMGB1 signals through multiple receptors, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, that potentiate cytokine receptor responses leading to a hyperexcitable state that disrupts neuronal networks and increases excitotoxic neuronal death. Innate immune gene activation in brain is persistent, consistent with the chronic relapsing disease that is alcoholism. Expression of HMGB1, TLRs, and other ISMs is increased several-fold in the human orbital frontal cortex, and expression of these molecules is highly correlated with each other as well as lifetime alcohol consumption and age of drinking onset. The persistent and

  17. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  18. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  19. Functional Group Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  20. Father and son attachment styles in alcoholic and non-alcoholic families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Hazarika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theory of attachment is important to understand a lot of human behaviour. Styles of attachment could be important predictors in developing dependence on alcoholism. Insecure attachment patterns could be significant risk factors for future alcohol use. Methods: Participants for this study consist of fathers with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS from treatment centres and fathers from the community with no dependency on alcohol, and their sons (n=200. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST, socioeconomic status scale were administered, and attachment styles were derived by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. We hypothesised a prior concept reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment styles and alcohol in both the generations. Results: Statistics on SPSS-16 was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, fathers with ADS had insecure attachments styles in comparison to the control group. Substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation were at an all-time low for the secure group. Conclusion: The findings from this study identify attachment styles as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between alcohol dependence in treatment seekers. The findings further imply that differential treatment may need to be provided taking into account one’s attachment representation to promote successful recovery. It also highlights the need to develop secure ties in children of alcoholic parents to protect them from use of substances as a coping and a learned mechanism. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted and implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  1. The Effect of Alcohol Intoxications on Hematological Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the accessibility of alcohol, people around the world become readily intoxicated with it and in turn, it produces protease devastating effects in the human system. This study investigates the hematological effects of alcohol in albino rats grouped into three (A, B and C). Group A and B served as test while C served as ...

  2. Effect of pendant isophthalic acid moieties on the adsorption properties of light hydrocarbons in HKUST-1-like tbo -MOFs: Application to methane purification and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium adsorption of methane (CH4), C2+ gases (ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and propylene (C3H6)), and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured on a series of tbo-MOFs (topological analogues of the prototypical MOF, HKUST-1, correspondingly dubbed tbo-MOF-1), which were developed via the supermolecular building layer (SBL) pillaring strategy. Specifically, tbo-MOF-2 and its isoreticular, functionalized analogue, tbo-MOF-2-{CH2O[Ph(CO2H)2]}2 (or tbo-MOF-3), which is characterized by pendant isophthalic acid moieties freely pointing into the cavities, were evaluated on the basis of potential use in methane storage and C2+/CH4 separation. The parent, tbo-MOF-2, showed high gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptake, close to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target for methane storage at 35 bar and room temperature. Though the presence of the pendant isophthalic acid moiety in the analogous compound, tbo-MOF-3, led to a decrease in total CH4 uptake, due mainly to the reduced size of the cavities, interestingly, it increased the affinity of the SBL-based tbo-MOF platform for propane, propene, ethane, and ethylene at low pressures compared with CH4, due additionally to the enhanced interactions of the highly polarizable light hydrocarbons with the isophthalic acid moiety. Using Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST), the predicted mixture adsorption equilibria for the C3H8/CH4, C3H6/CH4, C2H6/CH4, C2H4/CH4, and C3H8/CO2 systems showed high adsorption selectivity for C2+ over methane for tbo-MOF-3 compared with tbo-MOF-2. The high working storage capacity of tbo-MOF-2 and the high affinity of tbo-MOF-3 for C2+ over CH4 and CO2 make tbo-MOF an ideal platform for studies in gas storage and separation.

  3. Mutual support and recovery in the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyytikäinen Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – In Russia the paradigm of alcoholism as a disease is still in contrast to the general perception of alcoholics as weak-willed. This article studies alcoholism and recovery in Russia through the case study of the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online group. It studies how people who are seeking help for their drinking problems in this online community come to incorporate a new self-understanding of being ill with alcoholism.

  4. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. The association between exposure to social media alcohol marketing and youth alcohol use behaviors in India and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Lam, Tina; Pettigrew, Simone; Tait, Robert J

    2018-06-13

    Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.

  7. Remodelage des temps et des espaces de travail chez les travailleurs indépendants de l’informatique : l’affrontement des effets de marchés et des préférences personnelles Software freelancers remodel their working time and space: the clash between market effects and personal preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche s’intéresse à la perméabilité spatiale et temporelle des frontières entre le travail et le hors travail chez les travailleurs indépendants de l’informatique. Cette perméabilité participe d’une certaine recomposition des lieux et des temps de travail, permise par les TIC, mais sans doute en partie impulsée par la pression du marché, ou la concurrence entre travailleurs, dans ce secteur de travail. Les travailleurs indépendants de l’informatique constituent un groupe de travailleurs qui combine une utilisation intense des technologies et une relative autonomie dans le travail. Après un état des lieux de la perméabilité spatiale et temporelle du travail chez ces travailleurs, nous pouvons distinguer deux groupes, un premier groupe pour lequel les frontières sont très perméables (comportement intégrateur et un second pour lequel les frontières sont imperméables (comportement séparateur. Nous constatons aussi que les divers clients de ces contractuels ont une forte incidence sur l’organisation de leur temps de travail, mais aussi de leur espace de travail. Il semble donc bien y avoir un effet de marché, tout au moins en partie, même si les travailleurs autonomes de l’informatique ont tenté de se donner une certaine maîtrise temporelle.Our research inquired into the spatial and temporal permeability of borders separating work and off-work among independent software employees. Such permeability is part of the remodeling process of working time and place that ICT allows for, though doubtless under the influence of the market or of competition between workers in that sector. Freelance software workers are a group that combines an intensive use of technology with relative autonomy. After reporting on the state of the art on the subject of porous spatial and temporal borders between work and off-work among them, two groups will be distinguished: one for whom frontiers are very permeable (integrating

  8. COMPARISON OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN MIDDLE AGED ALCOHOLICS & NON ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanuprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Alcoholism has become a major burden in developing countries like India, especially in rural areas. Multiple reasons like financial burden of being low socio economic status, heavy field work leading to physical stress & mental stress. Added to this illiteracy, lack of knowledge about ill effects of alcohol, people consume it regularly & become addictive. AIMS & OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to study the lipid profile of alcoholics & compare them with normal subjects. MATERIALS & METHODS 30 males between the age group of 35-60 years who consumed alcohol (>250 ml/day regularly for more than 15 years in Chittoor and surrounding villages were recruited for the study group. 30 subjects of same age group attending SVIMS OPD, Tirupathi were taken as control group. Fasting serum lipid profile was done on both the groups by collecting their venous blood samples. RESULTS We found that serum cholesterol (234.66+10.34, Triglycerides (178.38+8.8, (LDL Low density lipoprotein (160.6+10.3 & (VLDL Very Low density lipoprotein (35.09+7.56 were significantly (p<0.05 higher in study group than compared to control group. Whereas High density lipoprotein HDL was significantly lower in study group (38.2 than control group (41.2. CONCLUSION Alcohol consumption leads to liver diseases which may present with clinical and biochemical features, mainly impaired serum lipid profile.

  9. Influence of alcoholism on morbidity after transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Schütten, B T; Tollund, L

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity after transurethral resection of the prostate gland was retrospectively investigated by comparing 73 alcoholics with 73 controls (daily alcohol consumption greater than or equal to 60 g vs. less than 25 g). The compared groups derived from 1,172 patients and were matched for diagnosis......, age, weight, smoking habits, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine diseases, anaesthesia and weight of resected tissue. The postoperative morbidity was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the controls (62% vs. 20%). Follow-up at 1, 3 and 12 months revealed significantly...... more complications among the alcoholics and also more frequent requirement of supplementary procedures than in the controls....

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in the influence of cultural values, alcohol resistance self-efficacy, and alcohol expectancies on risk for alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Regina A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; Zhou, Annie J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research has reported racial/ethnic differences in the early initiation of alcohol use, suggesting that cultural values that are central to specific racial/ethnic groups may be influencing these differences. This 1-year longitudinal study examines associations between two types of cultural values, parental respect (honor for one's parents) and familism (connectedness with family), both measured at baseline, and subsequent alcohol initiation in a sample of 6,054 (approximately 49% male, 57% Hispanic, 22% Asian, 18% non-Hispanic White, and 4% non-Hispanic Black) middle school students in Southern California. We tested whether the associations of cultural values with alcohol initiation could be explained by baseline measures of alcohol resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and alcohol expectancies. We also explored whether these pathways differed by race/ethnicity. In the full sample, adolescents with higher parental respect were less likely to initiate alcohol use, an association that was partially explained by higher RSE and fewer positive alcohol expectancies. Familism was not significantly related to alcohol initiation. Comparing racial/ethnic groups, higher parental respect was protective against alcohol initiation for Whites and Asians, but not Blacks or Hispanics. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between familism and alcohol initiation. Results suggest that cultural values are important factors in the decision to use alcohol and these values appear to operate in part, by influencing alcohol positive expectancies and RSE. Interventions that focus on maintaining strong cultural values and building strong bonds between adolescents and their families may help reduce the risk of alcohol initiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  12. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  13. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  14. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-10-01

    An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, INTERVENTION; n=45, CONTROL) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club ( 19%; 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm ( 38%; 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); psports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. ACTRN12609000224224. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. After Arizona: Military Musicians in the Second World War Après Arizona: les musiciens dans la marine américaine pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Peters

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite du rôle des musiciens dans la marine américaine pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. L’histoire de l’USS Arizona — et de son orchestre, noyé avec le cuirassé lors de l’attaque surprise des forces japonaises — étant bien connue, je m’appuie sur cet exemple comme point de départ afin de contextualiser la situation des musiciens militaires après les événements de Pearl Harbor, en décembre 1941. Dans le sillage de ce grand moment de l’Histoire, j’évoque ici des histoires à une autre échelle, celle de la « micro-histoire »— celle d’un militaire seul au milieu d’autres militaires. À travers les lettres échangées entre des recrues ayant suivi ensemble la même formation, je trace ici leurs expériences de guerre en tant qu’artistes, ainsi que les divers conflits pratiques et idéologiques qui se manifestent dans la tension entre l’art musical et l’art martial.

  16. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  17. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  18. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes. PMID:24462223

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  20. Trends in alcohol-related harms and offences in a liberalized alcohol environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, Taisia; Pledger, Megan; Casswell, Sally

    2006-02-01

    To assess alcohol-related harms and offences in New Zealand from 1990 to 2003, a period of alcohol policy liberalization, that included the lowering of the purchase age from 20 to 18 years in 1999. Time trend analyses were carried out on routinely collected data for prosecutions for driving with excess alcohol; alcohol-involved vehicle crashes (all and fatal) and prosecutions for disorder offences. These were carried out separately for those aged 14-15, 16-17, 18-19, 20-24 and 25 years and over. Rates of: prosecutions for driving with excess alcohol (1990-2003); rates of alcohol- involved vehicle crashes (all and fatal) (1990-2003); and rates of prosecutions for disorder offences (1994-2003). Effects of alcohol policy liberalization: positive trends were found in the rates of prosecutions for disorder in the 16-17, 18-19, 20-24 and 25 + age groups; with 18-19-year-olds and 16-17-year-olds having the largest rates and largest positive trend in rates. For 16-17-year-olds, there was a positive trend in the rates of prosecutions for excess breath alcohol. Negative trends in rates were found for alcohol-related crashes (all and fatal) among all age groups. Negative trends for those over 16-17 years were found for prosecutions for driving with excess breath alcohol (this was prior to the lowering of the purchase age). Effects of lowering the minimum purchase age: the lowering of minimum purchase age coincided with an increase in the trend of alcohol-related crashes for 18-19-year-olds; the next largest increase was among the 20-24-year-olds (all other age groups also increased but at a much lower rate). A similar result was found for driving with excess alcohol for those aged 18-19 (and those aged 20-24 years). An increase in the rates of prosecutions for disorder offences occurred for the 14-15-year-old group following the lowering of the purchase age. The liberalization of alcohol throughout the 1990s may have influenced younger people more, as reflected in increases

  1. The effect of acamprosate on alcohol and food craving in patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyool, In Kyoon; Sung, Young Hoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2008-03-01

    The balance between inhibitory (gamma aminobutyric acid; GABAergic) and excitatory (glutamatergic) neurotransmission is thought to be associated with craving for alcohol and food. The anticraving effect of acamprosate is thought to be mediated through modifying the balance of GABA and glutamate. Recent studies in animals have suggested that acamprosate may have non-selective effects on craving for both alcohol and food. The influence of acamprosate for reducing craving for alcohol and food was assessed in 204 in-patients with alcohol dependence (96 patients treated with acamprosate, PWA; 108 patients were not treated PNA) was assessed at baseline and following 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. There was a significant reduction in craving for alcohol over 4 weeks of treatment in both PWA and PNA groups, but without significant group differences. In contrast, a reduction in food craving was observed only in the PWA group. In addition, there was a significant increase of body mass index (BMI) in the PNA group but not the PWA group over the 4-week period. These results demonstrate acamprosate nonselective effects on craving for drinking and eating in alcoholic patients.

  2. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between alcohol-induced oxidative stress and tissue phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH) content of rat liver and brain. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally ...

  3. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  4. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragrance material review on α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-isobutylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin sensitization, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on α-propylphenethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-propylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Propylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a secondary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-propylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragrance material review on α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α,α,4-Trimethylphenethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α,α,4-trimethylphenethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragrance material review on p-tolyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-tolyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Tolyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-tolyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fragrance material review on p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-α,α-Trimethylbenzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-α,α-trimethylbenzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitisation, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  12. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N

    1989-01-01

    . 28%, P less than 0.001) and miscarriages (23% vs. 8%, P less than 0.05) than controls, but due to a higher number of pregnancies in the alcoholic group the proportion of abortions and miscarriages did not differ significantly. No differences existed between the groups regarding frequency of difficult......Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration...... of both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs...

  13. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Fergus G; Williams, Damien J; Goodall, Christine A; Murer, Jeffrey S; Donnelly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial. Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  14. Computer tomographic findings in alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Tzavaras, N.; Reisig, L. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Neuroradiologie)

    1980-05-01

    The normal variations in the size of the ventricular systems was determined on technically satisfactory computer tomograms in 275 patients who were psychologically and neurologically normal. Ages range from one to 80 years and the data classified in decades. A physiological increase in the width of the ventricular system was found after the 50sup(t)sup(h) year. The normal patients, who acted as a control group, were compared with 65 alcoholics. A significant increase in size (simple variance) was found in alcoholics after the fourth decade, as compared with normals. Correlation between the width of the ventricular system and cerebral function, and between liver damage and the ventricular system could not be established.

  15. Genetic Influences on Response to Alcohol and Response to Pharmacotherapies for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although very many individuals drink alcohol at safe levels, a significant proportion escalates their consumption with addiction as the end result. Alcoholism is a common, moderately heritable, psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by considerable morbidity and mortality. Variation in clinical presentation suggests inter-individual variation in mechanisms of vulnerability including genetic risk factors. The development of addiction is likely to involve numerous functional genetic variants of small effects. The first part of this review will focus on genetic factors underlying inter-individual variability in response to alcohol consumption, including variants in alcohol metabolizing genes that produce an aversive response (the flushing syndrome) and variants that predict the level of subjective and physiological response to alcohol. The second part of this review will report on genetic variants that identify subgroups of alcoholics who are more likely to respond to pharmacotherapy to reduce levels of drinking or maintain abstinence. Genetic analyses of the level of response to alcohol, particularly of the functional OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and 5′ and 3′ functional polymorphisms in SLC6A4, are beginning to provide insights into the etiology of alcoholism and also genotype-stratified subgroup responses to naltrexone and SSRIs / ondansetron respectively. Because of large inter-ethnic variation in allele frequencies, the relevance of these functional polymorphisms will vary between ethnic groups. However there are relatively few published studies in this field, particularly with large sample sizes in pharmacogenetic studies, therefore it is premature to draw any conclusions at this stage. PMID:24220019

  16. Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-02-13

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Besides psychosocial interventions, different pharmacological interventions have been or currently are under investigation through Cochrane systematic reviews. The primary aim of the review is to assess the benefits/risks of anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (October 2013), PubMed (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1974 to October 2013) and CINAHL (1982 to October 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing anticonvulsants alone or in association with other drugs and/or psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no treatment and other pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that

  17. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  18. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  19. Brain reactivity to alcohol and cannabis marketing during sobriety and intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2017-05-01

    Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. What is alcoholic fermentation? A study about the alcoholic fermentation conception through the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. F. Cardoso

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the historical development of the alcoholic fermentation conception, based on expe-rimental results obtained from European scientists, from Renascence to the beginning of 20th century(1930. From this, ve concepts were identied for the phenomenon: putrefactive, spiritual, chemical,biological and biochemical. The current conception of alcoholic fermentation was also evaluated. Forthis proposal, three groups of teachers were interviewed through the question? What is alcoholicfermentation? The P group (pilot, n=12 made of professionals that teach on secondary and highschools, group A composed of PhDs from the Center of Technology Education - NUTES (n=9 andgroup B from Department of Medical Biochemistry (called group B, n=41 both of Federal Universityof Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Key words associated with the fermentative process were identiedidentify in the interviewees answers. The group A components mentioned only six key words andpointed out the alcoholic fermentation products. Dierently, subjects from P and B groups cited ahigher number and also more unusual key words (n = 9 and 12, respectively. We also analyzedtheir answers throughout fermentative descriptive words (sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, anaerobic,yeast and ATP. These words were established after an evaluation of alcoholic fermentation conceptstated in the Biology/Biochemistry books most adopted in high schools and Universities. Our analysisshowed that group A used only three descriptive words (sugar, alcohol and yeast while componentsof group B used all the selected descriptive words. However, only one interviewee used all the sixwords together. From this analysis, we proposed that the chemical concept of alcoholic fermentationprevailed on the other concepts found on the historical research (spiritual, putrefactive, biological ebiochemical.

  1. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at

  3. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  4. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  5. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  6. Taux d'alimentation pendant la gamétogenèse et performance de reproduction chez la truite fario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILLARD R.

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available Des truites fario (Salmo trutta fario mâles et femelles ont été soumises entre mars et septembre à des régimes alimentaires à base de granulés, à des taux quotidiens de 0,4. 0,8, 1,5 et 3 % du poids corporel Un autre groupe (n° 5 a reçu une nourriture plus diversifiée et qualitativement différente à base de granulés, viande et levure de bière, et distribuée ad libitum La fécondité absolue des femelles a été significativement (P < 0,01 influencée par le régime alimentaire et les femelles les mieux nourries ont produit le plus grand nombre d'ovules. Dans le groupe recevant le taux le plus faible (0,4 % le poids des ovules produits (126 g a été supérieur au gain de poids corporel (38 g de sorte qu'une partie des réserves corporelles a été transférée dans les gonades La taille des ovules a aussi été significativement affectée par le traitement, mais dans le groupe n° 5, les effets peuvent résulter des différences, à la fois quantitative et qualitative du régime alimentaire. Dans tous les cas, la fertilité, c'est-à-dire le taux de survie à l'éclosion est élevée (98 % et n'a pas montré de différence significative selon le régime alimentaire. Le pouvoir fécondant du sperme n'est pas modifié par 'e régime alimentaire de même que le taux d'éclosion et de résorption viteline de la descendance.

  7. Oxidation of tertiary homoallylic alcohols by thallium trinitrate: fragmentation versus ring contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Luiz F.; Quintiliano, Samir A.P.; Ferraz, Helena M.C.; Santos, Leonardo S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of tertiary homoallylic alcohols with thallium trinitrate (TTN) was investigated. The alcohols bearing an allylic methyl group lose a molecule of acetone via a fragmentation reaction that leads to isomeric secondary allylic alcohols as major products, together with their corresponding acetylated derivatives. On the other hand, treating analogous tertiary alcohols without the allylic methyl group with TTN gives indans, through a ring contraction reaction. (author)

  8. Taux d'alimentation pendant la gamétogenèse et performance de reproduction chez la truite fario

    OpenAIRE

    BILLARD R.; DE FREMONT M.

    1980-01-01

    Des truites fario (Salmo trutta fario) mâles et femelles ont été soumises entre mars et septembre à des régimes alimentaires à base de granulés, à des taux quotidiens de 0,4. 0,8, 1,5 et 3 % du poids corporel Un autre groupe (n° 5) a reçu une nourriture plus diversifiée et qualitativement différente à base de granulés, viande et levure de bière, et distribuée ad libitum La fécondité absolue des femelles a été significativement (P < 0,01) influencée par le régime alimentaire et les femelles le...

  9. Drinking without thinking: an implicit measure of alcohol motivation predicts failure to control alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2008-11-01

    Addiction is characterized by dyscontrol - substance use despite intentions to restrain. Using a sample of at-risk drinkers, the present study examined whether an implicit measure of alcohol motivation (the Implicit Association Test [IAT]; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480) would predict dyscontrol of alcohol use. Participants completed an IAT and, to elicit motivation to restrain alcohol use, were instructed that greater consumption in a taste test would impair performance on a later task for which they could win a prize. All participants viewed aversive slides and then completed a thought-listing task. Participants either exerted self-control by suppressing negative affect and thoughts regarding the slides or did not exert self-control. Post-manipulation, the groups did not differ in mood, urge to drink or motivation to restrain consumption. During the subsequent taste test, participants whose self-control resources were depleted consumed more alcohol than did those in the control group. Additionally, the IAT, but not an explicit measure of alcohol motivation, more strongly predicted alcohol use when self-control resources were depleted. The results indicate that the IAT may have utility in predicting dyscontrolled alcohol use.

  10. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  11. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  12. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  13. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  14. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  16. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  17. Alcohol and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  18. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  19. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  20. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  1. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R

    2018-06-01

    Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement. Summary baseline variables regarding the social media platform used (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), social media measures assessed (e.g., number of alcohol photographs posted), alcohol measures (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Timeline Follow back Interview), and the number of time points at which data were collected were extracted from each published study. We used the Q statistic to examine heterogeneity in the correlations between alcohol-related social media engagement and both drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems. Because there was significant heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to evaluate the difference from zero of the weighted aggregate correlations. We used metaregression with study characteristics as moderators to test for moderators of the observed heterogeneity. Following screening, 19 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The primary findings indicated a statistically significant relationship and moderate effect sizes between alcohol-related social media engagement and both alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.44, p social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19

  3. Chronic alcoholism-mediated impairment in the medulla oblongata: a mechanism of alcohol-related mortality in traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p Chronic alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.

  4. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  5. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  6. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural and psychological characteristics of college students with alcoholic parents differ depending on current alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Scholl, Jamie L; Fercho, Kelene A; Pearson, Kami; Kallsen, Noah A; Davies, Gareth E; Ehli, Erik A; Olson, Seth; Schweinle, Amy; Baugh, Lee A; Forster, Gina L

    2018-02-02

    A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  9. Measurement of the Surface Dilatational Viscosity of an Insoluble Surfactant Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface Using a Pendant Drop Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose; Couzis, Alex; Maldarelli, Charles; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a fluid interface with surfactants is at rest, the interfacial stress is isotropic (as given by the equilibrium interfacial tension), and is described by the equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant surface concentration. When surfactants are subjected to shear and dilatational flows, flow induced interaction of the surfactants; can create interfacial stresses apart from the equilibrium surface tension. The simplest relationship between surface strain rate and surface stress is the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive equation completely characterized by three coefficients: equilibrium interfacial tension, surface shear viscosity, and surface dilatational viscosity Equilibrium interfacial tension and surface shear viscosity measurements are very well established. On the other hand, surface dilatational viscosity measurements are difficult because a flow which change the surface area also changes the surfactant surface concentration creating changes in the equilibrium interfacial tension that must be also taken into account. Surface dilatational viscosity measurements of existing techniques differ by five orders of magnitude and use spatially damped surface waves and rapidly expanding bubbles. In this presentation we introduce a new technique for measuring the surface dilatational viscosity by contracting an aqueous pendant drop attached to a needle tip and having and insoluble surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface. The isotropic total tension on the surface consists of the equilibrium surface tension and the tension due to the dilation. Compression rates are undertaken slow enough so that bulk hydrodynamic stresses are small compared to the surface tension force. Under these conditions we show that the total tension is uniform along the surface and that the Young-Laplace equation governs the drop shape with the equilibrium surface tension replaced by the constant surface isotropic stress. We illustrate this technique using

  10. Two pathways for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen by a nickel bis(diphosphine) complex with pendant amines in the second coordination sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenny Y; Smith, Stuart E; Liu, Tianbiao; Dougherty, William G; Hoffert, Wesley A; Kassel, W Scott; Rakowski DuBois, M; DuBois, Daniel L; Bullock, R Morris

    2013-07-03

    A nickel bis(diphosphine) complex containing pendant amines in the second coordination sphere, [Ni(P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2)2](BF4)2 (P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), is an electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation. The addition of hydrogen to the Ni(II) complex gives three isomers of the doubly protonated Ni(0) complex [Ni(P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2H)2](BF4)2. Using the pKa values and Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) redox potentials in a thermochemical cycle, the free energy of hydrogen addition to [Ni(P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2)2](2+) was determined to be -7.9 kcal mol(-1). The catalytic rate observed in dry acetonitrile for the oxidation of H2 depends on base size, with larger bases (NEt3, t-BuNH2) resulting in much slower catalysis than n-BuNH2. The addition of water accelerates the rate of catalysis by facilitating deprotonation of the hydrogen addition product before oxidation, especially for the larger bases NEt3 and t-BuNH2. This catalytic pathway, where deprotonation occurs prior to oxidation, leads to an overpotential that is 0.38 V lower compared to the pathway where oxidation precedes proton movement. Under the optimal conditions of 1.0 atm H2 using n-BuNH2 as a base and with added water, a turnover frequency of 58 s(-1) is observed at 23 °C.

  11. Uranyl complexes formed with a para-t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendant arms on the lower rim. Solid and solution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. de M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Varbanov, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Center of Phytochemistry; Buenzli, J.C.G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Ocana-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica de la BUAP, Puebla (Mexico); Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo/Programa de Ingenieria Molecular (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The current interest in functionalized calixarenes with phosphorylated pendant arms resides in their coordination ability towards f elements and capability towards actinide/rare earth separation. Uranyl cation forms 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes with a tetra-phosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(B{sub 4}bL{sup 4}){sub n} . xH{sub 2}O (n = 1, x = 2, 1; n = 2, x = 6, 2). Spectroscopic data point to the inner coordination sphere of 1 containing one monodentate nitrate anion, one water molecule and the four phosphinoylated arms bound to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} while in 2, uranyl is only coordinated to calixarene ligands. In both cases the U(VI) ion is 8-coordinate. Uranyl complexes display enhanced metal-centred luminescence due to energy transfer from the calixarene ligands; the luminescence decays are bi-exponential with associated lifetimes in the ranges 220 {mu}s < {tau}{sub s} < 250 {mu}s and 630 {mu}s < {tau}{sub L} < 640 {mu}s, pointing to the presence of two species with differently coordinated calixarene, as substantiated by a XPS study of U(4f{sub 5/2,7/2}), O(1s) and P(2p) levels on solid state samples. The extraction study of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation and trivalent rare-earth (Y, La, Eu) ions from acidic nitrate media by B{sub 4}bL{sup 4} in chloroform shows the uranyl cation being much more extracted than rare earths. (orig.)

  12. Radiation cross-linking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, K.B.; Naesman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer was functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate using reactive processing in a mixer. The functionalization introduces pendant unsaturation to the polymer, which allows radiation cross-linked to gel contents >70% at radiation doses below 100 kGy. Unfunctionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, on the other hand, forms no gel upon irradiation. The functionalization was completed within a few minutes of reactive mixing, which was confirmed with both FTIR and 13 C-NMR measurements. The oxygen permeability of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer increased with increasing degree of functionalization, and irradiation of the samples formed trapped radicals, which act as oxygen scavengers. Consequently no oxygen permeability was detected. However, radical activity was inhibited by annealing the samples at 110 C resulting in a 24% higher oxygen permeability value for the irradiated unfunctionalized copolymer. The oxygen permeability values of the irradiated functionalized samples were approximately 13% lower. Laminates of m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer acquired improved adhesive strength both at dry and wet conditions as well as at elevated temperature upon exposure to radiation

  13. The Alcohol Relapse Risk Assessment: a scoring system to predict the risk of relapse to any alcohol use after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Hanto, Douglas W; Curry, Michael P

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol relapse after liver transplant heightens concern about recurrent disease, nonadherence to the immunosuppression regimen, and death. To develop a scoring system to stratify risk of alcohol relapse after liver transplant. Retrospective medical record review. All adult liver transplants performed from May 2002 to February 2011 at a single center in the United States. The incidence of return to any alcohol consumption after liver transplant. Thirty-four percent (40/118) of patients with a history of alcohol abuse/dependency relapsed to use of any alcohol after liver transplant. Nine of 25 hypothesized risk factors were predictive of alcohol relapse after liver transplant: absence of hepatocellular carcinoma, tobacco dependence, continued alcohol use after liver disease diagnosis, low motivation for alcohol treatment, poor stress management skills, no rehabilitation relationship, limited social support, lack of nonmedical behavioral consequences, and continued engagement in social activities with alcohol present. Each independent predictor was assigned an Alcohol Relapse Risk Assessment (ARRA) risk value of 1 point, and patients were classified into 1 of 4 groups by ARRA score: ARRA I = 0, ARRA II = 1 to 3, ARRA III = 4 to 6, and ARRA IV = 7 to 9. Patients in the 2 higher ARRA classifications had significantly higher rates of alcohol relapse and were more likely to return to pretransplant levels of drinking. Alcohol relapse rates are moderately high after liver transplant. The ARRA is a valid and practical tool for identifying pretransplant patients with alcohol abuse or dependency at elevated risk of any alcohol use after liver transplant.

  14. Images of alcoholism among adolescents in individualistic and collectivistic geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Sara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This article compares adolescents’ images of alcoholism in two different drinking geographies, namely Helsinki (Finland and Turin (Italy, with the aim to better understand the persisting variance in youth drinking within Europe. DESIGN - Altogether 28 focus group interviews were conducted at schools among 15-year-old pupils (N=145. To assure reliable qualitative comparison across language boundaries, we applied a structured qualitative focus-group methodology called the Reception Analytical Group Interview (RAGI. CONCLUSIONS - Collectivist images of alcoholism can be considered more protective in terms of alcohol-related risk behaviour as they 1 emphasise interpersonal responsibility, 2 enhance the value of norms and traditions, and 3 highlight causes of alcoholism which are beyond the control of the individual (that is, contextual, social and inherent in the substance, making the attitude towards alcohol more cautious. A greater emphasis on the individual competence may correspondingly result in a lower perception about the risks of drinking

  15. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  17. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  18. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  20. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  1. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol (o-m-p-) is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alkyl alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar(-)Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. hiv prevention among drug and alcohol users: models of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users, as a high-risk group, is a significant problem in Africa, as in other ... alcohol and drug addiction in many ... training in providing addiction recovery ..... because of its large scale availability and.

  3. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Cancer Monograph Working Group. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages . Lancet Oncol 2007;8:292–293 Smith-Warner SA, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: A pooled analysis of cohort studies . JAMA 1998;279(7):535–540. Thun MJ, ...

  4. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  5. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  6. Interaction of alcohols with the calcite surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovet, Nicolas Emile; Yang, Mingjun; Javadi, Meshkat Sadat

    2015-01-01

    . Controlling their growth requires complex polysaccharides. Polysaccharide activity depends on the functionality of OH groups, so to simplify the system in order to get closer to a molecular level understanding, we investigated the interaction of OH from a suite of alcohols with clean, freshly cleaved calcite...... surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided binding energies and revealed the extent of surface coverage. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supplemented with information about molecule ordering, orientation and packing density. The results show that all alcohols studied bond...... with the calcite surface through the OH group, with their carbon chains sticking away in a standing-up orientation. Alcohol molecules are closely packed and form a well-ordered monolayer on the surface....

  7. [Relation between expression of cerebral beta-APP in the chronic alcoholism rats and death caused by TSAH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Lei, Huai-Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Qian, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Fang-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    By observing the cerebral beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) expression in the chronic alcoholism rats with slight cerebral injury, to discuss the correlation of chronic alcoholism and death caused by traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (TSAH). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into watering group, watering group with strike, alcoholism group and alcoholism group with strike. Among them, the alcohol was used for continuous 4 weeks in alcoholism groups and the concussion was made in groups with strike. In each group, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral tissues were done and the results were analyzed by the histopathologic image system. In watering group, there was no abnormal. In watering group with strike, mild neuronic congestion was found. In alcoholism group, vascular texture on cerebral surface was found. And the neurons arranged in disorder with dilated intercellular space. In alcoholism group with strike, diffuse congestion on cerebral surface was found. And there was TSAH with thick-layer patches around brainstem following irregular axonotmesis. The quantity of beta-APP IOD in alcoholism group was significantly higher in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, cerebellum, brainstem than those in watering group with strike and alcoholism group with strike. The cerebral tissues with chronic alcoholism, due to the decreasing tolerance, could cause fatal TSAH and pathological changes in cerebral tissues of rats under slight cerebral injury.

  8. Hazardous alcohol use among transwomen in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Kerr-Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a lack of information about alcohol use by transgender women. We estimated the prevalence of dangerous alcohol use in the last 12 months by transgender women, who are known as travestis in Brazil, and we identified the associated risk factors. Three hundred travestis were recruited using Respondent Driving Sampling (RDS. We applied the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. We controlled the sample by applying a weight to each interviewee. Three quarters (74.2% of travestis were regular drinkers, half (48.7% scored over eight in the AUDIT and 14.8% scored over 20. The risk factors for alcohol use were: aged over 24, low income and unprotected sex. The dangerous use of alcohol is prevalent among travestis. Given that this group has a greater risk of HIV infection and transmission, and that the dangerous use of alcohol was associated with unsafe sex, specific intervention strategies are required.

  9. Alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A process for ethanol production from whey is described. The lactose is fermented into alcohol via glucose and galactose of yeast. The whey must be pasteurized before fermentation in order to reduce the concentration of microorganisms in the protein fraction. The protein is separated by ultrafiltration. The whey, which is now rather free of bacteria, is introduced into the fermentation unit where yeast cultures are added to it. After fermentation, the yeast slurry is separated and processed into feeding yeast while the mash is passed on to the distillation unit. The alcohol thus produced is of very high quality and may be added to alcoholic beverages.

  10. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  11. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  12. Online alcohol interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross

    2010-12-19

    evidence suggests that users can benefit from online alcohol interventions and that this approach could be particularly useful for groups less likely to access traditional alcohol-related services, such as women, young people, and at-risk users. However, caution should be exercised given the limited number of studies allowing extraction of effect sizes, the heterogeneity of outcome measures and follow-up periods, and the large proportion of student-based studies. More extensive RCTs in community samples are required to better understand the efficacy of specific online alcohol approaches, program dosage, the additive effect of telephone or face-to-face interventions, and effective strategies for their dissemination and marketing.

  13. Surrogate alcohol containing methanol, social deprivation and public health in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Hausler, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Surrogate alcohol, i.e. alcohol not intended or not officially intended for human consumption, continues to play an important role in alcohol consumption in Russia, especially for people with alcohol dependence. Among the different types of surrogate alcohol, there are windshield washer antifreeze liquids; these products are the cheapest kinds of non-beverage alcohol available and thus likely to be used by the most deprived and marginalised groups such as homeless people with alcohol dependence. Although it is well known, that non-beverage alcohol is used for consumption by various groups in Russia, and although there are laws to prohibit the use of methanol as part of windshield washer antifreeze liquids for the very reason that such products could be used as surrogate alcohol, we detected products in retail sale which were a mix of water and methanol only. Methanol poses serious health threats including blindness and death, and there had been repeated methanol deaths from surrogate alcohol in Russia over the last years. If law-enforcement does not change for surrogate products, we can expect more methanol-resulting deaths in the most deprived and marginalized groups of people with alcohol dependence in Russia. In addition, ingredients with questionable safety profiles such as formic acid should also be prohibited in non-beverage alcohol products that are likely to be consumed as surrogate alcohol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Alcohol dependence and health care utilization in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Vanessa J; Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Scott, Denise M; Cain, Gloria E; Hill, Karen; Hesselbrock, Victor; Ferguson, Clifford L; Taylor, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic and cultural differences in patterns of alcohol use disorders must be understood in order to address improvement in prevention of such disorders and accessibility to health care services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the utilization of medical and mental health services among alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent African Americans. A cohort of 454 African Americans was evaluated. Alcohol-dependent participants were recruited from various inpatient treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and through advertisement and word of mouth. Non-alcohol-dependent participants were recruited by advertisements. Each participant was administered the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism to assess alcohol dependency and the Family History Assessment module to access family history of alcoholism. Xl Test and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Alcohol dependence was more prevalent among men, those with lower income, those with less education, and they utilized mental health counseling as opposed to medical-based therapy. Increased reports of medical conditions such as migraine (p<.001), loss of consciousness (p=.001), and sexually transmitted diseases: (p<.001) were also associated with alcohol dependency. Other factors, including visits to inpatient treatment programs, were directly related to incidence of alcohol dependency regardless of gender status (p<.001). This study suggests an association exists among alcohol dependence, medical conditions, health care, and mental care utilization among African Americans. Future research may benefit from investigating if an association exists between alcohol use disorders and health care utilization for other ethnic groups.

  15. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  16. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V; Jansen, Thomas L C; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics-quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid--alcohols--has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  17. The effects of the therapeutic workplace and heavy alcohol use on homelessness among homeless alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  19. Links of gut microbiota composition with alcohol dependence syndrome and alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinkina, Veronika B; Tyakht, Alexander V; Odintsova, Vera Y; Yarygin, Konstantin S; Kovarsky, Boris A; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Popenko, Anna S; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Taraskina, Anastasiya Y; Nasyrova, Regina F; Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Shalikiani, Nino V; Bakulin, Igor G; Shcherbakov, Petr L; Skorodumova, Lyubov O; Larin, Andrei K; Kostryukova, Elena S; Abdulkhakov, Rustam A; Abdulkhakov, Sayar R; Malanin, Sergey Y; Ismagilova, Ruzilya K; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ilina, Elena N; Govorun, Vadim M

    2017-10-17

    Alcohol abuse has deleterious effects on human health by disrupting the functions of many organs and systems. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver diseases, with its composition manifesting expressed dysbiosis in patients suffering from alcoholic dependence. Due to its inherent plasticity, gut microbiota is an important target for prevention and treatment of these diseases. Identification of the impact of alcohol abuse with associated psychiatric symptoms on the gut community structure is confounded by the liver dysfunction. In order to differentiate the effects of these two factors, we conducted a comparative "shotgun" metagenomic survey of 99 patients with the alcohol dependence syndrome represented by two cohorts-with and without liver cirrhosis. The taxonomic and functional composition of the gut microbiota was subjected to a multifactor analysis including comparison with the external control group. Alcoholic dependence and liver cirrhosis were associated with profound shifts in gut community structures and metabolic potential across the patients. The specific effects on species-level community composition were remarkably different between cohorts with and without liver cirrhosis. In both cases, the commensal microbiota was found to be depleted. Alcoholic dependence was inversely associated with the levels of butyrate-producing species from the Clostridiales order, while the cirrhosis-with multiple members of the Bacteroidales order. The opportunist pathogens linked to alcoholic dependence included pro-inflammatory Enterobacteriaceae, while the hallmarks of cirrhosis included an increase of oral microbes in the gut and more frequent occurrence of abnormal community structures. Interestingly, each of the two factors was associated with the expressed enrichment in many Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-but the exact set of the species was different between alcoholic dependence and liver cirrhosis. At the level of

  20. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day (PD) PD26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed ratio (FR) 16-lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low adolescent drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and had faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood whereas the low consumers were no different than controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent