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Sample records for alcohol liquid diet

  1. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

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    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  2. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early

  3. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  4. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  5. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  6. Alcohol drops on miscible liquid: mixing or spreading?

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    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Muller, Koen; Shardt, Orest; Afkhami, Shahriar; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    We studied how a sessile drop of alcohol behaves when placed on a fully miscible liquid. The dynamics of the subsequent mixing and spreading were captured by using a high-speed camera and investigated by varying parameters (e.g., surface tension, density, and viscosity). We observed that a deposited alcohol drop on a liquid bath remains as a floating lens shape, the alcohol liquid leaks out along the rim of the droplet, and it spreads axi-symmetrically along the bottom liquid interface. To visualize spreading and mixing features, we used time-resolved Particle Tacking Velocimetry and a Schlieren method. We observed a localized mixing flow at the rim of the floating droplet where the maximum flow speed is obtained, driven by a solutal Marangoni effect. Underneath the interface of the bath liquid, a viscous boundary layer develops while the alcohol liquid spreads along the radial direction. We also observed a finite quasi-steady interfacial flow velocity regime after the alcohol droplet touched the bottom liquid surface. In this regime, the flow speed linearly increases inside the floating lens, and outside the lens the flow speed decays along the r-direction with a power-law slope, Ur r - 1 / 2 . Physical arguments to support the observations will be discussed.

  7. Unimolecular Solvolyses in Ionic Liquid: Alcohol Dual Solvent Systems

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    Elizabeth D. Kochly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the solvolysis of pivaloyl triflate in a variety of ionic liquid:alcohol solvent mixtures. The solvolysis is a kΔ process (i.e., a process in which ionization occurs with rearrangement, and the resulting rearranged carbocation intermediate reacts with the alcohol cosolvent via two competing pathways: nucleophilic attack or elimination of a proton. Five different ionic liquids and three different alcohol cosolvents were investigated to give a total of fifteen dual solvent systems. 1H-NMR analysis was used to determine relative amounts of elimination and substitution products. It was found, not surprisingly, that increasing the bulkiness of alcohol cosolvent led to increased elimination product. The change in the amount of elimination product with increasing ionic liquid concentration, however, varied greatly between ionic liquids. These differences correlate strongly, though not completely, to the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters of the hydrogen bond donating and accepting ability of the solvent systems. An additional factor playing into these differences is the bulkiness of the ionic liquid anion.

  8. Alcohol consumption and Mediterranean Diet adherence among health science students in Spain: the DiSA-UMH Study

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    Alexander Scholz

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The overall alcohol consumption among the students in our study was low-to-moderate. Exclusive beer and/or wine drinkers differed regarding the Mediterranean diet pattern from non-drinkers and drinkers of all types of alcohol. These results show the need to properly adjust for diet in studies of the effects of alcohol consumption.

  9. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

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    Éder Marcolin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. METHODS: Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15 were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. CONCLUSION: The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in

  10. Ionic liquid mediated esterification of alcohol with acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beilei ZHOU; Yanxiong FANG; Hao GU; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient esterification of alcohols with acetic acid by using a Bransted acidic ionic liquid, i.e., 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnmp]HSo4), as catalyst has been realized. The turnover numbers (TON) were able to reach up to 11000 and turnover frequency (TOF) was 846. The catalytic system is suitable for the esterification of long chain aliphatic alcohols, benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol with good yields of esters. The procedure of separating the product and catalyst is simple, and the catalyst could be reused. [Hnmp]HSO4 had much weaker corrosiveness than H2SO4. The corrosive rate of H2SO4 was 400 times more than that of [Hnmp]HSO4 to stainless steel.

  11. Morphological alterations of the parotid gland of rats maintained on a liquid diet

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Soraya Coelho; de TOLEDO, Orlando Ayrton; Ana Cristina Barreto BEZERRA

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological alterations that occurred in the parotid glands of rats maintained on a liquid diet compared to a solid diet. Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into two groups. The control group received a solid diet, and the experimental group received a liquid diet. The animals were killed after 8, 15 and 30 days. The glands were prepared for inclusion in paraffin and analyzed with a light microscope. The results showed a statistica...

  12. Relationships between Diet, Alcohol Preference, and Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes among Americans.

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    Michael K Adjemian

    Full Text Available Although excessive alcohol consumption is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality, many studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption to improved cardiovascular health and a lower risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. Self-reported alcohol and diet data used to generate these results suffer from measurement error due to recall bias. We estimate the effects of diet, alcohol, and lifestyle choices on the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease and T2D among U.S. adults using a nationally representative cohort of households with scanner data representing their food-at-home, alcohol, and tobacco purchases from 2007-2010, and self-reported health surveys for the same study participants from 2010-2012. Multivariate regression models were used to identify significant associations among purchase data and lifestyle/demographic factors with disease prevalence in 2010, and with incidence of new disease from 2011-2012. After controlling for important confounders, respondents who purchased moderate levels of wine were 25% less likely than non-drinkers to report heart disease in 2010. However, no alcohol-related expenditure variables significantly affected the likelihood of reporting incident heart disease from 2011-2012. In contrast, many types of alcohol-related purchases were associated with a lower prevalence of T2D, and respondents who purchased the greatest volumes of wine or beer--but not liquor--were less likely to report being diagnosed with T2D in 2011-2012 than non-drinkers.

  13. Diet and alcohol as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.

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    Sundström, B; Johansson, I; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and diet, assessed as both macronutrients and dietary patterns, increased the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a nested case-control design in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. Individuals in the VIP who had developed RA after the dietary survey were identified from medical records at the department of rheumatology at the University Hospital, Umeå (n = 386), and matched to 1,886 controls from the same database. Diet was assessed as food groups, as macronutrients and as scores of dietary patterns, namely the carbohydrate-restricted diet score, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy diet indicator score. When analysing the dietary patterns, consumption of food groups and different macronutrients, a significant association was found in the highest tertile of carbohydrate-restricted diet among the cases with a subsequent anti-CCP-positive disease 1.40 (1.02-1.92), as well as in the highest tertile of protein consumption among smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.95). However, after additional adjustment for sodium intake, these associations were no longer statistically significant. No association was observed between alcohol consumption and the risk of RA. To summarize, there were no significant associations between diet, or alcohol consumption, and the risk of development of RA within this cohort. The lack of any significant associations of alcohol consumption may be explained by a low consumption in the studied population overall or alternatively by methodological issues raised recently.

  14. Phenotyping the effect of diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de N.J.W.; Afman, L.A.; Mensink, M.R.; Muller, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the growing incidence of metabolic syndrome. Diet is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this review, we focused on recent publications reporting on the effect of macro- and micronutrients on development and progressi

  15. Neuronal basis of reproductive dysfunctions associated with diet and alcohol: From the womb to adulthood.

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    Gawałek, Monika; Sliwowska, Joanna H

    2015-06-01

    The theory that individuals are born as tabula rasa and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception is no longer true. Studies suggest that experience is gained as early as in the mother's womb. Moreover, environmental stressors like alcohol or inadequate diet can affect physiological systems such as the hypothalmic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The effects of these stressors can manifest as alterations in sexual development and adult reproductive functions. In this review, we consider and compare evidence from animal models and human studies demonstrating the role of environmental stressors (alcohol and under- or overnutrition) on the HPG axis. We review the role of alcohol and inadequate diet in prenatal reproductive system programming and consider specific candidate neurons in the adult hypothalamus through which reproductive function is being regulated. Finally, we review evidence from animal studies on the role that alcohol and diet play in fertility and reproductive disorders. We conclude that in order to better understand reproductive failure in animals and humans we need to consider in utero development and pay more attention to early life experience when searching for the origins of reproductive diseases.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diet and gut microbiota.

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    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a severe liver disease that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity and its related insulin-resistance state. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in energy storage and the subsequent development of obesity and some of its related diseases is now well established. More recently, a new role of gut microbiota has emerged in NAFLD. The gut microbiota is involved in gut permeability, low-grade inflammation and immune balance, it modulates dietary choline metabolism, regulates bile acid metabolism and produces endogenous ethanol. All of these factors are molecular mechanisms by which the microbiota can induce NAFLD or its progression toward overt non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Modification of the gut microbiota composition and/or its biochemical capacity by specific dietary or pharmacological interventions may advantageously affect host metabolism. Large-scale intervention trials, investigating the potential benefit of prebiotics and probiotics in improving cardiometabolic health in high-risk populations, are fervently awaited.

  17. Solid-liquid equilibrium of triolein with fatty alcohols

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    G. J. Maximo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerols and fatty alcohols are used in the formulation of cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food products. Although information about the phase transitions of these compounds and their mixtures is frequently required for design and optimization of processes and product formulation involving these substances, these data are still scarce in the literature. In the present study, the solid-liquid phase diagrams of two binary systems composed of triolein + 1-hexadecanol and triolein + 1-octadecanol were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical microscopy. The experimental data were compared with predicted data by solving the phase equilibrium equations using an algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The liquid-phase activity coefficients were calculated using the Margules equation (two- and three-suffix and the UNIFAC model (original and modified Dortmund model. The approaches used for calculating system equilibrium allowed an accurate prediction of the liquidus line with low deviations from the experimental data.

  18. Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: new therapeutic option around the corner?

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    Sofi, Francesco; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, being considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD has a common pathogenic background to that of metabolic syndrome, and shares many risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although there is no currently available evidence-based established treatment for NAFLD, all the recommendations from the medical associations indicate that the most effective treatment is to reduce weight through lifestyle modifications. Diet, indeed, plays a key role in the management of NAFLD patients, as both the quantity and quality of the diet have been reported to have a beneficial role in the onset and severity of the liver disease. Among all the diets that have been proposed, a Mediterranean diet was the most effective dietary option for inducing weight loss together with beneficial effects on all the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Over the last few years, research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in NAFLD. In this review, we will examine all the available data on the association between diet, nutrients and the Mediterranean diet in association with onset and severity of NAFLD.

  19. ALCOHOLIC HEPATOTOXICITY AND SATURATED FATS IN THE DIET: A MODULATING INFLUENCE

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    We fed male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g) by total enteral nutrition using liquid diets with or without 12 g/kg/d ethanol (EtOH). In one control and one ethanol group, the dietary fat was corn oil at 45% total energy. In other groups, saturated fat (beef tallow: medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil =...

  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  1. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

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    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  2. Intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet attenuates alcohol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Van Cleef, Arriel; Davis, Jon F

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats. Rats received chow (controls) or extended intermittent access (24h twice a week; Int-HFD) to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet for six weeks. Standard rodent chow was available ad-libitum to all groups and food intake was measured. Following HFD exposure, 20.0% ethanol, 2.0% sucrose intake and endocrine peptide levels were evaluated. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark (LD) box apparatus. Rats in the Int-HFD group displayed a binge-like pattern of feeding (alternations between caloric overconsumption and voluntary caloric restriction). Surprisingly, alcohol intake was significantly attenuated in the Int-HFD group whereas sugar consumption was unaffected. Plasma acyl-ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the Int-HFD group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 levels did not change. Moreover, rats in the Int-HFD group spent more time in the light side of the LD box compared to controls, indicating that binge-like feeding induced anxiolytic effects. Collectively, these data suggest that intermittent access to HFD attenuates alcohol intake through reducing anxiety-like behavior, a process potentially controlled by elevated plasma ghrelin levels.

  3. Freely accessible water does not decrease consumption of ethanol liquid diets.

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    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    In experimental studies, liquid ethanol diets are usually given as the sole source of nutrition and fluid. Two series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of freely accessible water on the consumption of ethanol liquid diets in male Long-Evans rats. The consumption of diets and subsequent learning ability of rats were first examined in animals given twice-daily saline injections. One group received diet with no access to water for 12 weeks and was subsequently given free access to water with diets for an additional 12 weeks. A second group was given diet and water ad libitum for 24 weeks. Control animals received an isocaloric sucrose-containing diet (with or without ad libitum access to water). Subsequently, rats were tested for active avoidance learning. In the first 12 weeks, animals with ad libitum access to water drank more diet than did water-restricted animals, and previously water-restricted animals increased their diet consumption when access to water was freely available. All water-restricted animals, in both ethanol- and sucrose-treated groups, showed deficits in active avoidance learning, whereas only ethanol-treated animals in groups with ad libitum access to water showed learning deficits. In the second series of experiments, the effect of saline injections on diet consumption, both in the presence and absence of water, was examined. Although saline injections were associated with decreased diet consumption, there was no effect of free access to water. No differences in blood ethanol concentration were seen among groups. Findings obtained from both series of studies demonstrate that consumption of a Sustacal-based liquid ethanol diet does not decrease if access to water is freely available.

  4. Dynamic headspace liquid-phase microextraction of alcohols.

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    Saraji, Mohammad

    2005-01-07

    A method was developed using dynamic headspace liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for extraction and determination of 9 alcohols from water samples. Four different solvents, hexyl acetate, n-octanol, o-xylene and n-decane were studied as extractants. The analytes were extracted using 0.8 microl of n-octanol from the headspace of a 2 ml sample solution. The effect of sampling volume, solvent volume, sample temperature, syringe plunger withdrawal rate and ionic strength of the solution on the extraction performance were studied. A semiautomated system including a variable speed stirring motor was used to ensure a uniform movement of syringe plunger through the barrel. The method provided a fairly good precision for all compounds (5.5-9.3%), except methanol (16.4%). Detection limits were found to be between 1 and 97 microg/l within an extraction time of approximately 9.5 min under GC-MS in full scan mode.

  5. The Effect of Liquid Crystalline Structures on Antiseizure Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Ethoxylated Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40–80%) were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As ex...

  6. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

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    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  7. Bioavailability of ethanol is reduced in several commonly used liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, N C; de Fiebre, C M; Booker, T K; Nelson, S; Collins, A C

    1994-01-01

    Liquid diets are often used as a vehicle for chronically treating laboratory animals with ethanol. However, a recent report suggested that one or more components of these diets may bind ethanol which could result in a decrease in the bioavailability of ethanol. Consequently, we compared the blood ethanol concentration vs. time curves obtained following the intragastric (i.g.) administration of ethanol dissolved in water or in one of three liquid diets (Bioserv AIN-76, Sustacal, or Carnation Slender) using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines. The initial rates of absorption were generally the same for the water-ethanol and diet-ethanol groups, but the diets generally produced lower peak levels and the areas under the ethanol concentration-time curves were less for all of the liquid diets than for the control, ethanol-water solution. In vitro dialysis experiments indicated that the Bioserv diet binds ethanol in a saturable manner. Therefore, it may be that the slower release of ethanol, which should occur as a result of binding, serves to increase the role of first pass metabolism in regulating ethanol concentrations following oral administration. Because the effects of the diets were seen even after pyrazole treatment, it may be that the lower blood ethanol levels arise because metabolism by gastric ADH, rather than hepatic ADH, is responsible for a major portion of ethanol metabolism as ethanol is slowly released by the diets. If so, the observation that the diet/water differences were uniformly greater in the LS mice may indicate that LS-SS differences in gastric ADH exist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten middle-ag

  9. Dynamical properties of alcohol + 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid mixtures: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; García, Manuel; Cabeza, Oscar; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2011-12-29

    In this work, extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) composed of the cation 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and several anions of different hydrophobicity degrees (Cl(-), BF(4)(-), PF(6)(-)) with alcohols of different chain lengths (methanol and ethanol) are reported. We evaluated the influence of the nature of the anion, the length of the molecular chain of the alcohol, and the alcohol concentration on some dynamical properties of the mixtures, such as self-diffusion coefficients of all the species, mean square displacements (with an analysis of both ballistic and diffusive regimes), and velocity autocorrelation functions of alcohol molecules. The diffusivity of the mixtures was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the anion since the interaction between chloride and alcohols is greater than that with fluorinated anions and leads to slower dynamics. Additionally, our results show that self-diffusion coefficients increase with alcohol concentration. On the other hand, a subdiffusive regime over thousands of picoseconds was detected at intermediate times through analysis of the center-of-mass mean square displacements of alcohol molecules, a region that becomes narrower as alcohol concentration increases. Finally, the study of the role of the anion and of solvent concentration on velocity autocorrelation functions reflects an increase in mean collision times as the amount of alcohol increases until the value of pure alcohols is reached. These collision times are smaller in mixtures with halogenated ILs.

  10. A New Model For Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat Utilizing Total Enteral Nutrition to Overfeed a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...

  11. Effect of including liquid vinasse in the diet of rabbits on growth performance

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    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid vinasse (LV in the diet for growing rabbits on performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphometry were assessed. Eighty New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomized block design with five treatments (LV inclusion at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg diet and four replications. There was no effect of the treatment on final weight, daily weight gain, mortality rate and carcass yield characteristics. The daily intakes of feed, dry matter, crude protein and energy and feed conversion decreased linearly with increase in LV in the diet. Including LV affected the duodenum crypt depth and the ilium villus perimeter and height linearly and affected the duodenum villus perimeter, height and the absorption surfaces and ilium crypt depth and absorption surface quadratically. There was no effect of including LV on jejunum morphometry. Vinasse can be used to feed growing rabbits at up to 87.8 g per kilogram of diet.

  12. Correlations between phase behaviors and ionic conductivities of (ionic liquid + alcohol) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Nam Ku [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Lab, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Chan, E-mail: ycbae@hanyang.ac.k [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Lab, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To understand the basic properties of ionic liquids (ILs), we examined the phase behavior and ionic conductivity characteristics using various compositions of different ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [emim; PF6] and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bzmim; PF6]) in several different alcohols (ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and hexanol). We conducted a systematic study of the impact of different factors on the phase behavior of imidazolium-based ionic liquids in alcohols. Using a new experimental method with a liquid electrolyte system, we observed that the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid/alcohol was sensitive to the surrounding temperature. We employed Chang et al.'s thermodynamic model [Chang et al. (1997, 1998) ] based on the lattice model. The obtained co-ordinated unit parameter from this model was used to describe the phase behavior and ionic conductivities of the given system. Good agreement with experimental data of various alcohol and ILs systems was obtained in the range of interest.

  13. Protective effects of tiopronin against high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-qing WANG; Yu-hong ZOU; Cheng HUANG; Chao LU; Lei ZHANG; Yong JIN; Xiong-wen L(U); Li-ping LIU; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To study the protective effects of tiopronin against high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high-fat diet for 10 weeks.The rats were administered tiopronin (20 mg/kg) or a positive control drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA,15 mg/kg) via garage daily from week 5 to week 10.After the rats were sacrificed,serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),free fatty acids (FFA),high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C),and liver homogenate FFA.superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using commercial analysis kitS.The expression levels of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein were determined using RT-PCR and immunoblot assays,respectively.Results:Tiopronin significantly lowered both the serum ALT and AST levels,while only the serum ALT level was lowered by UDCA.Tiopronin significantly decreased the serum and liver levels of TG,TC and FFA as well as the serum LDL-C level,and increased the serum HDL-C level,while UDCA decreased the serum and liver TC levels as well as the serum LDL-C level,but did not change the serum levels of TG,FFA and HDL-C.Tiopronin apparently ameliorated the hepatocyte degeneration and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the livers,but UDCA did not affect the pathological features of the livers.Both tiopronin and UDCA ameliorated the mitochondrial abnormality in the livers.The benefits of tiopronin were associated with increased SOD and GSH-Px activities,and with decreased MDA activity and CYP2E1 expression in the livers.Conclusion:Tiopronin exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats,which may be associated with its antioxidant properties and regulation of lipid metabolism.

  14. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  15. Fermented wheat in liquid diets: effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, R H J; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Balk, M; Schrama, J W; Verstegen, M W A

    2002-05-01

    Effects of adding fermented wheat to liquid diets on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets were studied. Gastrointestinal characteristics of 40 28-d-old weanling piglets were measured at the day of weaning (d 0) and at d 4 and 8 after weaning. Piglets were group-housed and fed twice daily. Feeding level was based on the average metabolic BW of piglets per group. Groups were fed a liquid diet with either 45% unfermented wheat (FERM_0) or 45% fermented wheat (FERM_45). The other 55% of the diet was identical. To ferment wheat, water at 30 degrees C was added to milled wheat in a 1:2.2 ratio. The pH and contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were measured in the digesta of the stomach, three parts of the small intestine, cecum, and large intestine. In addition, changes in microbial populations in the digesta were studied during the period after weaning. Moreover, villus height, crypt depth, and villus shape were studied in the small intestine. Piglets fed FERM_45 showed lower gastric pH (P feeding a partly fermented liquid diet to weanling piglets may be a concept to prevent undesirable changes in mucosal architecture after weaning.

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid water, some alcohols, and pure nonane in free micro jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubel, Manfred; Steiner, Björn; Toennies, J. Peter

    1997-06-01

    The recently developed technique of accessing volatile liquids in a high vacuum environment by using a very thin liquid jet is implemented to carry out the first measurements of photoelectron spectra of pure liquid water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and benzyl alcohol as well as of liquid n-nonane. The apparatus, which consists of a commercial hemispherical (10 cm mean radius) electron analyzer and a hollow cathode discharge He I light source is described in detail and the problems of the sampling of the photoelectrons in such an environment are discussed. For water and most of the alcohols up to six different electronic bands could be resolved. The spectra of 1-butanol and n-nonane show two weakly discernable peaks from which the threshold ionization potential could be determined. A deconvolution of the photoelectron spectra is used to extract ionization potentials of individual molecular bands of molecules near the surface of the liquid and shifts of the order of 1 eV compared to the gas phase are observed. A molecular orientation for water molecules at the surface of liquid water is inferred from a comparison of the relative band strengths with the gas phase. Similar effects are also observed for some of the alcohols. The results are discussed in terms of a simple "Born-solvation" model.

  17. Amounts of nutrients recommended by the NRC abate the effects of a toxic alcohol dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, R.F.; Draves, K. (VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Diet is the food and drink taken daily by an animal. Although the composition of the Lieber-DeCarli 36% alcohol diet is such that recommended amounts of nutrients could be ingested when the diet is fed, the fact is that rats have an aversion to alcohol, ingestion is reduced and the intake of total energy and several nutrients are below recommended levels. Hence the diet is nutritionally inadequate for growth, gestation and lactation. Recent studies with baboons have also shown that the baboon liquid diet is also deficient in total energy and several nutrients. Hence all studies with these liquid alcohol diets have involved two treatments; namely, ethanol and malnutrition. Thus, effects observed when these diets were fed could have been due to alcohol, malnutrition or an interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition. When liquid diets are fed to rats that provide recommended amounts of nutrients for growth, gestation and lactation and the same dose of ethanol per kg body weight as the 36% alcohol diet, no toxic effects of alcohol are observed. Hence, effects not observed in the malnourished pair-fed controls but observed in the alcohol diet fed rats were likely due to the interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition.

  18. The Effect of Liquid Crystalline Structures on Antiseizure Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Ethoxylated Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40–80% were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As expected, the viscosity of LLCs decreases considerably with an increase in shearing rate which is characteristic of liquid crystals being non-Newtonian liquids. Antiseizure properties were determined by means of a four-ball machine (T-02 Tester and characterized by scuffing load (Pt, seizure load (Poz and limiting pressure of seizure (poz. Alcohol ethoxylates forming mesophases in aqueous solutions have the strongest effect on the Pt values which are several times higher than those measured in the presence of water. Ethoxylates with higher degrees of ethoxylation exhibit higher values of scuffing load. Those changes have been interpreted as a result of higher cloud points at which those compounds lose their amphiphilic properties. In general, the presence of mesophases in the bulk phase and particularly in the surface phase may lead to the formation of a lubricant film which separates the frictionally cooperating elements of a friction pair. The antiseizure efficiency of alcohol solutions is highest up to the load value which does not exceed the scuffing load value.

  19. The effect of liquid crystalline structures on antiseizure properties of aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulek, Marian Wlodzimierz; Bak, Anna

    2010-01-12

    Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40-80%) were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As expected, the viscosity of LLCs decreases considerably with an increase in shearing rate which is characteristic of liquid crystals being non-Newtonian liquids. Antiseizure properties were determined by means of a four-ball machine (T-02 Tester) and characterized by scuffing load (P(t)), seizure load (P(oz)) and limiting pressure of seizure (p(oz)). Alcohol ethoxylates forming mesophases in aqueous solutions have the strongest effect on the P(t) values which are several times higher than those measured in the presence of water. Ethoxylates with higher degrees of ethoxylation exhibit higher values of scuffing load. Those changes have been interpreted as a result of higher cloud points at which those compounds lose their amphiphilic properties. In general, the presence of mesophases in the bulk phase and particularly in the surface phase may lead to the formation of a lubricant film which separates the frictionally cooperating elements of a friction pair. The antiseizure efficiency of alcohol solutions is highest up to the load value which does not exceed the scuffing load value.

  20. Role of diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An updatednarrative review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Papandreou; Eleni Andreou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article review is to update whatis known about the role of diet on non-alcoholic fattyliver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is the most commoncause of chronic liver disease in the developed worldand is considered to be a spectrum, ranging from fattyinfiltration of the liver alone (steatosis), which may leadto fatty infiltration with inflammation known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis While the majority of individualswith risk factors like obesity and insulin resistance havesteatosis, only few people may develop steatohepatitis.Current treatment relies on weight loss and exercise,although various insulin-sensitizing medications appearpromising. Weight loss alone by dietary changeshas been shown to lead to histological improvementin fatty liver making nutrition therapy to become acornerstone of treatment for NAFLD. Supplementationof vitamin E, C and omega 3 fatty acids are underconsideration with some conflicting data. Moreover,research has been showed that saturated fat, trans-fattyacid, carbohydrate, and simple sugars (fructose andsucrose) may play significant role in the intrahepatic fataccumulation. However, true associations with specificnutrients yet to be clarified.

  1. Food Insecurity, Diet Quality, and Body Weight: Inter-Relationships and the Effect of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Patricia A.; Claire A. Zizza; Zhu, Min; Kinnucan, Henry W.; Tayie, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1999-2002 rounds of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the inter-relationships between food insecurity, diet quality and body mass index (BMI) were examined. The impact of smoking and alcohol consumption behaviors were also examined. The relationship between BMI and food insecurity was found to be sensitive to the specification of control variables, such as age, income, and race and ethnicity. Smoking was directly associated with lowe...

  2. The effects of diet-induced obesity on hepatocyte insulin signaling pathways and induction of non-alcoholic liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Fatani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sameer Fatani1, Imose Itua2, Paul Clark3, Christopher Wong3, Ebrahim K Naderali21Obesity Biology Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 2Department of Health and Applied Social Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool UK; 3Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool, UKAbstract: The prevalence of diet-induced obesity is increasing amongst adults and children worldwide, predisposing millions of people to an array of health problems that include metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study we used experimental animals to investigate the effects of dietary obesity on markers of hepatic insulin signaling as well as structural changes in hepatocytes. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized and assigned to either a control group or a test group. Controls were fed standard laboratory pelleted diet (chow-fed, while the test group had free access to a highly-palatable diet (HPD. After eight weeks, the HPD-fed animals were subdivided into three subgroups and their diets altered as follows: HPD-to-chow, HPD with the addition of fenofibrate given by oral gavage for a further seven weeks, or HPD with vehicle (1% carboxymethylcellulose at 1 mL/kg body weight given by oral gavage for a further seven weeks, respectively. Untreated diet-fed animals had significantly higher body weight, liver weight, and all measured metabolic profiles compared with chow-fed and treated diet-fed groups. Expression of kinases IRβ, IRS-1, AKt, eNOS, Shc and ERK1/2 were unaffected by obesity, while IRS-2 and P I3 kinase levels were significantly reduced in untreated HPD animals. Compared with chow-fed animals, steatosis and steatohepatitis were almost doubled in animals from untreated HPD, while removal of HPD and fenofibrate-treatment reduced steatosis by 40% and 80% respectively. These data suggest that diet-induced obesity affects

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  5. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  6. Alcohol consumption patterns, diet and body weight in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieri, S.; Krogh, V.; Saieva, C.; Grobbee, D. E.; Bergmann, M.; Rohrmann, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Ferrari, P.; Chloptsios, Y.; Dilis, V.; Jenab, M.; Linseisen, J.; Wallstrom, P.; Johansson, I.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Sanchez, M. J.; Niravong, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Welch, A. A.; Allen, N. E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Sacerdote, C.; Panico, S.; Parr, C. L.; Braaten, T.; Olsen, A.; Jensen, M. K.; Bingham, S.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background/objectives: Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education a

  7. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Ortega, J. (Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

    1993-10-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

  8. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  9. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  10. Dynamics of the OH group and the electronic structure of liquid alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schreck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS from molecular and liquid systems, the interplay of ground state structural and core-excited state dynamical contributions leads to complex spectral shapes that partially allow for ambiguous interpretations. In this work, we dissect these contributions in oxygen K-edge RIXS from liquid alcohols. We use the scattering into the electronic ground state as an accurate measure of nuclear dynamics in the intermediate core-excited state of the RIXS process. We determine the characteristic time in the core-excited state until nuclear dynamics give a measurable contribution to the RIXS spectral profiles to τdyn = 1.2 ± 0.8 fs. By detuning the excitation energy below the absorption resonance we reduce the effective scattering time below τdyn, and hence suppress these dynamical contributions to a minimum. From the corresponding RIXS spectra of liquid methanol, we retrieve the “dynamic-free” density of states and find that it is described solely by the electronic states of the free methanol molecule. From this and from the comparison of normal and deuterated methanol, we conclude that the split peak structure found in the lone-pair emission region at non-resonant excitation originates from dynamics in the O–H bond in the core-excited state. We find no evidence that this split peak feature is a signature of distinct ground state structural complexes in liquid methanol. However, we demonstrate how changes in the hydrogen bond coordination within the series of linear alcohols from methanol to hexanol affect the split peak structure in the liquid alcohols.

  11. DIELECTRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF LIQUID CONTAINING LOW ALCOHOLIC CONTENT FOR POTENTIAL HALAL AUTHENTICATION IN THE 0.5-50 GHz RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurina Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential method for detection and discrimination of alcoholic containing drinks for halal authentication using dielectric properties has been investigated. Behaviors of several pure alcohols, alcohol solution in water and also liquids with alcoholic contents were studied for verification purpose. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor for low concentration of ethanol solutions were measured over the microwave frequency from 0.5 to 50 GHz. The measurements were extended to several commercial alcoholic beverages. The results showed that dielectric properties manage to discriminate alcohol content until the lowest concentration studied of 0.5% in water mixture at frequency range of 10-25 GHz. Beyond this limit, solution is considered as alcoholic drinks.

  12. Video-microscopic observation of ionic liquid/alcohol interface and the corresponding molecular simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peixi

    This research is aimed at studying the ionic liquid/n-pentanol interface via video-microscopy and molecular dynamic simulations. Understanding the interfacial phenomena and interfacial transport between ionic liquids and other liquids is of interest to the development and application of ionic liquids in a number of areas. One such area is the biphasic hydroformylation of alkenes to obtain alcohol and aldehyde, in which case ionic liquid is the reaction medium where a catalyst resides. The dissolution of an ionic liquid into an alcohol was studied by microscopically observing and measuring the shrinking of a micropipette-produced droplet in real time. Although microscopic investigation of droplet dissolution has been studied before, no attempt had been made to measure the diffusion coefficient D of the droplet species in the surrounding medium. A key finding of this work is that the Epstein-Plesset mathematical model, which describes the dissolution of a droplet/bubble in another fluid medium, can be used to measure D. Other experimental studies of the ionic liquid/alcohol system include electrical conductivity and UV-visible spectroscopy measurements of solutions of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in n-pentanol. Those experiments were done in order to understand the molecular state of the particular ionic liquid in n-pentanol, as well as obtaining the dissociation constant K of such weak electrolyte solution. The experimental results provide an entry to the assessment of ionic liquid interaction with n-pentanol at molecular scale. Subsequently, molecular dynamics simulation was implemented for the investigation of such interaction. The computation started with simulation of the bulk phase of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, an affine ionic liquid on which molecular simulations had already been reported. A generalized probability based on Fuoss approximation for the closest ion to a distinguished countercharge ion was developed. In

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  14. Experimental Study on Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of Alcohol-Ester-Water-CaCl2 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiquan; Fu Die

    2014-01-01

    The binary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for salt-containing systems of 1-butanol+water+CaCl2, n-butyl acetate+water+CaCl2 and ethyl acetate+acetic acid+water+CaCl2 were determined and the salt effect was analyzed. The results showed that an obvious salt effect could be identified for the systems of 1-butanol+water+CaCl2 and ethyl acetate+acetic acid+water.

  15. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( nutritional value of wheat middlings-based diets.

  16. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  17. Analysis of fatty alcohol derivatives with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Victoria; Laun, Sabrina; Melchior, David; Köhler, Michael; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2012-12-14

    A simultaneous separation of anionic (fatty alcohol sulfates, fatty alcohol ether sulfates), non-ionic (alkyl polyglucosides, fatty alcohol ethoxylates) and amphoteric (cocamidopropyl betaines) surfactants was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) utilizing a ZIC(®)-HILIC column in the first dimension, a Reprosphere 100 C8-Aqua column in the second dimension and a 10-port two position valve as the interface. The volume of the two sample loops were 25 or 50 μL and allow a one or two minute modulation at a 25 μL/min flow rate. In the first dimension, a gradient of acetonitrile and an ammonium acetate buffer was used to separate polyethoxylated surfactants by their degree of ethoxylation (EO number) whereas in the second dimension, a separation by alkyl chain was performed using a methanol/ammonium acetate buffer gradient. A baseline separation of the above mentioned surfactants according to both EO number and alkyl chain was achieved. The best performance was used to compare two different LCxLC-QTOF MS systems, which demonstrate that a transfer of the method from one system to a totally different system is possible. However, because of the differences in delay volume and extra-column volume between these systems the separation power is changed.

  18. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy. [and] Fast Food and the American Diet. [and] Food Additives and Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terrence; And Others

    These three separate pamphlets provide background information, brief discussions of research findings, and guidelines and recommendations concerning selected aspects of diet. The first pamphlet discusses food additives and hyperactivity, focusing on both the Feingold theory and controlled experiments which do not support Feingold's clinical…

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  20. New insight into phase equilibria involving imidazolium bistriflamide ionic liquids and their mixtures with alcohols and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereiro, Ana B; Deive, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Ana; Ruivo, Diana; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Rebelo, Luís P N

    2010-07-15

    The fluid phase equilibria (liquid-liquid demixing behavior (LLE)) of mixtures of ionic liquids of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide family, [C(n)mim][NTf(2)], with 2-methylpropanol or n-octanol were investigated. Binary mixtures of [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] + alcohol and [C(6)mim][NTf(2)] + alcohol were compared to pseudobinary mixtures of (0.5[C(2)mim] + 0.5[C(6)mim])[NTf(2)] + alcohol and (0.5[C(2)mim] + 0.5[C(10)mim])[NTf(2)] + alcohol, respectively. Additionally, the presence of water in the studied alcohols or as a third component in the system was analyzed in order to check any possible deviation from the LLE observed for the anhydrous systems. Systems containing small fractions of ionic liquid show similar LLE between the corresponding binary and pseudobinary systems; however, large differences are observed in the presence of water when the IL mass fraction is increased.

  1. Connection of Nicotine to Diet-Induced Obesity and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cellular and Mechanistic Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20–40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Multiple mechanisms can be involved in nicotine plus high-fat diet-induced (HFD) hepatic steatosis. Emerging evidence now suggests that nicotine exacerbates hepatic steatosis triggered by HFD, through increased oxidative stress and hepatocellular apoptosis, decreased phosphorylation (inactivation) of adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase and, in turn, up-regulation of sterol response-element binding protein 1-c, fatty acid synthase, and activation of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase, leading to increased hepatic lipogenesis. There is also growing evidence that chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of several pathways leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, perturbed hepatic lipid homeostasis, apoptosis, and autophagy can induce hepatic steatosis and its progression to NASH. Evidence also suggests a central role of the gut microbiota in obesity and its related disorders, including NAFLD. This review explores the contribution of nicotine and obesity to the development of NAFLD and its molecular underpinning. PMID:28239368

  2. Effect of liquid flavor supplementation of the diet on dairy cows in the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M A; Friedman, E J; Bahaa, A O; Murphy, M R

    2004-06-01

    A 9-wk trial was conducted to study the performance of 24 Holstein cows during the transition period (3 wk prepartum to 6 wk postpartum). Cows were assigned to either a control or liquid-flavored (0.52 mL/kg of feed) total mixed ration in a randomized complete block design. The diets contained corn silage, alfalfa haylage, cottonseed, and a grain mix based on ground corn and soybean meal. Cows were fed to ensure 10% orts, and the diet provided (on a dry matter basis) 13% crude protein, 32% acid detergent fiber, 44% neutral detergent fiber, and 1.54 Mcal/kg of NEL prepartum and 17.5% crude protein, 30% acid detergent fiber, 40% neutral detergent fiber, and 1.57 Mcal/kg of NEL postpartum. An additional 2.3 kg of alfalfa hay was fed during the first 5 d postpartum. Weekly means of dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk protein, milk fat, SNF, somatic cell counts, and body weight (BW) were analyzed using a repeated measures procedure. There was no effect of treatment on these variables, and least squares means were 16.9 and 15.7 kg/d for DMI, 38 and 35.3 kg/d for milk yield, 3.10 and 3.11% for milk protein, 3.69 and 3.74% for milk fat, 8.37 and 8.16% for SNF, 1.99 x 10(5) and 4.33 x 10(5) for somatic cell count, and 631 and 651 kg for BW for cows fed control and flavored diets, respectively. Individual cow daily DMI data were fitted to an exponential model describing pre- and postpartum feed consumption [DMI = a - b x e(-c x t), where DMI was measured in kg, a = asymptotic DMI, b = potential fractional increase in DMI, c = fractional rate of increase in DMI, and t = days prior to calving or days in milk]. Fractional rates of increase in DMI were similar: 0.139 and 0.123/d for control and flavored diets, respectively. Data for both groups were separately analyzed using multiple regression with 3.5% fat-corrected milk as the dependent variable and BW and DMI as independent variables. More BW was mobilized per unit increase in 3.5% fat-corrected milk in cows fed the

  3. Preparation of Cyclic Urethanes from Amino Alcohols and Carbon Dioxide Using Ionic Liquid Catalysts with Alkali Metal Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Arai

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Several ionic liquids were applied as catalysts for the synthesis of cyclicurethanes from amino alcohols and pressurized CO2 in the presence of alkali metalcompounds as promoters. A comparative study was made for the catalytic performanceusing different ionic liquids, substrates, promoters, and pressures. The optimum catalyticsystem was BMIM-Br promoted by K2CO3, which, for 1-amino-2-propanol, produced cyclicurethane in 40% yield with a smaller yield of substituted cyclic urea and no oligomericbyproducts. For other amino alcohols, cyclic urethanes, cyclic ureas, and/or undesiredbyproducts were produced in different yields depending on the substrates used. Possiblereaction mechanisms are proposed.

  4. Evaluation of flaxseed effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rabbits submitted to a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tatim Saad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of flaxseed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as on the lipid profile in rabbits submitted to hypercholesterolemic diet. Subject and Methods: 32 male rabbits, weighing approximately 1.5kg and averaging four months of age, were distributed into three groups. Group 1 received standard food plus 0.5% of cholesterol from dried egg, during 8 weeks. Group 2 obtained the same diet in the first 4 weeks, and 8mg/kg of ground flaxseed was added in the remaining weeks. Lastly, group 3 was fed with the previous group’s increased diet throughout the entire period. In the follow-up, the animals were euthanized, and liver blades were prepared to evaluate the histopathologic study. The evaluation score of NAFLD (ESN, as well as plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight, were all determined. Results: Increased levels of total cholesterol were obtained in both groups, with the smallest variation found in G3 (p=0.002. This variation was also found when the levels of LDLcholesterol were assessed (p=0.001. There was a reduction of triglyceride levels at the end of the study in G3 (p=0.008. A variation was noticed between the ESN groups, but the induced reduction was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Further studies are necessary, in order to elucidate the effects of flaxseed in NAFLD as well as in diseases that have risk factors for the development of the disease

  5. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hydrogen Sulfate [bmim]HSO4: An Efficient Reusable Acidic Ionic Liquid for the Formylation of Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIKNAM Khodabakhsh; ZOLFIGOL Mohammad Ali; SABERI Dariush; KHONBAZI Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [bmim]HSO4 as an acidic ionic liquid was prepared and used as a catalyst for the formylation of alcohols with ethyl formate at room temperature with good to excellent yields.A good selectivity was observed for the formylation of primary alcohols in the presence of tertiary alcohols.

  6. High fat diet-induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia caused by down regulation of the transsulphuration pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano Mariarosaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy causes increased oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress is now believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the changes which occur in homocysteine (Hcy metabolism in high fat-diet induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats were investigated. Methods and results After feeding rats a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolisable energy as fat for 18 weeks, the concentration of homocysteine in the plasma was significantly raised while that of cysteine was lowered in the high fat as compared to the control diet fed animals. The hepatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGS, the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of homocysteine to cysteine via the transsulphuration pathway in the liver, were also significantly reduced in the high fat-fed group. Conclusions These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with increased plasma Hcy levels caused by down-regulation of hepatic CBS and CGL activity. Thus, HHcy occurs at an early stage in high fat diet-induced NAFLD and is likely to contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the condition.

  7. (Liquid + liquid) phase equilibria for (water + 2,3-butanediol + oleyl alcohol) at T = (300.2, 307.2, and 314.2) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayati, Gholam [Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: pahlavzh@modares.ac.ir; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaemi, Nasser [Department of Biotechnology, University College of Science, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    (Liquid + liquid equilibrium) (LLE) data for ternary system: (water + 2,3-butanediol + oleyl alcohol) has been measured at T = (300.2, 307.2, and 314.2) K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by Othmer-Tobias and Bachman methods. The nonrandom two liquids equation (NRTL) was used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data. It is found that NRTL could give a good correlation for the LLE data. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  8. NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIET AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN ELDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Portela, Clarissa Lima; de Carvalho Sampaio, Helena Alves; Pereira de Melo, Maria Luísa; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Maia Pinto, Francisco José; Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las interrelaciones entre enfermedad grasa no alcohólica del hígado (HGNA) y factores dietéticos en una población de ancianos hipertensos. Métodos: 229 pacientes ancianos hipertensos fueron evaluados desde junio a diciembre del 2009. Todos los pacientes que aceptaron participar en el estudio firmaron un consentimiento libre e informado. Fueron realizadas evaluaciones antropométricas y de composición corporal. El diagnóstico de HGNA fue determinado por el American Guidelines. El consumo alimenticio regular fue estimado a través de una encuesta alimentaria de recordatorio de 24 horas. Resultados: el exceso de peso, ponderado por el índice de masa corporal y el exceso de grasa abdominal, fueron asociados con HGNA (p < 0,001). Un perfil inverso fue encontrado con las variables dietéticas. Conclusión: el grupo estudiado presentó una situación de riesgo para la salud, considerando los marcadores del estado nutricional. La dieta regular pareció ser inadecuada, mostrando exceso de sodio bajo consumo de fibras y vegetales.

  9. A Facile and Efficient Oxidation of (,(-Unsaturated Alcohols with Manganese Dioxide in Ionic Liquids under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liang BAO; Qiang WANG; Yun Fa ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of α,β-unsaturated primary and secondary alcohols to corresponding aldehydes and ketones by manganese dioxide in ionic liquids as a safe recyclable and accelerative reaction medium under mild conditions are described. The rate of the oxidation reaction is faster and the yield is higher than that with conventional procedures.

  10. Aliphatic carboxylic acids and alcohols as efficiency and elution strength enhancers in micellar liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Alexander P; Berthod, Alain

    2010-09-03

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) uses surfactant solutions as mobile phases with added organic additives to enhance both the elution strength and the chromatographic efficiency. Two aliphatic carboxylic acids (1-butanoic and 1-pentanoic) were used as MLC additives and compared with the two corresponding alcohols (1-butanol, 1-pentanol) in terms of elution strength, efficiency and selectivity. A set of 11 phenol derivatives was used as probe compounds. All micellar mobile phases were prepared with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 0.15M and the modifier content within 1.0 and 5.0% (v/v). The elution strength of different mobile phases containing a constant amount of SDS and different amounts of modifiers; and mobile phases containing a constant amount of modifier and different SDS concentration were determined and discussed. The effect of the acid modifiers on efficiency was studied constructing van Deemter plots that showed no minimum within the 0.01-0.7mL/min flow rate range studied. Temperature effects were also studied constructing the classical van't Hoff plots. The slight curvature of the plots in the 25-70 degrees C range may indicate some modification of the surfactant-bonded moiety layer on the stationary phase surface. Since no definitive advantage of the use of aliphatic acids were established compared to their alcohol counterpart, their terrible smell will probably preclude their use as MLC organic modifiers.

  11. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  12. Mass-Spectrometry-Based Serum Metabolomics of a C57BL/6J Mouse Model of High-Fat-Diet-Induced Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Yufeng J; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2015-09-09

    Obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation are key clinical risk factors for the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, there is no comprehensive metabolic profile of a well-established animal model that effectively mimics the etiology and pathogenesis of NAFLD in humans. Here, we report the pathophysiological and metabolomic changes associated with NAFLD development in a C57BL/6J mouse model in which NAFLD was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Serum metabolomic analysis was conducted using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to establish a metabolomic profile. Analysis of the metabolomic profile in combination with principal component analysis revealed marked differences in metabolites between the control and HFD group depending upon NAFLD severity. A total of 30 potential biomarkers were strongly associated with the development of NAFLD. Among these, 11 metabolites were mainly related to carbohydrate metabolism, hepatic biotransformation, collagen synthesis, and gut microbial metabolism, which are characteristics of obesity, as well as significantly increased serum glucose, total cholesterol, and hepatic triglyceride levels during the onset of NAFLD (4 weeks). At 8 weeks, 5 additional metabolites that are chiefly involved in perturbation of lipid metabolism and insulin secretion were found to be associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis in the mid-term of NAFLD progression. At the end of 12 and 16 weeks, 14 additional metabolites were predominantly correlated to abnormal bile acid synthesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation, representing hepatic inflammatory infiltration during NAFLD development. These results provide potential biomarkers for early risk assessment of NAFLD and further insights into NAFLD

  13. Reaction kinetics for synthesis of sec-butyl alcohol catalyzed by acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Qiu; Wenli Tang; Chenggang Li; Chengming Wu; Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    The acid-functionalized ionic liquid ([HSO3Pmim]HSO4) was synthesized by a two-step method. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) show that the synthesis method is feasible and high purity of ionic liquid can be obtained. Using [HSO3Pmim]HSO4 as the catalyst, we studied the reaction kinetics of synthesizing sec-butyl alcohol from sec-butyl acetate and methanol by transesterification in a high-pressure batch reactor. The effects of temperature, initial molar ratio of methanol to ester, and catalyst concentration on the conversion of sec-butyl acetate were studied. Based on its possible reaction mechanism, a ho-mogeneous kinetic model was established. The results show that the reaction heatΔH is 10.94 × 103 J·mol−1, so the reaction is an endothermic reaction. The activation energies Ea+and Ea−are 60.38 × 103 and 49.44 × 103 J·mol−1, respectively.

  14. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Corella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fat mass and obesity (FTO and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA, and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. METHODS: Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet and physical activity (PA were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. RESULTS: FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and obesity (P<0.05 for all. A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR=1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.13. We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05 with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P=0.502 than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P=0.021 than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/-SE: -0.57+/-0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P=0.001. CONCLUSION: Statistical and biological interactions with PA

  15. Molecular dynamics study of nanoscale organization and hydrogen bonding in binary mixtures of butylammonium nitrate ionic liquid and primary alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Gourav; Gupta, Aditya; Rastogi, Aman; Dhabal, Debdas; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are utilized here to explore the nanoscale morphology and the nature of hydrogen bonding in the equimolar mixtures of butylammonium nitrate protic ionic liquid with ethanol, propanol, and butanol. The X-ray scattering experimental study of Greaves et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 13 501 (2011)] has evidenced that alkylammonium nitrate plus alcohol mixtures possess nanoscale structural order which becomes more pronounced as the chain length of the alcohol increases. Our analysis carried out using simulated total and partial X-ray scattering structure functions quantifies the basis of these observations. The partial structure functions highlight the off-phase density correlations of alcohol with both cation and anion in the low-q region. We demonstrate that the chain lengthening of alcohols offers significant variation in the structuring of the polar and apolar moieties in the mixtures. The inspection based on radial distribution functions manifests the non-linear hydrogen bonds of cations with nitrate anions as well as alcohol molecules. The alcohol's hydroxyl group prefers to form linear hydrogen bonds with anions and with other alcohol molecules. Incremented chain length of alcohol improves the extent of hydrogen bonding but does not alter their geometry. Spatial distribution functions delineate similar preferences. It shows stronger directional preferences of the hydroxyl group of alcohols than cation in the vicinity of an anion. Enhanced pair correlations associated with the terminal methyl carbons suggest aggregation of butanol chains in apolar domains. Triplet correlation functions (TCFs) are also used to evaluate the orientational preferences of the present polar moieties in the mixtures. Information based on TCFs for distribution of polar head group of cations and anions unveils the dominance of equilateral configurations over the less frequent isosceles configurations in all the three mixtures.

  16. Changes in collagens and chondrocytes in the temporomandibular joint cartilage in growing rats fed a liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Hiroki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Domon, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Taihiko

    2015-11-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of growing rats fed a soft diet is reported to be smaller in size and to have thinner condyle and glenoid fossa cartilage than rats fed a solid diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a soft diet on the collagens and chondrocytes in the growing TMJ cartilage. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control group fed a solid diet and an experimental group fed a liquid diet for 1-8 weeks. After the experimental period, the TMJs were harvested and examined histologically, immunohistochemically for collagen types I, II, and X, and with transmission electron microscopy. The condylar cartilage in the experimental rats showed weak immunoreactions for three types of collagens compared with the controls. The ultrastructure had fewer fine collagen fibrils in the experimental rats compared with that of the controls. The glenoid fossa cartilage in the experimental rats showed narrower Alcian blue-positive areas than the control staining. The immunoreactions for three types of collagen in the experimental rats were also weaker than those of the controls. The chondrocytes in the experimental rats appeared dark, had extended thin cytoplasmic processes, and had formed gap junctions, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fine collagen fibrils, but thick bands of collagen fibrils were observed in the glenoid fossa of the experimental cartilage. The results of the present study showed that a liquid diet had deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of collagens and chondrocytes in the TMJ cartilage in growing rats.

  17. Effect of fermented liquid diet prepared with Lactobacillus plantarum LQ80 on the immune response in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumachi, K; Aoki, R; Ohmori, H; Saeki, M; Kawashima, T

    2009-05-01

    Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria directly influence the host's health and have beneficial effects such as decreasing the number of enteric pathogens, regulating intestinal immune responses and preventing diseases. Among domestic animals, probiotics have been expected to be an alternative to antibiotics added in the diet; and fermented liquid diet (FLD) containing probiotics has great potential as a diet for reducing the use of antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of FLD, prepared using Lactobacillus plantarum LQ80 (LQ80), on the immune response of weaning pigs. Ten weaning piglets were divided into two groups and were fed the FLD (n = 5) or a non-fermented liquid diet (NFLD) (n = 5) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the total immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in the sera of the FLD-fed piglets were significantly higher than those of the NFLD-fed piglets (P feeding. However, the mean fecal IgA levels of FLD-fed piglets at day 28 were higher than those at 14 and 21 days (P feed prepared with the use of LQ80 may be a candidate feed, with regard to enhancing immune responses and preventing diseases in weaning piglets.

  18. Efficiency enhancements in micellar liquid chromatography through selection of stationary phase and alcohol modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David P; Foley, Joe P

    2007-05-18

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) remains hindered by reduced chromatographic efficiency compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) using hydro-organic mobile phases. The reduced efficiency has been partially explained by the adsorption of surfactant monomers onto the stationary phase, resulting in a slow mass transfer of the analyte within the interfacial region of the mobile phase and stationary phase. Using an array of 12 columns, the effects of various bonded stationary phases and silica pore sizes, including large-pore short alkyl chain, non-porous, superficially porous and perfluorinated, were evaluated to determine their impact on efficiency in MLC. Additionally, each stationary phase was evaluated using 1-propanol and 1-butanol as separate micellar mobile phase alcohol additives, with several columns also evaluated using 1-pentanol. A simplified equation for calculation of A' and C' terms from reduced plate height (h) versus reduced velocity (nu) plots was used to compare the efficiency data obtained with the different columns and mobile phases. Analyte diffusion coefficients needed for the h versus nu plots were determined by the Taylor-Aris dispersion technique. The use of a short alkyl chain, wide-pore silica column, specifically, Nucleosil C4, 1000A, was shown to have the most improved efficiency when using a micellar mobile phase compared to a hydro-organic mobile phase for all columns evaluated. The use of 1-propanol was also shown to provide improved efficiency over 1-butanol or 1-pentanol in most cases. In a second series of experiments, column temperatures were varied from 40 to 70 degrees C to determine the effect of temperature on efficiency for a subset of the stationary phases. Efficiency improvements ranging from 9% for a Chromegabond C8 column to 58% for a Zorbax ODS column were observed over the temperature range. Based on these observed improvements, higher column temperatures may often yield significant gains in column

  19. Selective liquid-phase oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by a silver-based catalyst promoted by the presence of ceria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    A number of silver catalysts supported on SiO2, Al2O3, Celite, CeO2, kaolin, MgO, and activated carbon were screened for their catalytic activity in the selective liquid-phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol using a special screening approach. For this purpose 5–6 catalyst samples were mixed and tested....... Compared to palladium and gold catalysts, the new silver catalyst performed similarly or even superior in the presence of CeO2. In addition, the presence of ceria increased the catalytic activity of all investigated catalysts....... by in situ XAS experiments. Oxygen species incorporated in the silver lattice appear to be important for the catalytic oxidation of the alcohol for which a preliminary mechanism is presented. The application of the catalyst was extended to the oxidation of a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols...

  20. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Solvent-free Liquid Phase Oxidation of Alcohol Using ZrO2 Catalyst with Molecular Oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ILYAS Mohammad; SADIQ Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Clean liquid phase solvent-free oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde/ketone using ZrO2 catalyst with molecular oxygen has been studied.Monoclinic phase ZrO2 has been synthesized and characterized by XRD,SEM,EDX and surface and pore size analyses.Oxidation of alcohol was carded out in a typical batch reactor at different sDeed of agitation(150-1200 r/min),temperature(373-413 K),catalyst loading(50-300 mg)and partial pressure of oxygen(12-101 kPa).These parameters influence alcohol conversion as well as selectivity.A handy touch of kinetics was given to the experimental data and apparent activation energy was calculated.

  1. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria for the alcohol + glycerol systems using UNIFAC and modified UNIFAC (Dortmund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Dhoni; Mustain, Asalil; Nugroho, Febry Dwi

    2017-03-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibria for eight systems of alcohols + glycerol at 101.325 kPa have been predicted in this study using UNIFAC and Modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) group contribution methods. The investigated alcohols were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol. In order to study the accuracy of both contribution methods, the predicted data obtained from both approaches were compared to the experimental data from the literature. The prediction accuracy using modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) give better results compared to the UNIFAC method for (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol) + glycerol but UNIFAC method show better accuracy for methanol + glycerol system. In addition, the influences of carbon chain length on the phase behaviours of alcohol + glycerol systems were also discussed as well.

  2. Reduction of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol in Liquid Phase over a Biochar-Supported Platinum Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Fuente-Hernández

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the liquid phase hydrogenation of furfural has been studied using a biochar-supported platinum catalyst in a batch reactor. Reactions were performed between 170 °C and 320 °C, using 3 wt % and 5 wt % of Pt supported on a maple-based biochar under hydrogen pressure varying from 500 psi to 1500 psi for reaction times between 1 h and 6 h in various solvents. Under all reactive conditions, furfural conversion was significant, whilst under specific conditions furfuryl alcohol (FA was obtained in most cases as the main product showing a selectivity around 80%. Other products as methylfuran (MF, furan, and trace of tetrahydrofuran (THF were detected. Results showed that the most efficient reaction conditions involved a 3% Pt load on biochar and operations for 2 h at 210 °C and 1500 psi using toluene as solvent. When used repetitively, the catalyst showed deactivation although only a slight variation in selectivity toward FA at the optimal experimental conditions was observed.

  3. Superselective arterial embolisation with a liquid polyvinyl alcohol copolymer in patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, Markus; Schneider, Hans [Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bamberg (Germany); Paetzel, Christian [Klinikum Weiden, Department of Radiology, Weiden (Germany); Sackmann, Michael [Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Department of Gastroenterology, Bamberg (Germany); Jung, Ernst Michael; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Feuerbach, Stefan; Zorger, Niels [University of Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate the results of emergency embolisation in acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract with a liquid polyvinyl alcohol copolymer from two centres. We retrospectively analysed 16 cases (15 patients) of acute arterial bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract where emergency embolotherapy was performed by using the copolymer when acute haemorrhage was not treatable with endoscopic techniques alone. Cause of haemorrhage and technical and clinical success were documented. Arterial embolotherapy was successful in all 16 cases. The technical success rate was 100%. The cause of bleeding was pancreatitis in four, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the colon in three, malignancy in three, angiodysplasia in two, ulcer in two and panarteritis no dosa and trauma in one each. There were no procedure-related complications. No bowel necrosis occurred because of embolisation. In 13 cases, the patients were discharged in good condition (81%); the three patients with GVHD died because of the underlying disease. The copolymer seems to have great potential in embolotherapy of acute arterial gastrointestinal bleeding. In our series none of the patients had rebleeding at the site of embolisation and no clinically obvious bowel necrosis occurred. (orig.)

  4. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyong; Chen, Zhiyu; Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Chengwei; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  5. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyong He

    Full Text Available Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  6. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  7. Is an alcoholic fixative fluid used for manual liquid-based cytology accurate to perform HPV tests?

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    Garbar C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Garbar1, Corinne Mascaux1, Philippe De Graeve2, Philippe Delvenne31Department of Biopathology, Institute Jean Godinot, Reims Cedex, France; 2Centre de Pathologie des Coteaux, Toulouse, France; 3Department of Pathology, University of Liege, Tour de Pathologie, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Liège, BelgiumAbstract: In Europe, the alternative centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology is widely used in cervical screening. Turbitec® (Labonord SAS, Templemars, France is a centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology using an alcoholic fixative fluid, Easyfix® (Labonord. It is now well accepted that the association of liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus test is indissociable of cervical screening. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that Easyfix alcoholic fluid is reliable to perform Hybrid Capture® 2 (QIAGEN SAS, Courtaboeuf, France. In this study, 75 patients with colposcopy for cervical lesions served as gold standard. A sample was collected, at random, for Easyfix fixative cytological fluid and for Digene Cervical Sampler (QIAGEN. The results of Hybrid Capture 2 (with relative light unit >1 showed no statistical difference, a positive Spearman’s correlation (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001, and a kappa value of 0.87 (excellent agreement between the two fluids. It was concluded that Easyfix is accurate to use in human papillomavirus tests with Hybrid Capture 2.Keywords: human papillomavirus, hybrid capture 2, Turbitec®, cervix cytology, liquid-based cytology

  8. Determination and Correlation of Solubilities of Four Novel Benzothiazolium Ionic Liquids with 6PF- in Six Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志坚; 王小敏; 姚田; 宋航; 姚舜

    2014-01-01

    Four novel benzothiazolium ionic liquids with 6PF- ([C1Bth][PF6], [C4Bth][PF6], [C5Bth][PF6] and [C6Bth][PF6]) were synthesized, and the rang of their melting points were determined between 358.35 K-424.05 K. The relationship of their melting points and the length of the straight alkyl chain on cation reflected‘S’ type ten-dency. Then, the solubilities of the four ionic liquids in six lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol) were measured in the temperature rang of 253.15-383.15 K at at-mospheric pressure with static analytical method, respectively. It was found that [C6Bth][PF6] in all investigated ionic liquids had the largest solubility in six alcohols and the solubility of [C4Bth][PF6] in methanol was very sensi-tive for temperature in 313.15-333.15 K, which was so-called “temperature-sensitivity”. This feature is of great significance to their application of catalyzing reaction or extraction process, and makes the recovery and reuse of ionic liquids (ILs) become easier. Moreover, the experimental solubility data were correlated with the modified Apelblat equation andλh equation, respectively. It was found that the result of correlation using two divided tem-perature ranges was better than that of using the whole temperature range.

  9. Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kuba, Motoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Han, Song-iee; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Isaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Yahagi, Naoya; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)—in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis. PMID:27333187

  10. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  11. Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands. Subjects/Me

  12. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: A diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, E.C.de; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27

  13. Quantum chemical approach in the description of the amphiphile clusterization at the air/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces with phase nature accounting. I. Aliphatic normal alcohols at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotsky, Yuri B; Belyaeva, Elena A; Kartashynska, Elena S; Fainerman, Valentine B; Smirnova, Natalia A

    2015-02-19

    A new model based on the quantum chemical approach is proposed to describe structural and thermodynamic parameters of clusterization for substituted alkanes at the air/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. The new model by the authors, unlike the previous one, proposes an explicit account of the liquid phase (phases) influence on the parameters of monomers, clusters and monolayers of substituted alkanes at the regarded interface. The calculations were carried out in the frameworks of the quantum chemical semiempirical PM3 method (Mopac 2012), using the COSMO procedure. The new model was tested in the calculations of the clusterization parameters of fatty alcohols under the standard conditions at the air/water interface. The enthalpy, Gibbs' energy and absolute entropy of formation for alcohol monomers alongside with clusterization parameters for the cluster series including the monolayer at air/water interface were calculated. In our calculations the sinkage of monomers, molecules in clusters and monolayers was varied from 1 up to 5 methylene groups. Thermodynamic parameters calculated using the proposed model for the alcohol monolayers are in a good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. However, the proposed model cannot define the most energetically preferable immersion of the monolayer molecules in the water phase.

  14. A high-performance liquid chromatography-based radiometric assay for acyl-CoA:alcohol transacylase from jojoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, W S; Kemp, J D; Kuehn, G D

    1992-12-01

    Acyl-CoA:alcohol transacylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of storage liquid wax esters from acyl-CoA fatty acids and fatty alcohols in a limited number of microbes, algae, and Simmondsia chinensis Link (jojoba). An improved and automated method of enzyme assay for this catalyst from cotyledons of jojoba is described. The assay method uses reversed-phase C18 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the labeled C30:1 liquid wax product, [14C]-dodecanyl-octadecenoate, from the unreacted substrate, [14C]octadecenoyl-CoA (oleyl-CoA), and other components produced from enzymes present in the crude homogenate of jojoba cotyledons, including [14C]-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid) and [14C]octadecenol (oleyol). Methods are also described for microscale chemical synthesis in one vessel of 14C-radiolabeled substrates and products for the transacylase. These labeled reagents are required to confirm the HPLC separations of reaction products. The radioactive components are quantitated using an on-line flow-through scintillation detector enabling sensitive and precise analysis of the reaction products.

  15. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Rezaee, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Shirin Sadeghi; Montazeri, Naser; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (43.0 µL 1,2-dichloroethane) and disperser solvent (1.0 mL acetonitrile) for the formation of a cloudy solution in a 5.0-mL aqueous sample containing benzaldehyde. The linear range was 1.0-1000 µg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.2 µg L(-1) for benzaldehyde.

  16. Rheology of the lamellar liquid-crystalline phase in polyethoxylated alcohol/water/heptane systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear viscoelastic tests as well as transient and steady flow experiments were carried out on lamellar liquid crystalline samples of poly (oxyethylene alcohol/water/heptane systems. The effect of surfactant and heptane concentrations on the rheological properties of the lamellar mesophase was investigated. The mechanical spectrum inside the linear viscoelastic regime shows, in all cases, a well-developed plateau region in the whole frequency range studied. The values of the dynamic functions were higher for intermediate surfactant or heptane concentrations indicative of a major development of the elastic network in the midrange of existence of the lamellar phase. Transient and steady flow experiments point out a shear-induced evolution of the lamellar microstructure. Different power law regions with different values of the flow index were detected in the viscosity versus shear rate plots. These shear-induced structural modifications were confirmed by using polarizing microscopy in an optical shearing cell. Structural modifications appear to be highly influenced by shear rate. In general, applying relatively high constant shear rates, the alignment of the bilayers followed by the appearance of the “oily streaks” structure was observed. Appearance of shear-induced vesicles occurs at high heptane content, as indicates the texture of close-packed monodisperse spherulites detected by polarizing microscopy.n este trabajo se han estudiado las propiedades reológicas de una fase líquido-cristalina laminar contenida en un sistema alcohol polietoxilado/agua/heptano, mediante ensayos viscoelásticos lineales, estacionarios y transitorios. El efecto de distintas variables como la composición de tensioactivo y heptano sobre dichas propiedades reológicas ha sido analizado. El espectro mecánico obtenido de la fase laminar muestra en todos los casos una región “plateau” en el intervalo de frecuencias estudiado así como mayores valores

  17. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks.

  18. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.c [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-05-15

    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at <5%. Complementary isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibria results are reported for the (CO{sub 2} + 1-propanol), (CO{sub 2} + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO{sub 2} + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO{sub 2} + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  19. Thermodynamical and structural properties of binary mixtures of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids and alcohols from molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Gabriele; Köhler, Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to determine the densities, excess energies of mixing, and structural properties of binary mixtures of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) [amim][Cl] and ethanol and 1-propanol in the temperature range from 298.15to363.15K. As in our previous work [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154509 (2008)], our simulation studies are based on a united atom model from Liu et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1096 (2006)] for the 1-ethyl- and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations [emim+] and [bmim+], which we have extended to the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium [hmim+] cation and combined with parameters of Canongia Lopes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 2038 (2004)] for the chloride anion [Cl-] and the force field by Khare et al. for the alcohols [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10071 (2004)]. With this, we provide both prediction for the densities of the mixtures that have mostly not been investigated experimentally yet and a molecular picture of the interactions between the alcohol molecules and the ions. The negative excess energies of all mixtures indicate an energetically favorable mixing of [amim][Cl] ILs and alcohols. To gain insight into the nonideality of the mixtures on the molecular level, we analyzed their local structures by radial and spatial distribution functions. These analyses show that the local ordering in these mixtures is determined by strong hydrogen-bond interactions between the chloride anion and the hydroxyls of the alcohols, enhanced interactions between the anion and the charged domain of the cation, and an increasing aggregation of the nonpolar alkyl tails of the alcohols and the cations with increasing cation size, which results in a segregation of polar and nonpolar domains.

  20. Effects of Saponification Rate on Electrooptical Properties and Morphology of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Liquid Crystal Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    1995-03-01

    The relationship between the saponification rate of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and the electrooptical properties and morphology of the PVA/liquid crystal (LC) composite films was investigated. Light transmission clazing and the LC droplet size were varied by changing the saponification rate or the blend ratio of two kinds of PVA with different saponification rates because the refractive index and surface tension could be controlled by the saponification rate of PVA. The threshold voltage decreased with increasing saponification rate though the extrapolation length was decreased. It was suggested that the electrooptical properties were strongly dependent on the droplet size.

  1. Dosage direct des alcools et éthers dans les carburants par chromatographie en phase liquide Direct Measurement of Alcohols and Ethers in Gasohols by Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroff N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les différents composés oxygénés potentiels des carburants (alcools jusqu'aux butanols, acétone et éthers en C5 et C6 sont dosés par chromatographie en phase liquide inversée, avec deux qualités d'éluant sur la même colonne (RP 18. L'analyse est faite à 50 °C, avec un détecteur réfractométrique. La limite de sensibilité peut atteindre 100 ppm pour les alcools. The different potential oxygenated compounds in gasolines blended with alcohols up to butanols, acetone and ethers with 5 and 6 carbons are measured by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with two elution systems in the same column (RP 18. Analysis is performed at 50°C with a refractometer as detector. The sensitivity limit can reach 100 ppm for alcohols.

  2. Comparison of low-calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahmanabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD is defined as a spectrum of clinical scenarios which is pathological deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients who have no history of alcohol use. This study compared the effect of low calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function in patients with NAFLD. Materials & Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted in 2010 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, on 40 obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of intervention and control groups. Group one received 15 mg daily sibutramine capsules half an hour before lunch and a weight loss diet based on ideal body weight. The other group only had diet control for weight reduction. Before and after 3 months of intervention, weight changes, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, levels of liver enzymes and ultrasound evaluation was repeated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired T test, Mann-Whitney and McNemar test. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 38.90 ± 7.00 in the sibutramine group and 36.55 ±7.87 for the control group. After three months, the average weight loss in sibutramine group was significantly more than the control group (sibutramine group13 kg and control group 4 kg (p<0.05. Improvement in liver echogenicity in sibutramine patients was 90% and 50% of diet group patients. ALT changes in the sibutramine group and control group was 7.50 ± 15.11 and 6.15 ± 28.23 respectively, which was statistically significant in the sibutramine group. AST changes were 4.38 ± 13.37 and 1.70 ± 18.37 in sibutramine and control group respectively. The changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall, findings of this study suggest that sibutramine is effective in liver function improvement and treatment of NAFLD patients.

  3. Phase equilibria study in binary systems (tetra-n-butylphosphonium tosylate ionic liquid + 1-alcohol, or benzene, or n-alkylbenzene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Paduszyński, Kamil

    2008-09-04

    Ambient pressure (solid + liquid) equilibria (SLE) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of binary systems--ionic liquid (IL) tetra- n-butylphosphonium p-toluenesulfonate + 1-alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, or 1-dodecanol), benzene, or n-alkylbenzene (toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene)-have been determined by using dynamic method in a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 250 to 335 K. For binaries containing alcohol, simple eutectic diagrams were observed with complete miscibility in the liquid phase. Only in the case of system [IL + n-propylbenzene] was mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) with low solubility of the IL in the alcohol and high solubility of the alcohol in the IL detected. The basic thermal properties of pure IL, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as enthalpy of melting, have been measured with differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson, NRTL, NRTL1, and NRTL2 equations have been fitted to obtain experimental data sets. For the system containing immiscibility gap [IL + n-propylbenzene], parameters of the equations have been derived only from SLE data. As a measure of goodness of correlations, root-mean square deviations of temperature have been used. These experimental results were compared to the previously measured binary systems with tetra- n-butylphosphonium methanesulfonate. Changing anion from methanesulfonate to p-toluenesulfonate decreases solubilities in systems with alcohols and increases the solubilities in binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes.

  4. Sensitive and precise monitoring of phosphatidylethanol in human blood as a biomarker for alcohol intake by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siming; Yang, Ruiyue; Ji, Fusui; Li, Hongxia; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenxiang

    2017-05-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a special phospholipid that is only formed in the presence of ethanol, and therefore, serves as a promising biomarker for alcohol intake. In this study, a simple, rapid and precise method based on LC-MS/MS combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed and validated for the measurements of PEth (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:1) in human blood. The influences of several variables for sample extraction and MS detection were carefully investigated. The extraction efficiencies for all the four PEth species were markedly increased compared with the traditional extractions. A limit of detection below 0.56ngmL(-1) was obtained. This high sensitivity makes it possible to monitor various alcohol consumption levels in light to heavy drinkers. Good linearity was obtained for all the analytes without interference from the sample matrix. The imprecisions of the intra-run and total assays were lower than 3.1% and 6.5%, respectively, with an average recovery of 99.87%. In addition, the utility of the method was evaluated in an alcohol intake status study. The results indicate that the developed protocol is simple, precise, and sensitive, and can be easily adapted for objective and reliable assessments of alcohol intake in clinical research.

  5. The effects of Sepiolite-SPLF on heavy pigs fed liquid diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Parisini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid feed delivery systems for pigs have tended to be more common in areas where liquid by-products (i.e. dairy whey are readily available and where the size of the production unit can justify the capital expenditure involved. The potential advantages of liquid feeding include: a reduction of feed loss during handling and feeding; b improvement in the pig's environment due to the reduction of dust in the atmosphere; c improved pig performance and feed conversion rate (Jensen and Mikkelsen, 1998; Dell’Orto et al., 1992; d flexibility in raw material use (opportunity to utilise more economic food source, i.e. silages; e improved dry matter intake in lactating sows. However, very few studies have been done concerning technical quality of the liquid feed with respect to homogeneity, fluidity and sedimentation (Hoppenbrock et al., 1998...

  6. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.

  7. Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification of Ferulic Acid with Oleyl Alcohol in Ionic Liquid/Isooctane Binary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Bilian; Liu, Huanzhen; Guo, Zheng;

    2011-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ferulic acid oleyl alcohol ester in an ionic liquid (IL)/isooctane system was investigated. Considerable bioconversion and volumetric productivity were achieved in inexpensive 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF6]) and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium....... Variations of the ratios of IL/isooctane and concentrations of oleyl alcohol also profoundly affected the volumetric productivity. To a higher extent, [Hmim][PF6]/isooctane and [Omim][PF6]/isooctane show similar reaction behaviors. Under the optimized reaction conditions (60 °C, 150 mg of Novozym 435 and 100...... mg of molecular sieves), up to 48.50 mg/mL productivity of oleyl feruleate could be achieved for the [Hmim][PF6]/isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system with a substrate concentration of ferulic acid of 0.08 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol of 0.32 mmol; while an optimum volumetric productivity of 26.92 mg...

  8. [Determination of sugars, organic acids and alcohols in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose using high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Fan, Guifang; Du, Ran; Li, Peipei; Jiang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the determination of metabolites (sugars, organic acids and alcohols) in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose. Sulfate was first added in the samples to precipitate calcium ions in microbial consortium culture medium and lower the pH of the solution to avoid the dissociation of organic acids, then the filtrates were effectively separated using high performance liquid chromatography. Cellobiose, glucose, ethanol, butanol, glycerol, acetic acid and butyric acid were quantitatively analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 0.10-2.00 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 6 in the range of 0.020 to 1.000 g/L. The recoveries were in the range of 85.41%-115.60% with the relative standard deviations of 0.22% -4.62% (n = 6). This method is accurate for the quantitative analysis of the alcohols, organic acids and saccharides in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose.

  9. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic Acid with oleyl alcohol in ionic liquid/isooctane binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bilian; Liu, Huanzhen; Guo, Zheng; Huang, Jian; Wang, Minzi; Xu, Xuebing; Zheng, Lifei

    2011-02-23

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ferulic acid oleyl alcohol ester in an ionic liquid (IL)/isooctane system was investigated. Considerable bioconversion and volumetric productivity were achieved in inexpensive 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF(6)]) and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Omim][PF(6)]) mediated systems, and thus, the two types of ILs were selected for further optimization of variables. The results showed that, before reaching a maximum, the increase of ferulic acid concentration, temperature, or enzyme dosage led to an increase in volumetric productivity. Variations of the ratios of IL/isooctane and concentrations of oleyl alcohol also profoundly affected the volumetric productivity. To a higher extent, [Hmim][PF(6)]/isooctane and [Omim][PF(6)]/isooctane show similar reaction behaviors. Under the optimized reaction conditions (60 °C, 150 mg of Novozym 435 and 100 mg of molecular sieves), up to 48.50 mg/mL productivity of oleyl feruleate could be achieved for the [Hmim][PF(6)]/isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system with a substrate concentration of ferulic acid of 0.08 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol of 0.32 mmol; while an optimum volumetric productivity of 26.92 mg/mL was obtained for the [Omim][PF(6)]/ isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system under a similar reaction condition other than the substrate concentrations of ferulic acid at 0.05 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol at 0.20 mmol.

  10. Effects of Berberine on Hepatic Sirtuin 1-uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats Induced by High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-jun Deng; Yu-pei Zhang; Qin-he Yang; Li Han; Yin-ji Liang; Yi-fang He; Yuan-yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the involvement of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) pathway in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and whether berberine exerts its effects by regulating this pathway.Methods Male SD rats were divided into three groups:normal control group,high-fat diet group,and berberine supplement group.The rats in the normal control group were given normal diet while the rats in the other two groups were fed with high-fat diet.Rats in the berberine supplement group were concurrently given berberine (100 mg/kg body weight) once daily.After 1 6 weeks,the levels of serum,liver lipids,and serum aminotransferase were measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver were measured using commercial kits.Histopathological changes of liver tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Oil Red O staining.The hepatic mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1 and UCP2 were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or Western blotting.Results Berberine supplement could significantly decrease the serum and liver lipid contents in rats fed with high-fat diet.Meanwhile,SOD level was significantly elevated,but MDA level was reduced in the liver.The results of HE and Oil Red O staining showed that the hepatic steatosis was alleviated in berberine supplement group.Furthermore,berberine induced an increase in SlRT1 expression but a decrease in UCP2 expression.Conclusion The regulation of hepatic SIRT1-UCP2 pathway may be an important mechanism by which berberine exerts the beneficial effects in NAFLD rats.

  11. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlang, Banrida [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Song, Ming [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cameron Falkner, K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Al-Eryani, Laila [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E. [Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Christopher States, J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cave, Matthew C., E-mail: matt.cave@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); The Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  12. Using the alkanes and long-chain alcohols of plant cuticular wax to estimate diet composition and the intakes of mixed forages in sheep consuming a known amount of alkane-labelled supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, H; Charmley, E

    2008-10-01

    In a feeding trial with 24 sheep, we used the alkanes, long-chain alcohols (LCOH) or both of these plant wax markers, to estimate the diet composition of animals offered diets comprising alkane-labelled cottonseed meal (CSM) together with up to four forages. The diets used were: Diet 1 subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum); Diet 2 subterranean clover + phalaris (Phalaris aquatica); Diet 3 subterranean clover, phalaris + annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum); and Diet 4 subterranean clover, phalaris, annual ryegrass + wheat straw (Triticum aestivum). Estimates of diet composition were made following correction of faecal alkane or LCOH concentrations for incomplete faecal recovery, using recovery estimates derived from individual animals, mean recoveries for a given dietary treatment or grand mean recoveries. Estimated dietary proportions of CSM and known intakes of CSM were used to estimate forage intake. The LCOH concentrations of the diet components were much higher than their alkane concentrations, especially for phalaris. Multivariate analyses showed that the discriminatory information provided by the LCOH was additional to that provided by the alkanes, and that a combination of (LCOH + alkanes) discriminated better between diet components than either class of marker alone. Faecal recoveries of LCOH increased with increasing carbon-chain length; there were no differences in recovery attributable to diet. The most accurate estimates of diet composition were obtained with the combination of (LCOH + alkanes). Estimates of diet composition based on LCOH alone were not as good as alkanes alone, due to the high correlation between the LCOH profiles of phalaris and ryegrass. Total grass content of the diet was very accurately estimated using LCOH. Diet composition estimates provided estimates of whole-diet digestibility, which did not differ from the measured values. Trends in the accuracy of forage intake estimates reflected those found with diet composition and

  13. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a non-fermented or fermented liquid wheat-barley based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, Henry; Tauson, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP5, InsP4, InsP3, and InsP2) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase...

  14. A Chiral Macroscopic Force between Liquid of Butyl Alcohol and Copper Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yong-Hong; LIU Zhong-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A non-zero macroscopic chirality-dependent force between a copper block and a vessel of homochiral molecules(butyl alcohol) is calculated quantitatively with the central field approximation. The magnitude of the force is estimated with the published limits of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants.

  15. Macrovesicular steatosis is associated with development of lobular inflammation and fibrosis in diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Petra; Liang, W.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Verschuren, L.; Toet, Karin; Havekes, Louis M.; Hoek, van den Anita M.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver steatosis and lobular inflammation. It is unclear how the development of liver steatosis and the formation of inflammatory cell aggregates are related to each other. The present study investigated the longitudinal development of two form

  16. A Convenient Method for the Oxidation of Alcohols with KMnO_4 to Their Corresponding Carbonyl Compounds in Ionic Liquid Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Safaei-Ghomi; A.R.Hajipour; A.H.Bamoniri; M.Esmaeili

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Carbonyl compounds constitute an important group of molecules in organic chemistry,which appears in pharmaceuticals,dyes and industrially important chemicals[1-2].The oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl groups is a fundamental transformation in organic chemistry and industrially important[3].There is considerable interest in the use of room temperature ionic liquids as promising substitutes for volatile organic solvents.The ambient-temperature ionic liquids,especially those bas...

  17. Seven weeks of Western diet in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice induce metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierwagen, Robert; Maybüchen, Lara; Zimmer, Sebastian; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Bäck, Christer; Klein, Sabine; Uschner, Frank E; Reul, Winfried; Boor, Peter; Nickenig, Georg; Strassburg, Christian P; Trautwein, Christian; Plat, Jogchum; Lütjohann, Dieter; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Tacke, Frank; Trebicka, Jonel

    2015-08-11

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterised by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, which might progress to cirrhosis. Human NASH is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Currently, rodent NASH models either lack significant fibrosis or MS. ApoE(-/-) mice are a MS model used in cardiovascular research. The aim of this work was to establish and characterise a novel mouse NASH model with significant fibrosis and MS. ApoE(-/-) and wild-type mice (wt) were fed either a western-diet (WD), methionine-choline-deficient-diet (MCD) or normal chow. Liver histology, RT-PCR, hepatic hydroxyproline content, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, and fasting glucose levels assessed hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Further, portal pressure was measured invasively, and kidney pathology was assessed by histology. ApoE(-/-) mice receiving WD showed abnormal glucose tolerance, hepatomegaly, weight gain and full spectrum of NASH including hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation, with no sign of renal damage. MCD-animals showed less severe liver fibrosis, but detectable renal pathological changes, besides weight loss and unchanged glucose tolerance. This study describes a murine NASH model with distinct hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, without renal pathology. ApoE(-/-) mice receiving WD represent a novel and fast model with all characteristic features of NASH and MS well suitable for NASH research.

  18. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carareto, Natália D.D. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Adenílson O. dos [Social Sciences, Health and Technology Center, University of Maranhão, UFMA, CEP 65900-410 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Rolemberg, Marlus P. [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Alfenas, UNIFAL, Rodovia José AurélioVilela, CEP 37715400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Cardoso, Lisandro P. [Institute of Physics GlebWataghin, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa, Mariana C. [School of Applied Science, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A., E-mail: tomze@fea.unicamp.br [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min{sup −1} and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state.

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  20. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  1. Selective liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalyzed by copper aluminate nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathi, C.; Judith Vijaya, J.; Thinesh Kumar, R.; John Kennedy, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and economic route for the preparation of CuAl2O4 is proposed. The method was developed with the objective of obtaining a material with greater surface area, when compared to the spinel prepared by conventional combustion method (CCM). The catalytic properties of CuAl2O4 spinel prepared by CCM are compared with the one prepared microwave combustion method (MCM). Nano-sized CuAl2O4 were synthesized by both CCM and MCM using Opuntia dillenii haw as the plant extract, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Oxidation to their corresponding carbonyl compounds, high selectivity, and inexpensive precursors make this catalytic system a useful oxidation method for benzyl alcohol. The XRD results confirmed the formation of a cubic CuAl2O4. The formation of CuAl2O4 nanorices and nanorods structures were confirmed by HR-SEM. Through MCM method, CuAl2O4 (sample B) with a high specific surface area of was obtained. The band gap values of the (2.30 and 2.35 eV) for the obtained oxides are due to the nanometric dimensions of the nanostructures. The effect of the solvent, temperature, and oxidant on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol is reported.

  2. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis, as follows: 1 CNSL 0% (control, CON, 2 CNSL 0.012% (0.012, 3 CNSL 0.024% (0.024 and 4 CNSL 0.036% (0.036. Dry matter and nutrients intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, fat corrected milk yield and milk composition were not affected (p > 0.05 by the inclusion of CNSL in the ration. CNSL linearly decreased the C6:0 concentration (p < 0.02, produced a quadratic response on C13:1n-5 concentration (p < 0.03 and a linear increase on C16:1n-7 concentration (p < 0.04. Results show that an intake of up to 7 gcow-1day-1 (0.036% of CNSL may alter the milk fatty acid composition but does not influence intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield.

  3. Preparative isolation and analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root using ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective assay based on ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed for screening and purifying alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract. Experiments were carried out to optimize binding conditions including alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. By comparing the chromatograms, three compounds were found possessing alcohol dehydrogenase binding activity in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. Under the target-guidance of ultrafiltration combined with the high-performance liquid chromatography experiment, liquiritin (1), isoliquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:1:4) as the solvent system. The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitory activities of these three isolated compounds were assessed; compound 2 showed strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 8.95 μM. The results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using ultrafiltration, high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be widely applied for the rapid screening and isolation of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium for the system ethyl alcohol + ester; Equilibrio liquido-vapor para o sistema alcool etilico+ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Humberto Neves Maia de; Nascimento, Yuri Corsino do; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work consists of the experimental determination of a series of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, for mixtures of ethyl alcohol + ester (ethyl acetate), prepared synthetically, that may be present in the production of biodiesel. The separation of the ethyl alcohol from esters by distillation is an important stage of this process, and therefore it demands accurate data for an appropriate modelling, and later optimization via simulators. FISCHER'S ebulliometer, with digital control (Model 602), was used for measurement of VLE data for the system ethyl alcohol + ester. It consists of a recirculation cell of the both vapor and liquid phases, providing complete data, i.e., pressure, temperature and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases that were obtained by gaseous chromatography (PTxy). This apparatus is coupled to a thermostatic bath with cooling (TE-184 TECNAL) that aims to condense the coming steams of the ebullition in order to return to the mixture camera. The VLE data obtained experimentally were submitted to the test of thermodynamic consistence of the deviations, where the equation of Gibbs-Duhem is used, through the model UNIQUAC. The parameters obtained from the experimental data can be applied in the simulators of processes with the purpose of optimizing the separation of the ethyl alcohol of Ester. (author)

  5. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  6. Relationship of physical activity and sedentarism with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and Mediterranean diet in Spanish teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2015-04-01

    Introducción y objetivos: Este estudio examinó la asociación de la actividad física y el sedentarismo con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco, y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en adolescentes de ambos sexos. Métodos: Un total de 1897 adolescentes españoles (12-16 años) participaron en el presente estudio transversal. Las variables fueron medidas mediante cuestionarios previamente validados para estas edades. Resultados: La actividad física estuvo positivamente asociada con el grado de adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en ambos sexos (ß = ,144, P < ,001 para chicos y ß = ,066, P < ,05 en chicas), e inversamente asociada con el tabaquismo en chicos (ß = -,135, P =.

  7. Hypothalamic energy balance gene responses in the Sprague-Dawley rat to supplementation of high-energy diet with liquid ensure and subsequent transfer to chow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Z A; Rayner, D V; Barrett, P; Balik, A; Duncan, J S; Moar, K M; Mercer, J G

    2005-11-01

    Energy dense, high fat, high sugar, foods and beverages in our diet are a major contributor to the escalating global obesity problem. Here, we examine the physiological and neuroendocrine effects of feeding rats a solid high-energy (HE) diet with or without a liquid supplement (Ensure) and the consequence of subsequently transferring animals back to chow (C). Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were fed C until 49-56 days of age, and then transferred a HE diet for 3 weeks before allocation to one of two weight-matched groups. Over the next 10 weeks, one group remained on HE diet, whereas the other had access to the liquid diet, chocolate Ensure (EN), in addition to HE diet (HE + EN). Half the rats from each group were then killed, and the remainder were returned to C for 3 weeks. Supplementation of the HE diet with EN accelerated weight gain and increased daily energy intake, adipose tissue mass, and circulating leptin levels. Transferring animals back to C caused a decrease in bodyweight in the HE + EN group, whereas HE animals were weight stable. Both groups also exhibited voluntary hypophagia, although the magnitude and duration of this response was greater in HE + EN animals. The only effect of Ensure on the hypothalamic genes studied was on tyrosine kinase B expression in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), which was increased in rats given the supplement. Withdrawal of the obesogenic diets decreased gene expression for cocaine-and-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and dynorphin (DYN) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and DYN and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the VMH, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the ARC was increased. These changes were independent of previous dietary history. EN supplementation generates distinct physiological responses, yet has a minimal effect on hypothalamic neuropeptide or receptor gene expression, possibly due to the development of leptin resistance. Withdrawal of obesogenic diets induces changes in

  8. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K

    2015-11-27

    A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods.

  9. Alcohol-extracted, but not intact, dietary soy protein lowers lipoprotein(a) markedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinertz, Hans; Nilausen, Karin; Hilden, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    , liquid-formula diets containing casein, soy protein, or alcohol-extracted soy protein. Dietary periods of 32 days were separated by washout periods on self-selected diets. Fasting lipid and Lp(a) levels were measured throughout. Median Lp(a) concentration was >2-fold greater after 28 to 32 days on a soy...... protein diet than after an extracted soy protein diet (Pextracted soy protein diets were virtually identical. Women and men responded similarly. When the switch was made from a self-selected to a soy protein diet, median Lp(a) concentration increased 16......% after 1 week (Pextracted soy protein and casein diets never exhibited increased median Lp(a) levels, and after 28 to 32 days, these levels were decreased >60% below baseline (P

  10. Role of pentoxifylline in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone; Coghetto; Acedo; Cintia; Rabelo; e; Paiva; Caria; érica; Martins; Ferreira; Gotardo; José; Aires; Pereira; José; Pedrazzoli; Marcelo; Lima; Ribeiro; Alessandra; Gambero

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To study pentoxifylline effects in liver and adipose tissue inflammation in obese mice induced by high-fat diet(HFD).METHODS: Male swiss mice(6-wk old) were fed a highfat diet(HFD; 60% kcal from fat) or AIN-93(control diet; 15% kcal from fat) for 12 wk and received pentoxifylline intraperitoneally(100 mg/kg per day) for the last 14 d. Glucose homeostasis was evaluated by measurements of basal glucose blood levels and insulin tolerance test two days before the end of the protocol. Final body weight was assessed. Epididymal adipose tissue was collected and weighted for adiposity evaluation. Liver and adipose tissue biopsies were homogenized in solubilization buffer and cytokines were measured in supernatant by enzyme immunoassay or multiplex kit, respectively. Hepatic histopathologic analyses were performed in sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin by an independent pathologist. Steatosis(macrovesicular and microvesicular), ballooning degeneration and inflammation were histopathologically determined. Triglycerides measurements were performed after lipid extraction in liver tissue. RESULTS: Pentoxifylline treatment reduced microsteatosis and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α in liver(156.3 ± 17.2 and 62.6 ± 7.6 pg/mL of TNF-α for non-treated and treated obese mice, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels were also reduced(23.2 ± 6.9 and 12.1 ± 1.6 U/L for nontreated and treated obese mice, respectively; P < 0.05) but had no effect on glucose homeostasis. In obese adipose tissue, pentoxifylline reduced TNF-α(106.1 ± 17.6 and 51.1 ± 9.6 pg/mL for non-treated and treated obese mice, respectively; P < 0.05) and interleukin-6(340.8 ± 51.3 and 166.6 ± 22.5 pg/mL for non-treated and treated obese mice, respectively; P < 0.05) levels; however, leptin(8.1 ± 0.7 and 23.1 ± 2.9 ng/mL for non-treated and treated lean mice, respectively; P < 0.05) and plasminogen activator inhibitor

  11. Involvement of resistin-like molecule β in the development of methionine-choline deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hirofumi; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Iizuka, Masaki; Taki, Naoyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Kamata, Hideaki; Nagamachi, Akiko; Inaba, Toshiya; Nishimura, Fusanori; Katagiri, Hideki; Asahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuto; Chonan, Osamu; Encinas, Jeffery; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-01-28

    Resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) reportedly has multiple functions including local immune responses in the gut. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of RELMβ to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. First, RELMβ knock-out (KO) mice were shown to be resistant to methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH development. Since it was newly revealed that Kupffer cells in the liver express RELMβ and that RELMβ expression levels in the colon and the numbers of RELMβ-positive Kupffer cells were both increased in this model, we carried out further experiments using radiation chimeras between wild-type and RELMβ-KO mice to distinguish between the contributions of RELMβ in these two organs. These experiments revealed the requirement of RELMβ in both organs for full manifestation of NASH, while deletion of each one alone attenuated the development of NASH with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. The higher proportion of lactic acid bacteria in the gut microbiota of RELMβ-KO than in that of wild-type mice may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lower serum LPS level the former. These data suggest the contribution of increases in RELMβ in the gut and Kupffer cells to NASH development, raising the possibility of RELMβ being a novel therapeutic target for NASH.

  12. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  13. Fat diet and alcohol-induced steatohepatitis after LPS challenge in mice: role of bioactive TNF and Th1 type cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olleros, Maria L; Martin, Maria L; Vesin, Dominique; Fotio, Agathe L; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Spahr, Laurent; Hadengue, Antoine; Garcia, Irene

    2008-10-01

    Obesity with insulin resistance and alcohol are the most frequent causes of steatohepatitis. This work investigates the contribution of bioactive TNF and Th1 type cytokines in a mouse model of steatohepatitis induced by FAT alone or FAT+EtOH and endotoxin. The extent of liver injury and cytokine activation induced by endotoxin in chronic FAT-fed mice, FAT+EtOH-fed mice, or mice fed standard chow were analyzed. Endotoxin administration to either FAT-fed or FAT+EtOH-fed mice increased serum ALT and AST compared to standard chow mice. Immunoreactive TNF was strongly activated by LPS in FAT-fed and FAT+EtOH-fed mice which presented the highest levels, but low levels were found in standard chow mice. In contrast, bioactive TNF was only present in serum of FAT-fed and in particular the highest levels were found in FAT+EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, soluble TNFR2 but not TNFR1 was found in lower amounts in serum of FAT+EtOH-fed mice compared to FAT-fed mice. Steatohepatitis was associated with increased IL-6, IFN-gamma, and iNOS mRNA and proteins. Data show that a moderately FAT diet and low-dose EtOH concur to generate steatohepatitis and TNF liver expression after LPS. In this model, changes in the regulation of TNF are associated with increased expression of IL-6, IFN-gamma, and iNOS.

  14. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  15. Refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures containing aliphatic alcohols at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures (2-propanol+2-butanol+ethanol and (chloroform+2-propanol+2-butanol were measured at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C, and atmospheric pressure. The results were used to calculate the refractive index deviations over the entire mole fraction range for the mixtures. The refractive index deviations for the ternary mixtures were further fitted to empirical correlations (Cibulka Nagata-Tamura, and Lopez et al to estimate the ternary fitting parameters. Standard deviations and average percentage deviations from the regression lines are shown. The best fit was obtained by the Nagata-Tamura empirical correlation. Some of the existing predictive equations for the refractive index deviations (Tsao-Smith, Köhler, and Colinet were tested.

  16. Independent effects of diet and exercise training on fat oxidation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Ilaria; Byrne, Nuala M; Chachay, Veronique S; Hills, Andrew P; Clouston, Andrew D; O’Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Macdonald, Graeme A; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions. Severity of disease and steatosis was determined by liver histology; hepatic Fatox was estimated from plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as VO2peak. Complete-case analysis was performed (EX: n = 10; ER: n = 6). RESULTS Hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score decreased with ER but not with EX. β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased significantly in response to ER (0.08 ± 0.02 mmol/L vs 0.12 ± 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.03) but remained unchanged in response to EX (0.10 ± 0.03 mmol/L vs 0.11 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P = 0.39). Basal RQ decreased (P = 0.05) in response to EX, while this change was not significant after ER (P = 0.38). VO2peak (P 0.05). The increase in β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations was correlated with the reduction in hepatic steatosis (r = -0.56, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION ER and EX lead to specific benefits on fat metabolism of patients with NAFLD. Increased hepatic Fatox in response to ER could be one mechanism through which the ER group achieved reduction in steatosis.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed dehydrative heck olefination of secondary aryl alcohols in ionic liquids: towards a waste-free strategy for tandem synthesis of stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Shard, Amit; Bharti, Richa; Thopate, Yogesh; Sinha, Arun Kumar

    2012-03-12

    All in one: a tandem strategy has been developed wherein secondary aryl alcohols are directly coupled with aryl halides to provide stilbenoids through a dehydrative Heck sequence in the ionic liquid [hmim]Br, and with water as a by-product under microwave irradiation. Classical methods do not permit this sequence to proceed in one pot, and some methods require multiple steps. hmim=1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of binary liquid mixtures of diethylenetriamine with alcohols at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Gyan Prakash, E-mail: gyan.dubey@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Kumar, Krishan [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Thermodynamic study of diethylenetriamine + 2-methyl-1-propanol, +2-propanol or +1-butanol have been made. {yields} Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibility were determined. {yields} Types of interactions were discussed based on derived properties. - Abstract: Densities, {rho}, viscosities, {eta}, and speeds of sound, u, were measured for the binary liquid mixtures containing diethylenetriamine with 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. From density and speed of sound data, excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} and deviations in isentropic compressibility, {Delta}{kappa}{sub s}, and speed of sound, {Delta}u have been evaluated. Viscosity data were used to compute deviations in viscosity and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow {Delta}G*{sup E} at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. A Redlich-Kister type equation was applied to fit the excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility, speed of sound and viscosity data. The viscosity data have been correlated with the equations of Grunberg-Nissan, Tamura-Kurata, Heric-Brewer and of Hind et al. All the binary systems of the present study have negative values of excess molar volumes and deviations in isentropic compressibility over whole composition range and at all temperatures which indicates strong interactions between the components of binary mixtures.

  19. [Effect of alcoholic strength on the determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese spirits by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2013-12-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was established for rapid determination of ethyl carbamate (EC) in Chinese spirits. Through the analysis and comparison of the EC peak areas in different alcoholic strengths determined by HPLC-FLD, the effect of alcoholic strength on the determination of the content of EC was found. The alcoholic strength and the peak area of EC showed good linearity in the range of 5% to 65% (v/v) alcohol content, and the correlation coefficients (R2) were higher than 0.98. Furthermore, the conversion between the peak area of EC with different alcoholic strengths was established by the relative correction coefficient. The method showed a good linearity in the range of 10 to 500 microg/L for EC with the average recoveries of 98.9%-108.2% and RSDs of 0.6%-4.9%. The reliability of the established HPLC-FLD method was evaluated by comparison with GC-MS method. The results showed that the results of two methods were not significantly different. The developed method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and suitable for the rapid determination of EC in Chinese spirits.

  20. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The model only requires binary, temperature-dependent interaction parameters. It has previously been used to describe the excess Gibbs energy for aqueous electrolyte mixtures and aqueous electrolyte systems containing methanol. It has been found to be an adequate model for representing...... solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium and thermal property data for strongly non-ideal systems. In this work, the model is extended to aqueous salt systems containing higher alcohols. The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data, vapor liquid equilibrium data...

  1. Diet - full liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Fruit juices, including nectars and juices with pulp Butter, margarine, oil, cream, custard, and pudding Plain ... fat. But it does not give you enough fiber. Also, you may not get all the vitamins ...

  2. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juices without pulp, such as grape juice, filtered apple juice, and cranberry juice Soup broth (bouillon or ... Vomiting Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  3. Nitrosamine exposure exacerbates high fat diet-mediated type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Monte Suzanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and Alzheimer's disease (AD all represent insulin-resistance diseases. Previous studies linked insulin resistance diseases to high fat diets or exposure to streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related compound that causes T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that low-level exposure to nitrosamines that are widely present in processed foods, amplifies the deleterious effects of high fat intake in promoting T2DM, NASH, and neurodegeneration. Methods Long Evans rat pups were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA by i.p. Injection, and upon weaning, they were fed with high fat (60%; HFD or low fat (5%; LFD chow for 6 weeks. Rats were evaluated for cognitive impairment, insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration using behavioral, biochemical, molecular, and histological methods. Results NDEA and HFD ± NDEA caused T2DM, NASH, deficits in spatial learning, and neurodegeneration with hepatic and brain insulin and/or IGF resistance, and reductions in tau and choline acetyltransferase levels in the temporal lobe. In addition, pro-ceramide genes, which promote insulin resistance, were increased in livers and brains of rats exposed to NDEA, HFD, or both. In nearly all assays, the adverse effects of HFD+NDEA were worse than either treatment alone. Conclusions Environmental and food contaminant exposures to low, sub-mutagenic levels of nitrosamines, together with chronic HFD feeding, function synergistically to promote major insulin resistance diseases including T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. Steps to minimize human exposure to nitrosamines and consumption of high-fat content foods are needed to quell these costly and devastating epidemics.

  4. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-11-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  5. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Gibson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK. Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ, a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD, in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006 and BMI centiles (p = 0.002 than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001. Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15. Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005, who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01. In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  6. Iron Supplementation Reverses the Reduction of Hydroxymethylcytosine in Hepatic DNA Associated With Chronic Alcohol Consumption in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammen, Stephanie A.; Park, Jung Eun; Shin, Phil Kyung; Friso, Simonetta; Chung, Jayong; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol is known to affect two epigenetic phenomena, DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation, and iron is a cofactor of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes that catalyze the conversion from methylcytosine to hydroxymethylcytosine. In the present study we aimed to determine the effects of alcohol on DNA hydroxymethylation and further effects of iron on alcohol associated epigenetic changes. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet (36% calories from ethanol) or Lieber-DeCarli control diet along with or without iron supplementation (0.6% carbonyl iron) for 8 weeks. Hepatic non-heme iron concentrations were measured by colorimetric assays. Protein levels of hepatic ferritin and transferrin receptor were determined by Western blotting. Methylcytosine, hydroxymethylcytosine and unmodified cytosine in DNA were simultaneously measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Results Iron supplementation significantly increased hepatic non-heme iron contents (P iron significantly increased hepatic ferritin levels and decreased hepatic transferrin receptor levels (P iron supplementation to alcohol diet did not change DNA hydroxymethylation. There was no significant difference in methylcytosine levels, while unmodified cytosine levels were significantly increased in alcohol-fed groups compared to control (95.61% ± 0.08% vs. 95.26% ± 0.12%, P = 0.03), suggesting that alcohol further increases the conversion from hydroxymethylcytosine to unmodified cytosine. Conclusions Chronic alcohol consumption alters global DNA hydroxymethylation in the liver but iron supplementation reverses the epigenetic effect of alcohol. PMID:28053961

  7. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs using the experimental values such as densities (ρ and ultrasonic sound velocities (u that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  8. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E) ) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs ) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E) and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  9. Effects of mannoprotein E1 in liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression in the gut of rats infected by Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Largo Carlota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannoproteins are yeast cell wall componend, and rich in mannose. The use of foods rich in mannose as carbohydrate, could have a bioprotective effect against entrobacteria intestinal infection. Nothing is known about mannoproteins' activity in inflammatory bowel processes induced by entrobacteria. This study investigates the effects of mannoprotein administration via a liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression during intestinal tissue injury in a rat model of infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Methods Adult Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: control, and mannoprotein E1 at 10 or 15%. Animals were fed with a liquid diet supplemented or not with mannoprotein E1. Groups were infected by intragastrical administration of S. typhimurium. 24 h post-inoculation samples of spleen, ileum and liver were collected for microbiological studies. Gut samples were processed to determine levels of proinflammatory cytokines (mRNA and TLR5 (mRNA and protein by quantitative PCR and Western-blot, and the number of proliferative and apoptotic cells determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Ininfected levels of proinflammatory cytokines and TLR5 were higher in untreated controls than in the animals receiving mannoprotein. Proliferation was similar in both groups, whereas apoptosis was higher in controls. Curiosly, the mannoprotein effect was dose dependent. Conclusions Mannoprotein administration in a liquid diet seems to protect intestinal tissue against S. typhimurium infection. This protection seems to expressed as a lower pro-inflammatory response and TLR5 downregulation in gut epithelium, as well as by an inhibition of apoptosis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism by which mannoprotein is able to regulate these responses remain unclear. These results could open up new avenues in the use of mannoproteins as prebiotics in the therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory gut processes induced by microbia.

  10. Low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid,sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate,and clear liquid diet alone prior to small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Rayner-Hartley; Majid Alsahafi; Paula Cramer; Nazira Chatur; Fergal Donnellan

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To compare low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid,sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate and clear liquid diet alone as bowel preparation prior to small bowel capsule endoscopy(CE).METHODS:We retrospectively collected all CE studies done from December 2011 to July 2013 at a single institution.CE studies were reviewed only if low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid,sodium picosulfatemagnesium citrate or clear liquid diet alone used as the bowel preparation.The studies were then reviewed by the CE readers who were blinded to the preparation type.Cleanliness and bubble burden were graded independently within the proximal,middle and distal small bowel using a four-point scale according to the percentage of small bowel mucosa free of debris/bubbles:grade 1 = over 90%,grade 2 = between 90%-75%,grade 3 = between 50%-75%,grade 4 = less than 50%.Data are expressed as mean ± SEM.ANOVA and Fishers exact test were used where appropriate.P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.RESULTS:A of total of 123 CE studies were reviewed.Twenty-six studies were excluded from analysis because of incomplete small bowel examination.In the remainingstudies,48 patients took low volume polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid,31 took sodium picosulfate-magnesium citrate and 27 took a clear liquid diet alone after lunch on the day before CE,followed by overnight fasting in all groups.There was no significant difference in small bowel cleanliness(1.98 ± 0.09 vs 1.84 ± 0.08 vs 1.76 ± 0.08) or small bowel transit time(213 ± 13 vs 248 ± 14 ± 225 ± 19 min) for clear liquid diet alone,Movi Prep and PicoSalax respectively.The bubble burden in the mid small bowel was significantly higher in the Movi Prep group(1.6 ± 0.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.1,P < 0.05).However this did not result in a significant difference in diagnosis of pathology.CONCLUSION:There was no significant difference in small bowel cleanliness or diagnostic yield of small bowel CE between

  11. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P feed at an initial gastric pH from 6.5 to 5.0 is needed. Feeding F-BD + phytase compensated for the shortage of time because the InsP₆ degradation was completed during fermentation before feeding. The degradation of InsP₆ to InsP₅ is the bottleneck for plant P utilization in pigs because the degradation of the lower inositol phosphates is rapid and almost complete.

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  13. Models of alcoholic liver disease in rodents: a critical evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la M. Hall, P.; Lieber, C.S.; De Carli, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were J. Christian Bode and Hiroshi Fukui. The presentations were (1) Essentials and the course of the pathological spectrum of alcoholic liver disease in humans, by P. de la M. Hall; (2......) Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for alcohol-induced liver injury in rats, by C. S. Lieber and L. M. DeCarli; (3) Tsukamoto-French model of alcoholic liver injury, by S. W. French; (4) Animal models to study endotoxin-ethanol interactions, by K. O. Lindros and H. Järveläinen; and (5) Jejunoileal bypass...... operation in rats-A model for alcohol-induced liver injury? by Christiane Bode, Alexandr Parlesak, and J. Christian Bode....

  14. Selective liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by tert-butyl hydroperoxide over γ-Al2O3 supported copper and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndolomingo, Matumuene Joe; Meijboom, Reinout

    2017-03-01

    Benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde was performed by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in the absence of any solvent using γ-Al2O3 supported copper and gold nanoparticles. Li2O and ionic liquids were used as additive and stabilizers for the synthesis of the catalysts. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N2 absorption/desorption (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR), whereas, the oxidation reaction was followed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The as prepared catalysts exhibited good catalytic performance in terms of conversion and selectivity towards benzaldehyde. The performance of the Au-based catalysts is significantly higher than that of the Cu-based catalysts. For both Cu and Au catalysts, the conversion of benzyl alcohol increased as the reaction proceeds, while the selectivity for benzaldehyde decreased. Moreover, the catalysts can be easily recycled and reused with neither significant loss of activity nor selectivity. A kinetic study for the Cu and Au-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzyldehyde is reported. The rate at which the oxidation of benzyl alcohol is occurring as a function of catalyst and oxidant amounts was investigated, with the apparent rate constant, kapp being proportional to the amount of nano catalyst and oxygen present in the system.

  15. Development of a rapid method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection for the determination of polyphenols in alcohol-free beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A Alonso; Grande, B Cancho; Gándara, J Simal

    2004-10-29

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and followed by liquid chromatographic separation and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) is proposed for the determination of 10 phenolic compounds which participate on beer stability and sensory properties in alcohol-free beers. Acetonitrile was found to be the most appropriate solvent for the elution of polyphenolic compounds adsorbed on C18 cartridges. The performance of the method was assessed by the evaluation of parameters such as absolute recovery (generally higher than 60%), repeatability (lower than 10%), linearity (r2 higher than 0.993) and limits of quantitation (ranging from 1 to 37 microg/L); no matrix effects were observed. The polyphenol content of different Spanish alcohol-free beers is presented. Five phenolic compounds such as protocatechuic, p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic acids, and (+)-catechin were identified at levels lower than 10 mg/L.

  16. Quantification of Oxidized and Unsaturated Bile Alcohols in Sea Lamprey Tissues by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for the determination of unsaturated bile alcohols in sea lamprey tissues using liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The liver, kidney, and intestine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and defatted by n-hexane. Gradient UHPLC separation was performed using an Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase of water and methanol containing 20 mM triethylamine. Multiple reaction monitoring modes of precursor-product ion transitions for each analyte was used. This method displayed good linearity, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99, and was validated. Precision and accuracy (RSD % were in the range of 0.31%–5.28%, while mean recoveries were between 84.3%–96.3%. With this technique, sea lamprey tissue samples were analyzed for unsaturated bile alcohol analytes. This method is practical and particularly suitable for widespread putative pheromone residue analysis.

  17. Catalytic evaluation on liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol using air and H2O2 over mesoporous Cu-Ti composite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subrata; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Ali, Tammar Hussein

    2017-02-01

    A mesoporous, highly crystalline Cu-Ti composite oxide catalyst was prepared via facile, simple and modified solution method varying Cu and Ti ratio for selective liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol. Various spectroscopic procedures were employed to systematically characterize the catalyst structural and physicochemical properties. The defect chemistry of the catalyst was confirmed from the presence of surface defects revealed through HRTEM imagery between the TiO2 (101) and Cu3TiO4 (012) planes, complemented by the XRD profiling. Further, presence of oxygen vacancy evidenced by O 1s XPS spectra were observed on the catalyst surface. Moreover, the stoichiometry of Cu and Ti in the catalyst synthesis protocol was notably found to be the vital determinant to alter the redox properties of Cu-Ti composite oxide catalyst supported by H2-TPR. O2-TPD analysis. Moreover, a rational investigation was done using different oxidants such as air and H2O2 with variables reaction conditions. The catalyst was active for liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol to vanillin with performance of 66% conversion and 71% selectivity using H2O2 in base free condition. And also, catalytic activity was significantly improved by 94% conversion with 86% selectivity to vanillin in liquid phase aerobic oxidation at the optimum reaction conditions. To expand the superiority of the catalyst, three times reusability study was also examined with appreciable catalytic activity.

  18. Uptake of liquid alcohols by the flexible Fe(III) metal-organic framework MIL-53 observed by time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Richard I; Munn, Alexis S; Guillou, Nathalie; Millange, Franck

    2011-06-14

    A comprehensive, time-resolved, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the uptake of liquid alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol) by the flexible metal-organic framework solid MIL-53(Fe)[H(2)O] is reported. In the case of the primary alcohols, a fluorinated version of the MIL-53(Fe) host (C2/c symmetry V ca. 1000 Å(3)), in which a fraction of framework hydroxides are replaced by fluoride, shows uptake of alcohols to give initially a partially expanded phase (C2/c symmetry, V ca. 1200 Å(3)) followed by an expanded form of the material (either Imcm or Pnam symmetry, V ca. 1600 Å(3)). In the case of methanol-water mixtures, the EDXRD data show that the partially open intermediate phase undergoes volume expansion during its existence, before switching to a fully open structure if concentrated methanol is used; analogous behaviour is seen if the initial guest is propan-2-ol, which then is replaced by pyridine, where a continuous shift of Bragg peaks within C2/c symmetry is observed. In contrast to the partially fluorinated materials, the purely hydroxylated host materials show little tendency to stabilise partially open forms of MIL-53(Fe) with primary alcohols and the kinetics of guest introduction are markedly slower without the framework fluorination: this is exemplified by the exchange of water by propan-2-ol, where a partially open C2/c phase is formed in a step-wise manner. Our study defines the various possible pathways of liquid-phase uptake of molecular guests by flexible solid MIL-53(Fe).

  19. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  20. Evaluation of (vapor + liquid) equilibria for the binary systems (1-octanol + cyclohexane) and (1-octanol + n-hexane), at low alcohol compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovejero, Gabriel [Grupo de Catalisis y Procesos de Separacion (CyPS), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de C. Quimicas, Universidsad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: govejero@quim.ucm.es; Dolores Romero, M.; Diez, Eduardo; Lopes, Tania; Diaz, Ismael [Grupo de Catalisis y Procesos de Separacion (CyPS), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de C. Quimicas, Universidsad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium at p = 101.32 kPa of pressure has been determined for the systems (1-octanol + cyclohexane) and (1-octanol + n-hexane), at low alcohol mole fractions. These data were satisfactorily correlated, using ASPEN PLUS commercial software, with Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models to obtain the binary interaction parameters of both mixtures. Also, UNIFAC group contribution method was employed to predict the equilibrium of both mixtures. With regression values an accurate knowledge of (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for both mixtures can be reached in a range of 1-octanol mole fractions less than 0.1. UNIFAC method provides acceptable results for (1-octanol + n-hexane) system but not for (1-octanol + cyclohexane) system.

  1. Preparation of manganese oxide immobilized on SBA-15 by atomic layer deposition as an efficient and reusable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Vahid, E-mail: v-mahdavi@araku.ac.ir; Mardani, Mahdieh

    2015-04-01

    Manganese oxide supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 catalyst (Mn-SBA-15) was tested with Mn contents in the range of 0.8–23 wt%. Samples were prepared by the controlled grafting process of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Other sample was prepared for comparisons by the wet impregnation method. These samples were characterized by the techniques of ICP, XRD, SEM, Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–Vis, TGA-DSC, and N{sub 2} absorption–desorption surface area measurement. Results indicated that anchored manganese oxide particles have been successfully synthesized over the surface of SBA-15. These samples contained Red-Ox ion pairs of Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} highly dispersed on the mesoporous silica surface. The impregnated sample exhibited lower surface area and contained Red-Ox ion pairs of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} more aggregated particles on the SBA-15 surface. Results determined Mn-SBA-15 as an efficient and selective catalyst for oxidation of benzyl alcohol with tert-butylhydroperoxide in liquid phase. In accordance with expectations, there was a negligible amount of leaching of immobilized manganese oxide from the support during the reaction, because of strong surface interaction between manganese oxide and hydroxyls groups. The influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent, TBHP/benzyl alcohol molar ratio, amount of catalyst and reusability were investigated. Under optimized conditions (0.2 g catalyst, TBHP/benzyl alcohol molar ratio 1, solvent acetonitrile; T = 90 °C; reaction time 8 h), results achieved 70% conversion of benzyl alcohol and 100% selectivity to benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Manganese oxide immobilized on SBA-15 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). • Oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde over this catalyst were investigated. • Effects of loading of manganese oxide, T, oxidant/alcohol ratio were investigated. • The leaching of manganese oxide from support during the reaction was

  2. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  3. Effects of ethanol on offspring of C57BL/6J mice alcoholized during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinfeld Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed in the gestation and offspring of alcoholized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed overnight with stud males and the presence of a sperm plug in the next morning indicated the onset of gestation. Pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matched groups. In the alcoholized group, the mice received a high protein liquid diet ad libitum containing 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories (5.28% v/v from gestation day 5 to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containing isocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol. After postnatal day zero, the dams received food pellets and tap water ad libitum. On postnatal day 6 the pups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the 60th day of life. The majority of the pregnant dams that have received ethanol completed the gestational period, and the chronic consumption of alcohol did not interfere with the number of dams that gave birth. The alcoholized and control dams gained an equivalent weight and consumed an equivalent volume of diet throughout the gestation. The number of pups from alcohol diet dams was 46,26% smaller compared with the control group. There were less male than female pups in the offspring of alcoholized mice. Teratogeny like gastroschisis and limb malformation were present in the offspring of alcoholized dams. The body weight of the offspring of alcoholized mice increased from the 18th to the 36th postnatal day.

  4. Increased 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in male GSTA4–4/PPAR-alpha double knockout mice enhance injury during early stages of alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To test the significance of lipid peroxidation in the development of alcoholic liver injury, an ethanol (EtOH) liquid diet was fed to male wild type 129/SvJ mice, and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 null (GSTA4-/-) mice for 40 d. GSTA4-/- mice were also crossed with peroxisome proliferator-activated ...

  5. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  6. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  7. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group: study in rats Efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre cárie dentária e sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans: estudo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Zanini Kantorski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG, 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG, and water (Control Group, CG. After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10³ were: 8.17 (AG, 9.78 (IG, and 5.63 (CG. There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58 was similar to that in the AG (2.06 and in the CG (1.14, and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14, IG (2.00 and CG (0.43. The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans e sobre cárie dentária na cavidade bucal de ratos. Quarenta animais foram divididos em 3 grupos conforme a dieta líquida administrada: solução de etanol a 20% (Grupo álcool, GA, solução de sacarose a 27% (Grupo isocalórico, GI e água (Grupo controle, GC. Após 56 dias, amostras bucais foram coletadas e semeadas em ágar Mitis Salivarius Bacitracina para contagem de unidades formadoras de col

  8. Studies of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Liquid-Phase Alcohol Oxidation on Platinum bySum-frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Reaction Rate Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Christopher [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Compared to many branches of chemistry, the molecular level study of catalytically active surfaces is young. Only with the invention of ultrahigh vacuum technology in the past half century has it been possible to carry out experiments that yield useful molecular information about the reactive occurrences at a surface. The reason is two-fold: low pressure is necessary to keep a surface clean for an amount of time long enough to perform an experiment, and most atomic scale techniques that are surface speci c (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, etc.) cannot be used at ambient pressures, because electrons, which act as chemical probes in these techniques, are easily scattered by molecules. Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is one technique that can provide molecular level information from the surface without the necessity for high vacuum. Since the advent of SFG as a surface spectroscopic tool it has proved its worth in the studies of surface catalyzed reactions in the gas phase, with numerous reactions in the gas phase having been investigated on a multitude of surfaces. However, in situ SFG characterization of catalysis at the solid-liquid interface has yet to be thoroughly pursued despite the broad interest in the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the liquid phase as replacements for homogeneous counterparts. This work describes an attempt to move in that direction, applying SFG to study the solid-liquid interface under conditions of catalytic alcohol oxidation on platinum.

  9. Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (United States)); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Martinez, CA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

  10. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  11. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2 and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a. When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells.

  13. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg;

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...... in TAG (P LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS...

  14. Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize in diets of growing bulls: effects on performance, slaughtering characteristics, and transfer into physiological liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Janine; Gödde, Jens; Meyer, Ulrich; Frahm, Jana; Westendarp, Heiner; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The present feeding study was carried out to examine the effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated diets on performance and slaughtering characteristics and on the transfer of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and their metabolites into physiological matrices. A total of 61 bulls (483 ± 46 kg) were fed with graded proportions of Fusarium toxin-contaminated feed over a period of 10 weeks. The total mixed rations (TMR) consisted of 47 % grass silage, 20 % press pulp silage, and 33 % concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis. Increasing toxin concentrations were achieved by the exchange of control maize with Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize in the concentrates. Thus, dietary toxin concentrations between 0.08 and 0.69 mg ZEN and 0.36 and 8.31 mg DON per kg DM were covered by the four feeding groups. Based on increasing DM intake with increasing mycotoxin contaminations of the diet, the live weight gain and energy intake differed significantly between the groups. No effects were observed on slaughtering characteristics and organ weights. ZEN, α-zeralenol, β-zeralenol (β-ZEL), zeralanone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, DON, and de-deepoxy-DON (de-DON) were simultaneously determined in urine, plasma, and liquor whereby quantifiable concentrations of ZEN, β-ZEL, DON, and de-DON were found in urine, of DON and de-DON in plasma, and solely of de-DON in liquor. Based on overall results it can be concluded that current EU-guidance values for critical concentrations of DON and ZEN can be regarded as safe levels also for growing bulls. Urine and blood toxin residue levels can be used to assess exposure of bulls.

  15. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic assessment of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate in human erythrocytes: a study on alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro; Guiducci, Maria Soccorsa; Sasso, Guido Francesco; Sebastiani, Gemma; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Allen, John Paul

    2003-06-15

    An isocratic HPLC procedure for the assessment of thiamine (T), thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in human erythrocytes is described. Several aspects of the procedure make it suitable for both clinical and research purposes: limits of detection and quantification of 1 and 2.5 nmol/l, respectively, recovery of 102% on average (range 93-112%), intra- and inter-day precisions within 5 and 9%, respectively, total elution time 15 min. This analytical methodology was applied to a case-control study on erythrocyte samples from 103 healthy subjects and 36 alcohol-dependent patients at risk of thiamine deficiency. Mean control values obtained were: T=89.6+/-22.7 nmol/l, TMP=4.4+/-6.6 nmol/l and TDP=222.23+/-56.3 nmol/l. T and TDP mean values of alcoholics were significantly lower than those of control cases: T=69.4+/-35.9 nmol/l (Pthiamine was established in the study of alcohol related problems.

  16. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state (GCEO

  17. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  18. Ebulliometric determination and prediction of (vapor + liquid) equilibria for binary and ternary mixtures containing alcohols (C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}) and dimethyl carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki, E-mail: matsuda@chem.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Fukano, Makoto; Kikkawa, Shinichiro [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Constantinescu, Dana [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Tochigi, Katsumi; Ochi, Kenji [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Gmehling, Juergen [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > The VLE behavior of systems containing dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was investigated. > VLE data for ternary and binary mixtures containing alcohol and DMC were measured. > Several activity coefficient models were used for data reduction or prediction. > Valley line, i.e., distillation boundary, was observed for the ternary mixture. > Residue curves were calculated to investigate composition profile for distillation. - Abstract: (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for a ternary mixture, namely {l_brace}methanol + propan-1-ol + dimethyl carbonate (DMC){r_brace}, and four binary mixtures, namely an {l_brace}alcohol (C{sub 3} or C{sub 4}) + DMC{r_brace}, containing the binary constituent mixtures of the ternary mixture, were measured at p = (40.00 to 93.32) kPa using a modified Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. The experimental data for the binary systems were correlated using the Wilson model. The Wilson model was also applied to the ternary system to predict the VLE behavior using parameters from the binary mixtures. The modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) model was also tested for the predictions of the VLE behavior of the binary and ternary mixtures. In addition, the experimental VLE data for the ternary and constituent binary mixtures were correlated using the extended Redlich-Kister (ERK) model, which can completely represent the azeotropic points. For the ternary system, a comparison of the experimental and the predicted or correlated boiling points obtained using the Wilson and ERK models showed that the ERK model is more accurate. The valley line, i.e., the curve which divides the patterns of vapor-liquid tie lines, was found in the (methanol + propan-1-ol + DMC) system. This valley line could be represented by the ERK model. Finally, the composition profile for simple distillation of this ternary mixture was obtained by analysis of the residue curves from the estimated Wilson parameters of the constituent binary mixtures.

  19. Phytosterol esters attenuate hepatic steatosis in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihua; Qu, Dan; Zhang, Qing; jiang, Jing; Zhou, Haiyue; Jiang, Rui; Li, Yating; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Given the adverse effects of drugs used for NAFLD treatment, identifying novel and effective natural compound to prevent NAFLD is urgently needed. In the present study, the effects of phytosterol esters (PSEs) on NAFLD were explored. Adult SD rats were randomized into five groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), low-, medium- and high-dose PSE treatment plus high-fat diet groups (PSEL, PSEM, and PSEH). Our results showed that the levels of LDL-C in the PSEL group and hepatic TG, TC, and FFA in the three PSEs groups were significantly decreased. Notably, the uric acid (UA) level was significantly decreased by PSEs intervention. The hepatic inflammatory stress was ameliorated via the inhibition of the cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and CRP in the PSEs intervention groups. Further, the oxidative status was improved by PSE treatment through adjusting the enzyme activity (SOD and XOD) and decreasing the MDA level. These beneficial effects of PSE may have been partly due to its regulation on the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TNF-α, UCP-2, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in hepatic tissue at both mRNA and protein level. The results of this study suggest that PSEs may be used as therapeutic agents for the prevention and progression of NAFLD and that hyperuricemia is induced by high-fat diet consumption. PMID:28169366

  20. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations ...

  1. CeO2-modified Au@SBA-15 nanocatalysts for liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Shuirong; Zeng, Liang; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-04-01

    Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts under identical conditions along with the high selectivity towards benzaldehyde (>99%). The turnover frequency of benzyl alcohol over the Au-100CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst is about nine-fold and four-fold higher than those of Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts, respectively. The supported catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the Au and small CeO2 nanoparticles (~5 nm) were homogeneously mixed in the channels of SBA-15, which led to an increase in the interfacial area between Au and CeO2 and consequently a better catalytic performance of Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde compared with that of Au/CeO2. The prevention of agglomeration and leaching of Au nanoparticles by restricting them inside the mesopores of SBA-15 was conducive to the stable existence of large quantities of Au-CeO2 interface, which leads to high stability of the Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst.Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts

  2. CeO2-modified Au@SBA-15 nanocatalysts for liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Shuirong; Zeng, Liang; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-05-07

    Tuning the interfacial perimeter and structure is crucial to understanding the origin of catalytic performance. This paper describes the design, characterization, and application of CeO2 modified Au@SBA-15 (Au-CeO2@SBA-15) catalysts in selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction results showed that Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts under identical conditions along with the high selectivity towards benzaldehyde (>99%). The turnover frequency of benzyl alcohol over the Au-100CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst is about nine-fold and four-fold higher than those of Au@SBA-15 and Au/CeO2 catalysts, respectively. The supported catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the Au and small CeO2 nanoparticles (∼5 nm) were homogeneously mixed in the channels of SBA-15, which led to an increase in the interfacial area between Au and CeO2 and consequently a better catalytic performance of Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde compared with that of Au/CeO2. The prevention of agglomeration and leaching of Au nanoparticles by restricting them inside the mesopores of SBA-15 was conducive to the stable existence of large quantities of Au-CeO2 interface, which leads to high stability of the Au-CeO2@SBA-15 catalyst.

  3. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd......, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...

  4. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation and Liver Injury in Alcohol-Treated Rats: A Metabolomics Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxia Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggested that nucleotides were beneficial for liver function, lipid metabolism and so on. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of dietary nucleotides supplementation in alcohol-induced liver injury rats. Methods: Five groups of male Wistar rats were used: normal control group (basal diet, equivalent distilled water, alcohol control group (basal diet, 50% alcohol (v/v, dextrose control group (basal diet, isocaloric amount of dextrose, and 0.04% and 0.16% nucleotides groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.4 g and 1.6 g nucleotides kg−1 respectively, 50% alcohol (v/v. The liver injury was measured through traditional liver enzymes, expression of oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was applied to identify liver metabolite profiles. Results: Nucleotides supplementation prevented the progression of hepatocyte steatosis. The levels of total proteins, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol triglyceride, as well as the oxidative stress markers altered by alcohol, were improved by nucleotides supplementation. Elevated levels of liver bile acids (glycocholic acid, chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, as well as lipids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine in alcohol-treated rats were reversed by nucleotides supplementation. In addition, supplementation with nucleotides could increase the levels of amino acids, including valyl-Leucine, l-leucine, alanyl-leucine and l-phenylalanine. Conclusion: These data indicate potential biomarkers and confirm the benefit of dietary nucleotides on alcoholic liver injury.

  5. Alcohol exposure in utero leads to enhanced prepubertal mammary development and alterations in mammary IGF and estradiol systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Tiffany A; Crismale-Gann, Catina; Cohick, Wendie S

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol during fetal development increases susceptibility to mammary cancer in adult rats. This study determined if early changes in mammary morphology and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/estradiol axis are involved in the mechanisms that underlie this increased susceptibility. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% ethanol (alcohol), an isocaloric liquid diet (pair-fed), or rat chow ad libitum from days 11 to 21 of gestation. At birth, female pups were cross-fostered to ad libitum-fed control dams. Offspring were euthanized at postnatal days (PND) 20, 40, or 80. Animals were injected with BrdU before euthanasia, then mammary glands, serum, and livers were collected. Mammary glands from animals exposed to alcohol in utero displayed increased epithelial cell proliferation and aromatase expression at PND 20 and 40. Mammary IGF-I mRNA was higher in alcohol-exposed animals relative to controls at PND 20, while mammary IGFBP-5 mRNA was lower in this group at PND 40. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression was increased at all time points in alcohol-exposed animals, however, circulating IGF-I levels were not altered. These data indicate that alcohol exposure in utero may advance mammary development via the IGF and estradiol systems, which could contribute to increased susceptibility to mammary cancer later in life.

  6. An in situ derivatization - dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas-chromatography - mass spectrometry for determining biogenic amines in home-made fermented alcoholic drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 13 biogenic amines in home-made wine samples. The method allows to simultaneous extraction and derivatization of the amines providing a simple and fast mode of extract enrichment. During the study, two different procedures were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to choose better procedure, as well as the conditions of derivatization reaction. At least, a mixture of methanol (dispersive solvent; 215μL), chloroform (extractive solvent; 400μL), and isobutyl choloroformate (derivatizing reagent; 90μL) was used as extractive/derivatizing reagent, added to 5mL of sample. The addition of mixture of pyridine and HCl was necessary to eliminate the by-products. The proposed method showed good linearity (correlation coefficients >0.9961), good recoveries (from 77 to 105%), and good intra-day precision (below 13%) and inter-day precision (below 10%). Moreover, detection limits were never over 4.1μg/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of 17 home-made wine samples not regulated by law. All of the biogenic amines analyzed were found in most of the wines.

  7. Evaluation of alcohol content and metal impurities in liquid dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID and GFAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Ana; Sertić, Miranda; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Stipanović, Ksenija; Nigović, Biljana

    2016-11-15

    Despite efforts by many dietary supplements' manufactures to reduce or replace ethanol, many products containing ethanol in concentrations up to 70% are available on market. Furthermore, botanical dietary supplements can vary in metal content as a function of the environment, processing equipment and product containers. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a new rapid and highly sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ethanol and its impurities in dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID technique. In addition, contamination with metals by GFAAS technique was evaluated. The proposed sHSS-GC-FID method was successfully applied for analysis of 93 samples containing various amounts of ethanol. It should be highlighted that the dramatic variation from manufacture's claims was found in even one third of products. Furthermore, high amounts of ethanol were found in several products especially designed for children and in one product labeled as "alcohol-free". Metal impurities were below the limits established by USP.

  8. Effects of a palatinose-based liquid diet (Inslow) on glycemic control and the second-meal effect in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Akira; Sakuma, Masae; Fukaya, Makiko; Matsuo, Kaoru; Muto, Kazusa; Sasaki, Hajime; Matsuura, Motoi; Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Doi, Toshio; Takeda, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces prolonged hyperinsulinemia, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Foods with a low glycemic index blunt the rapid rise in postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. We herein investigated the effects of a novel, palatinose-based liquid diet (Inslow, Meiji Dairy Products, Tokyo, Japan) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels and on the rate of substrate oxidation in 7 healthy men. Furthermore, to examine the effects of Inslow on the second-meal effect, we quantified our subjects' postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels for up to 7 hours after they ingested a breakfast containing Inslow or control formula, followed by a standard lunch 5 hours later. Our results showed that peak plasma glucose and insulin levels 30 minutes after Inslow loading were lower than after control formula loading. Postprandial fat oxidation rates in the Inslow group were higher than in the control formula group (P formula group (P formula group (P < .05). In conclusion, consumption of Inslow at breakfast appears to improve patient glycemic control by reducing their postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels after lunch (second-meal effect).

  9. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  10. Moderate alcohol exposure compromises neural tube midline development in prenatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Sari, Youssef; Powrozek, Teresa; Goodlett, Charles R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2003-08-12

    We previously reported that fetal alcohol treatment compromised the development of the midline raphe and the serotonin neurons contained in it. In this study, we report that the timely development of midline neural tissue during neural tube formation is sensitive to alcohol exposure. Pregnant dams were treated from embryonic day 7 (E7, prior to neurulation) or E8.5 (at neurulation) with the following diets: (a) alcohol (ALC), given as either a 20% or 25% ethanol-derived calorie (EDC) liquid diet, or (b) isocaloric liquid diet pair-fed (PF), or (c) standard rat chow (Chow). Fetal brains from each group were examined on E13, E15, or E18. Neural tube development was compromised as a result of alcohol exposure in the following ways: (1) approximately 60% of embryos at E13 and 20% at E15 showed perforation of the floor plate in the diencephalic vesicle, (2) although completely closed at E13, 70-80% of embryos failed to complete the formation of neural tissue at the roof as the alcohol exposure continued to E15, and (3) 60-80% of embryos show delayed 'occlusion' of the ventral canal by newly formed nestin-positive neuroepithelial cells and S100beta-positive glia in the brainstem of E15. The compromised (incomplete) neural tube midline (cNTM) occurred near the ventricles at E13 and E15, but was later completed at E18. In all cases, the cNTM was accompanied by an enlarged ventricle, and dose-dependent brain weight reduction. The midline of the neural tube at the roof and floor plates is known to mediate timely trophic induction for neural differentiation. Prenatal midline deficits also have the potential to affect the development of midline neurons such as raphe, septal nuclei, and the timely crossing of commissural fibers. The results of the liquid diet alcohol exposure paradigm suggest it is more a model for Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) featuring neuropsychiatric disorders than for full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with noticeable facial

  11. Liquid dish washing soap: An excellent substitute for xylene and alcohol in hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Ramulu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Liquid dish washing solution (DWS was used as a substitute for xylene to dewax tissue sections during hematoxylin and eosin (H and E staining. The aim was to test and compare the hypothesis that xylene-ethanol free (XEF sections deparaffinized with diluted DWS are better than or at par with the conventional H and E sections. Materials and Methods: Fifty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks was included. One section was stained with conventional HandE (group A and the other with XEF HandE (group B staining method. Slides were scored for parameters: nuclear, cytoplasmic, clarity, uniformity, and crispness of staining. Z test was used for statistical analysis. For accuracy of diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were tested. Results: Adequate nuclear staining was noted in 94% in group A and 96% in group B, -adequate cytoplasmic staining in 92% in group A and 86% in group B, clarity in 94% of group A and 96% of group B sections, uniform staining in 92% of group A and 80% of group B sections, crisp stain in 96% of group A and 88% of group B sections, and 94% of group A sections stained adequately for diagnosis as compared with 90% in group B sections. Conclusion: Liquid DWS can be used as an alternative and effective substitute to xylene and ethanol in routine HandE staining procedure.

  12. β-Catenin is Essential for Ethanol Metabolism and Protection Against Alcohol-mediated Liver Steatosis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiguang; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Singh, Vijay P.; Shiva, Sruti; Krauland, Lindsay; Li, Huanan; Zhang, Pili; Kharbanda, Kusum; Ritov, Vladimir; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Scott, Donald K.; Eagon, Patricia K.; Behari, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. β-Catenin regulates hepatic metabolic zonation and adaptive response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that β-catenin regulates the hepatic response to ethanol ingestion. Female liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates were fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet (5% ethanol) in a pair-wise fashion. Liver histology, biochemistry, and gene ex...

  13. Liquid/air partition coefficients of methyl and ethyl T-butyl ethers, T-amyl methyl ether, and T-butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihlen, A; Lof, A; Johanson, G

    1995-01-01

    Partition coefficients are essential to a description of the uptake and distribution of volatile substances in humans and in the development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Liquid/air partition coefficients (lambda) of three ethers, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE), and t-amyl methyl ether (TAME) were determined in vitro by head space-gas chromatography. These ethers, and especially MTBE, are used in unleaded gasoline to enhance the oxygen and octane content, and to reduce the output of carbon monoxide during combustion. Partition coefficients of t-butyl alcohol (TBA), a metabolite of MTBE, were determined also. The liquids tested were fresh human blood, water (physiological saline), and olive oil. The (lambda)blood/air values were: 17.7 (95% confidence interval 17.0-18.4) for MTBE; 11.7 (11.3-12.1) for ETBE; and 17.9 (17.3-18.5) for TAME. Corresponding (lambda)water/air values were 15.2 (14.9-15.5), 8.39 (8.19-8.59), and 11.9 (11.7-12.1). The ethers have a higher affinity for oil, the values for (lambda)oil/air being 120 (114-125), 190 (183-197), and 337 (320-354), respectively. As expected, the (lambda)blood/air and (lambda)water/air for TBA were much higher than for the ethers, 462 (440-484) and 603 (590-617), respectively. The (lambda)oil/air was 168 (161-174) for TBA. The interindividual variability of the (lambda)blood/air (10 subjects) was calculated as the coefficient of variation, and estimated as: 14% for MTBE, 20% for ETBE, 20% for TAME, and 30% for TBA. No significant difference was seen in the (lambda)blood/air between the sexes.

  14. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  15. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    Reducing a ketone by dissolved metals involves two electrons; we may consider as intermediate a radical-anion, then a di-anion or a carbo-anion. The radical-anion may also split and give pinacols away. In order to discuss the reduction proceeds, we had to know the respective stabilities of the alcohols, which lead us to effectuate equilibration. The first chapter is devoted to the method of preparing the androstanone-II and the androstanols-II{alpha} and II-{beta}. We further establish the impossibility of using our methods for reaching a conclusion about the alcohols relative stability by experimental equilibration. Last we describe the methods for reducing the ketone by alkaline and earth-alkaline metals, dissolved in liquid ammonia, either in contact with a protons donor or with a later added protons donor. The resulting mixture of the two alcohols shows a prevailing quantity of the stable equatorial isomer {alpha}. In a second chapter, we study the action of selenic acid and hydroperoxide on cholestanone-3, which leads us to study the preparation and stereochemistry of the A-nor cholestane derivates. We further describe the preparation of the A-nor cholestanols-2{alpha} and 2{beta}, and the corresponding acetates. Equilibration of the alcohols by chemical methods shows the 2 {alpha}-alcohol more stable than the 2{beta}, which is mathematically confirmed. Last, the reduction of the A-nor cholestanone-2 by dissolved metals consistently leads to the less stable 2 {beta} epimer, with associated pinacols. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the androstanone-17 reductions, and the relative stabilities of the 17{alpha} and 17{beta} alcohols. Whichever operating methods is used, we predominantly obtain the more stable 17{beta} alcohol. In all cases, a pinacol production is observed. Summing up, we note that, in all cases, we predominantly obtain the equatorial epimer, whether it should be the more stable or the less stable. (author) [French] La reduction d

  16. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic acid with lauryl alcohol in ionic liquids and antibacterial properties in vitro against three food-related bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu-Gang; Wu, Yu; Lu, Xu-Yang; Ren, Yue-Ping; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Chen-Min; Yu, Di; Wang, He

    2017-04-01

    Lauryl ferulate (LF) was synthesized through lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic acid (FA) with lauryl alcohol in a novel ionic liquid ([(EO)-3C-im][NTf2]), and its antibacterial activities was evaluated in vitro against three food-related bacteria. [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2] was first synthesized through incorporating alkyl ether moiety into the double imidazolium ring. [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2] containing hexane was found to be the most suitable for this reaction. The effects of various parameters were studied, and the maximum yield of LF (90.1%) was obtained in the optimum reaction conditions, in [(EO)-3C-im][NTf2]/hexane (VILs:Vhexane=1:1) system, 0.08mmol/mL of FA concentration, 50mg/mL Novozym 435, 60°C. LF exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (25 mm) than Gram-positive (21.5-23.2 mm) bacteria. The lowest MIC value was seen for E. coli (1.25mM), followed by L. Monocytogenes (2.5mM) and S.aureus (5mM). The MBCs for L. Monocytogenes, S.aureus and E. coli were 10, 20 and 5mM.

  17. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  18. Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated by HO-1-SIRT1 Module in Murine Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Sodhi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress underlies the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a potent endogenous antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing oxidative stress. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD-dependent de-acyetylases and is modulated by cellular redox.We hypothesize that fructose-induced obesity creates an inflammatory and oxidative environment conducive to the development of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether HO-1 acts through SIRT1 to form a functional module within hepatocytes to attenuate steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cardiovascular dysfunction.We examined the effect of fructose, on hepatocyte lipid accumulation and fibrosis in murine hepatocytes and in mice fed a high fructose diet in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1, and SnMP, an inhibitor of HO activity. Fructose increased oxidative stress markers and decreased HO-1 and SIRT1 levels in hepatocytes (p<0.05. Further fructose supplementation increased FAS, PPARα, pAMPK and triglycerides levels; CoPP negated this increase. Concurrent treatment with CoPP and SIRT1 siRNA in hepatocytes increased FAS, PPARα, pAMPK and triglycerides levels suggesting that HO-1 is upstream of SIRT1 and suppression of SIRT1 attenuates the beneficial effects of HO-1. A high fructose diet increased insulin resistance, blood pressure, markers of oxidative stress and lipogenesis along with fibrotic markers in mice (p<0.05. Increased levels of HO-1 increased SIRT1 levels and ameliorated fructose-mediated lipid accumulation and fibrosis in liver along with decreasing vascular dysfunction (p<0.05 vs. fructose. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP.Taken together, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that HO-1 induction attenuates fructose-induced hepatic lipid deposition, prevents the development of hepatic fibrosis and abates

  19. Improvement of high-fat diet-induced obesity by a mixture of red grape extract, soy isoflavone and L-carnitine: implications in cardiovascular and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Soon; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Chang Woo; Yoon, Won Kee; Kim, Nayang; Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Heon-Sik; Park, Hyoung Kook; Han, Sang-Bae; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Ki Hoon; Park, Song-Kyu; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a mixture of dietary components, including red grape extract, soy isoflavone and L-carnitine (RISC), on obesity. RISC substantially inhibited high-fat diet (HFD)-induced increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. The amount of subcutaneous and mesenteric fat was also significantly decreased by RISC treatment in HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice, whereas epididymal fat was not affected. Moreover, HFD-induced plasma leptin levels were down-regulated by RISC treatment. In these mice, RISC treatment significantly increased the plasma level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol without affecting the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, HFD-induced increase in liver weight and lipid accumulation in liver was significantly suppressed by RISC treatment in C57BL/6mice. Plasma level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase was also inhibited by RISC treatment. These results demonstrate that RISC suppresses HFD-induced obesity and suggest that RISC supplementation might be a promising adjuvant therapy for the treatment of obesity and its complications, such as cardiovascular and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases.

  20. Chronic alcohol feeding inhibits atherogenesis in C57BL/6 hyperlipidemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeson, E E; Manaves, V; Singer, T; Tabesh, M

    1995-12-01

    Although there is abundant clinical evidence that the consumption of alcohol (ethanol) in moderate amounts has a protective effect on coronary artery disease, the mechanism of this effect is not understood. The prevailing theory supported by a limited number of clinical and experimental animal studies indicates that the ability of alcohol to elevate serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is an important mechanism. Although there have been a large number of studies on the effects of alcohol on serum lipoprotein and apolipoproteins on coronary artery disease, there have been very few that have, at the same time, looked directly and systematically at its effects on the histopathological development of atherosclerotic lesions. In the following studies we employed the hyperlipidemic C57BL/6 female mouse model and formulated an all liquid high fat atherogenic diet to provide the mice with the 3% or 6% alcohol. After 22 weeks on this diet, alcohol markedly inhibited the development of fatty streak atherosclerotic lesions in a dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, there was a dose-dependent decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values, which suggests that high-density lipoprotein alterations play little or no role in the amelioration of atherosclerosis in this model.

  1. Quantitative analysis of nanoscale intranuclear structural alterations in hippocampal cells in chronic alcoholism via transmission electron microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Shukla, Pradeep K.; Ghimire, Hemendra M.; Almabadi, Huda M.; Tripathi, Vibha; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Rao, Radhakrishna; Pradhan, Prabhakar

    2017-04-01

    Chronic alcoholism is known to alter the morphology of the hippocampus, an important region of cognitive function in the brain. Therefore, to understand the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neural cells, we employed a mouse model of chronic alcoholism and quantified intranuclear nanoscale structural alterations in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of hippocampal neurons were obtained, and the degree of structural alteration in terms of mass density fluctuation was determined using the light-localization properties of optical media generated from TEM imaging. The results, which were obtained at length scales ranging from ~30 to 200 nm, show that 10–12 week-old mice fed a Lieber–DeCarli liquid (alcoholic) diet had a higher degree of structural alteration than control mice fed a normal diet without alcohol. The degree of structural alteration became significantly distinguishable at a sample length of ~100 nm, which is the typical length scale of the building blocks of cells, such as DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. Interestingly, different degrees of structural alteration at such length scales suggest possible structural rearrangement of chromatin inside the nuclei in chronic alcoholism.

  2. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  3. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  4. Neuroprotective peptide ADNF-9 in fetal brain of C57BL/6 mice exposed prenatally to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karty Jonathan A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A derived peptide from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF-9 has been shown to be neuroprotective in the fetal alcohol exposure model. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of ADNF-9 against alcohol-induced apoptosis using TUNEL staining. We further characterize in this study the proteomic architecture underlying the role of ADNF-9 against ethanol teratogenesis during early fetal brain development using liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed from embryonic days 7-13 (E7-E13 to a 25% ethanol-derived calorie [25% EDC, Alcohol (ALC] diet, a 25% EDC diet simultaneously administered i.p. ADNF-9 (ALC/ADNF-9, or a pair-fed (PF liquid diet. At E13, fetal brains were collected from 5 dams from each group, weighed, and frozen for LC-MS/MS procedure. Other fetal brains were fixed for TUNEL staining. Results Administration of ADNF-9 prevented alcohol-induced reduction in fetal brain weight and alcohol-induced increases in cell death. Moreover, individual fetal brains were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Statistical differences in the amounts of proteins between the ALC and ALC/ADNF-9 groups resulted in a distinct data-clustering. Significant upregulation of several important proteins involved in brain development were found in the ALC/ADNF-9 group as compared to the ALC group. Conclusion These findings provide information on potential mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of ADNF-9 in the fetal alcohol exposure model.

  5. Urban–rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have increased in South Africa over the past 15 years. While these usually manifest during mid-to-late adulthood, the development of modifiable risk factors that contribute to NCDs are usually adopted early in life. Objective: To describe the urban–rural and gender patterns of NCD risk factors in black adolescents and young adults (15- to 24-year-olds from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted 5 years apart. Design: An observational study based on interviews and measurements from two cross-sectional national household surveys. Changes in tobacco and alcohol use, dietary intake, physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity among 15- to 24-year-olds as well as urban–rural and gender differences were analysed using logistic regression. The ‘Surveyset’ option in Stata statistical software was used to allow for the sampling weight in the analysis. Results: Data from 3,186 and 2,066 black 15- to 24-year-old participants in 1998 and 2003, respectively, were analysed. In males, the prevalence of smoking (1998: 21.6%, 2003: 19.1% and problem drinking (1998: 17.2%, 2003: 15.2% were high and increased with age, but in females were much lower (smoking – 1998: 1.0%, 2003: 2.1%; problem drinking – 1998: 4.2%, 2003: 5.8%. The predominant risk factors in females were overweight/obesity (1998: 29.9%, 2003: 31.1% and physical inactivity (2003: 46%. Urban youth, compared to their rural counterparts, were more likely to smoke (odds ratio (OR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09–1.75, have high salt intake (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12–2.78, be overweight/obese (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14–1.69, or be physically inactive (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12–1.89. However, they had lower odds of inadequate micronutrient intake (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.62, and there was no overall significant urban– rural difference in the odds for problem drinking but among females the odds were higher in

  6. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  7. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in “beer potomania” and “starvation potomania”

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such a...

  8. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in "beer potomania" and "starvation potomania".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T H

    2014-07-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia.

  9. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  10. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  11. Determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum and liver as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Application to a rat model for hypercholesterolemia and evaluation of the effect of diets rich in phenolic antioxidants from fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Raquel; Lecumberri, Elena; Ramos, Sonia; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura

    2005-11-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) as the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative was applied to biological samples (serum and liver homogenates). Since MDA is considered a presumptive biomarker for lipid peroxidation in live organisms, a model for nutritionally induced oxidative stress (hypercholesterolemic rats) was studied in comparison with normocholesterolemic animals. The effect of diet supplementation with fruits rich in antioxidant polyphenols was assessed. The proposed method showed to be precise and reproducible, as well as sensitive enough to reflect differences in the oxidative status in vivo. A significant decrease of serum and liver MDA concentrations in animals fed diets containing 0.3% of polyphenols from strawberry, cocoa or plum was observed in the normocholesterolemic groups. This reduction was especially noteworthy in the hypercholesterolemic animals, with increased MDA levels indicating enhanced lipid peroxidation in the controls, yet with values parallel to the normocholesterolemic groups in animals fed the polyphenol-rich diets. These results point out the beneficial effects of phenolic antioxidants from fruits in preventing oxidative damage in vivo.

  12. 甜菜废蜜酒精废液制取单细胞蛋白质%Production of Single Cell Protein With Waste Liquid From Beet Molasses Alcohol Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔世伟

    2001-01-01

    The intraspecific fusant Ct-3 coming from candida tropicalis hasbeen adopted to produce single cell protein with the waste liquid from beet molasses alcohol fermentation. The process of production are composed of culturing seed and fermenting, separating and concentrating, drying and smashing.%以甜菜糖厂废蜜酒精废液为原料,采用热带假丝酵母(landidatropicalis)种内融合株Ct-3为菌株,经过种子培养、发酵、分离浓缩、干燥粉碎工艺过程制取出单细胞蛋白质。

  13. Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jeong Kwon; Yun-Young Kim; Se-Young Choung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida,Alisma orientale, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Pueraria lobata.METHODS: The rats were separated randomly into five groups. One (the CD group) was fed a control diet for 10 wk, another (the ED group) fed an ethanol-containing isocaloric liquid diet for 10 wk, and the last three (the TCM group) were fed an ethanol-containing isocaloric liquid TCM2000, respectively) weekly during the last 4 wk.RESULTS: ED group developed fatty liver according to lipid profile and liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotransferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group.Whereas, in the rats administered with TCM, liver/body weight, serum TG and TC, liver TG and TC, serum ALT and AST were significantly decreased, and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group.CONCLUSION: TCM treatment causes significant reduction in alcohol-induced lipid hepatic accumulation,reversing fatty liver and liver damage, and can be usedas a remedy for alcoholic fatty liver.

  14. Inhibition of cereblon by fenofibrate ameliorates alcoholic liver disease by enhancing AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Kwang Min; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Harris, Robert A; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Choi, Won-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Chul-Seung

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates alcoholic liver disease by attenuating the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is activated by fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, and inhibited by direct interaction with cereblon (CRBN), a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Based on these preliminary findings, we investigated that CRBN would be up-regulated in the liver by alcohol consumption and that CRBN deficiency would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and pro-inflammatory responses in alcohol-fed mice by increasing AMPK activity. Wild-type, CRBN and PPARα null mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet and administered with fenofibrate. Gene expression profiles and metabolic changes were measured in the liver and blood of these mice. Expression of CRBN, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), lipogenic genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-challenged mice. Fenofibrate attenuated the induction of CRBN and reduced hepatic steatosis and pro-inflammatory markers in these mice. Ablation of the gene encoding CRBN produced the same effect as fenofibrate. The increase in CRBN gene expression by alcohol and the reduction of CRBN expression by fenofibrate were negated in PPARα null mice. Fenofibrate increased the recruitment of PPARα on CRBN gene promoter in WT mice but not in PPARα null mice. Silencing of AMPK prevented the beneficial effects of fenofibrate. These results demonstrate that activation of PPARα by fenofibrate alleviates alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reducing the inhibition of AMPK by CRBN. CRBN is a potential therapeutic target for the alcoholic liver disease.

  15. The effect of low-carbohydrate diets for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome, obesity, weight%低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者体重和代谢综合征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low-carbohydrate diets for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver weight obesity and metabolic syndrome.Methods: 32 patients in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver fat low carbohydrate diet intervention, before and after comparison analysis. Results: 32 cases of patients with BMI, TG, TC, LDL-C lowering, HDL-C increased compared with before the intervention significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion: Low-carbohydrate diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in obese patients with weight and metabolic syndrome improved significantly.%目的:探讨低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者体重和代谢综合征的影响。方法32例非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者患者低碳水化合物饮食干预,前、后对照分析。结果32例患者BMI、TG、TC、LDL-C降低,HDL-C上升,与干预前比较差异明显(P <0.05)。结论低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者体重和代谢综合征改善明显。

  16. 用于描述三元水醇系统汽液平衡的活度系数模型%Activity coefficient models to describe vapor-liquid equilibrium in ternary hydro-alcoholic solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio A.Faundez; Jose O.Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    In this study,three semipredictive activity coefficient models:Wilson,non-random-two liquid model (NRTL),and universal quasi-chemical model(UNIQUAC),have been used for modeling vapor-liquid equilibrium properties oftemary mixtures that include substances found in alcoholic distillation processes ofwine and musts.In pamcular,vapor-hqmd eqmIIbnum in temary mixtures containing water+ethanol+congener has been modeled using parameters obtained from binary and ternary mixture data.Thc congeners are substances that although present in very lOW concentrations,of the order of part per million.are important cnological parameters.The results given by these difierent models have been compared with literature data and conclusions about the accuracy ofthe models studied are drawn,recommending the best models for correlating and predicting phase equilibrium properties of this type of mixtures.

  17. 水杨酸苯酯与C4醇固液平衡测定与关联%Measurement and Correlation of Solid-Liquid Equilibria of Phenyl Salicylate with C4 Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东炜; 裴艳红; 张超; 闫峰

    2009-01-01

    In an equilibrium vessel, the solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) for three binary mixtures of phenyl salicylate with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 2-methyl-1-propanol, respectively, have been measured from 283.15 K to the melt-ing temperature of the solute using a method in which an excess amount of solute was equilibrated with the alcohol solution. The liquid concentrations of the investigated phenyl salicylate in the saturated solution were analyzed by UV spectrometry. Activity coefficients for phenyl salicylate have been calculated by means of the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations and with them were correlated solubility data that were compared with the experimental ones. The best correlation of the solubility data has been obtained by the Wilson equation by which the average root-mean-square deviation of temperature for the three systems is 1.03 K.

  18. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  19. Gout Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Low-fat yogurt 1 cup fresh melon Caffeine-free beverage, such as herbal tea Following a gout diet can help limit uric acid production and increase its elimination. Although the diet isn't likely to lower the uric acid concentration in your blood enough to treat your gout ...

  20. Effect of baicalin on toll-like receptor 4-mediated ischemia/reperfusion inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee, E-mail: sunmee@skku.edu

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is susceptible to secondary stresses such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Baicalin is an active component extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, which is widely used in herbal preparations for treatment of hepatic diseases and inflammatory disorders. This study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of baicalin on I/R injury in alcoholic fatty liver. Rats were fed an alcohol liquid diet or a control isocaloric diet for 5 weeks, and then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion. Baicalin (200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 24 and 1 h before ischemia. After reperfusion, baicalin attenuated the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in alcoholic fatty liver. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expressions increased after reperfusion, which were higher in ethanol-fed animals, were attenuated by baicalin. In ethanol-fed animals, baicalin attenuated the increases in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein expressions and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB after reperfusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that baicalin ameliorates I/R-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver. -- Highlights: ► Baicalin attenuates hepatic I/R-induced inflammation in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin downregulates TLR4, MyD88 expression during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin attenuates NF-κB nuclear translocation during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver.

  1. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  2. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  3. Alcohol causes a fatty pancreas. A rat model of ethanol-induced pancreatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J S; Colley, P W; Sosula, L; Pirola, R C; Chapman, B A; Somer, J B

    1982-01-01

    To develop an animal mode of alcoholic pancreatic steatosis, female Wistar rats were pair fed liquid diets, containing ethanol as 36% of calories or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate for 3 weeks. Electron microscopic examination showed lipid vesicles localized principally at the bases of pancreatic acinar cells in the ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol feeding significantly increased pancreatic content of cholesteryl ester without changing levels of other lipids. Ethanol feeding enhanced labeled acetate, palmitate, oleate, and linoleate incorporation into cholesteryl ester. Therefore, increased esterification of cholesterol may, in part, explain the observed accumulation of cholesteryl ester.

  4. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D

    2015-08-11

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of "liquid" energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  5. Desempenho produtivo de cabritos alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas, associadas com promotor de crescimento Effects of feeding different liquid diets with or without growth promoter on performance of kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliar o desempenho de cabritos tratados com leite de cabra integral ou colostro de vaca fermentado com ou sem óleo de soja, e com aplicação ou não do promotor de crescimento Zeranol. Vinte e quatro cabritos da raça Alpina foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Cada animal recebeu, pela manhã, 1 L da dieta líquida e 250 g/animal/dia de concentrado. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso dos animais, os consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca, a conversão alimentar e o tamanho dos órgãos. Houve diferenças entre as dietas líquidas, com ou sem a aplicação de Zeranol, para ganho de peso aos 29, 36, e 50 dias de idade, mas não para o ganho médio diário. A não aplicação de Zeranol nos tratamentos com leite de cabra e colostro fermentado com óleo de soja proporcionou diferença média de 8% no ganho de peso dos animais alimentados com leite de cabra. Não se observou diferença nos consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca e na conversão alimentar dos animais entre as diferentes dietas líquidas avaliadas. Não houve influência do Zeranol ou do óleo de soja nas dietas líquidas sobre nenhum dos órgãos estudadosThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding whole goat milk or fermented cow colostrum supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without the growth promoter Zeranol on performance of kid goats. Twenty-four Alpine kid goats assigned to a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement were used in this trial. The following variables were investigated: weight gain, intakes of dry matter and concentrate, feed conversion, and organ sizes. Significant differences were observed among liquid diets with or without Zeranol for weight gain at 29, 36, and 50 days old, but not for the average daily gain. No significant differences for intake of both dry matter and concentrate as well as for feed conversion were

  6. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  7. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  8. Volumetric properties and enthalpies of solution of alcohols C{sub k}H{sub 2k+1}OH (k = 1, 2, 6) in 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10{r_brace} ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Husson, P. [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Jacquemin, J. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Universite Francois Rabelais, Laboratoire PCMB (EA 4244), equipe Chimie-physique des Interfaces et des Milieux Electrolytiques (CIME), Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Youngs, T.G.A. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Kett, V.L. [The School of Pharmacy, The Queen' s University of Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Hardacre, C. [The QUILL Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Costa Gomes, M.F., E-mail: margarida.c.gomes@univ-bpclermont.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 24 avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Interactions Moleculaires, UMR 6272, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Excess properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Volumetric properties, excess molar volumes. > Heats of mixing of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. > Molecular simulation of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures. - Abstract: We present a study on the effect of the alkyl chain length of the imidazolium ring in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] (n = 2 to 10), on the mixing properties of (ionic liquid + alcohol) mixtures (enthalpy and volume). We have measured small excess molar volumes with highly asymmetric curves as a function of mole fraction composition (S-shape) with more negative values in the alcohol-rich regions. The excess molar volumes increase with the increase of the alkyl-chain length of the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquid. The values of the partial molar excess enthalpy and the enthalpy of mixing are positive and, for the case of methanol, do not vary monotonously with the length of the alkyl side-chain of the cation on the ionic liquid - increasing from n = 2 to 6 and then decreasing from n = 8. This non-monotonous variation is explained by a more favourable interaction of methanol with the cation head group of the ionic liquid for alkyl chains longer than eight carbon atoms. It is also observed that the mixing is less favourable for the smaller alcohols, the enthalpy of mixing decreasing to less positive values as the alkyl chain of the alcohol increases. Based on the data from this work and on the knowledge of the vapour pressure of {l_brace}[C{sub 1}C{sub n}Im][NTf{sub 2}] + alcohol{r_brace} binary mixtures at T = 298 K reported in the literature, the excess Gibbs free energy, excess enthalpy and excess entropy could be then calculated and it was observed that these mixtures behave like the ones constituted by a non-associating and a non-polar component, with its solution behaviour being determined by the enthalpy.

  9. Regulation of heme oxygenase expression by alcohol,hypoxia and oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa; Nicole; Gerjevic; Jonathan; Pascal; Chaky; Duygu; Dee; Harrison-Findik

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of both acute and chronic alcohol exposure on heme oxygenases(HOs) in the brain,liver and duodenum.METHODS:Wild-type C57BL/6 mice,heterozygous Sod2 knockout mice,which exhibit attenuated manganese superoxide dismutase activity,and liver-specific ARNT knockout mice were used to investigate the role of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and hypoxia.For acute alcohol exposure,ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 1 wk.Mice were pair-fed with regular or ethanol-containing Lieber De Carli liquid diets for 4 wk for chronic alcohol studies.HO expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.RESULTS:Chronic alcohol exposure downregulated HO-1 expression in the brain but upregulated it in the duodenum of wild-type mice.It did not alter liver HO-1 expression,nor HO-2 expression in the brain,liver or duodenum.In contrast,acute alcohol exposure decreased both liver HO-1 and HO-2 expression,and HO-2 expression in the duodenum of wild-type mice.The decrease in liver HO-1 expression was abolished in ARNT+/-mice.Sod2+/-mice with acute alcohol exposure did not exhibit any changes in liver HO-1 and HO-2 expression or in brain HO-2 expression.However,alcohol inhibited brain HO-1 and duodenal HO-2 but increased duodenal HO-1 expression in Sod2+/-mice.Collectively,these findings indicate that acute and chronic alcohol exposure regulates HO expression in a tissue-specific manner.Chronic alcohol exposure alters brain and duodenal,but not liver HO expression.However,acute alcohol exposure inhibits liver HO-1 and HO-2,and also duodenal HO-2 expression.CONCLUSION:The inhibition of liver HO expression by acute alcohol-induced hypoxia may play a role in the early phases of alcoholic liver disease progression.

  10. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  11. Microstructure of neat alcohols

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, A; Zoranic, L; Perera, Aurelien; Sokolic, Franjo; Zoranic, Larisa

    2007-01-01

    Formation of microstructure in homogeneous associated liquids is analysed through the density-density pair correlation functions, both in direct and reciprocal space, as well as an effective local one-body density function. This is illustrated through a molecular dynamics study of two neat alcohols, namely methanol and \\emph{tert}-butanol, which have a rich microstructure: chain-like molecular association for the former and micelle-like for the latter. The relation to hydrogen bonding interaction is demonstrated. The apparent failure to find microstructure in water -a stronger hydrogen bonding liquid- with the same tools, is discussed.

  12. Heat-treatment, phytase and fermented liquid feeding affect the presence of inositol phosphates in ileal digesta and phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, Henry; Tauson, A H

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo-inositol pentaki......The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo...

  13. Uso de un Líquido Iónico como Catalizador para la Oxidación de Alcoholes Hidrofóbicos de Alto Peso Molecular The Use of an Ionic Liquid Catalyst for the Oxidation of Hydrophobic High Molecular Weight Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Guajardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron pruebas de oxidación del docosanol hacia su respectivo ácido en un reactor discontinuo, usando un líquido iónico como catalizador compuesto por el catión Aliquat®336 y el anión poliperoxometalato {PO4[WO(O22]4}3-. Los resultados obtenidos permiten inferir que solo el agua oxigenada puede ser utilizado efectivamente como agente oxidante y confirmando la efectiva transferencia del oxigeno activo entre las fases acuosa y orgánica, además se constató que el paso limitante de la reacción global corresponde a la conversión del docosanol hacia el intermedio reacción (aldehído para la cual se estimó una constante cinética de 0,26 L mole-1 h-1 mientras que la cinética de la posterior oxidación hacia el ácido fue estimada en 1,3 L mole-1 h-1 (ambas a 90 °C. Luego de 6 horas de reacción a 90°C fueron obtenidas conversiones máximas de 81% y selectividads de 55%, operando con una relación molar H2O2/alcohol igual a 3 y relación másica alcohol/catalizador igual a 100.Catalytic batch oxidation runs of an hydrophobic high molecular weight alcohol (docosanol to the acid were performed using a functionalized ionic liquid composed by an Aliquat®336 cation and a polyperoxometalate {PO4[WO(O22]4}3- anion as a catalyst. The active oxygen is efficiently transferred by the catalyst from the aqueous to the alcoholic phase in accordance with an experimentally validated reaction scheme. Only the hydrogen peroxide was used effectively as an oxidant, giving an 81 % conversion and a 55% yield after 6 hours at 90ºC, with a H2O2/alcohol molar ratio that equal 3 and an alcohol/catalyst mass ratio that equal 100. The calculated kinetic constants, at 90ºC, for the docosanol oxidation to the aldehyde intermediate and the further oxidation towards docosanoic acid were 0,26 and 1,3 L mole-1 h-1, respectively.

  14. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  15. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in “beer potomania” and “starvation potomania”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia. PMID:25097331

  16. Phase separation in polymer solutions. I. Liquid-liquid phase separation of PPO poly (2, 6-dimethyl 1, 4-phenylene oxide) in binary mixtures with toluene and ternary mixtures with toluene and ethyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, van P.T.; Smolders, C.A.

    1972-01-01

    In the system poly(2, 6-dimethy1-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-toluene three phase separation lines can be detected: the melting point curve, the cloud point curve, and the spinodial. Because crystallization of PPO occurs very slowly, a phase transition will always be initiated by liquid-liquid phase

  17. Negative electrospray ionisation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) and FTOH-derived acrylate surfactants by liquid chromatography coupled to accurate (tandem) mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Christensen, Jan H.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are used to synthesize fluorinated surfactants, which form bioaccumulative perfluorinated degradation products, which are toxic to humans and the environment. To facilitate screening for FTOH-derived surfactants by LC-ESI–-MS, we identified product ions of FTOHs, an......, and propose FTOH fragmentation pathways on two MS instruments. By extraction of FTOH basepeak ions from accurate mass spectra, homologues series of peaks showed up in an industrial blend of FTOH-derived fluoroacrylates used in food paper packaging....

  18. [Diabetes and diet revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2006-01-01

    In the treatment of diabetes the diet has an important role complementary to the pharmaceutical treatment. The diet must provide the right amount of nutrients and calories in order for the individual to reach and maintain the ideal weight, stabilize the blood glucose levels close to the norm, and attain an optimal lipid profile. The daily caloric intake is represented by 55-60% of carbohydrates with a preference for nutrients rich in fiber and with a low blood glucose index. Of the daily caloric intake 10% may include sucrose as long as it is consumed in the context of a balanced meal. A moderate use of fructose is allowed, and an increased intake of fiber is encouraged. The consumption of proteins represents about 10-15% of the daily caloric intake. A consumption close to the lower limits of the range (about 0,8 gr/kg of body weight) is required for diabetes patients with nephropathy, while a daily intake of 0,6 gr/kg of body weight is considered to be the malnutrition risk factor for lower levels. The total intake of fats required is or = 100mg/dl and other cardiovascular risk factors), the polyunsaturated fatty acids less than 10%, and the monounsaturated fatty acids at 10-15% of the total caloric intake. The intake of cholesterol through the diet should be high levels of LDL cholesterol. Multivitamin supplements are recommended only for certain categories of diabetic patients that may be at risk of micronutrient deficiency. A moderate quantity of alcohol (5-15 gr/die) is allowed in the case of stabilized diabetes and lack of hypertrigliceridemia. Although the diet may determine a ponderal decrease of up to 10% of the initial weight, it is good to insert a correct nutritional program into a well defined behavioral program that, other than a reduced caloric intake, takes into consideration an increased energetic expenditure through physical activity.

  19. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol was done by Waters HPLC system manager using gradient pump system. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofurane, acetonitrile and water in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and 2.0 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 16.50 µg/ml to 11.00 mg/ml for vitamin A, 10.05 µg/ml to 6.70 mg/ml for vitamin E, 0.075 µg/ml to 0.050 mg/ml for vitamin D3 and 1.25 mg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for benzylalcohol. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E, benzyl alcohol and impurities.

  20. 连续蒸馏塔在回收糖精废液中甲醇的应用%Application of the Continuous Rectification Column in Recovering Methyl Alcohol From Saccharin Waste Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝新红

    2011-01-01

    介绍了连续蒸馏塔在回收糖精废液中甲醇的应用,并采用了直接蒸汽加热、蒸发式冷凝器、金属丝网填料和鲍尔环配合使用等新工艺,解决了提留段的堵塞问题,冷却时需大量循环水,电耗高等一系列问题,降低了糖精生产中的甲醇消耗,取得了良好的社会效益和经济效益.%Application of the continuous rectification column in recovering methyl alcohol from saccharin waste liquid was introduced. Some new techniques including direct steam heating, evaporative condenser, metal wire packing and pall ring were used to solve a series of problems, such as stripping section blockage, massive circulating water demand during cooling, high power consumption and so on. At the same time, the methyl alcohol consumption in the saccharin production was lowered ,and good social efficiency and economic efficiency were obtained.

  1. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Poppitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  2. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E.coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding liquid feed containing whey permeate (WP) fermented with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiota and mucosal immune responses of Escherichia coli F4 inoculated piglets post weaning. The study consisted of 52 weaned...... were collected from the GIT segments. Lactic acid concentration was higher (P ... piglets allotted to 6 treatments: (1) no infection and no WP (INF−WP−); (2) infection and no WP (INF+WP−); (3) infection and non-fermented WP (INF+WP+); (4) infection and WP fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (INF+WP+LAB1); (5) infection and WP fermented...

  3. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  4. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24018 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  5. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  6. High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, J.; Quintás, G.; Lendl, B.

    2010-06-01

    In the present study the simultaneous use of two quantum cascade lasers (QC-lasers) was investigated for the on-line detection in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An optical set-up based on three gold mirrors and a ZnSe beam splitter was used to direct the emitted laser light trough a liquid flow cell with an optical path length of 52 μm onto a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detector. Using the separation of eight components of wine and grape juice as an example, on-line dual QC-laser detection in HPLC could be shown successfully for the first time.

  7. Evaluación de Modelos de Predicción de Densidades Líquidas de Saturación de Aldehídos, Cetonas y Alcoholes Evaluation of Predictive Models for the Liquid Saturation Density of Aldehydes, Ketones, and Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Mulero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha diseñado un programa de ordenador que permite estudiar la validez de expresiones empíricas para predecir la densidad de líquidos saturados puros. El programa incluye una base de datos con valores aceptados de literatura a fin de comparar los calculados con los modelos. Para cada dato, el programa indica la desviación absoluta y porcentual. Para cada fluido y para cada familia de fluidos se lista el intervalo de temperaturas y se obtienen desviaciones absolutas y porcentuales, indicando a qué temperatura se produce la máxima desviación. Además se generan gráficas que permiten visualizar los datos junto a las predicciones de los modelos. Se ha estudiado la validez y exactitud de ocho expresiones analíticas, basadas en el principio de estados correspondientes, para predecir la densidad líquida de saturación de aldehídos, cetonas y cuatro familias de alcoholes.A computer program to study the validity of empirical correlations for the prediction of saturation liquid densities of pure fluids has been designed. The program includes a database with accepted values from the literature in order to compare the values calculated with the models. For each datum point the program gives the absolute and relative deviations. For each fluid and family of fluids, the temperature range is listed, the absolute and relative deviations are obtained, and the temperature at which the highest deviation is found is indicated. Besides, graphics are generated to display the data together with the model predictions. The validity and accuracy of eight analytical expressions based on the corresponding state principle to predict the saturation liquid density of aldehydes, ketones, and four alcohol families have been tested .

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  9. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  10. Diet and Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  11. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  12. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Yang, Xin, E-mail: beijing-yangxin@163.com [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu, Wei [Shandong Province Environmental Monitoring Centre, Jinan 250013 (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: china_cdc@yahoo.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •19 triazines were determined in cereal samples from Chinese TDS for the first time. •Isotope dilution technique and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} method are both applied in this study. •CCαs and CCβs are much lower in this work than those of the previous publications. -- Abstract: A selective and sensitive isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution–HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3}) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p > 0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020–0.4200 μg kg{sup −1} and 0.0024–0.4500 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg{sup −1}. This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population.

  13. Pathophysiology of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Salvatore; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Rebelos, Eleni; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miele, Luca; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Valenti, Luca; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    The physiopathology of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are influenced by diet, life style and inflammation, which have a major impact on the severity of the clinicopathologic outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A short comprehensive review is provided on current knowledge of the pathophysiological interplay among major circulating effectors/mediators of fatty liver, such as circulating lipids, mediators released by adipose, muscle and liver tissues and pancreatic and gut hormones in relation to diet, exercise and inflammation. PMID:27973438

  14. Low-dose alcohol consumption protects against transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice: possible role of PPARγ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined the influence of low-dose alcohol consumption on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in mice and a potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of low-dose alcohol consumption. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6 J mice were fed a liquid diet without or with 1% alcohol for 8 weeks, orally treated with rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg/day, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ-selective agonist, or GW9662 (3 mg/kg/day, a selective PPARγ antagonist, for 2 weeks. The mice were subjected to unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 90 minutes. Brain injury, DNA fragmentation and nuclear PPARγ protein/activity were evaluated at 24 hours of reperfusion. We found that the brain injury and DNA fragmentation were reduced in 1% alcohol-fed mice compared to nonalcohol-fed mice. Rosiglitazone suppressed the brain injury in nonalcohol-fed mice, but didn't alter the brain injury in alcohol-fed mice. In contrast, GW9662 worsened the brain injury in alcohol-fed mice, but didn't alter the brain injury in nonalcohol-fed mice. Nuclear PPARγ protein/activity at peri-infarct and the contralateral corresponding areas of the parietal cortex was greater in alcohol-fed mice compared to nonalcohol-fed mice. Using differentiated catecholaminergic (CATH.a neurons, we measured dose-related influences of chronic alcohol exposure on nuclear PPARγ protein/activity and the influence of low-dose alcohol exposure on 2-hour oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD/24-hour reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. We found that low-dose alcohol exposure increased nuclear PPARγ protein/activity and protected against the OGD/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. The beneficial effect of low-dose alcohol exposure on OGD/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis was abolished by GW9662. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that chronic consumption of low-dose alcohol protects the brain against I/R injury. The neuroprotective effect

  15. Neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Emelyanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the present-day Russian and foreign literature on neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication. The most common manifestations of alcohol disease include alcoholic polyneuropathy (PNP and alcohol-induced skeletal muscle injury. The clinical polymorphism of alcoholic PNP is discussed. The paper considers a chronic sensory automatic form due to the direct toxic effects of ethanol and its metabolites during long-term alcohol intoxication, as well as acute/subacute sensorimotor neuropathy, the basis for the pathogenesis of which is B group vitamins, predominantly thiamine, deficiency that develops in the presence of drinking bouts concurrent with malnutrition and/or alcohol-related gastrointestinal tract diseases. In addition to nonuse of alcohol and a properly balanced diet, antioxidant therapy with alphalipoic acid and neurotropic B group vitamins is considered to be pathogenetic therapy for neuropathy. The most common and least studied clinicalform of alcohol-induced musculoskeletal injury is chronic alcoholic myopathy (AM, the diagnostic standard for which is morphometricand immunohistochemical examination of a muscle biopsy specimen. The morphological base for this form of myopathy is predominantly type 2 muscle fiber atrophy caused by impaired protein synthesis and a decreased regenerative potential of muscle fiber. The efficacy of antioxidants and leucine-containing amino acid mixtures in the treatment of chronic AM is discussed.

  16. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  17. Yeast suspension filtration: Flux enhancement using an upward gas/liquid slug flow -- Application to continuous alcoholic fermentation with cell recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, M.; Maranges, C.; Fonade, C.; Lafforgue-Delorme, C. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse (France). Centre de Bioingenierie Gilbert Durand

    1998-04-05

    This study deals with the use of an upward gas/liquid slug flow to reduce tubular mineral membrane fouling. The injection of air into the feedstream is designed to create hydrodynamic conditions that destabilize the cake layer over the membrane surface inside the filtration module complex. Experimental study was carried out by filtering a biological suspension (yeast) through different tubular mineral membranes. The effects of operating parameters, including the nature of the membrane, liquid and gas flowrates, and transmembrane pressure, were examined. When external fouling was the main limiting phenomenon, flux enhancements of a factor of three could be achieved was gas sparging compared with single liquid phase crossflow filtration. The economic benefits of this unsteady technique have also been examined. To investigate the possibility of long-term operation of the two-phase flow principle, dense cell perfusion cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were carried out in a fermentor coupled with an ultrafiltration module. The air injection allowed a high and stable flux to be maintained over 100 h of fermentation, with a final cell concentration of 150 g dry weight/L. At equal biomass level, a twofold gain in flux could be attained compared with classical steady crossflow filtration at half the cost.

  18. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  19. Ambient Ionic Liquids Used in the Reduction ofAldehydes and Ketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Qian XU; Shu Ping LUO; Bao You LIU; Zhen Yuan XU; Yin Chu SHEN

    2004-01-01

    The sodium borohydride reduction of aldehydes and ketones to corresponding alcohols has been accomplished via the use of ionic liquids. The alcohols are easily obtained with excellent yields and the ionic liquid BMImBF4 could be reused.

  20. Facile coupling of propargylic, allylic and benzylic alcohols with allylsilane and alkynylsilane, and their deoxygenation with Et3SiH, catalyzed by Bi(OTf)3 in [BMIM][BF4] ionic liquid (IL), with recycling and reuse of the IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G G K S Narayana; Laali, Kenneth K

    2012-09-28

    Allyltrimethylsilane (allyl-TMS) reacts with propargylic alcohols 1a-1d in the presence of 10% Bi(OTf)(3) in [BMIM][BF(4)] solvent to furnish the corresponding 1,5-enynes in respectable isolated yields (87-93%) at room temperature. The utility of Bi(OTf)(3) as a superior catalyst was demonstrated in a survey study on coupling of allyl-TMS with employing several metallic triflates (Bi, Ln, Al, Yb) as well as, B(C(6)F(5))(3), Zn(NTf(2))(2) and Bi(NO(3))(3)·5H(2)O. Coupling of cyclopropyl substituted propargylic alcohol with allyl-TMS gave the skeletally intact 1,5-enyne and a ring opened derivative as a mixture. Coupling of propargylic/allylic alcohol with allyl-TMS resulted in allylation at both benzylic (2 isomers) and propargylic positions, as major and minor products respectively. The scope of this methodology for allylation of a series of allylic and benzylic alcohols was explored. Chemoselective reduction of a host of propargylic, propagylic/allylic, bis-allylic, allylic, and benzylic alcohols with Et(3)SiH was achieved in high yields with short reaction times. The same approach was successfully applied to couple representative propargylic and allylic alcohols with 1-phenyl-2-trimethylsilylacetylene. The recovery and reuse of the ionic liquid (IL) was gauged in a case study with minimal decrease in isolated yields after six cycles.

  1. Fitase líquida em dieta extrusada para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus = Liquid phytase in extruded diet for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a utilização de fitase líquida sobre o desempenho de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo. Foram utilizados 176 peixes com peso inicial de 45,84 ± 3,31 g, alimentados com dietas sem e com 250; 500 e 1.000 unidades de fitase (UF kg-1 da dieta, durante 62 dias. Foi utilizada dieta-controle com 3012 kcal de energia kg-1, 29% de proteína bruta e 0,23% de fósforo disponível. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de inclusão de fitase sobre o consumo, índice hepatossomático,gordura visceral, sobrevivência, retenção de cálcio nos ossos e teores de umidade, proteína bruta e cinzas na carcaça. Foi observado efeito linear crescente dos níveis de fitase sobre a retenção de fósforo e sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e do fósforo das dietas. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de suplementação de fitase sobre o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, rendimento decarcaça e gordura na carcaça, em que foram estimados os valores de 350; 500; 500; 516 e 647 UF kg-1 de dieta para melhor valor destas variáveis, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização 500 UF kg-1 é adequada em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo.This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of liquid phytase on the performance of juvenile Nile tilapia. It was used 176 fish (45.84 ± 3.31 g. The fish were fed diets without phytase and with 250; 500 and 1,000 phytase units (PU kg-1 of diet, during62 days. A control diet was used containing 3,012 kcal digestible energy kg-1, 29% crude protein and 0.23% available phosphorus. The fish were assigned to a randomized block design, with four treatments and four replications. No effect was observed on the levels ofdietary phytase on feed intake, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat, survival, as well as on

  2. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the

  3. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  4. Identification and Kinetics Study on the Transformation of Mevinolin in Acidic Alcohol Solution by High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Photodiode Array Detector or Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mevinolin is one of the earlier statin drugs which is effective for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, as an inhibitor of the HMG-CoA reductase. The transformations of mevinolin in acidic alcohol(such as ethanol, methanol and isopropanol) solutions caused by solvent effects were revealed in the present article. The solvates, that is, mevinolinic methyl ester, mevinolinic ethyl ester and mevinolinic isopropyl ester, were identified by LC/PDA and LC/MS. The kinetics parameters of the transformations caused by solvent effects, such as the observed rate constant of mevinolin(kobs), the maximum concentration(cmax), and its corresponding maximum time(tmax, time for the acid form to reach the maximum concentration) of mevinolinic acid, are discussed. The influencing factors, such as the kind of solvents, the acidic concentration, the initial mevinolin concentration, and the water content as well as temperature were investigated. Two kinds of comparative reactions, hydrolysis and alcoholysis, of mevinolin in solution were studied. This detailed study on the kinetics of mevinolin transformations is valuable and meaningful for the purification, preparation, injection manufacturing, extraction, storage, etc., of mevinolin or other similar compounds. This work provides useful information for the quality control of mevinolin and mevinolin-like drugs as well.

  5. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  6. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  7. Correlates of alcohol-related regretted sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Borsari, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of alcohol-related regretted sex in college students warrants a better understanding of the characteristics of students who report such experiences. Therefore, the present study examined correlates of regretted sexual experiences involving alcohol use among 2 specific high-risk college student samples: students mandated to alcohol intervention (n = 522) and volunteer 1st-year students transitioning to college (n = 481). Results indicated that alcohol-related regretted sex occurred at similar rates in mandated and volunteer students, with approximately 25% of the students reporting at least 1 occurrence in the past month. Women were more likely to report alcohol-related regretted sex compared with men. The belief that alcohol use would result in "liquid courage" was associated with alcohol-related regretted sex among college students, even after accounting for greater alcohol use and problem alcohol use behaviors. These findings have significant implications for intervention efforts and future research.

  8. A sensitive fluorescence reagent for the determination of aldehydes from alcoholic beverage using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Jinmao [Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001 (China)], E-mail: Jmyou6304@163.com; Yan Tao; Zhao Huaixin [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis, College of Chemistry Science, Qufu Normal University, Qufu Shandong 273165 (China); Sun Zhiwei; Xia Lian; Suo Yourui; Li Yulin [Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001 (China)

    2009-03-16

    A pre-column derivatization method for the sensitive determination of aldehydes using the tagging reagent 2-[2-(7H-dibenzo[a,g] carbazol-7-yl)-ethoxy] ethyl carbonylhydrazine (DBCEEC) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and APCI-MS identification has been developed. The chromophore of fluoren-9-methoxy-carbonylhydrazine (Fmoc-hydrazine) reagent was replaced by 2-[2-(7H-dibenzo[a,g] carbazol-7-yl)-ethoxy] ethyl functional group, which resulted in a sensitive fluorescence tagging reagent DBCEEC. DBCEEC could easily and quickly labeled aldehydes. The maximum excitation (300 nm) and emission (400 nm) wavelengths did not essentially change for all the aldehyde derivatives. Derivatives were sufficiently stable to be efficiently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The derivatives showed an intense protonated molecular ion corresponding m/z [M + (CH{sub 2}){sub n}]{sup +} in positive-ion mode (M: molecular weight of DBCEEC, n: corresponding aldehyde carbon atom numbers). The collision-induced dissociation of protonated molecular ion formed fragment ions at m/z 294.6, m/z 338.6 and m/z 356.5. Studies on derivatization demonstrated excellent derivative yields in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) catalyst. Maximal yields close to 100% were observed with a 10 to 15-fold molar reagent excess. Separation of the derivatized aldehydes had been optimized on ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C{sub 8} column with aqueous acetonitrile as mobile phase in conjunction with a binary gradient elution. Excellent linear responses were observed at the concentration range of 0.01-10 nmol mL{sup -1} with coefficients of >0.9991. Detection limits obtained by the analysis of a derivatized standard containing 0.01 nmol mL{sup -1} of each aldehyde, were from 0.2 to 1.78 nmol L{sup -1} (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3)

  9. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  10. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  11. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  12. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  13. Extraction of Doxycycline Hydrochloride Using Alcohol and Ionic Liquid Binary Aqueous Two Phase System%醇与离子液体二元双水相体系萃取盐酸多西环素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关卫省; 黎文娟; 韩娟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the molecular alcohol aqueous two-phase system and the ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system, the new method of using n-propanol and hydrophilic ionic liquid(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Bmim]BF4) with (NH4)2SO4 binary aqueous two phase system for the extraction of doxycycline hydrochloride was developed. The influence factors on partition behaviors of doxycycline hydrochloride were studied, including concentration of (NH4)2SO4, n-propanol con-sumption, pH value, concentration of ionic liquid and doxycycline hydrochloride. The results showed that when using pH value of 4. 0 - 5. 0, (NH4) 2SO4 concentration of 34% and doxycycline hydrochloride concentration between 25 -95 mg/L, the extraction rate and distribution coefficient of doxycycline hydrochloride will be up to 90. 26% -95. 71% and 62. 452 - 149. 401, respectively.%基于小分子醇双水相体系和离子液体双水相体系,建立了正丙醇与亲水性离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑四氟硼酸[ Bmim]BF4和(NH4 )2SO4形成的二元双水相体系萃取盐酸多西环素的新方法.考察了(NH4)2SO4含量、正丙醇用量、pH值、离子液体含量以及盐酸多西环素含量对盐酸多西环素分配行为的影响.结果表明:当醇和离子液体二元双水相体系的pH值在4.0~5.0范围内,(NH4)2SO4含量为34%,且盐酸多西环素的质量浓度在25 ~ 95 mg/L之间时,该体系对盐酸多西环素的萃取率可达90.26% ~95.71%,分配系数可达62.452 ~ 149.401.

  14. Alimentação de bezerros ruminantes com dieta líquida, via goteira esofageana: parâmetros ruminais Ruminant calves feeding with liquid diet, through esophageal groove: ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2004-12-01

    steers fitted with ruminal cannulas, averaging 100 kg live weight at the beginning of trial. Treatments consisted of increasing TSP levels in liquid form (0, 33, 66 and 100% offered through nipple-pail, and decreasing levels in concentrate meal to keep the same amout of nitrogen in all diets. Twenty-one days sub periods were used, the first sexteen for diet adaptation (Cynodon dactilon hay, concentrate mixture and liquid feed. In situ degradability assay was runned from day 17 to 20, and incubation times were 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48hours for soybean meal and TSP, and 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for coastcross hay. Ruminal contents colections to analize liquid volume, passage rate, and pH were made at twentieth first day at 0h, 1h, 3h, 6h, 12h, and 24h. On twentieth day ruminal contents were colected to analyze volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia nitrogen at 0, 2h, 3h, 4h, 5h and 6h after first feed. An increase in passage rate and ruminal turnover was observed as the liquid suplement protein amount decreased. There were no effects of feeding form in the total VFA concentrations or its individual molar percentages; also ruminal pH was not affected. There were no effects of feeding form upon in situ degradability of soybean meal and TSP dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP, as well as there were no effects in the degradability of Coast-Cross hay DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF.

  15. Three initial diets for management of mild acute pancreatitis: A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bo Meng; Xun Li; Yu-Min Li; Wen-Ce Zhou; Xiao-Liang Zhu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare non-liquid and clear-liquid diets, and to assess whether the latter is the optimal treatment for mild acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, EBM review databases, Science Citation Index Expanded, and several Chinese databases were searched up to March 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared non-liquid with clear-liquid diets in patients with mild acute pancreatitis were included. A meta-analysis was performed using available evidence from RCTs. RESULTS: Three RCTs of adequate quality involving a total of 362 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared to liquid diet, non-liquid diet significantly decreased the length of hospitalization [mean difference (MD): 1.18, 95% CI: 0.82-1.55; P< 0.00001] and total length of hospitalization (MD: 1.31, 95% CI: 0.45-2.17; P = 0.003). The subgroup analysis showed solid diet was more favorable than clear liquid diet in the length of hospitalization, with a pooled MD being -1.05 (95% CI: -1.43 to -0.66; P< 0.00001). However, compared with clear liquid diet, both soft and solid diets did not show any significant differences for recurrence of pain after re-feeding, either alone [relative risk (RR): 0.95; 95% CI: 0.51-1.87; P = 0.88] and (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.69-2.16; P = 0.49), respectively, or analyzed together as non-liquid diet (RR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.47-1.36; P= 0.41). CONCLUSION: The non-liquid soft or solid diet did not increase pain recurrence after re-feeding, compared with the clear-liquid diet. The non-liquid diet reduced hospitalization.

  16. Nutritional profile of asymptomatic alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Sobral-Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Alcoholism may interfere with nutritional status, but reports are often troubled by uncertainties about ingested diet and organ function, as well as by ongoing abuse and associated conditions. OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and body compartment changes in stable alcoholics without confounding clinical and dietetic variables, a prospective observational pilot study was designed. Three well-matched populations were considered: subjects with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, alcoholics without visceral disease, and healthy never-drinking adults (controls. METHODS: Subjects (n = 60 were asymptomatic males with adequate diet, no superimposed disease or complication, and alcohol-free for at least 6 months. After exclusions, 48 patients were compared. Variables encompassed dietary recall, bioimpedance analysis, biochemical profile and inflammatory markers. Main outcome measures were body fat, lean body mass, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and selected minerals and vitamins. RESULTS: Both alcoholic populations suffered from reduced lean body mass (P = 0.001, with well-maintained body fat.Magnesium was depleted, and values of vitamin D and B12 correlated with alcohol abuse. LDL and total cholesterol was increased in alcoholics without pancreatitis (P = 0.04, but not in those with visceral damage. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A correlated with duration of excessive drinking (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition (diminished lean body mass, risk of magnesium and vitamin deficiencies contrasted with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. This second danger was masked during chronic pancreatitis but not in alcoholics without visceral disease. Further studies should focus special requirements of this population.

  17. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romero Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have concluded that incidences of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures vary across the European Union, the lowest incidence being reported in the Mediterranean area. The beneficial effect is mainly attributed to a specific eating pattern. The Mediterranean diet contain a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive molecules with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and alkalinising properties that may contribute to the bone-sparing effect of the Mediterranean diet. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of Mediterranean diet on bone health. Methods: The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol", "bone", "osteoporosis", "fracture", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and bone" or "Mediterranean diet and fracture". Results: A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between Mediterranean Diet and bone health, and they have reported conflicting results. On the one hand, adherence to a traditional MeDi has been associated with higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. The results of these studies could be attributed to the combined beneficial effects of individual components of the Mediterranean diet. On the contrary, several studies failed to show any association between adherence to the MeDi and indices of bone mass. Conclusions: Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on bone health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of osteoporosis.

  18. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  19. Online capillary solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of chiral secondary alcohol products in yeast catalyzed stereoselective reduction cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Nian, Yu-Chuan

    2015-02-06

    An online solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of trace R- and S-4-phenyl-2-butanol (R- and S-pbol) in salt rich cell culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed stereoselective reduction of 4-pheny-2-butanone (pbone). A Supel-Q PLOT capillary column was used for the extraction and deionized distilled water was used as the extraction mobile phase. The extraction flow rate and extraction time were at 0.1 mL min(-1) and 0.95 min, respectively. The three target analytes, pbone, R-pbol, and S-4-pbol, were desorbed and eluted by the mobile phase of water/methanol/isopropanol (55/25/20, v/v/v) with a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1) and analyzed by a chiral column. The mass spectrometric detection of the three target analytes was in positive ion mode with the signal [M+Na](+). The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves with linear concentration range between 0 and 50 μg mL(-1) were used for quantitative analysis. The linear regression correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the standard calibration curves were between 0.9950 and 0.9961. The yeast mediated reduction was performed with a recation culture of yeast incubation culture/glycerol (70/30, v/v) for 4 days. This biotransformation possessed 82.3% yield and 92.9% S-enantomeric excess. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) for pbone, R-pbol, and S-pbol was 0.02/0.067, 0.01/0.033, and 0.01/0.033 μg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions from repeated measurements were 10.8-21.1% and 11.6-18.7%, respectively. The analysis accuracy from spike recovery was 84-91%.

  20. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD......The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates......+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P

  1. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  2. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  3. Influência da dieta líquida ácida no desenvolvimento de erosão dental Influence of the liquid acid diet on the development of dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Pita SOBRAL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a importância do pH da dieta líquida na etiologia e prevenção das lesões de erosão dental, bem como conhecer o pH de algumas bebidas e sucos, supostamente ácidos, mais consumidos em nosso meio, para que fosse possível estabelecer uma comparação destes valores a fim de controlar a dieta dos pacientes portadores de lesões de erosão dental. Um único exemplar de cada fruta madura foi processado puro de modo a ser liquefeito e o pH foi medido utilizando-se um pH-metro, imediatamente e depois de 30 minutos. Posteriormente, a amostra de suco foi diluída em água na proporção de 1:2 e novas medidas foram tomadas. Para as bebidas industrializadas, as medidas de pH foram realizadas imediatamente após a abertura do frasco e depois de 30 minutos. As bebidas e sucos analisados mostraram valores abaixo do pH crítico de dissolução da estrutura dental, sugerindo a possibilidade de favorecerem a desmineralização. A orientação quanto à dieta ácida parece ser um fator importante no tratamento e prevenção das lesões de erosão dental.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the importance of the liquid diet pH in the etiology and prevention of dental erosion, so as to give dietary orientation to patients who present with these lesions, as well as to know the pH of the most consumed Brazilian fruit juices and industrialized beverages, which are supposably acid. A sample of each mature fruit was processed to be liquefied, and the pH was obtained through a pHmeter appliance, immediately after the juices were obtained and 30 minutes later. Afterward the juices were diluted in potable water in a 1:2 proportion and new pH values were obtained. For the industrialized beverages, pH measurements were carried out immediately after opening the bottles and 30 minutes later. The beverages and juices analyzed showed pH values below the critical pH for dental tissue dissolution (5.5. Therefore, they are expected to

  4. SIGNIFICANCE OF DIET AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS IN GOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Il'ina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a role of a diet and therapy with the herbal complex Urisan in patients with gout. It is noted that the agent based on herbal components may be used in addition to drug therapy and diet in seasonal hyperuricuria, hyperuricemia observed after heavy strenuous and athletic activity, meat overeating, and alcohol abuse. Urisan may be recommended in subsiding gouty inflammation as a bridge to the use of allopurinol.

  5. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  6. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  7. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  8. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  9. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  10. Dmbt1 does not affect a Western style diet-induced liver damage in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichold, Astrid; Brenner, Sibylle A; Förster-Fromme, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has markedly increased. Results from epidemiologic studies indicate that not only a general overnutrition but rather a diet rich in sugar, fat and cholesterol (= Western style diet) maybe a risk factor for the development...... of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Concerning liver diseases, it is known that Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is amongst others related to liver injury and repair. In addition Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 seems to play a role in regard to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis...... and the regulation of food intake. Starting from this background the aim of the present study was to investigate if Dmbt1 plays a role in Western style diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Dmbt1 (+/+) and Dmbt1 (-/-) mice were fed a Western style diet or control diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. Both...

  11. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  12. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bortolin Lodi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n=108 were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx, orchiectomized (Orx, or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution, isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX. Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones.

  13. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  14. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  15. Effects of alcohol ingestion on lipids and lipoproteins in normal men: isocaloric metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, C J; Hogg, E; Allen, C; Gartside, P S

    1980-11-01

    To investigate metabolic relationships between alcohol ingestion and fasting plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (C-HDL) and triglycerides, seven young normal males were assessed with isocaloric substitution of alcohol for carbohydrate in the diet. For a 5-week study period, an isocaloric low cholesterol diet containing 20% of the calories as protein, 40% as fat, and 40% as carbohydrate, with alcohol for dietary carbohydrate during these study weeks. In week 5, 1.35 g/day of lecithin linoleate was added to assess another putative nutritional approach to increasing C-HDL levels. By two-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's paired t tests, there were no significant differences in either C-HDL or triglyceride levels for any of the five metabolic diet, alcohol substitution diet periods; additionally, there were no significant effects of lecithin on plasma lipids or lipoproteins. The general question asked, "Does alcohol affect C-HDL levels?" is answered negatively for isocaloric alcohol substitution, on a cholesterol-poor, high P/S, and relatively carbohydrate restricted diet, for a 2-week period of moderate alcohol intake. Alcohol's effect on C-HDL and triglyceride probably involves an interaction with total calories, and perhaps with dietary composition (cholesterol, saturated fat, carbohydrate content), as well as the amount of ethanol ingested, and duration of intake.

  16. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body at even greater risk for harm. Ongoing stress, or chronic, heavy alcohol use, may impair the body’s ability ... J.A., and Chard, K.M. Alcohol and stress in the military. Alcohol Research: ... suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. ...

  17. Reduction of brain mitochondrial β-oxidation impairs complex I and V in chronic alcohol intake: the underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Haorah

    Full Text Available Neuropathy and neurocognitive deficits are common among chronic alcohol users, which are believed to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. The specific type of brain mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (mRCC that are adversely affected by alcohol abuse has not been studied. Thus, we examined the alterations of mRCC in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice brain that were pair-fed the ethanol (4% v/v and control liquid diets for 7-8 weeks. We observed that alcohol intake severely reduced the levels of complex I and V. A reduction in complex I was associated with a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cPT1 and cPT2 levels. The mitochondrial outer (cPT1 and inner (cPT2 membrane transporter enzymes are specialized in acylation of fatty acid from outer to inner membrane of mitochondria for ATP production. Thus, our results showed that alterations of cPT1 and cPT2 paralleled a decrease β-oxidation of palmitate and ATP production, suggesting that impairment of substrate entry step (complex I function can cause a negative impact on ATP production (complex V function. Disruption of cPT1/cPT2 was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome C leakage, while reduction of complex I and V paralleled a decrease in depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ, monitored by JC-1 fluorescence and ATP production in alcohol intake. We noted that acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, a cofactor of cPT1 and cPT2 prevented the adverse effects of alcohol while coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 was not very effective against alcohol insults. These results suggest that understanding the molecular, biochemical, and signaling mechanisms of the CNS mitochondrial β-oxidation such as ALC can mitigate alcohol related neurological disorders.

  18. Influence of diet on the experimental infection of pigs with Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, Rikke H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    , 6 fermented liquid feed and a diet based on cooked rice. Two trials were conducted, each with six groups of six pigs; in each, two of the groups were fed the standard diet. One of these groups and the other four groups were challenged after two weeks on the diets and euthanased four weeks later...

  19. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  20. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (Pphytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  1. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  2. Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes three different investigations undertaken to demonstrate the advantage of fluid alcoholic hand disinfectants. In the first study, the skin compatibility of Sterillium, a liquid alcoholic rub-in hand disinfectant was compared with that of Hibiscrub, a water-based handwashing antiseptic. Using various parameters such as image analysis of removed squames (D-squames), skin roughness or transepidermal water loss, Hibiscrub was found to be significantly inferior to Sterillium. Hibiscrub caused skin irritation in 15 volunteers who could not complete the test. In a second study, the microbicidal efficacy of Sterillium and Hibiscrub was tested in surgical hand disinfection. The microbial reduction by Sterillium was significantly greater than that of Hibiscrub, immediately after application as well as after the surgical procedure. In a third study, certain alcoholic gels were tested according to the EN 1500 'hygienic hand disinfection'. None of the gels tested passed the EN 1500 within 30s. However, Sterillium met the EN 1500 requirement within 30s. We conclude that Sterillium is superior to Hibiscrub in terms of skin tolerance and microbicidal efficacy in surgical hand disinfection. It is also superior to alcoholic gels.

  3. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  4. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... dysarthria; rigid dystonia; pseudobulbar palsy; seizures; migraine headaches; insomnia Psychiatric: Depression; neuroses; personality changes; psychosis Other symptoms: ...

  5. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  6. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  7. [Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by the use of diet pills and unbalanced diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Adrián; Aradi, Gabriella; Várallyay, György; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Bereczki, Dániel; Vastagh, Ildikó

    2014-03-23

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute, potentially life-threatening, neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine deficiency. The disorder is still greatly underdiagnosed and, without prompt treatment, the condition can lead to the chronic form of the disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or even death. In developed countries Wernicke's encephalopathy has been associated with alcoholism, but in recent years there has been an increasing number of non-alcoholic cases. Authors report the case of a 23-year-old woman who developed oculomotor dysfunction, encephalopathy and ataxia as a result of an extreme diet and use of diet pills. The diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy was supported by the resolution of neurological signs after parenteral thiamine replacement. This case is presented because of the rare etiology and diagnostic difficulty, and the latest diagnostic and therapic guidelines are also highlighted.

  8. Aftercare Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Program Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-21

    including cirrhosis , alcohol related cancer, pancreatitis, etc.) every year. It is, without a doubt, one of the world’s most abused substances. Who...injured cells and strengthen their defenses against other diseases. Usually, a high protein , low carbohydrate diet will be recommended to control the...after intake of sugar and then a rapid plunge. If their erratic blood sugar level is not controlled, alcoholics suffer chronic symptoms of depression

  9. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring c

  10. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β...

  11. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  12. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  13. Role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, G B; Bharmal, N H; Leite-Morris, K A; Adams, W R

    1999-10-01

    The role of adenosine receptor-mediated signaling was examined in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. CD-1 mice received a liquid diet containing ethanol (6.7%, v/v) or a control liquid diet that were abruptly discontinued after 14 days of treatment. Mice consuming ethanol showed a progressive increase in signs of intoxication throughout the drinking period. Following abrupt discontinuation of ethanol diet, mice demonstrated reversible signs of handling-induced hyperexcitability that were maximal between 5-8 h. Withdrawing mice received treatment with adenosine receptor agonists at the onset of peak withdrawal (5.5 h) and withdrawal signs were blindly rated (during withdrawal hours 6 and 7). Adenosine A1-receptor agonist R-N6(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (0.15 and 0.3 mg/ kg) reduced withdrawal signs 0.5 and 1.5 h after drug administration in a dose-dependent fashion. Adenosine A2A-selective agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethyl-amino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.3 mg/kg) reduced withdrawal signs at both time points. In ethanol-withdrawing mice, there were significant decreases in adenosine transporter sites in striatum without changes in cortex or cerebellum. In ethanol-withdrawing mice, there were no changes in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor concentrations in cortex, striatum, or cerebellum. There appears to be a role for adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the treatment of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  14. Alcohol produces distinct hepatic lipidome and eicosanoid signature in lean and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Puneet; Xu, Jun; Vihervaara, Terhi; Katainen, Riikka; Ekroos, Kim; Daita, Kalyani; Min, Hae-Ki; Joyce, Andrew; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol- and obesity-related liver diseases often coexist. The hepatic lipidomics due to alcohol and obesity interaction is unknown. We characterized the hepatic lipidome due to 1) alcohol consumption in lean and obese mice and 2) obesity and alcohol interactions. In the French-Tsukamoto mouse model, intragastric alcohol or isocaloric dextrose were fed with either chow (lean) or high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (obese). Four groups (lean, lean alcohol, obese, and obese alcohol) were studied. MS was performed for hepatic lipidomics, and data were analyzed. Alcohol significantly increased hepatic cholesteryl esters and diacyl-glycerol in lean and obese but was more pronounced in obese. Alcohol produced contrasting changes in hepatic phospholipids with significant enrichment in lean mice versus significant decrease in obese mice, except phosphatidylglycerol, which was increased in both lean and obese alcohol groups. Most lysophospholipids were increased in lean alcohol and obese mice without alcohol use only. Prostaglandin E2; 5-, 8-, and 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids; and 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids were considerably increased in obese mice with alcohol use. Alcohol consumption produced distinct changes in lean and obese with profound effects of obesity and alcohol interaction on proinflammatory and oxidative stress-related eicosanoids.

  15. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  16. The Spanish diet: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Varela-Moreiras

    2013-09-01

    also a high consumption of non-alcoholic beverages (437 g/person/day and decreasing for alcoholic beverages (192 g/person/day compared to previous surveys. In consequence, meat and meat product consumption was higher than the recommendations, whereas for cereals and their derivatives, vegetables and greens, fruit, and legumes and pulses, consumption was below recommendations for the Spanish population (GRUNUMUR, 2004; SENC, 2007. Some staple and traditional Mediterranean foods (bread, potatoes and olive oil showed a dramatic decline when compared to data from Household Budget Surveys in 1964 data. Energy intake showed a marked decline when compared to the 1960's mean consumption, and show marked differences for food groups contributors. Energy profile shows too much coming from lipids vs carbohydrates and slightly higher from proteins. Conclusion: Food consumption patterns in Spain and energy and nutrient intakes have changed markedly in the last forty years, differing somewhat at present from the traditional and healthy Mediterranean Diet.

  17. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  18. Alcohol-related changes in the intestinal microbiome influence neutrophil infiltration, inflammation and steatosis in early alcoholic hepatitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Abhishek; Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Ambade, Aditya; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Ward, Doyle V.; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis disrupts homeostatic gut-liver axis function and is essential in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Here, we investigate changes in enteric microbiome composition in a model of early alcoholic steatohepatitis and dissect the pathogenic role of intestinal microbes in alcohol-induced liver pathology. Materials and methods Wild type mice received a 10-day diet that was either 5% alcohol-containing or an isocaloric control diet plus a single binge. 16S rDNA sequencing defined the bacterial communities in the cecum of alcohol- and pair-fed animals. Some mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail prior to and throughout alcohol feeding. Liver neutrophils, cytokines and steatosis were evaluated. Results Acute-on-chronic alcohol administration induced shifts in various bacterial phyla in the cecum, including increased Actinobacteria and a reduction in Verrucomicrobia driven entirely by a reduction in the genus Akkermansia. Antibiotic treatment reduced the gut bacterial load and circulating bacterial wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that bacterial load suppression prevented alcohol-related increases in the number of myeloperoxidase- (MPO) positive infiltrating neutrophils in the liver. Expression of liver mRNA tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) and circulating protein monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also reduced in antibiotic-treated alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis measured by Oil-Red O staining was significantly reduced in antibiotic treated mice. Genes regulating lipid production and storage were also altered by alcohol and antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, antibiotic treatment did not protect from alcohol-induced increases in serum aminotransferases (ALT/AST). Conclusions Our data indicate that acute-on-chronic alcohol feeding alters the microflora at multiple taxonomic levels and identifies loss of Akkermansia as an

  19. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity.

  20. β-Catenin is Essential for Ethanol Metabolism and Protection Against Alcohol-mediated Liver Steatosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguang; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Singh, Vijay P.; Shiva, Sruti; Krauland, Lindsay; Li, Huanan; Zhang, Pili; Kharbanda, Kusum; Ritov, Vladimir; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Scott, Donald K.; Eagon, Patricia K.; Behari, Jaideep

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. β-Catenin regulates hepatic metabolic zonation and adaptive response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that β-catenin regulates the hepatic response to ethanol ingestion. Female liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates were fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet (5% ethanol) in a pair-wise fashion. Liver histology, biochemistry, and gene expression studies were performed. Plasma alcohol and ammonia levels were measured using standard assays. Ethanol-fed KO mice exhibited systemic toxicity and early mortality. KO mice exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and five to six-fold higher serum ALT and AST levels. KO mice had modest increase in hepatic oxidative stress, lower expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), and lower citrate synthase activity, the first step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) did not prevent ethanol-induced mortality in KO mice. In WT livers, β-catenin was found to co-precipitate with FoxO3, the upstream regulator of SOD-2. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities and expression were lower in KO mice. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 protein levels were upregulated in ethanol-fed WT mice but were nearly undetectable in KO mice. These changes in ethanol-metabolizing enzymes were associated with 30-fold higher blood alcohol levels in KO mice. Conclusion β-catenin is essential for hepatic ethanol metabolism and plays a protective role in alcohol-mediated liver steatosis. Our results strongly suggest that integration of these functions by β-catenin is critical for adaptation to ethanol ingestion in vivo. PMID:22031168

  1. High fat diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pig plasma, fecal, and urine samples detected by a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify robust biological markers of dietary exposure that can lead to a better understanding of causal interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in biolog...

  2. Alleviation of alcoholic liver injury by betaine involves an enhancement of antioxidant defense via regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, Do Young; Ahn, Chul Won; Kim, Young Soon; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Young Chul

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that the hepatoprotective activity of betaine is associated with its effects on sulfur amino acid metabolism. We examined the mechanism by which betaine prevents the progression of alcoholic liver injury and its therapeutic potential. Rats received a liquid ethanol diet for 6 wk. Ethanol consumption elevated serum triglyceride and TNFα levels, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and lipid accumulation in liver. The oxyradical scavenging capacity of liver was reduced, and expression of CD14, TNFα, COX-2, and iNOS mRNAs was induced markedly. These ethanol-induced changes were all inhibited effectively by betaine supplementation. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione levels, reduced in the ethanol-fed rats, were increased by betaine supplementation. Methionine adenosyltransferase and cystathionine γ-lyase were induced, but cysteine dioxygenase was down-regulated, which appeared to account for the increment in cysteine availability for glutathione synthesis in the rats supplemented with betaine. Betaine supplementation for the final 2 wk of ethanol intake resulted in a similar degree of hepatoprotection, revealing its potential therapeutic value in alcoholic liver. It is concluded that the protective effects of betaine against alcoholic liver injury may be attributed to the fortification of antioxidant defense via improvement of impaired sulfur amino acid metabolism.

  3. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  4. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol...

  5. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  6. A high-protein diet is anti-steatotic and has no pro-inflammatory side effects in dyslipidaemic APOE2 knock-in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Caraballo, S.; Comhair, T.M.; Dejong, C.H.; Lamers, W.H.; Kohler, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are effective anti-steatotic treatment options for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but whether these diets also decrease steatosis in hyperlipidaemic conditions is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a HP diet on hepatic st

  7. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  8. Effect of Adzuki Beans Alcohol Extract on Decreasing Lipid and Anti-obesity of the Mice Fed a High-fat Diet%红小豆醇提物对摄食高脂料小鼠的降脂减肥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 刘笑然; 濮邵京; 赵波; 万平; 高建明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to research on the effects of adzuki beans alcohol extract (AAE)on decreasing lipid and anti -obesity of the Kunming male and female mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods Hie mice fed a basic diet and a high-fat diet were consider as control groups. Mice treated with AAE at low, middle, high does (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg body weight of mice) by gavage were considered as experimental groups and the mice were fed a high-fat diet. During the experimental period(8weeks),Mice got diet and water freely. The daily food intake was measured on Monday and Thursday in each week. Bodyweight was measured once a week. After 8 weeks, Lees index, liver weight and adipose weight of different part were measured. The glucose level, total cholesterol(TC), triglycercide(TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C in mice blood were detected.Result Comparing with hight-fat group, AAE experimental groups significantly decreased bodyweight and adipose weight of different part to the male and female mice (P<0.05,0.01) and showed a significant difference in decreasing the lees index,liver weight to the female mice (P<0.05, 0.01). But, AAE experimental groups did not show a significant difference to the male mice on lees index, liver weight. During the experimental period, the ability of AAE in promoting appetite of male and female mice was found. To the blood indexes, the function of AAE in decreasing lipid was merely found in female mice while the high does group exhibited the best efficacy .Conclusion AAE has effect of anti-obesity on the mice fed high-fat diet. Effectiveness of decreasing lipid and anti-obesity to the female mice was better than the male mice.%目的:研究红小豆醇提物对摄食高脂料的昆明白雌、雄小鼠的降脂减肥作用.方法:以饲喂基础料、高脂科的小鼠为对照,以红小豆醇提物按低、中、高(即50、100、200 mg/kg小鼠体重)3个剂量分别强饲给摄食高脂料的小鼠,即试验

  9. A comprehensive approach to identify reliable reference gene candidates to investigate the link between alcoholism and endocrinology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Faten A; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-01-01

    Gender and hormonal differences are often correlated with alcohol dependence and related complications like addiction and breast cancer. Estrogen (E2) is an important sex hormone because it serves as a key protein involved in organism level signaling pathways. Alcoholism has been reported to affect estrogen receptor signaling; however, identifying the players involved in such multi-faceted syndrome is complex and requires an interdisciplinary approach. In many situations, preliminary investigations included a straight forward, yet informative biotechniques such as gene expression analyses using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validity of qRT-PCR-based conclusions is affected by the choice of reliable internal controls. With this in mind, we compiled a list of 15 commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs) as potential reference gene candidates in rat biological models. A comprehensive comparison among 5 statistical approaches (geNorm, dCt method, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) was performed to identify the minimal number as well the most stable reference genes required for reliable normalization in experimental rat groups that comprised sham operated (SO), ovariectomized rats in the absence (OVX) or presence of E2 (OVXE2). These rat groups were subdivided into subgroups that received alcohol in liquid diet or isocalroic control liquid diet for 12 weeks. Our results showed that U87, 5S rRNA, GAPDH, and U5a were the most reliable gene candidates for reference genes in heart and brain tissue. However, different gene stability ranking was specific for each tissue input combination. The present preliminary findings highlight the variability in reference gene rankings across different experimental conditions and analytic methods and constitute a fundamental step for gene expression assays.

  10. A comprehensive approach to identify reliable reference gene candidates to investigate the link between alcoholism and endocrinology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A Taki

    Full Text Available Gender and hormonal differences are often correlated with alcohol dependence and related complications like addiction and breast cancer. Estrogen (E2 is an important sex hormone because it serves as a key protein involved in organism level signaling pathways. Alcoholism has been reported to affect estrogen receptor signaling; however, identifying the players involved in such multi-faceted syndrome is complex and requires an interdisciplinary approach. In many situations, preliminary investigations included a straight forward, yet informative biotechniques such as gene expression analyses using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The validity of qRT-PCR-based conclusions is affected by the choice of reliable internal controls. With this in mind, we compiled a list of 15 commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs as potential reference gene candidates in rat biological models. A comprehensive comparison among 5 statistical approaches (geNorm, dCt method, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder was performed to identify the minimal number as well the most stable reference genes required for reliable normalization in experimental rat groups that comprised sham operated (SO, ovariectomized rats in the absence (OVX or presence of E2 (OVXE2. These rat groups were subdivided into subgroups that received alcohol in liquid diet or isocalroic control liquid diet for 12 weeks. Our results showed that U87, 5S rRNA, GAPDH, and U5a were the most reliable gene candidates for reference genes in heart and brain tissue. However, different gene stability ranking was specific for each tissue input combination. The present preliminary findings highlight the variability in reference gene rankings across different experimental conditions and analytic methods and constitute a fundamental step for gene expression assays.

  11. The Enzymatic Approach to Making of Alcoholic Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbar Mirzarakhmetova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast invertase was applied for treatment of alcoholic beverages with the aim of transformation of higher alcohols into alkylfructosides. Gas-liquid chromatography of treated water-alcoholic medium containing 3.0 mg/l isoamyl alcohol and 4% saccharose by immobilized invertase had shown the convertion of 40% isoamyl alcohol, which amounts to 1.8 mg/l absolute alcohol. Other parameters remained at the previous level. The high level of enzyme activity was observed when the initial concentration of sucrose in the reaction mixture attained 4.0-12.5%. Tasting of treated samples indicated the improvement of quality and degustational properties of beverages, they had softer and more harmonious taste and aroma in comparison with control sample and finished Vodka, which completed the cycle of technological processing.

  12. The influence of diet on Lawsonia intracellularis colonization in pigs upon experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Henriette T; Jensen, Tim K; Schmidt, Anja S; Jensen, Bent B; Jensen, Søren M; Møller, Kristian

    2004-10-05

    The objective of this investigation was to study if different feeding strategies influence experimental infections of pigs with Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy. In three sequential trials, a total of 144 weaned pigs were fed five different diets all made from a standard diet based on wheat and barley as carbohydrate source and soybean as protein source. The five diets were: a standard diet (fine ground and pelleted), the standard diet fed as fermented liquid feed, the standard diet added 1.8% formic acid, the standard diet added 2.4% lactic acid and a diet similar to the standard diet (made from the same ingredients), but fed coarse ground. Twenty-four pigs on each diet were orally inoculated with L. intracellularis and growth performance and faecal excretion of bacteria were monitored. Twenty-four pigs fed the standard diet were included as not experimentally infected controls. Pigs in the first two trials were sacrificed 4 weeks post-inoculation, whereas animals in the third trial were sacrificed after 5 weeks. Pigs in all experimentally infected groups excreted L. intracellularis. The fermented liquid diet delayed the excretion of L. intracellularis and furthermore, pigs fed the standard diet supplemented with lactic acid had limited pathological lesions when the intestines were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The growth performance was reduced in pigs experimentally challenged with L. intracellularis, however the prevalence and severity of diarrhea was limited.

  13. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  14. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  15. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  17. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  18. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  19. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  20. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  1. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  2. Susceptibility of L-FABP-/- mice to oxidative stress in early-stage alcoholic liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Rebecca L; Galligan, James J; Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Mercer, Kelly; Ronis, Martin; Orlicky, David J; Davidson, Nicholas O; Petersen, Dennis R

    2013-05-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a prominent cause of liver disease worldwide. Dysregulation of an important lipid uptake and trafficking gene, liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), may contribute to alterations in lipid homeostasis during early-stage alcoholic liver. We have reported the detrimental effects of ethanol on the expression of L-FABP and hypothesize this may deleteriously impact metabolic networks regulating fatty acids. Male wild-type (WT) and L-FABP(-/-) mice were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for six weeks. To assess the response to chronic ethanol ingestion, standard biochemical indicators for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and oxidative stress were measured. Ethanol ingestion resulted in attenuation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation and elevation of cholesterol in L-FABP(-/-) mice. Lipidomics analysis validated multiple alterations in hepatic lipids resulting from ethanol treatment. Increased immunohistochemical staining for the reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde were observed in WT mice ingesting ethanol; however, L-FABP(-/-) mice displayed prominent protein adducts in liver sections evaluated from pair-fed and ethanol-fed mice. Likewise, alterations in glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyl content all indicated L-FABP(-/-) mice exhibit high sustained oxidative stress in the liver. These data establish that L-FABP is an indirect antioxidant protein essential for sequestering FFA and that its impairment could contribute to in the pathogenesis of ALD.

  3. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  4. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended.

  5. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  6. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol.

  7. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  8. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  9. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  10. Hispanic Alcoholic Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    A path analytic model for Hispanic alcoholics relating socioclinical prognostic variables to outcome following treatment in a therapeutic community differs markedly from that fitted to Anglo alcoholics. The differential relationship of education to alcoholism severity and outcome was noted specifically as reflecting different racial-ethnic paths…

  11. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her child’s genetic make-up, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www. niaaa. nih. gov • 301.443.3860 Interventions ...

  12. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  13. Alimentação de bezerros ruminantes com dieta sólida ou líquida, via goteira esofageana: formação da goteira e escape ruminal Ruminant calves fed with solid or liquid diet: Esophageal groove formation and ruminal by- pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ranzini Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    %, 33%, 66% and 100% offered through nipple-pail, and decreasing levels in concentrate to keep the same amount of nitrogen in the diet. Twenty-one days subperiods were used, the first sixteen for diet's adaptation, constituted by Coast-Cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, concentrate mixture and the liquid portion of diet. At twentieth day ruminal material was sampled to analyze ammonia nitrogen as well pH control at 0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after first feed. Also were checked the esophageal groove closure reflex using a liquid marker (polyetylene glycol - PEG collected directly from the rumen. Esophageal groove reflex was more effective in the highest liquid protein level treatment, showing lower concentrations of ruminal PEG. Ammonia nitrogen measures agreed with this observation, since there was a decrease in its concentration with the increase of the liquid supplement level. There were no effects of the feeding form in calves weight gains.

  14. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...... diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state....

  15. Arcuate nucleus homeostatic systems are not altered immediately prior to the scheduled consumption of large, binge-type meals of palatable solid or liquid diet in rats and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bake, T; Duncan, J S; Morgan, D G A; Mercer, J G

    2013-04-01

    Meal feeding is a critical issue in the over-consumption of calories leading to human obesity. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of meal feeding in rodents, we studied a scheduled feeding regime that induces substantial food intake over short periods of time. Male Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL6 mice were fed one of four palatable diets [45% fat pellet, 60% fat pellet or standard pellet supplemented with Ensure (EN; Abbott Laboratories, Maidenhead, UK) or 12.5% sucrose (SUC)] either ad lib. or with daily 2-h scheduled access and standard pellet available for 22 h. Energy balance gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) reward gene expression were assessed by in situ hybridisation. Rats fed ad lib. on 45% or 60% fat diet were heavier and fatter than controls, and had reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the ARC. Mice fed ad lib. on any of the palatable diets were heavier, fatter and had higher blood leptin than controls, and had reduced NPY and increased cocaine- and-amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA in the ARC. Schedule-fed rats and mice quickly adapted their feeding behaviour to 2-h access on palatable food. Three schedule-fed groups binged: the percentage of daily calories consumed in 2 h on 45% fat diet, 60% fat diet or EN, respectively, was 55%, 63% and 49% in rats, and 86%, 86% and 45% in mice. However, changed feeding behaviour was not reflected in an induction of orexigenic neuropeptide or suppression of anorexigenic neuropeptide gene expression in the ARC, in the 2-h period prior to scheduled feeding. The mechanisms underlying large meal/binge-type eating may be regulated by nonhomeostatic processes involving other genes in the hypothalamus or other brain areas. However, assessment of opioid and dopamine receptor gene expression in the NAcc did not reveal evidence of the involvement of these genes in driving large meals, at least at the investigated time point.

  16. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  17. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    A liquid formulation of sodium oxybate (Alcover(®)), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is approved in Italy and Austria for use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of sodium oxybate in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate that sodium oxybate was at least as effective as diazepam and clomethiazole in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, rapidly alleviating symptoms, and was at least as effective as naltrexone or disulfiram in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Sodium oxybate was generally well tolerated. The risk of sodium oxybate abuse is generally low when it is administered to alcohol-dependent patients at its approved dosage, under the supervision of a designated family member and with continuous strict medical surveillance. However, certain patient groups, such as patients with alcohol dependence and borderline personality disorder or who are in remission from heroin or cocaine addiction, may not be suitable candidates for sodium oxybate therapy because of an increased risk of abuse. In conclusion, sodium oxybate is a useful option for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

  18. Is There a Role for Diet in the Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Costenbader, Karen H

    2016-05-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often inquire about dietary interventions to improve RA symptoms. Although the majority of studies of diet and RA were published prior to the start of the twenty-first century, this review discusses the evidence for a relationship between diet, in particular omega-3 fatty acid supplements, vitamin D supplements, alcohol, and the Mediterranean diet and RA disease activity. We review possible mechanisms by which these dietary intakes may affect RA disease activity. Given the complexity of studying the relationship between diet and RA disease activity, we highlight areas deserving further study before specific recommendations can be made to RA patients.

  19. [Diet and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J A; Garcés, C; de Oya, M

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between diet and atherosclerosis is due to the diet influence on lipoprotein composition. However, because of the multifactorial basis of the atherosclerosis, diet components have another potential intervention mechanisms in the atherosclerosis process, such as the influence on other cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes) or the influence on the coagulation system and the relationship endothelium-platelets. We will review the effect of diet components on these factors, specially its effects on the haemostasia system, which alteration is responsible for provoking ischemic heart disease. We have to consider that the main objective when treating dyslipidaemias, besides of avoiding acute pancreatitis in cases of strong hypertrigliceridaemia, is to prevent arteriosclerosis development and its clinical manifestations such as ischemic heart disease. Besides, we know that genetic, in addition to provoke familial susceptibility to atherosclerosis, has an essential importance in the response to ambiental factors as diet is.

  20. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  1. DIET at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  2. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  3. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  4. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Staying away from fad diets. Updated January 4, 2016. www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/staying-away-from-fad-diets . Accessed May 25, 2016. Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine ...

  5. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  7. Alcohol consumption, cardiovascular health, and endothelial function markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Paulo F D; Bau, Claiton H D; Rosito, Guido A; Manfroi, Waldomiro C; Fuchs, Flávio D

    2007-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the worldwide leading causes of shorter life expectancy and loss of quality of life. Thus, any influence of diet or life habits on the cardiovascular system may have important implications for public health. Most world populations consume alcoholic beverages. Since alcohol may have both protective and harmful effects on cardiovascular health, the identification of biochemical mechanisms that could explain such paradoxical effects is warranted. The vascular endothelium is the target of important mediating pathways of differential ethanol concentrations, such as oxidative stress, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance. Alcohol-induced endothelial damage or protection may be related to the synthesis or action of several markers, such as nitric oxide, cortisol, endothelin-1, adhesion molecules, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and haemostatic factors. The expression of these markers is consistent with the J-shaped curve between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health. However, there is genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in alcohol response, and despite the apparent beneficial biochemical effects of low doses of ethanol, there is not enough clinical and epidemiological evidence to allow the recommendation to consume alcoholic beverages for abstemious individuals. Considering the potential for addiction of alcoholic beverage consumption and other negative consequences of alcohol, it would be worthwhile to identify substances able to mimic the beneficial effects of low doses of ethanol without its adverse effects.

  8. 低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝临床指标的影响%Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on the clinical indicators of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军辉; 丁佑铭; 汪斌; 付海峰; 徐彦哲

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨低碳水化合物饮食在改善非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)方面的临床效果.方法 选取2010年9月至2012年10月在武汉大学人民医院诊断为NAFLD的男性患者58例,按随机数字表法分为低碳水化合物组(L组,n=31)与中碳水化合物组(M组,n=27),其他处理相同.检测并比较两组患者的腰围、体重、血浆葡萄糖浓度、胰岛素分泌量、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)以及高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)的变化情况.结果 L组与M组分别有2例与4例剔除.给予饮食干预后6周,L组血糖浓度和胰岛素分泌量显著低于M组[(4.3±1.4)mol/L比(5.0±0.9) mol/L,P=0.004; (6.1±1.5) U/ml比(8.9±1.4) U/ml,P=0.001],L组ALT与AST水平均显著低于M组[(30.23±3.34) U/L比(42.33±4.46) U/L,P=0.003; (31.19±4.13) U/L比(45.21±3.73) U/L,P=0.001],L组LDL和TG水平也显著低于M组[(1.13±0.22)mmol/L比(2.71±0.67) mmol/L,P =0.001;(0.99±0.74) mmol/L比(1.42±1.06) mmol/L,P=0.001].结论 低碳水化合物饮食可改善NAFLD患者的血糖、胰岛素分泌量、肝功能指标及部分脂质代谢指标.%Objective To investigate the effects of low carbohydrate diet in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.Methods 58 male NAFLD patients selected in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from September 2010 to October 2012 were divided with random number table into low-carbohydrate diet group (L group,n =31) and medium-carbohydrate diet group (M group,n =27).Waistline,weight,serum glucose level,insulin secretion,glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT),aspartate transaminase (AST)、high-density lipoprotein (HDL),low-density lipoprotein (LDL),total cholesterol (TC),and triglyceride (TG) of the patients were measured.Results Six patients were excluded from this research,2 in L group and 4 in M group.After 6-week's dietary intervention,blood glucose level and insulin secretion were

  9. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caustic soda, liquid. 21....102 Caustic soda, liquid. (a) The liquid caustic soda may consist of either 50 percent or 73 percent by weight sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution. The amount of caustic soda used shall be such...

  10. Fetal alcohol exposure alters proopiomelanocortin gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function via increasing MeCP2 expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is a precursor gene of the neuropeptide β-endorphin in the hypothalamus and is known to regulate various physiological functions including stress response. Several recent reports showed that fetal alcohol exposure programs the hypothalamus to produce lower levels of POMC gene transcripts and to elevate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to stressful stimuli. We investigated the role of methyl CpG binding protein (MeCP2 in the effects of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed between GD 7 and 21 with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol, pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet, or fed ad libitum with rat chow, and their male offsprings were used at 60 days after birth in this study. Fetal alcohol exposure reduced the level of POMC mRNA, but increased the level of DNA methylation of this gene in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus where the POMC neuronal cell bodies are located. Fetal alcohol exposed rats showed a significant increase in MeCP2 protein levels in POMC cells, MeCP2 gene transcript levels as well as increased MeCP2 protein binding on the POMC promoter in the arcuate nucleus. Lentiviral delivery of MeCP2 shRNA into the third ventricle efficiently reduced MeCP2 expression and prevented the effect of prenatal ethanol on POMC gene expression in the arcuate nucleus. MeCP2-shRNA treatment also normalized the prenatal ethanol-induced increase in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. These results suggest that fetal alcohol programming of POMC gene may involve recruitment of MeCP2 on to the methylated promoter of the POMC gene to suppress POMC transcript levels and contribute to HPA axis dysregulation.

  11. Puerarin ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver injury by inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yu; Xu, Lin; Xu, Li-Li; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcohol-related disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor α was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarin-treated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats.

  12. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Selective identification and quantification of saccharin by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Sergio N F; Cardoso, Carlos R; Maciel, Márcia Mosca A; Vokac, Lidmila; da Silva Junior, Ademário I

    2014-09-15

    High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) is one of the most commonly used methods to identify and quantify saccharin in non-alcoholic beverages. However, due to the wide variety of interfering UV spectra in saccharin-containing beverage matrices, the same method cannot be used to measure this analyte accurately. We have developed a new, highly effective method to identify and quantify saccharin using HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The excitation wavelength (250 nm) and emission wavelength (440 nm) chosen increased selectivity for all matrices and ensured few changes were required in the mobile phase or other parameters. The presence of saccharin in non-diet beverages - a fraud commonly used to replace more expensive sucrose - was confirmed by comparing coincident peaks as well as the emission spectra of standards and samples.

  15. Promising Medicated Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ The founding conference of World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies-Special Committee of Medicated Diet & Dietotherapy(WFCMS-SCMDAD).and the first world medicated diet and life nurturing academic seminar was held in the Great Hall of the People.Beijing,China,on August 11.A total of 400 experts and professors on medicated diet and life nurturing from 17 countries and regions including Japan,ROK,U.S.,Canada,U.K.,ect.Honorary President Professor Cai Guangxian delivered a welcoming speech to declare the organization's found.

  16. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  17. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in aqueous mixtures of alcohols at a hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Deepti; Chapman, Walter G

    2013-09-21

    Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with propanol having a lower interfacial tension than methanol and ethanol. 2-propanol is not as effective in decreasing the interfacial tension as 1-propanol because it partitions poorly to the surface due to its larger excluded volume. But for a given surface alcohol mole fraction, all the alcohol mixtures give similar values for interfacial tension. For separation of alcohol from water, methods that take advantage of the high surface mole fraction of alcohol have advantages compared to separation using the vapor in equilibrium with a water-alcohol liquid.

  18. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  19. Optimized liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Ashraf; Naqvi, Syed Mumtaz Danish; Khan, Fasihullah

    2014-01-01

    Central composite design methodology has been employed to model the sludge yield data obtained during liquid-liquid extractive rerefining of spent lubricants using an alcohol (1-butanol) and a ketone (methyl ethyl ketone) as prospective solvents. The study has resulted in two reasonably accurate multivariate process models that relate the sludge yield (R (2) = 0.9065 and 0.9072 for alcohol and ketone, resp.) to process variables (settling time t, operating temperature T, and oil to solvent ratio r). Construction of such models has allowed the maximization of the sludge yield (more than 8% and 3% in case of alcohol and ketone, resp.) so that the extraction of useable oil components from spent lubricants can economically be performed under extremely mild conditions (t = 16.7 h, T = 10°C, and r = 2) and fairly moderate conditions (t = 26.6 h, T = 10°C, and r = 5) established for the alcohol and ketone correspondingly. Based on these performance parameters alcohol appears to be superior over ketone for this extraction process. Additionally extractive treatment results in oil stocks with lesser quantity of environmentally hazardous polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are largely left in the separated sludge.

  20. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Vikas; Mansoor, Sana; Furuya, Katryn N

    2016-05-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children. Lastly, the mainstay of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been largely through lifestyle interventions, namely, dieting and exercise. Currently, there are a number of clinical trials examining novel lifestyle and drug therapies for NAFLD that are registered with the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov website.

  1. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  2. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  3. Diabetes diet - gestational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestational diabetes diet ... excellent sources of B vitamins, protein, iron, and zinc. SWEETS Sweets are high in fat and sugar, ... American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and ... statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. ...

  4. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  5. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slow your bowel movements. This helps decrease diarrhea, gas, and bloating. Your doctor may recommend that you follow a low-fiber diet when you have a flare-up of: Irritable bowel syndrome Diverticulitis Crohn disease ...

  6. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menus Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese Sauce Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole ...

  7. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  8. Beverages have an appreciable contribution to the intake of soluble dietary fibre: a study in the Spanish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2011-11-01

    Beverages are generally not taken into account to determine the intakes of dietary fibre (DF) in diets. Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) content was determined in common alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages - ranging from 0.18 g/l in white wine to 9.01 g/l in instant coffee - and their contribution to the DF intake in the Spanish Mediterranean diet was estimated as 2.13 g/person/day. It is concluded that beverages provide an appreciable amount of SDF in the diet, and the omission of its contribution may lead to underestimate DF intakes.

  9. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  10. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  11. Alcohol use and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  12. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology.

  13. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  14. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  15. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  16. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    produced minimal effects. A spray formula containing 12% SD Alcohol 40-B was found to be nonirritating when evaluated for vaginal mucosal irritation in New Zealand white rabbits. Cosmetic formulations containing SD Alcohol 40-B (denatured with Denatonium Benzoate) were not sensitizers in repeated insult patch tests. A gel formula containing 29% SD Alcohol 40-B and a spray liquid containing 12% SD Alcohol 40-B did not induce photoallergy, dermal sensitization, or phototoxic response in human subjects. Although the absorption of ethanol (aka Alcohol for purposes of cosmetic ingredient labeling) occurs through skin, ethanol does not appear to affect the integrity of the skin barrier nor reach a very high systemic concentration following dermal exposure. Ethanol may be found in the bloodstream as a result of inhalation exposure and ingestion. Topically applied, ethanol can act as a penetration enhancer. Most of the systemic toxicity of ethanol appears to be associated with chronic abuse of alcohol. Although ethanol is denatured to make it unfit for consumption, there have been reports of intentional and unintentional consumption of products containing denatured alcohol. Ethanol is a reproductive and developmental toxicant. Ethanol is genotoxic in some test systems and it has been proposed that the genotoxic effects of ethanol are mediated via its metabolite, acetaldehyde. A brief summary is provided of the effects of chronic ingestion of alcohol including intoxication, liver damage, brain damage, and possible carcinogenicity. The CIR Expert Panel recognizes that certain ingredients in this group are reportedly used in a given product category, but the concentration of use is not available. Because dermal application or inhalation of cosmetic products containing these ingredients will not produce significant systemic exposure to ethanol, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that safety of the ingredients should be predicated on the safety of the denaturants used. The Panel considered

  17. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In: Nixon, S.J., ed. Neuropsychology for Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Press, ... alcoholic men: Relationships to changes in brain structure. Neuropsychology 14:178–188, 2000. (38) Rosenbloom, M. ; Sullivan, ...

  18. Study on Liquid Phase Chemo-Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol%糠醛液相化学选择性加氢制糠醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍晖; 马春松; 孙培勤; 陈俊武

    2015-01-01

    Using Cu-Zn/γAl2 O3 as catalyst, the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol was de-scribed at different temperatures, time, furfural concentration and solvent system. The different hydrogenation effects were compared at furfural conversion and furfuryl alcohol selectivity. Through experiments, the optimum conditions were determined for hydrogenation of furfural as a reaction temperature of 160 ℃, reaction time 3h, the amount of catalyst is furfural 7wt%, furfural concentration of 5wt% ~25wt%. When the solvent was toluene, the furfural con-version and furfuryl alcohol selectivity were respectively up to99% and 98%.%本文主要介绍了间歇式反应釜中糠醛在Cu-Zn/γAl2 O3催化剂条件下在不同温度、时间、糠醛浓度和溶剂体系中的催化加氢制糠醇,从糠醛转化率和糠醇选择性两方面对加氢效果进行比较。通过实验,我们得到了糠醛加氢制糠醇的最佳工艺条件为反应温度为160℃、反应时间为3 h、催化剂用量为糠醛的7wt%、糠醛浓度为5wt%~25wt%、溶剂为甲苯时,糠醛的转化率和糠醇的选择性最好,分别为99%和98%。

  19. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection.

  20. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 19,388 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 30,722 ...

  1. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  2. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  3. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  4. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11) • Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or • Aggression towards other children • Risk taking behaviors • Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of alcoholics may cope by taking the role of responsible "parents" within the family and among friends. They may ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  6. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart diseas...

  8. Leisure and Alcohol Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that investigated the ways individuals expected drinking to affect their leisure experiences, and the relationship of those expectancies to alcohol consumption patterns. Data from a sample of 144 adults indicated they expected alcohol to positively affect their leisure experiences. (SM)

  9. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an essential regulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism by activating multiple complex hepatic signaling cascades. Here, we examined whether chronic exogenous GH administration (via gene therapy could ameliorate liver steatosis in animal models of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either an alcohol or a control liquid diet with or without GH therapy for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters, liver histology, oxidative stress markers, and serum high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were also conducted to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Results Serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the GH1-treated control group than in the control group (3.98 ± 0.71 μg/mL vs. 3.07 ± 0.55 μg/mL; P P P P P Conclusions GH therapy had positive effects on AFLD and may offer a promising approach to prevent or treat AFLD. These beneficial effects of GH on AFLD were achieved through the activation of the hepatic adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK and PPARα-AMPK signaling systems.

  10. The effectiveness of alcohol gel and other hand-cleansing agents against important nosocomial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandes,Silvio Evandro Daniel; Mello, Aline Cláudia de; Sant'Ana,Janete Jordão; Soares,Vanessa Sarto; Cassiolato,Valdir; Garcia,Lourdes Botelho; Cardoso,Celso Luíz

    2004-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of alcohol gel with that of the traditional hand-cleansing agents in removing clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans from artificially contaminated hands. The fingertips of 6 volunteers were contaminated with approximately 10(6) of microbial cells, and then were washed with: plain liquid soap, alcohol gel, 70% ethyl alcohol (by ...

  11. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  12. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  13. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  14. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  15. Value of embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-xin; SONG Lu; WU Na; LIU Zhen-guo

    2010-01-01

    @@ T° the Editor We are interested in a recent article "Embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer: technical aspects" written by GAO et al.1 Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) is a novel liquid embolic material used to cure brain arteriovenous malformations. They performed the embolization on 115 patients and they found that the complications of the treatment are scarce.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SINGLE VERSUS REPEATED ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL ON THE EXPRESSION OF ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM-RELATED GENES IN THE RAT AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Pavon, Francisco J.; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Parsons, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) exert important regulatory influences on neuronal signaling, participate in short- and long-term forms of neuroplasticity, and modulate stress responses and affective behavior in part through the modulation of neurotransmission in the amygdala. Alcohol consumption alters brain endocannabinoid levels, and alcohol dependence is associated with dysregulated amygdalar function, stress responsivity and affective control. Methods The consequence of long-term alcohol consumption on the expression of genes related to endocannabinoid signaling was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR analyses of amygdala tissue. Two groups of ethanol-exposed rats were generated by maintenance on an ethanol liquid diet (10%): one group received continuous access to ethanol for 15 days, while the second group was given intermittent access to the ethanol diet (5 days/week for 3 weeks). Control subjects were maintained on an isocaloric ethanol-free liquid diet. To provide an initial profile of acute withdrawal amygdala tissue was harvested following either 6 or 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Results Acute ethanol withdrawal was associated with significant changes in mRNA expression for various components of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the amygdala. Specifically, reductions in mRNA expression for the primary clearance routes for anandamide and 2-AG (FAAH and MAGL, respectively) were evident, as were reductions in mRNA expression for CB1, CB2 and GPR55 receptors. Although similar alterations in FAAH mRNA were evident following either continuous or intermittent ethanol exposure, alterations in MAGL and cannabinoid receptor-related mRNA (e.g. CB1, CB2, GPR55) were more pronounced following intermittent exposure. In general, greater withdrawal-associated deficits in mRNA expression were evident following 24 versus 6 hours of withdrawal. No significant changes in mRNA expression for enzymes involved in

  17. Effect of tea polyphenols on alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-rongHE; Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the scavenging effects of tea polyphenols on aldehyde in vitro and searching for the preliminary mechanism of tea polyphenols (TP) on alcoholic liver disease.METHODS: The effect of aldehyde absorption is tested at gaseous and liquid phases. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, HPll00Series) and UV-visible Detector(Wavelength: 235 nm) are used to analyze the components of the outcome of solution reaction. RESULTS: In vitro study showed

  18. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  19. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  1. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  3. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  7. Validation and use of a fast sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in analysis of ultra-trace levels of 98 organophosphorus pesticide and carbamate residues in a total diet study involving diversified food types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Chan, Benny T P

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports a comprehensive sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, identification and quantitation of 73 pesticides and their related products, a total of 98 analytes, belonging to organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and carbamates, in foods. The proposed method makes use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rigged, and safe) procedure that combines isolation of the pesticides and sample clean-up in a single step. Analysis is performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Two main fragment ions for each pesticide were obtained to achieve the identification according to the SANCO guidelines 10684/2009. The method was validated with various food samples, including edible oil, meat, egg, cheese, chocolate, coffee, rice, tree nuts, citric fruits, vegetables, etc. No significant matrix effect was observed for tested pesticides, therefore, matrix-matched calibration was not necessary. Calibration curves were linear and covered from 1 to 20 microg L(-1) for all compounds studied. The average recoveries, measured at 10 microg kg(-1), were in the range 70-120% for all of the compounds tested with relative standard deviations below 20%, while a value of 10 microg kg(-1) has been established as the method limit of quantitation (MLOQ) for all target analytes. Similar trueness and precision results were also obtained for spiking at 200 microg kg(-1). Expanded uncertainty values were in the range 21-27% while the HorRat ratios were below 1. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 700 food samples in the course of a baseline monitoring study of OPPs and carbamates.

  8. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    This PhD project is part of the research programme at the OPUS Research Centre (2009-2013) at the University of Copenhagen. The aim of the Centre is to improve public health in Denmark by developing, testing and disseminating the New Nordic Diet (NND). Combining the gastronomic ideals of the New...... Nordic Cuisine movement with eating habits that accord with Nordic dietary recommendations, the NND is designed to be a healthy, Nordic, seasonal and organic diet that will be acceptable to Danish consumers. This PhD study has four objectives: (i) to explore the acceptance of the NND among Danish......: (iv) to assess which social and cultural factors are likely to impact upon the achievement of the aim of OPUS. The NND concept was found to be well accepted, although some consumers viewed it as being an elitist diet. Also, the taste of the NND was very well accepted. The practical hallenges and time...

  9. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  10. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  11. Influence of diet on the experimental infection of pigs with Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindecrona, R H; Jensen, T K; Møller, K

    2004-02-28

    The effects of five different diets on the experimental infection of pigs with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira pilosicoli were investigated. The diets tested were a pelleted and a non-pelleted standard diet based on wheat and barley, the standard diet supplemented with 2 per cent lactic acid, a fermented liquid feed and a diet based on cooked rice. Two trials were conducted, each with six groups of six pigs; in each, two of the groups were fed the standard diet. One of these groups and the other four groups were challenged after two weeks on the diets and euthanased four weeks later. The clinical signs of B pilosicoli infection varied from loose stools to watery, mucoid diarrhoea. The group fed the rice diet excreted B pilosicoli in their faeces for a significantly shorter period than the group fed the standard diet (P fermented liquid feed and the diet containing lactic acid had no significant effect on the excretion of B pilosicoli or on the numbers of pigs showing clinical signs of disease.

  12. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  13. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...

  14. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  15. Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

  16. Diet and Exercise Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choose more peas, beans, and lentils •Limit salt, caffeine, and alcohol. Minimize the consumption of salt. Cut down on added sugar such as jams, etc. Limit beverages with a high caffeine content (tea, sodas, chocolate drinks) and ... consumption of snack foods such as cookies, donuts, pies, ...

  17. The effects of taurine, hypotaurine, and taurine homologs on erythrocyte morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin alterations due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossai, Davekanand; Lau-Cam, Cesar A

    2009-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) and compounds representing a TAU analog (hypotaurine = HYTAU) or homolog (aminomethanesulfonic acid = AMSA, homotaurine = HMTAU) were tested for their counteracting effects against alterations in erythrocyte (RBC) morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin distribution due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in male Goto-Kakizaki rats (made diabetic with a high fat diet and alcoholic upon feeding on a flavored alcohol solution) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (serving as controls). Both diabetes and alcoholism changed the RBC discoidal biconcave shape to a spiculated one, lowered membrane fluidity, and caused spectrin to become marginalized. While AMSA and HYTAU returned the RBC shape to normal, HMTAU made it only discoidal, and TAU was without effect. All test compounds, but TAU, maintained the membrane fluidity normal; and HYTAU and AMSA, but not TAU or HMTAU, kept spectrin uniformly distributed. The noted effects were correlated with compound structure and RBC values for malondialdehyde and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio.

  18. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of diet......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  19. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplant recipients need to be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in ... Living donation increases the existing organ supply. It's important to get to know your transplant team. I am looking for >> About organ allocation About ...

  20. Computational Studies of [Bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular-dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems, and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase while the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ion liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotate more freely near the interface than in the bulk, while the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the

  1. Computational studies of [bmim][PF6]/n-alcohol interfaces with many-body potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase, whereas the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ionic liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotates more freely near the interface than in the bulk, whereas the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface.

  2. Rapid development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Spolding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A major impediment to establishing new treatments for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is the lack of suitable animal models that accurately mimic the biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to explore a unique polygenic animal model of metabolic disease as a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by determining the effects of 2% dietary cholesterol supplementation on metabolic and liver endpoints in Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rat. METHODS: P. obesus were provided ad libitum access to either a standard rodent diet (20% kcal/fat or a standard rodent diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol (w/w for 4 weeks. Histological sections of liver from animals on both diets were examined for key features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The expression levels of key genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: P. obesus fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet exhibited profound hepatomegaly and steatosis, and higher plasma transaminase levels. Histological analysis identified extensive steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Hepatic gene expression profiling revealed decreased expression of genes involved in delivery and uptake of lipids, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, and increased expression of genes involved in very low density lipoprotein cholesterol synthesis, triglyceride and cholesterol export. CONCLUSIONS: P. obesus rapidly develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet that appears to be histologically and mechanistically similar to patients.

  3. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S., E-mail: Maxim.Pchenitchnikov@RuG.nl [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  4. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  6. Fat-specific Protein 27/CIDEC Promotes Development of Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Jiang; Cai, Yan; Wang, Hua; Altamirano, José; Chang, Binxia; Bertola, Adeline; Odena, Gemma; Lu, Jim; Tanaka, Naoki; Matsusue, Kimihiko; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kimura, Shioko; Pacher, Pal; Gonzalez, Frank J; Bataller, Ramon; Gao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is the progressive form of alcoholic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We studied mouse models and human tissues to identify molecules associated with ASH progression, and focused on mouse fat-specific protein 27 (FSP-27)/human cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector C (CIDEC) protein, which is expressed in white adipose tissues and promotes formation of fat droplets. Methods C57BL/6N mice or mice with hepatocyte-specific disruption of Fsp27 (Fsp27Hep−/− mice) were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol liquid diet (5% ethanol) for 10 days to 12 weeks, followed by 1 or multiple binges of ethanol (5 or 6 g/kg) during the chronic feeding. Some mice were given an inhibitor of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) (GW9662). Adenoviral vectors were used to express transgenes or small hairpin (sh) RNAs in cultured hepatocytes and in mice. Liver tissue samples were collected from ethanol-fed mice or from 31 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with biopsy-proved ASH and analyzed by histologic, immunohistochemical, transcriptome, immunoblot, and real-time PCR analyses. Results Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding of mice, which mimics the drinking pattern of patients with AH, produced severe ASH and mild fibrosis. Microarray analyses revealed similar alterations in expression of many hepatic genes in ethanol-fed mice and humans with ASH, including upregulation of mouse Fsp27 (also called Cidec) and human CIDEC. Fsp27Hep−/− mice and mice given injections of adenovirus-Fsp27shRNA had markedly reduced ASH following chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding. Inhibition of PPARG and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein H (CREBH) prevented the increases in Fsp27α and FSP27β mRNAs, respectively, and reduced liver injury in this chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding model. Overexpression of FSP27 and ethanol exposure had synergistic effects in inducing production of

  7. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  8. Determinação simultânea de açúcares e polióis por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-IR em sorvetes de baixas calorias ("diet"/ "light" Simultaneous determination of sugars and polyols in low calorie ice creams (diet/light by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice I. Druzian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método simples e rápido para a preparação da amostra e quantificação simultânea de açúcares e polióis em sorvetes "diet"/"light" por CLAE-IR foi investigado. Os açúcares frutose, glicose, lactose, maltose, sacarose, juntamente com glicerol e sorbitol foram separados. Diferentes variáveis foram testadas na preparação da amostra e nas condições cromatográficas para a separação dos componentes. A melhor condição para a separação dos analitos da matriz foi obtida através de duas extrações consecutivas com água : etanol (1:8 v/v, seguida de 1:4 v/v. Para a separação cromatográfica em uma coluna CLC-NH2 , a fase móvel foi composta de acetonitrila: água (77,5:22,5 v/v na vazão de 1mL/min, a 30 ºC. O tempo de corrida foi menor do que 20 min. Amostras de sorvetes "diet"/"light" de 3 diferentes marcas, com sabores de morango, chocolate, flocos e baunilha, recolhidas em Campinas-SP, apresentaram valores de açúcares totais entre 9-15%. Somente os sorvetes com sabor morango apresentaram frutose (0,1-0,5%, e somente aqueles sorvetes com sabor de flocos mostraram a presença de sacarose em maiores quantidades. Os maiores valores de açúcares foram encontrados para lactose, independente da marca ou sabor testados (3,5-10%. As quantidades de sorbitol variaram de 3-4%. A mesma análise foi realizada com sorvete normal (controle que apresentou valor de açúcares totais de aproximadamente 29%, sendo que destes 16,8%, foi sacarose. Não foram detectados polióis. Na amostra de sorvete controle foi realizado teste de recuperação de sorbitol (99,3%. Os valores encontrados foram comparados com os valores permitidos pela legislação.A simple fast method for sample preparation and the simultaneous quantification of sugars and polyols in diet/light ice creams, using HPLC-RI, was investigated. The sugars fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose and sucrose, together with glycerol and sorbitol, were separated. Different variables were

  9. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...

  10. Alcohol en snelverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, P.H.

    1968-01-01

    Dr Esser voert diverse redenen aan om zo snel mogelijk te starten met ademanalyse op tijden en plaatsen dat bestuurders, die alcohol gebruikt hebben, verwacht kunnen worden. Hij wijst op de preventieve waarde hiervan. Zie ook A 1469.

  11. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  12. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  13. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... Examine you Ask about your medical and family history Ask about your alcohol use, and if you ...

  14. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium-fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, F.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Zubia, A.A.; Lute, C.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Scope : We aimed to investigate whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie restricted diet could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat diet. Methods and results : Nine week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a 1)

  15. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  16. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  17. Consumo de alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Gustavo del Sol Padrón; Orestes Álvarez Fernández; Juan De Dios Rivero Berovides

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se emite una definición clasificatoria de los individuos que consumen alcohol, según supuestos establecidos por Manconi. Se estratifican las personas atendiendo a los diferentes riesgos para este consumo. Se describen las afectaciones a la salud que produce el consumo de alcohol, y además se plantean las medidas estratégicas para propiciar una conducta efectiva antialcohólica. Por último, se presenta un flujograma para la inter...

  18. Effects of B vitamin deletion in chemically defined diets on brood development in Camponotus vicinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2014-08-01

    The potential contributions of B vitamins by a yeast associate to the nutrition of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr was examined as part of an effort to develop a chemically defined diet. This diet was used to test the effects of individual B vitamin and other nutrient deletions on larval development. The chemically defined diet contained amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other growth factors in a liquid sucrose matrix. C. vicinus worker colonies with third- and fourth-instar larvae were fed a complete artificial diet or that diet with a component deleted for a 12-wk period. There was a significant effect of diet on larval growth and number of adult worker ants produced in the overall nutrient deletion test, but ant development was often better on incomplete diets with one B vitamin deleted compared with the complete holidic basal diet. Thiamine deletion resulted in significantly higher brood weights compared with the complete diet. Diets of sugar water plus all B vitamins, sugar water only, or a diet minus all B vitamins and cholesterol were associated with significantly lower brood weights. Significantly more adult worker ants were produced by worker colonies fed diets minus cholesterol, choline, thiamine, or riboflavin compared with the complete basal diet. The results suggest that the diet, while suitable for rearing, could benefit from further study to better define component levels. The potential relationship of C. vicinus with yeast associates is discussed in relation to further studies.

  19. Oxidative stress and an altered methionine metabolism in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, S; Spilker, K; Kurth, C; Degner, D; Quintela-Schneider, M; Javaheripour, K; Rüther, E; Kornhuber, J; Wiltfang, J

    2000-11-03

    The exact mechanism of brain atrophy in patients with chronic alcoholism remains unknown. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with oxidative stress and with a derangement in sulphur amino acid metabolism (e.g. ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia). Furthermore, it has been reported that homocysteine induces neuronal cell death by stimulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors as well as by producing free radicals. To further evaluate this latter hypothesis we analysed serum levels of both homocysteine and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) in alcoholic patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Homocysteine and malondialdehyde were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum samples of 35 patients (active drinkers). There was a significant correlation (Pbrain shrinkage.

  20. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  1. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  2. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  3. Water in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the weight of the human body. Without water, humans would die in a few days. All the ... the water is made during the process of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, ...

  4. Mechanism for prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury by dietary methyl donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christine L; Bradford, Blair U; Craig, Christopher Patrick; Tsuchiya, Masato; Uehara, Takeki; O'Connell, Thomas M; Pogribny, Igor P; Melnyk, Stepan; Koop, Dennis R; Bleyle, Lisa; Threadgill, David W; Rusyn, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) has been associated with, among other molecular changes, abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism, resulting in decreased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Dietary methyl donor supplements such as SAM and betaine mitigate ALI in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. It has been suggested that methyl donors may act via attenuation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the protective action of methyl donors is mediated by an effect on the oxidative metabolism of alcohol in the liver. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a control high-fat diet or diet enriched in methyl donors with or without alcohol for 4 weeks using the enteral alcohol feeding model. As expected, attenuation of ALI and an increase in reduced glutathione:oxidized glutathione ratio were achieved with methyl donor supplementation. Interestingly, methyl donors led to a 35% increase in blood alcohol elimination rate, and while there was no effect on alcohol metabolism in the stomach, a profound effect on liver alcohol metabolism was observed. The catalase-dependent pathway of alcohol metabolism was induced, yet the increase in CYP2E1 activity by alcohol was blunted, which may be mitigating production of oxidants. Additional factors contributing to the protective effects of methyl donors in ALI were increased activity of low- and high-K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenases leading to lower hepatic acetaldehyde, maintenance of the efficient mitochondrial energy metabolism, and promotion of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Profound changes in alcohol metabolism represent additional important mechanism of the protective effect of methyl donors in ALI.

  5. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  6. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  7. Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity - i.e., the ease with which it is traded - and traders' funding liquidity - i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding. Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and the margins they are charged, depend on the assets' market liquidity. We show that, under certain conditions, margins are destabilizing and market liquidit...

  8. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome, blood group & diet: A correlative study in South Indian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30 years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30 years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system considering their diet & alcohol intake (p≤0.05 significant. Result: Our data revealed that the highest risk of PCOS was observed in females with blood group ‘O’ positive followed by ‘B’ positive who were on mixed diet & used to consume alcohol. Our study also suggests that Rh negative individuals didn’t show any association with PCOS. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that ‘O’ positive females, are more prone to PCOS. Though the relative frequency of B positive individuals are more in India, females with blood group O positive are more susceptible to PCOS, contributing factors being mixed diet & alcohol intake. So, early screening of ‘O’ positive &‘B’ positive females of reproductive age-group in South-India, could be used as a measure for timely diagnosis of PCOS, better management &also prevention of complications. However, further research should be done to investigate the multifaceted mechanisms triggering these effects.

  10. Oxidation of aromatic alcohols on zeolite-encapsulated copper amino acid complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Teixeira Florencio, J.M. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Copper complexes of the amino acids histidine, arginine and lysine have been introduced into the supercages of zeolite Y and, for the first time, into the large intracrystalline cavities of zeolites EMT and MCM-22. The resulting host/guest compounds are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV/VIS-spectroscopy in the diffuse reflectance mode and by catalytic tests in the liquid-phase oxidation of aromatic alcohols (viz. benzyl alcohol, 2- and 3-methylbenzyl alcohol and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl alcohol) with tertiary-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. It was observed that intracrystalline copper-amino acid complexes possess remarkable catalytic activity, yielding the corresponding aromatic aldehydes and acids. (orig.)

  11. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  12. My New Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正I liked eat fast food before.But it was not healthy,so I changed my diet.Now let me tell you something about my new diet.At 6:30 a.m.,I have breakfast at home.For breakfast,I often eat an egg,some bread and a glass of milk.At 11:30 a.m.,I have lunch at school.I usually have a bowl of rice,some meat and vegetables,sometimes I eat some fish.I with my family often have supper at home in the evening.I usually eat porridge and some vegetables.Sometimes I eat noodles for supper.After supper,I usually have some fruit.Because I usually eat healthy food now,so I am much healthier than before.

  13. Chemical analysis and risk assessment of diethyl phthalate in alcoholic beverages with special regard to unrecorded alcohol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1 ratio 1 to 50 ratio 1 and the number of extraction repetitions (1-10. The best extraction yield (99.9% was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10 ratio 1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257. Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered.

  14. Diet and Longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingxian

    2000-01-01

    @@In 1985 the International Natural Medicine Society declared the Hoten area, Xinjiang (a province of China) as one of the areas of most pronounced longevity in the world. Why are there more elderly people in Hoten? There are many factors. On the basis of our many years of research, our claim is that diet is the most important factor. Now I will discuss the following factors to illustrate.

  15. Alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria D Coronado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies addressing the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer consistently suggest a modest association and a dose-response relationship. The epidemiologic evidence does not point to a single mechanism to explain the association, and several mechanisms have been proposed. Alcohol consumption is shown to increase levels of endogenous estrogens, known risk factors for breast cancer. This hypothesis is further supported by data showing that the alcohol-breast cancer association is limited to women with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Products of alcohol metabolism are known to be toxic and are hypothesized to cause DNA modifications that lead to cancer. Recent research has focused on genes that influence the rate of alcohol metabolism, with genes that raise blood concentrations of acetaldehyde hypothesized to heighten breast cancer risk. Mounting evidence suggests that antioxidant intake(e.g.folatemayreducealcohol-associatedbreast cancer risk, because it neutralizes reactive oxygen species, a second-stage product of alcohol metabolism. Diets lacking sufficient antioxidant intake, as a result, may further elevate the risk of breast cancer among alcohol consumers. Given that alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and especially among women in countries of rapid economic growth, a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the known alcohol-breast cancer association is warranted.Avoiding overconsumption of alcohol is recommended, especially for women with known risk factors for breast cancer.Diversos estudios epidemiológicos muestran la asociación del consumo de alcohol con el cáncer de mama de forma consistente, lo que sugiere una modesta asociación, y una relación de dosis-respuesta.La evidencia no apunta a un mecanismo único para explicar la asociación y varios mecanismos han sido propuestos. El consumo de alcohol incrementa los niveles endógenos de estrógeno, un riesgo conocido para cáncer de

  16. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... notice advises operators of gas, hazardous liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and liquefied natural gas...: Operators of Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol...

  17. [Diet low in potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  18. Acne and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  19. Natural sweeteners in a human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Sweeteners, both natural and artificial, play an important role in a human diet as well as are of great importance to the food industry and dieticians. Many people associate sweet taste with sucrose, which is commonly known as table sugar. However, there are many sweet substances that food manufacturers add to food products because none of them is ideal for all applications. Besides sucrose there are also other sugars such as glucose and fructose that originate both from natural sources such as fruits and honey or from added sugars. Among sweeteners there are also compounds which have a sweet taste and contain no calories or those which sweetness is so intense so can be used at very low concentrations, thus, their impact on the total caloric value of the product is negligible. They can be classified due to their origin (natural or synthetic agents), the technological function (sweeteners and fillers), texture (powders and syrups), and nutritional value (caloric and non-caloric). Natural sweetening substances include carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, thaumatin and stevia. Besides providing well tasting foods, they might have an impact on products' texture, color, preservation and caloric value. Sugar alcohols, which belong to carbohydrates, are both natural sugar substitutes and food additives. They are becoming more and more popular among consumers mainly due to their lower caloric values and glycemic indexes as well as anticariogenic effects. Sugar alcohols are often combined with other sweeteners to enhance food products' sweetness. Stevia, which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, is a non caloric substance whereas thaumatin, a sweet protein, provides 4 kcal/g but characterizes with sweetness about 2000 times higher than sucrose (on a weight basis).

  20. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  1. Oropharynx microbiota among alcoholics and non-alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Golin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The oropharynx microbiota plays an important role in the origin of infections, especially among alcoholics whose airway defenses are impaired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the normal oropharingeal flora in heavy alcohol drinker and non-alcoholics. PATIENTS: 117 persons, 58 heavy alcohol drinkers and 59 non-alcoholics. SETTING: Santa Casa de São Paulo Emergency Service. DESIGN: A blind prospective study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: The study of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy alcohol drinkers demonstrated the presence of anaerobic microorganisms in 84.5% of them, including: Bacteroides sp, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium sp, Veilonella sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Propionibacterium sp, Bifidobacterium sp and Clostridium sp, versus 30.5% (p<0.005 of non-alcoholics. Candida sp was present in 34.5% of heavy alcohol drinkers and 5.1% of non-alcoholics (p<0.005. Enterobacteria predominated among heavy alcohol drinkers (25% compared with non-alcoholics (5.5% only in the age group 14 to 34 years (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Based upon these results, it was possible to conclude that the knowledge of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy drinkers and non-alcoholics has an important predictive value concerning probable etiologic agents of lower airway infections. Infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms and fungi should be taken into consideration during the choice of empirical therapy for heavy alcohol drinkers.

  2. Exacerbation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Patere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography, polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron.

  3. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  5. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  6. Genetics of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  7. The Plausibility of Maternal Nutritional Status Being a Contributing Factor to the Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Influence of Zinc Status as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of a...

  8. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  9. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  10. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  11. Preventing diet induced disease: bioavailable nutrient-rich, low-energy-dense diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    What the World needs is an integrated and sustainable food policy that makes the best and most appropriate use of the technologies at our disposal to promote health and help prevent disease. Diet induced diseases account for the largest burden of chronic illnesses and health problems Worldwide. Historically a lack of knowledge about human nutritional requirements (including for the brain) helped promote diet induced disease. The scientific knowledge currently exists to help prevent many of the current deficiencies and imbalances in human diet. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and mental ill health starts, crucially, with maternal nutrition before the inception of pregnancy and continues throughout life of the new born and includes consuming more DHA and EPA omega-3 fats (and their cofactors) and other bioavailable brain nutrients and less high-energy-dense (>2 kcal g(-1)) foods (e.g. land-based cereal, chocolate, alcohol and refined sugar, fat and oil), so tissues synthesize less inflammatory mediators and to lower transient short-lived meal-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, proliferation and impaired nitric oxide (e.g. approximately 0.35-3.5 g DHA/ EPA day(-1) dependant on energy intake and noting the importance of cofactors). Micro- and nanotechnologies are already engineering nano foods for human (and livestock) consumption that may eventually (without excessive consumption) prevent the current diet induced disease epidemic, especially in future generations, by preventing the causal mechanisms of disease. Greater knowledge about the causal mechanisms of disease awaits to be discovered, which could further enhance the human desire to increase longevity in optimum health (creating more problems and challenges for society).

  12. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  13. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly...

  14. The Risks Associated With Alcohol Use and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiov...

  15. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Giancarlo Balercia; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used,its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial.Over the years,many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility.This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences.Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities,a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition,and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate.These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption.Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters.This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol.Nevertheless,alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies.Finally,the genetic background and other concomitant,alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage.In conclusion,alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.

  16. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  17. Alcohol y campaniforme

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Cuesta, A. (Antonio)

    2005-01-01

    Los recientes hallazgos de cerveza en recipientes neolíticos y campaniformes ofrecen una nueva base empírica sobre la que replantear ciertas hipótesis. El panorama que dibuja la documentación actual impide que aceptemos sin crítica planteamientos que, como los de Andrew Sherratt, suponen el marco de referencia para la interpretación del alcohol en la Prehistoria Reciente europea. Se plantea una vía indígena occidental para la elaboración de alcoholes y se pone en duda el gran valo...

  18. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  19. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  20. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Belio, Jose Felix Magdalena; Colominas-Garrido, Ruben; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Arranz, Amparo Gómez; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to analyze the variables associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in an established cohort of 1,553 healthy study participants (mean age=55 ± 14 years; 60.3% women). Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated based on a 14-item questionnaire and the Mediterranean diet adherence screener, which defines adequate adherence as a score of ≥ 9. Physical activity was evaluated using the 7-day physical activity record. Sociodemographic, biological, and anthropometric variables were also evaluated. The differences between Mediterranean diet compliers and noncompliers are defined by the consumption of fruit, red meats, carbonated beverages, wine, fish/shellfish, legumes, pasta, and rice (PMediterranean diet adherence: more physical exercise (odds ratio=1.588), older age (odds ratio=2.162), and moderate alcohol consumption (odds ratio=1.342). The factors associated with improved Mediterranean diet adherence included female sex, age older than 62 years, moderate alcohol consumption, and more than 17 metabolic equivalents (METs)/h/wk of physical exercise. Poorer adherence was associated with males and obesity.