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Sample records for alcohol intake myocardial

  1. Inhibition of CYP2E1 attenuates chronic alcohol intake-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Huai; Gao, Jian-Yuan; Guo, Hai-Tao; Scott, Glenda I; Eason, Anna R; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with myocardial contractile dysfunction and apoptosis although the precise mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to examine the effect of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 inhibition on ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction. Adult male mice were fed a 4% ethanol liquid or pair-fed control diet for 6weeks. Following 2weeks of diet feeding, a cohort of mice started to receive the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulfide (100mg/kg/d, i.p.) for the remaining feeding duration. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiographic and IonOptix systems. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate CYP2E1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), iNOS, the intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+)Ca(2+) exchanger and phospholamban, pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase-3, Bax, c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK-1). Ethanol led to elevated levels of CYP2E1, iNOS and phospholamban, decreased levels of HO-1 and Na(+)Ca(2+) exchanger, cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) defects, cardiac fibrosis, overt O(2)(-) production, and apoptosis accompanied with increased phosphorylation of JNK and ASK-1, the effects were significantly attenuated or ablated by diallyl sulfide. Inhibitors of JNK and ASK-1 but not HO-1 inducer or iNOS inhibitor obliterated ethanol-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction, substantiating a role for JNK and ASK-1 signaling in ethanol-induced myocardial injury. Taken together, these findings suggest that ethanol metabolism through CYP2E1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy including myocardial contractile dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis, possibly through activation of JNK and ASK-1 signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  3. Alcohol and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, M; Rosenkranz, S; Erdmann, E; Böhm, M

    2001-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly demonstrated a beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the incidence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and overall mortality. The latter increases with excessive alcohol consumption. Although most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of alcohol consumption independent from the specific kind of alcoholic beverage, there is increasing evidence that wine and in particular red wine might contain pharmacological substances, which prevent atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction independent from the wine ethanol. Pathophysiological mechanisms mediating these beneficial effects include effects of wine phenols and tannins on LDL-cholesterol oxidation status, thrombocyte aggregation, endothelial function and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Identification and characterization of the pharmacologically active substances might provide the stage for the development of new substances to be used in the prevention of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.

  4. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Myocardial Insulin Resistance and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shi-Yan; Gilbert, Sara A.B.; Li, Qun; Ren, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake leads to insulin resistance and alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which appears to be a result of the complex interaction between genes and environment. This study was designed to examine the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgenic overexpression on alcohol-induced insulin resistance and myocardial injury. ALDH2 transgenic mice were produced using chicken β-actin promoter. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 mice were fed a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 wks. Cell shorteni...

  5. Nutritional intake and status in persons with alcohol dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency.......Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency....

  6. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  7. Anthropometric indices and energy intakes of alcoholic adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the nutritional status of alcoholics in relation to non-alcoholic adolescent students, as well as the relationship between alcohol consumption, and energy intake, and the anthropometric indices of the adolescent students of Abia state university. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) of 513 ...

  8. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  10. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  11. Alcohol, appetite and energy balance: is alcohol intake a risk factor for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2010-04-26

    The increased recognition that the worldwide increase in incidence of obesity is due to a positive energy balance has lead to a focus on lifestyle choices that may contribute to excess energy intake, including the widespread belief that alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for development of obesity. This brief review examines this issue by contrasting short-term laboratory-based studies of the effects of alcohol on appetite and energy balance and longer-term epidemiological data exploring the relationship between alcohol intake and body weight. Current research clearly shows that energy consumed as alcohol is additive to that from other dietary sources, leading to short-term passive over-consumption of energy when alcohol is consumed. Indeed, alcohol consumed before or with meals tends to increase food intake, probably through enhancing the short-term rewarding effects of food. However, while these data might suggest that alcohol is a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological data suggests that moderate alcohol intake may protect against obesity, particularly in women. In contrast, higher intakes of alcohol in the absence of alcohol dependence may increase the risk of obesity, as may binge-drinking, however these effects may be secondary to personality and habitual beverage preferences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  13. Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort....

  14. Intake of whole grains is associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helnæs, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    of whole-grain products was available from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire, and intakes of total whole grain and whole-grain species (wheat, rye, and oats) were estimated. The association between intake of whole grains and risk of myocardial infarction was examined with the use of a Cox...

  15. Alcohol Intake During Pregnancy and Offspring's Atopic Eczema Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiko; Konishi, Kie; Tamura, Takashi; Shiraki, Makoto; Iwasa, Shinichi; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-05-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been suggested to have an effect on the immune system, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption has a role in developing allergic diseases. We aimed to examine the associations of total alcohol intake during pregnancy with the risks of childhood asthma and atopic eczema in a birth cohort in Japan. Pregnant women were recruited at a maternal clinic from May 2000 to October 2001. The children who were born to these mothers were followed until November 2007. Total alcohol intake, including alcohol as a cooking ingredient, was assessed using 5-day dietary records. Mother reports of physician-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were annually obtained from the questionnaires. Asthma assessed by the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Diseases questionnaire and atopic eczema assessed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions were also obtained in 2007. A total of 350 children participated in the follow-up survey. Maternal total alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risks of atopic eczema before age 3. The positive association with atopic eczema was also observed when it was defined as before age 5. In the high versus the low tertile of maternal total alcohol intake, the estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of child's eczema were 1.90 (95% CI: 0.96 to 3.76) before age 3 and 1.74 (95% CI: 0.93 to 3.24) before age 5, respectively. The estimated HRs of child's asthma before age 3 was 1.61 (95% CI: 0.70 to 3.69) in the high versus the low of maternal total alcohol intake and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.93 to 4.81) among children having drinking mothers versus nondrinking mothers in pregnancy, although maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of asthma before age 5. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy might have an effect on developing atopic eczema in offspring. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. [Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczyńiska, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. 'Iherefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments.

  17. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  18. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  19. Influence of alcohol intake during lactation in the origin of alcohol addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bossolani Charlo Sanches

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the influence of alcohol intake during lactation in alcoholism onset. Methods: descriptive research with intentional convenient sample of 33 people addicted to alcohol and their mothers which assessed the correlation between the consumption of alcohol ingested using the instruments Cut down, Annoyde by criticims, Guilty and Eye-opener, and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down and Eye-opener. Results: addicts are men, young, single, with low level of education and income between one and five minimum wages. Among the patients who consider themselves alcoholics, 55.5% had mothers who considered themselves alcoholics and 60.0% of them had consumed alcohol during lactation, but this correlation was not significant. Conclusion: a positive correlation between alcohol consumption by mothers during breastfeeding and addiction of their children in adulthood was not found.

  20. Are alcohol intake and smoking associated with mycosis fungoides?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, M.M.M.; Olsen, J.; Kærlev, L.

    2001-01-01

    . There was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of MF with increased smoking habits, albeit the observed trend was not statistically significant. A combined exposure to high tobacco and alcohol use yielded a significantly increased risk factor for MF (P=0.0073). Alcohol intake was associated with MF.......The incidence of mycosis fungoides (MF) is low, and the aetiology of the disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wine consumption protects against the disease and whether smoking constitutes a risk factor. This paper is part of the European Rare Cancers Study that tries...

  1. Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Goszczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. Therefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments. Med Pr 2013;64(4:593–608

  2. Thirst sensation and oral dryness following alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotoshi Inenaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial acute and chronic intakes of alcohol or ethanol (EtOH severely influence oral sensations, such as thirst and oral dryness (dry mouth, xerostomia. Thirst sensation and oral dryness are primarily caused by the activation of neurons in brain regions, including the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus, which are referred to as the dipsogenic center, and by a decrease in salivary secretion, respectively. The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy-alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of EtOH-induced diuresis; however, EtOH in high doses induces anti-diuresis. Recently, it has been proposed that the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde induces thirst via two distinct processes in the central nervous system from EtOH-induced diuresis, based on the results of animal experiments. The present review describes new insights regarding the induction mechanism of thirst sensation and oral dryness after drinking alcohol.

  3. [Effect of puerarin in myocardial protection in rats with acute and chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shu-qin

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the protective effect of puerarin on the myocardium of rats with acute and chronic alcoholism. In acute alcoholism experiment, normal male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group, alcoholism group and puerarin group (n=8), and high- and low-dose puerarin was administered. In chronic alcoholism experiment, increasing puerarin doses were given. Serum and myocardial levels of spartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined using enzymatic methed, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the myocardium were assayed with colorimetric method. HE staining was used to observe the microscopic changes of the myocardium. Compared with alcoholism group, puerarin-treated groups showed significantly lowered myocardial contents of MDA, CPK and AST and serum levels of AST and CPK (P0.05). HE staining of the myocardium showed cell swelling and obscure cell boundaries in alcoholism group, especially in chronic alcoholism group. The myocardial structure in puerarin group remained clear and regular. Puerarin can protect from myocardial injuries induced by acute and chronic alcoholism in rats.

  4. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  5. Folate intake, alcohol and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjønneland, A; Christensen, J.; Olsen, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is consistent evidence that alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that the increased risk associated with alcohol intake may be reduced by adequate intake of folate. Since many women consume alcohol, detection of a risk-reducing mechanism would have major public...

  6. Disagreement between splenic switch-off and myocardial T1-mapping after caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; van Dijk, Randy; van Assen, Marly; Kaandorp, Theodorus A M; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van der Harst, Pim; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist and a possible cause of inadequate stress perfusion. Splenic switch-off (SSO) and splenic rest-stress T1-mapping have been proposed as indicators of stress adequacy during perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We compared myocardial rest-stress T1-mapping with SSO and splenic rest-stress T1-mapping in patients with and without recent coffee intake. We analyzed 344 consecutive patients suspected of myocardial ischemia with adenosine perfusion CMR. All 146 normal CMR studies with a normal T1-rest of the myocardium, used as standard of reference, were included and divided in two groups. 22 patients accidentally ingested coffee < 4 h before CMR, compared to control group of 124 patients without self-reported coffee intake. Two independent readers graded SSO visually. T1-reactivity (ΔT1) was defined as percentual difference in T1-rest and T1-stress. Follow-up data were extracted from electronic patients records. In patients with recent coffee intake SSO was identified in 96%, which showed no significant difference with SSO in controls (94%, p = 0.835), however event rates were significantly different (13.6 and 0.8%, respectively (p < 0.001), median FU 17 months). Myocardial ΔT1 in the coffee group (- 5.2%) was significantly lower compared to control (+ 4.0%, p < 0.001), in contrast to the splenic ΔT1 (- 3.7 and - 4.0%, p = 0.789). The splenic T1-mapping results failed to predict false negative results. SSO and splenic rest-stress T1-mapping are not reliable indicators of stress adequacy in patients with recent coffee intake. Therefore, the dark spleen sign does not indicate adequate myocardial stress in patients with recent caffeine intake. Myocardial rest-stress T1-mapping is an excellent indicator of stress adequacy during adenosine perfusion CMR.

  7. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Biochemical tests for the detection of liver damage were specific for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-ALT ratio (AST/ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, coagulation factors, and erythrocyte...... volume. RESULTS: Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were...

  8. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...... combining the methods. CONCLUSIONS When assessing the distribution of alcohol intake in pregnancy or when studying adverse pregnancy outcomes that are probably caused mainly by sustained exposure it seems that for pregnant women with low to moderate alcohol intake diaries or an average measure from...... gestation from October to December 1998. The women were interviewed about current average alcohol intake and intake within the previous week, and subsequently filled in a two week diary on alcohol intake. When booking for delivery at the end of the first trimester the women were also asked to complete...

  9. Alcohol dependence induced in rats by semivoluntary intermittent intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Macieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11, 5% ETOH (N = 20, 20% ETOH (N = 20 and 40% ETOH (N = 18. ETOH solutions were offered at the end of the day and overnight from Monday to Friday, and throughout weekends, for 90 days. The concentration of the ETOH solutions was increased in a stepwise fashion allowing the rats to get used to the taste of alcohol. Reposition of pure water was permitted during 1-h water drinking periods in the morning. Daily volume intake (± SEM averaged 25.4 ± 0.4 ml (0% ETOH, 23.8 ± 0.6 ml (5% ETOH, 17.6 ± 0.7 ml (20% ETOH and 17.5 ± 0.6 ml (40% ETOH. ETOH consumption differed significantly (P<0.05 among groups, averaging 4.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 day-1 (5% ETOH, 10.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 day-1 (20% ETOH and 26 ± 1.2 g kg-1 day-1 (40% ETOH. Furthermore, ETOH detection in plasma 10-12 h after offering the solution indicated that its consumption in the 40% ETOH group was sufficient to override its metabolism. Overt signs of ETOH dependence, such as increased thirst, hyperactivity, puffing, hair ruffling and startle responsiveness as well as reduced drowsiness, were significantly increased in the 20% and 40% ETOH groups compared to the 0% and 5% groups. Accordingly, the model described here proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of subtle or moderate behavioral and physical consequences of long-term ETOH intake

  10. Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M; Becker, U

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After...... adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.......06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p...

  11. Biphasic effect of alcohol intake on the development of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Ono, Masafumi; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Chika; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Ono, Naofumi; Eguchi, Takahisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Chayama, Kazuaki; Saibara, Toshiji; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro

    2015-11-01

    Fatty liver is an important clinical feature not only in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, but in other chronic liver diseases as well. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and relationship between habitual alcohol intake and obesity in the development of fatty liver disease. We enrolled 8,029 subjects undergoing abdominal ultrasonography with general medical examinations, and analyzed the factors associated with fatty liver based on daily alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. For fatty liver, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were significant and independent risk factors. Heavy alcohol intake (50 g/day) was a significant risk factor for fatty liver in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.35). Analysis based on the presence or absence of obesity revealed that moderate alcohol intake was a significant negative risk factor for fatty liver in both male and female obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) subjects (OR, 0.74 for non-obese and 0.39 for obese patients, respectively). Heavy alcohol intake was also a significant negative risk factor in obese males (0.62). In contrast, heavy alcohol intake was a risk factor in non-obese males (OR, 1.29) and in all females (OR, 2.22 for non-obese and 6.6 for obese patients, respectively). The influence of alcohol intake on fatty liver differed depending on the level of alcohol consumption, gender, and the presence of obesity, and showed biphasic effects.

  12. Changes in alcohol intake and risk of upper digestive tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Keiding, Niels; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    of these cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study we assessed alcohol intake among 4 896 men and 6 239 women who participated at both the first (1976-1978) and second (1981-1983) examination of the study. Alcohol intake changes on risk of upper digestive tract cancer 1981-2002 were...

  13. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster’s alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure t...

  14. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol...... and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake...

  15. Gut peptide GLP-1 and its analogue, Exendin-4, decrease alcohol intake and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita H Shirazi

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a gut- and neuro-peptide with an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R are expressed in key mesolimbic reward areas (including the ventral tegmental area, VTA, innervated by hindbrain GLP-1 neurons. Recently GLP-1 has emerged as a potential regulator of food reward behavior, an effect driven by the mesolimbic GLP-1Rs. Its role in other reward behaviors remains largely unexplored. Since a considerable overlap has been suggested for circuitry controlling reward behavior derived from food and alcohol we hypothesized that GLP-1 and GLP-1Rs could regulate alcohol intake and alcohol reward. We sought to determine whether GLP-1 or its clinically safe stable analogue, Exendin-4, reduce alcohol intake and reward. To determine the potential role of the endogenous GLP-1 in alcohol intake we evaluated whether GLP-1R antagonist, Exendin 9-39, can increase alcohol intake. Furthermore, we set out to evaluate whether VTA GLP-1R activation is sufficient to reduce alcohol intake. Male Wistar rats injected peripherally with GLP-1 or Exendin-4 reduced their alcohol intake in an intermittent access two bottle free choice drinking model. Importantly, a contribution of endogenously released GLP-1 is highlighted by our observation that blockade of GLP-1 receptors alone resulted in an increased alcohol intake. Furthermore, GLP-1 injection reduced alcohol reward in the alcohol conditioned place preference test in mice. To evaluate the neuroanatomical substrate linking GLP-1 with alcohol intake/reward, we selectively microinjected GLP-1 or Exendin 4 into the VTA. This direct stimulation of the VTA GLP-1 receptors potently reduced alcohol intake. Our findings implicate GLP-1R signaling as a novel modulator of alcohol intake and reward. We show for the first time that VTA GLP-1R stimulation leads to reduced alcohol intake. Considering that GLP-1 analogues are already

  16. Low to moderate alcohol intake is not associated with increased mortality after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Gold, Ellen B; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Patterson, Ruth E; Saquib, Nazmus; Caan, Bette J; Pierce, John P

    2010-03-01

    Both alcohol consumption and obesity have been linked with breast cancer morbidity and mortality. An inverse association between alcohol intake and obesity suggests possible confounding between these variables (and perhaps other factors) with breast cancer outcomes. Alcohol intake (beer, wine, spirits, and total) was examined in 3,088 women previously diagnosed and treated for breast cancer within an intervention trial that targeted vegetables, fiber, and fat but not alcohol or weight loss. Factors associated with baseline alcohol intake were included in Cox proportional hazards models for recurrence and mortality. Alcohol intake was significantly associated with higher education and physical activity levels. Neither light alcohol intake nor obesity was significantly associated with breast cancer recurrence, but moderate alcohol intake >300 g/mo was protective against all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence intervals, 0.49-0.97) in a proportional hazards model adjusted for obesity. Obese women were 61% more likely to be nondrinkers than drinkers, and 76% more likely to be light drinkers than moderate/heavy drinkers. In nonobese women, alcohol intake >10 g/mo was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51-0.91). Light alcohol intake, regardless of body weight, did not increase the risk of breast cancer recurrence or all-cause mortality in this cohort of middle-aged women previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Alcohol intake was associated with other favorable prognostic indicators, which may explain its apparent protective effect in nonobese women.

  17. The effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Haga, Sondre; Gjernes, Mikjel Fredericson; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC]  0.40 mg/L; ≈0.80 mg/L) amounts of alcohol]. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic variables, subjective intoxication, alcohol effects (stimulant and sedative), and gambling factors (behavior and problems, evaluation, and beliefs). Participants also gambled on a simulated slot machine. Results A significant main effect of beverage intake on subjective intoxication and alcohol effects was detected as expected. No significant main or interaction effects were detected for number of gambling sessions, bet size and variation, remaining credits at termination, reaction time, and game evaluation. Conclusion Alcohol expectancy and intake do not affect gambling persistence, dissipation of funds, reaction time, or gambling enjoyment.

  18. Chocolate intake may reduce liver count in 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, Akikazu; Yasuda, Eisuke; Okuda, Seiji

    2005-01-01

    The accumulation of 99m-Tc-Tetrofosmin (TF) in the liver and intestine may often interfere the image quality of myocardial TF SPECT. Although milk intake before acquisition is recommended to reduce its accumulation by enhancing biliary excretion of TF, some patients cannot accept milk. To elucidate the efficacy of chocolate intake as a substitute for milk, we investigated 72 patients with coronary heart disease who underwent TF SPECT (stress imaging; n=36, rest imaging; n=36). Following injection of TF, the patients were randomly treated either with milk (n=24), or chocolate (n=24). The images were acquired before treatment, at 15 min, at 30 min, and 45 min after treatment. The ratio of liver to heart count (LHR) was calculated and was compared between the two groups. LHR in the stress imaging was not significantly different between the milk-treated and chocolate-treated groups: 1.86 vs 1.87 before treatment, 1.39 vs 1.39 at 30 min, and 1.02 vs 1.03 at 45 min. LHR in the rest imaging was also the same between the two groups: 1.43 vs 1.42 before treatment, 1.22 vs 1.21 at 15 min, and 0.95 vs. 0.95 at 30 min. Chocolate intake may be equally effective to milk intake in reducing the liver accumulation of TF. (author)

  19. Alcohol drinking triggers acute myocardial infarction in a case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chao Hsu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol ingestion–related increased left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT pressure gradient in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM has been reported in the literature; however, acute myocardial infarction (AMI after alcohol drinking in this patient group is rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man with chronic alcoholism suffering from AMI after alcohol drinking. Electrocardiography revealed complete left bundle branch block, and chest X-ray showed acute pulmonary edema. Intubation was done for respiratory failure and intra-aortic balloon pump was also inserted for unstable hemodynamics. However, emergent coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. HOCM was diagnosed by a high pressure gradient over LVOT and systolic anterior motion of mitral valve by echocardiography. This patient became stable under intensive care and medical treatment. This case reminds physicians that alcohol ingestion might cause AMI in HOCM patients because of increased LVOT pressure gradient and decreased coronary perfusion despite normal coronary arteries.

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  2. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  4. Semen quality and alcohol intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Elena; Al Beitawi, Suha; Cipriani, Sonia; Candiani, Massimo; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Viganò, Paola; Noli, Stefania; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is widespread in the Western world. Some studies have suggested a negative association between alcohol intake and semen quality although others have not confirmed this. MEDLINE and Embase were searched using 'alcohol intake' OR 'alcohol consumption' OR 'alcohol drinking' OR 'lifestyle' combined with 'semen quality' OR 'sperm quality' OR 'sperm volume' OR 'sperm concentration' OR 'sperm motility' for full-length observational articles, published in English. Reference lists of retrieved articles were searched for other pertinent studies. Main outcome measures were sperm parameters, if provided as means (standard deviation or standard error) or as medians (interquartile range). Fifteen cross-sectional studies were included, with 16,395 men enrolled. Main results showed that alcohol intake has a detrimental effect on semen volume (pooled estimate for no/low alcohol consumption 0.25 ml, 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.42) and normal morphology (1.87%, 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.88%). The difference was more marked when comparing occasional versus daily consumers, rather than never versus occasional, suggesting a moderate consumption did not adversely affect semen parameters. Hence, studies evaluating the effect of changes on semen parameters on the reproductive outcomes are needed in advance of providing recommendations regarding alcohol intake other than the advice to avoid heavy alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking...... alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking...... in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University...... on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time...

  7. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  10. The Socio - cultural Factors of Alcohol Intake among undergraduate students and their KAP in China and Ghana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ofori; -; Koree; Isaac; Aizhong; Liu; Huaxian; He

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is likely to have negative effects on in takers,especially on undergraduate students who are not fully matured. To improve prevention strategies,the review describes the history and current use of alcohol and trends of alcoholic intake in China and Ghana. It also focuses on knowledge,attitudes and practices ( KAP) towards alcoholic intake in both China and Ghana,and put forward some alcohol usage reduction interventions.

  11. Trends in Energy Intake from Alcoholic Beverages among US Adults by Sociodemographic Characteristics, 1989-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. This study examined shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. This study was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data from the 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Adults aged ≥19 years (N=39,298) were targeted. A subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n=7,081) were studied. Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and nonconsumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/capita/day in 1989-1991 to 109 kcal/capita/day in 2003-2006 (Pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989-1991 to 2009-2012 (P for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 (Pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress history increases alcohol intake in relapse: relation to phosphodiesterase 10A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrip, Marian L; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2012-09-01

    Stressful experiences can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock (stress history) or light cues alone (control) prior to acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-hour sessions, fixed ratio 1-3, 100 µl of 10% v/v alcohol as reinforcer). Stress history did not alter mean alcohol intake during acquisition of self-administration, but it increased preference for the alcohol-paired lever over the inactive lever. Following an extinction period, rats with a history of stress exposure and low baseline alcohol intake showed a twofold elevation in alcohol self-administration, as compared with low-drinking rats with no stress history. Similar effects were not seen in rats self-administering 0.1% sucrose. Analysis of mRNA levels of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme, showed that stress history increased Pde10a mRNA levels in the basolateral amygdala and, in low-drinking rats, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC). Pde10a mRNA levels in the plPFC correlated directly with greater alcohol self-administration during the relapse-like phase, and greater BLA Pde10a mRNA levels correlated with increased ethanol preference after acquisition. The data demonstrate that stress history sensitizes otherwise low alcohol drinkers to consume more alcohol in a relapse-like situation and identify stress-induced neuroadaptations in amygdala and prefrontal cortical Pde10a expression as changes that may drive heightened alcohol intake and preference in susceptible individuals. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  14. Explaining individual differences in alcohol intake in adults: evidence for genetic and cultural transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; Geels, Lot M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to describe what proportion of variation in adult alcohol intake is attributable to genetic differences among individuals and what proportion to differences in environmental experiences individuals have been exposed to. Effects of age, gender, spousal resemblance, and cultural transmission of alcohol intake from parents to offspring were taken into account. In a twin-family design, the effects of genetic and cultural transmission and shared and nonshared environment on alcohol intake were estimated with genetic structural equation models. Data originated from adult twins, their siblings, parents (n = 12,587), and spouses (n = 429) registered with the population-based Netherlands Twin Register (63.5% female; ages 18-97 years). Alcohol intake (grams per day) was higher among men than women and increased with age. Broad-sense heritability estimates were similar across sex and age (53%). Spousal resemblance was observed (r = .39) but did not significantly affect the heritability estimates. No effects of cultural transmission were detected. In total, 23% of the variation in alcohol intake was explained by additive genetic effects, 30% by dominant (nonadditive) gene action, and 47% by environmental effects that were not shared among family members. Individual differences in adult alcohol intake are explained by genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. The same genes are expressed in males and females and in younger and older participants. A substantial part of the heritability of alcohol intake is attributable to nonadditive gene action. Effects of cultural transmission that have been reported in adolescence are not present in adulthood.

  15. Central administration of the anorexigenic peptide neuromedin U decreases alcohol intake and attenuates alcohol-induced reward in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallöf, Daniel; Ulenius, Lisa; Egecioglu, Emil; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2017-05-01

    By investigating the neurochemical mechanisms through which alcohol activates the brain reward systems, novel treatment strategies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), a chronic relapsing disease, can be developed. In contrast to the common view of the function of gut-brain peptides, such as neuromedin U (NMU), to regulate food intake and appetite, a novel role in reinforcement mediation has been implied. The anorexigenic effects of NMU are mediated via NMU2 receptors, preferably in the arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. The expression of NMU2 receptors is also expressed in several reward-related areas in the brain, suggesting a role in reward regulation. The present experiments were therefore set up to investigate the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of NMU on alcohol-mediated behaviors in rodents. We found that central administration of NMU attenuated alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In addition, NMU dose dependently decreased alcohol intake in high, but not in low, alcohol-consuming rats. Central NMU administration did not alter the blood alcohol concentrations nor change the corticosterone levels in rodents. Given that AUD is a major health-care challenge causing an enormous cost to society and novel treatment strategies are warranted, our data suggest that NMU analogues deserve to be evaluated as novel treatment of AUD in humans. © 2016 The Authors Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Low to moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of psychomotor deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Støvring, Henrik; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child motor function at age 5. Methods: A prospective follow-up study of 685 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy...... reporting low to moderate levels of average alcohol consumption during pregnancy and children of mothers who abstained. Conclusions: In this study, we found no systematic association between low to moderate maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy and child motor function at age 5....

  17. Circulating Metabolites Associated with Alcohol Intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H. van Roekel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit. Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3 and replication (1/3 sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05 were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05. Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.

  18. Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wirth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population.Material and Methods: Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent.Results: Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%, elimination of bacteria (68% and reduction of plaque formation (47%. Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%. Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62.Conclusions: The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash.

  19. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  20. Alcohol intake and risk of acute coronary syndrome and mortality in men and women with and without hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindschou Hansen, Jane; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Jensen, Majken Karoline

    2011-01-01

    Although a light to moderate alcohol intake is associated with a lower risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), alcohol is also associated with risk of hypertension, which in turn is a strong risk factor of ACS. We examined whether middle-aged men and women with hypertension also benefit from a light...... to moderate alcohol intake in relation to risk of ACS and overall mortality. We used data from 57,053 men and women, aged 50-64, who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Information on alcohol intake (amount and frequency) was reported by the participants. Hypertension status was assessed...... at baseline by combining blood pressure measurements and self-reports. During follow-up, 860 and 271 ACS events occurred among men and women. Irrespective of alcohol intake, participants with hypertension had a higher risk than participants with normal blood pressure. Alcohol intake was associated...

  1. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol......BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...

  2. Alcohol consumption negates estrogen-mediated myocardial repair in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Alexander R; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Verma, Suresh K; Thorne, Tina; Ramirez, Veronica; Qin, Gangjian; Abramova, Tatiana; Hamada, Hiromichi; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj

    2013-06-21

    We have shown previously that estrogen (estradiol, E2) supplementation enhances voluntary alcohol consumption in ovariectomized female rodents and that increased alcohol consumption impairs ischemic hind limb vascular repair. However, the effect of E2-induced alcohol consumption on post-infarct myocardial repair and on the phenotypic/functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is not known. Additionally, the molecular signaling of alcohol-estrogen interactions remains to be elucidated. This study examined the effect of E2-induced increases in ethanol consumption on post-infarct myocardial function/repair. Ovariectomized female mice, implanted with 17β-E2 or placebo pellets were given access to alcohol for 6 weeks and subjected to acute myocardial infarction. Left ventricular functions were consistently depressed in mice consuming ethanol compared with those receiving only E2. Alcohol-consuming mice also displayed significantly increased infarct size and reduced capillary density. Ethanol consumption also reduced E2-induced mobilization and homing of EPCs to injured myocardium compared with the E2-alone group. In vitro, exposure of EPCs to ethanol suppressed E2-induced proliferation, survival, and migration and markedly altered E2-induced estrogen receptor-dependent cell survival signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol-mediated suppression of EPC biology was endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent because endothelial nitric oxide synthase-null mice displayed an exaggerated response to post-acute myocardial infarction left ventricular functions. These data suggest that E2 modulation of alcohol consumption, and the ensuing EPC dysfunction, may negatively compete with the beneficial effects of estrogen on post-infarct myocardial repair.

  3. Does changing social influence engender changes in alcohol intake? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Turgut, Liz

    2016-10-01

    Past research has suggested that social influences on drinking can be manipulated with subsequent reductions in alcohol intake. However, the experimental evidence for this and the best strategies to positively change these social influences have not been meta-analyzed. This research addressed these gaps. Randomized controlled trials testing social influence-based interventions on adults' drinking were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The behavior change techniques used in each study were coded and the effect sizes showing the impact of each intervention on (a) social influence and (b) alcohol intake were calculated. Metaregressions identified the association between these effect sizes, as well as the effect of specific behavior change techniques on social influences. Forty-one studies comprising 17,445 participants were included. Changes in social influences were significantly associated with changes in alcohol intake. However, even moderate-to-large changes in social influences corresponded with only a small change in drinking behavior and changing social influences did not reduce alcohol-related problems. Providing normative information about others' behavior and experiences was the most effective technique to change social influences. Social influences and normative beliefs can be changed in drinkers, particularly by providing normative information about how much others' drink. However, even generating large changes in these constructs are likely to engender only small changes in alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima eMomeni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHanTM:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for six weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over four weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHanTM:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHanTM:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHanTM:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to

  5. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  6. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  8. Decrease in the number of rat brain dopamine and muscarinic receptors after chronic alcohol intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvaelahti, E.K.G.; Hietala, J.; Roeyttae, M.; Groenroos, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of 32 weeks' alcohol treatment on the number and affinity of dopamine and muscarinic receptor sites in rat striatum were measured using 3 H-spiperone and 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzilate ( 3 H-QNB) as radioligans. The number of dopamine receptor sites was 38 per cent and the number of muscarinic receptor sites 36 per cent lower in the alcohol group than in control rats. The differences in receptor affinities were less marked. In conclusion, a long-term alcohol intake with rather moderate doses seems to induce a pronounced down-regulation in dopamine and muscarinic receptor systems in rat striatum. (author)

  9. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  10. Influence of the recall period on a beverage-specific weekly drinking measure for alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.

    2011-01-01

    -reported weekly alcohol intake. Subjects/Methods: The data is derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005, which is based on a region-stratified random sample of 21¿832 Danish citizens aged =16 years (response rate: 67%). The data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Results: A beverage...

  11. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, N.; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mgl(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners...

  12. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Beverage specific alcohol intake in a population-based study: Evidence for a positive association between pulmonary function and wine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann Susan E

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung function is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Previous studies suggest that alcohol exposure may be linked to impaired pulmonary function through oxidant-antioxidant mechanisms. Alcohol may be an important source of oxidants; however, wine contains several antioxidants. In this study we analyzed the relation of beverage specific alcohol intake with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC in a random sample of 1555 residents of Western New York, USA. Methods We expressed pulmonary function as percent of predicted normal FEV1 (FEV1% and FVC (FVC% after adjustment for height, age, gender and race. To obtain information on alcohol intake we used a questionnaire that reliably queries total alcohol and beverage specific recent (past 30 days and lifetime alcohol consumption. Results: Using multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment for covariates (pack-years of smoking, weight, smoking status, education, nutritional factors and for FEV1%, in addition, eosinophil count, we observed no significant correlation between total alcohol intake and lung function. However, we found positive associations of recent and lifetime wine intake with FEV1% and FVC%. When we analyzed white and red wine intake separately, the association of lung function with red wine was weaker than for white wine. Conclusion While total alcohol intake was not related to lung function, wine intake showed a positive association with lung function. Although we cannot exclude residual confounding by healthier lifestyle in wine drinkers, differential effects of alcoholic beverages on lung health may exist.

  14. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... and an increasing self-reported alcohol intake. The population increase was based on an increasing proportion of light to moderate drinkers. There was no effect of a moderately increasing alcohol intake as a covariate in a multivariate analysis of population systolic BP. Conclusion: A moderately increasing...... population alcohol intake cannot explain the observed changes in population systolic blood pressure....

  15. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  16. [Alcohol intake--a two-edged sword. Part 1: metabolism and pathogenic effects of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    From the biomedical point of view alcohol is a Janus-faced dietary component with a dose-dependent effect varying from cardiovascular protection to cytotoxicity. Alcohol is absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract by passive diffusion, is quickly distributed throughout body water and is mostly eliminated through oxidation. The enzymatically-catalyzed oxidative degradation to acetaldehyde and further to acetate is primarily localized in the liver. In case of a low blood alcohol concentration (0.5 per thousand) are increasingly oxidized by the microsomal ethanoloxidizing system (MEOS). Alcohol consumption induces several metabolic reactions as well as acute effects on the central nervous system. Chronic alcohol consumption to some extent irreparably damages nearly every organ with the liver being particularly concerned. There are three stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (fatty liver, alcohol hepatitis, liver cirrhosis) and the liver damages mainly result from reaction products of alcohol degradation (acetaldehyde, NADH and reactive oxygen species). An especially dreaded clinical complication of the alcohol-induced liver disease is the hepatic encephalopathy. Its pathogenesis is a multifactorial and self-perpetuating process with the swelling of astrocytes being a crucial point. Swollen astrocytes induce several reactions such as oxidative/nitrosative stress, impaired signal transduction, protein modifications and a modified gene expression profile. The swelling of astrocytes and the change in neuronal activity are attributed to several neurotoxins, especially ammonia and aromatic amino acids. In alcohol addicted subjects multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. The status of folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine and zinc is especially critical.

  17. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan; Assi, Nada; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Védié, Anne-Laure; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Berrino, Franco; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Weiderpass Vainio, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Skeie, Guri; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sund, Malin; Sternby, Hanna; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Brennan, Paul; Duell, Eric J; Ferrari, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking.

  18. The interaction of chronic restraint stress and voluntary alcohol intake: effects on spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Lewis, Michael J; Luine, Victoria N

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and exposure to stressful life events activate similar neural pathways and thus result in several comparable physiological and behavioral effects. Alcoholics in treatment claim that life stressors are the leading cause of continued drinking or relapse. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of stress and alcohol on cognitive behavior. The effects of restraint stress, alcohol, and stress in combination with alcohol were examined on a spatial memory test, the object placement (OP) task. In addition, intake levels were measured to determine if stress altered general consumption of alcohol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four conditions: no alcohol/no stress control (CON), stress alone (STR), alcohol alone (ALC), and STR+alcohol (STR+ALC). Following each restraint stress bout, the STR+ALC and the ALC groups were given access to 8% alcohol for 1h using the two-bottle choice limited access paradigm. As predicted, the STR+ALC group significantly increased alcohol consumption, while the ALC group had consistent drinking over the 10-day treatment. On the OP task, STR and ALC groups performed at chance levels, whereas the CON and STR+ALC groups significantly discriminated between objects in the new and old locations. These data show that stress increases alcohol intake and the intake of alcohol is associated with reduction of the stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. The data have important implications for the development of alcohol abuse and its treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Snapshot of the Hepatic Transcriptome: Ad Libitum Alcohol Intake Suppresses Expression of Cholesterol Synthesis Genes in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jonathon D.; Sherrill, Jeremy B.; Morello, Gabriella M.; San Miguel, Phillip J.; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcoh...

  20. Establishing links between alcohol intake, cognitive functions and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toarba Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we studied the associations that might exist between alcohol consumption, cognitive functions and diabetic pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. The alcohol intake of 219 patients diagnosed with diabetes was classified into 6 groups: nondrinkers, 0.1-9.9, 10.0-14.9, 15.0-29.9, 30.0-49.9 and ≥ 50.0, according to the total amount (grams/day of alcohol consumption. Our results mainly confirm that moderate alcohol consumption can reduce some of the neuropathological aspects of T2D, as demonstrated by the decrease in glycemic levels in patients that consumed higher levels of alcohol (30.0-49.9 g/day, when compared to non-drinkers (p=0.04 or groups in which individuals consumed 0.1-9.9 g/day (p=0.01 and 10.0-14.9 g/day (p=0.02. Regarding the results of cognitive testing, we noticed a significant increase in the values of the MMSE score a lower dose of alcohol intake (0.1-9.9 g/day was compared with higher doses: 30.0-49.9 g/day (p=0.008 and ≥ 50.0 g/day (p=0.047.

  1. Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol intake: A nationwide health survey analysis of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Dong Jang

    Full Text Available Among a variety of relevant factors of osteoporosis, the association between alcohol intake and postmenopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was evaluated in this study.Among a total of 31,596 subjects, males, premenopausal women, participants without BMD data were excluded. Finally, a total number of subjects in the study was 3,312. The frequency and amount of alcohol intake were determined by self-reported questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Mean femoral BMD for light drinkers was statistically significantly greater than that for heavy drinkers and non-drinkers. We observed the characteristic trends for BMD by drinking frequency; the mean BMD gradually increased from non-drinkers to the participants who drank 2-3 times per week; these participants exhibited the highest BMD. Participants who drank alcohol greater than 4 times per week showed a lower BMD. In the risk factor analysis, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis (at femoral neck was 1.68 in non-drinkers and 1.70 in heavy drinkers compared with light drinkers.Light alcohol intake (2-3 times per week and 1-2 or 5-6 glasses per occasion in South Korean postmenopausal women was related to high femoral BMD. Non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had approximately a 1.7-times greater risk for osteoporosis than light drinkers.

  2. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  3. FGF21, a liver hormone that inhibits alcohol intake in mice, increases in human circulation after acute alcohol ingestion and sustained binge drinking at Oktoberfest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Susanna; Andersen, Emilie S; Dalgaard, Niels B

    2018-01-01

    . KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers. Thus, the liver may limit alcohol consumption by secreting FGF21. However, whether full-length, active...... plasma FGF21 (FGF21 (1-181)) levels in humans increase acutely or sub-chronically in response to alcohol ingestion is uncertain. METHODS: We recruited 10 healthy, fasted male subjects to receive an oral water or alcohol bolus with concurrent blood sampling for FGF21 (1-181) measurement in plasma...... correlated fasting FGF21 (1-181) levels in 49 healthy, non-alcoholic subjects of mixed sex with self-reports of alcohol-related behaviors, emotional responses, and problems. Finally, we characterized the effect of recombinant human FGF21 injection on ad libitum alcohol intake in mice. RESULTS: We show...

  4. Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Dierks, C.

    2003-01-01

    . SETTING: Southern Germany. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six hospitalized German middle-class alcohol consumers with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 22 healthy control subjects. METHODS: Subjects and controls were nutritionally assessed and mineral and vitamin content was measured in blood...... increase in carbohydrates (Pvitamin E, micronutrient intake of alcoholics was equal to that of controls; however, blood vitamin (vitamin C, retinol, lycopene, alpha- and gamma-carotene) and trace element (selenium, zinc) concentrations of alcohol-drinking patients were lower...

  5. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  6. Relationship between alcohol intake, body fat, and physical activity – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (pphysical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406

  7. Activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide produces a prolonged increase of voluntary alcohol intake in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Geil, C.; Perra, S.; Morikawa, H.; Harris, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that mice with genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption as well as human alcoholics show changes in brain expression of genes related to immune signaling. In addition, mutant mice lacking genes related to immune function show decreased alcohol consumption (Blednov et al., in press), suggesting that immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption. To test the possibility that activation of immune signaling will increase alcohol consumption, we treated mice with lipopolysaccaride (LPS; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested alcohol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. To take advantage of the long-lasting activation of brain immune signaling by LPS, we measured drinking beginning one week or one month after LPS treatment and continued the studies for several months. LPS produced persistent increases in alcohol consumption in C57/Bl6 J (B6) inbred mice, FVBxB6F1 and B6xNZBF1 hybrid mice, but not in FVB inbred mice. To determine if this effect of LPS is mediated through binding to TLR4, we tested mice lacking CD14, a key component of TLR4 signaling. These null mutants showed no increase of alcohol intake after treatment with LPS. LPS treatment decreased ethanol-conditioned taste aversion but did not alter ethanol-conditioned place preference (B6xNZBF1 mice). Electro-physiological studies of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area showed that pretreatment of mice with LPS decreased the neuronal firing rate. These results suggest that activation of immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption and alters certain aspects of alcohol reward/aversion. PMID:21266194

  8. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lírio, Layla Mendonça; Forechi, Ludimila; Zanardo, Tadeu Caliman; Batista, Hiago Martins; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Mill, José Geraldo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim

    2016-01-01

    The growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome has been related to the increased use of fructose by the food industry. In fact, the use of fructose as an ingredient has increased in sweetened beverages, such as sodas and juices. We thus hypothesized that fructose intake by hypertensive rats would have a worse prognosis in developing metabolic disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Wistar and SHR rats aged 6weeks were given water or fructose (10%) for 6weeks. Blood glucose was measured every two weeks, and insulin and glucose sensitivity tests were assessed at the end of the follow-up. Systolic blood pressure was measure by plethysmography. Lean mass and abdominal fat mass were collected and weighed. Liver tissue was analyzed to determine interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis. Fasting glucose increased in animals that underwent a high fructose intake, independent of blood pressure levels. Also, insulin resistance was observed in normotensive and mostly in hypertensive rats after fructose intake. Fructose intake caused a 2.5-fold increase in triglycerides levels in both groups. Fructose intake did not change lean mass. However, we found that fructose intake significantly increased abdominal fat mass deposition in normotensive but not in hypertensive rats. Nevertheless, chronic fructose intake only increased fat deposition and fibrosis in the liver in hypertensive rats. We demonstrated that, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, fructose intake increased triglycerides and abdominal fat deposition, and caused insulin resistance. However, hypertensive rats that underwent fructose intake also developed interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis in liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population.......72 (1.00-2.96) for a pre-pregnancy intake on 75-300, 301-500, 501-900 and >900 mg caffeine per day respectively (P = 0.05 for trend). A pre-pregnancy intake of alcohol was not a predictor for spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of caffeine prior to pregnancy seems to be associated......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...

  11. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Disagreement between splenic switch-off and myocardial T1-mapping after caffeine intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; van Dijk, Randy; van Assen, Marly; Kaandorp, Theodorus A M; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van der Harst, Pim; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist and a possible cause of inadequate stress perfusion. Splenic switch-off (SSO) and splenic rest-stress T1-mapping have been proposed as indicators of stress adequacy during perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We compared myocardial rest-stress

  13. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postdiagnostic intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol in relation to colorectal cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Paul; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Mima, Kosuke; Cao, Yin; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-11-01

    Observational data have suggested that intakes of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are inversely associated with risk of colorectal carcinoma and adenomas. In contrast, results from some preclinical studies and cardiovascular and chemoprevention trials have raised concerns that high folate intake may promote carcinogenesis by facilitating the progression of established neoplasia. We tested the hypothesis that higher total folate intake (including food folate and folic acid from fortified foods and supplements) or other one-carbon nutrient intakes might be associated with poorer survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We used rectal and colon cancer cases within the following 2 US prospective cohort studies: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Biennial questionnaires were used to gather information on medical history and lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption. B-vitamin and methionine intakes were derived from food-frequency questionnaires. Data on tumor molecular characteristics (including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 methylation level) were available for a subset of cases. We assessed colorectal cancer-specific mortality according to postdiagnostic intakes of one-carbon nutrients with the use of multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. In 1550 stage I-III colorectal cancer cases with a median follow-up of 14.9 y, we documented 641 deaths including 176 colorectal cancer-specific deaths. No statistically significant associations were observed between postdiagnostic intakes of folate or other one-carbon nutrients and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariate P-trend ≥ 0.21). In an exploratory molecular pathologic epidemiology survival analysis, there was no significant interaction between one-carbon nutrients or alcohol and any of the tumor molecular

  15. Postdiagnostic intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol in relation to colorectal cancer survival123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Paul; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Mima, Kosuke; Cao, Yin; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational data have suggested that intakes of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are inversely associated with risk of colorectal carcinoma and adenomas. In contrast, results from some preclinical studies and cardiovascular and chemoprevention trials have raised concerns that high folate intake may promote carcinogenesis by facilitating the progression of established neoplasia. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that higher total folate intake (including food folate and folic acid from fortified foods and supplements) or other one-carbon nutrient intakes might be associated with poorer survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design: We used rectal and colon cancer cases within the following 2 US prospective cohort studies: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Biennial questionnaires were used to gather information on medical history and lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption. B-vitamin and methionine intakes were derived from food-frequency questionnaires. Data on tumor molecular characteristics (including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 methylation level) were available for a subset of cases. We assessed colorectal cancer–specific mortality according to postdiagnostic intakes of one-carbon nutrients with the use of multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: In 1550 stage I–III colorectal cancer cases with a median follow-up of 14.9 y, we documented 641 deaths including 176 colorectal cancer–specific deaths. No statistically significant associations were observed between postdiagnostic intakes of folate or other one-carbon nutrients and colorectal cancer–specific mortality (multivariate P-trend ≥ 0.21). In an exploratory molecular pathologic epidemiology survival analysis, there was no significant interaction between one

  16. The association of alcohol intake with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels: Evidence for correlated genetic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J.H.D.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Sinke, M.R.T.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Lubke, G.H.; Kluft, C.; Neuteboom, J.; Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are used as a marker for (heavy) alcohol use. The role of GGT in the anti-oxidant defense mechanism that is part of normal metabolism supposes a causal effect of alcohol intake on GGT. However, there is variability in the response of GGT

  17. Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor 1 reduces vulnerability to chronic alcohol intake-induced cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction: role of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Li, Qun; Turdi, Subat; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels are closely associated with cardiac performance although the role of IGF-1 in alcoholic cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of severe liver IGF-1 deficiency (LID) on chronic alcohol-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) dysfunction. Adult male C57 and LID mice were placed on a 4% alcohol diet for 15 weeks. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time-to-relengthening (TR(90) ), change in fura-fluorescence intensity (ΔFFI) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay. Levels of apoptotic regulators caspase-3, Bcl-2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), the ethanol metabolizing enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), as well as the cellular fuel gauge AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated. Chronic alcohol intake enlarged myocyte cross-sectional area, reduced PS, ± dL/dt and ΔFFI as well as prolonged TR(90) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay, the effect of which was greatly attenuated by IGF-1 deficiency. The beneficial effect of LID against alcoholic cardiac mechanical defect was ablated by IGF-1 replenishment. Alcohol intake increased caspase-3 activity/expression although it down-regulated Bcl-2, ALDH2 and pAMPK without affecting JNK and AMPK. IGF-1 deficiency attenuated alcoholism-induced responses in all these proteins with the exception of Bcl-2. In addition, the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside abrogated short-term ethanol incubation-elicited cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Taken together, these data suggested that IGF-1 deficiency may reduce the sensitivity to ethanol-induced myocardial mechanical dysfunction. Our data further depicted a likely role of Caspase-3, ALDH2 and AMPK activation in IGF-1 deficiency induced 'desensitization' of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. © 2011 The

  18. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  19. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-02-02

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.

  20. Trends in energy intake from alcoholic beverages by socio-demographic characteristics among US adults, 1989–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. Objective This study examines shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. Design This study was a repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from the 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; 2003–2006 and 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants/setting Adults ≥19 years (N = 39,298); a subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n = 7,081) were studied. Statistical analyses performed Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and non-consumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Results Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/cap/d in 1989–1991 to 109 kcal/cap/d in 2003–2006 (pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989–1991 to 2009–2012 (p for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 (pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. Conclusions These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day, and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. PMID:27132721

  1. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  3. Treatment of co-occurring food avoidance and alcohol use disorder in an adult: Possible avoidant restrictive food intake disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Eloisa; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-04-01

    This case report details the presentation and treatment of a 42-year-old male self-presenting for treatment who reported having been a restrictive eater since childhood; since adolescence he had failed to meet appropriate nutritional intake with one meal at night followed by around 10-20 standard alcoholic drinks. Ten sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy were offered emphasizing the need to adhere to regular eating patterns in conjunction with significant reduction of binge drinking. At the end of treatment, and 1-month follow-up, improvements in nutritional intake and alcohol intake were observed, accompanied by improvements in depression, anxiety, and stress. However, excessive alcohol intake had reoccurred at 3-month follow-up, accompanied by increases in negative affect and impairment due to eating, indicating that longer-term therapy may be required for this group of people. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pulque intake during pregnancy and lactation in rural Mexico: alcohol and child growth from 1 to 57 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, J R; Goodman, A H; Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    2004-12-01

    To examine maternal intake of a mildly alcoholic beverage (pulque) during pregnancy and lactation, and its potential effect on postpartum child growth and attained size. A prospective cohort study that followed mothers (during pregnancy and lactation) and their offspring (from birth to approximately 57 months of age). Six villages in rural, central Mexico. Subjects are 58 mother-child pairs. Pulque intake was measured as part of a dietary assessment that was conducted for 2days/month during pregnancy and early lactation. Most mothers consumed pulque during pregnancy (69.0%) and lactation (72.4%). Among pulque drinkers, the average ethanol intake was 125.1 g/week during pregnancy and 113.8 g/week during lactation. Greater pulque intake during lactation, independent of intake during pregnancy, was associated with slower weight and linear growth from 1 to 57 months, and smaller attained size at 57 months. Low-to-moderate pulque intake during pregnancy, in comparison to either nonconsumption or heavy intake, was also associated with greater stature at 57 months. Pulque intake during lactation may have adversely influenced postnatal growth in this population. Public health interventions are urgently needed in Mexico to reduce heavy intake of pulque by pregnant and lactating women, and to replace intake with foods that provide the vitamins and minerals present in the traditional alcoholic beverage.

  5. Tolerance to disulfiram induced by chronic alcohol intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, María Elena; Israel, Yedy

    2008-06-01

    Disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase used in the treatment of alcoholism, is an effective medication when its intake is supervised by a third person. However, its therapeutic efficacy varies widely, in part due to the fact that disulfiram is a pro-drug that requires its transformation into an active form and because it shows a wide range of secondary effects which often prevent the use of doses that ensure full therapeutic effectiveness. In this preclinical study in rats we report the development of tolerance to disulfiram induced by the chronic ingestion of ethanol, an additional source of variation for the actions of disulfiram with possible therapeutic significance, We also addresses the likely mechanism of this effect. Wistar-derived rats bred for generations as high ethanol drinkers (UChB) were trained for either 3 days (Group A) or 30 days (Group B) to choose between ethanol (10% v/v) or water, which were freely available from 2 bottles on a 24-hour basis. Subsequently, animals in both groups were administered disulfiram or cyanamide (another inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase) and ethanol intake in this free choice paradigm was determined. Animals were also administered a standard dose of 1 g ethanol/kg (i.p) and arterial blood acetaldehyde was measured. Disulfiram (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) and cyanamide (10 mg/kg) markedly inhibited ethanol intake (up to 60 to 70%) in animals that had ethanol access for only 3 days (Group A). However both drugs were inactive in inhibiting ethanol intake in animals that had consumed ethanol for 30 days (Group B). Following the injection of 1 g ethanol/kg, arterial blood acetaldehyde levels reached levels of 150 and 300 microM for disulfiram and cyanamide respectively, values which were virtually identical regardless of the length of prior ethanol intake of the animals. Chronic ethanol intake in high-drinker rats leads to marked tolerance to the aversive effects of disulfiram and cyanamide on ethanol intake despite

  6. Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Erin E; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sisson, Joseph H; Lindberg, Sarah M; Connett, John E; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates. Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk.

  7. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon D Klein

    Full Text Available Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  8. A snapshot of the hepatic transcriptome: ad libitum alcohol intake suppresses expression of cholesterol synthesis genes in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathon D; Sherrill, Jeremy B; Morello, Gabriella M; San Miguel, Phillip J; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼ 7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake.

  9. Environmental enrichment may protect against neural and behavioural damage caused by withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use. The environmental enrichment (EE) has a protective effect on the neural and cognitive impairments induced by psychoactive drugs, including ethyl alcohol. The present study aims to determine the influence of withdrawal from intermittent long-term alcohol exposure on alcohol preference, emotional reactivity and neural aspects of early isolated or grouped reared rats kept under standard or complex environments and the influence of social isolation on these measures, as well. Our results point out new insights on this matter showing that the EE can attenuate the adverse effects of withdrawal and social isolation on rat's behavior. This effect is probably due to its protective action on the mPFC integrity, including the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), and the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortex (IL), what could account for the absence of changes in the emotional reactivity in EE alcohol withdrawal rats. We argue that morphological changes at these cortical levels can afford the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysregulations verified following withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence of the Impact of Diet, Fluid Intake, Caffeine, Alcohol and Tobacco on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Catherine S; Erickson, Bradley A; Messersmith, Emily E; Pelletier-Cameron, Anne; Lai, H Henry; Kreder, Karl J; Yang, Claire C; Merion, Robert M; Bavendam, Tamara G; Kirkali, Ziya

    2017-11-01

    Diet, fluid intake and caffeine, alcohol and tobacco use may have effects on lower urinary tract symptoms. Constructive changes in these modifiable nonurological factors are suggested to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. To better understand the relationship between nonurological factors and lower urinary tract symptoms, we performed a systematic literature review to examine, grade and summarize reported associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and diet, fluid intake and caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use. We performed PubMed® searches for eligible articles providing evidence on associations between 1 or more nonurological factors and lower urinary tract symptoms. A modified Oxford scale was used to grade the evidence. We reviewed 111 articles addressing diet (28 studies), fluid intake (21) and caffeine (21), alcohol (26) and tobacco use (44). The evidence grade was generally low (6% level 1, 24% level 2, 11% level 3 and 59% level 4). Fluid intake and caffeine use were associated with urinary frequency and urgency in men and women. Modest alcohol use was associated with decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosis and reduced lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and ingestion of certain foods and tobacco were inconsistent. Evidence of associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and diet, fluid intake and caffeine, alcohol and tobacco use is sparse and mostly observational. However, there is evidence of associations between increased fluid and caffeine intake and urinary frequency/urgency, and between modest alcohol intake and decreased benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosis and lower urinary tract symptoms. Given the importance of these nonurological factors in daily life, and their perceived impact on lower urinary tract symptoms, higher quality evidence is needed. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p. for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways were examined.Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2 (*-. Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF.Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  12. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-18

    Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2) (*-). Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  13. Influence of long-term intake of alcohol on computed tomography. Chronic alcoholics and habitual drinkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Hirosuke; Kato, Iwao; Watanabe, Eiiti [Watanabe Hospital, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1983-08-01

    CT findings of the head in 120 chronic alcoholics aged 30 to 69 yrs. were compared with those of 93 controls matched in age. The patient group showed a definitely higher incidence of dilatation of the brain surface and the ventricular system. The dilatation in the patients had no preferred site, both the brain surface and ventricular system being affected in most cases. In the patients no constant relation was noted between CT findings and the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, intellectual impairement, hepatic dysfunction or malnutrition. CT abnormality was not always reflected on EEG in the patients. The reversibility of abnormal CT could not be confirmed. CT findings of habitual drinkers (35 subjects in their 50s) living with no social or familial trouble were compared with those of non-drinkers (35 subjects in the same generation). The incidence of dilatation of various regions and the frequency of such cases in the habitual drinkers were definitely higher than those of the non-drinkers.

  14. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, Harvey; Powers, Karen; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D

    2002-04-15

    A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption.

  15. Alcoholic beverage intake and risk of lung cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Slezak, Jeff M; Caan, Bette J; Quinn, Virginia P

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on the risk of lung cancer using the California Men's Health Study. The California Men's Health Study is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men ages 45 to 69 years who are members of the Kaiser Permanente California health plans. Demographics and detailed lifestyle characteristics were collected from surveys mailed between 2000 and 2003. Incident lung cancer cases were identified by health plan cancer registries through December 2006 (n=210). Multivariable Cox's regression was used to examine the effects of beer, red wine, white wine (including rosé), and liquor consumption on risk of lung cancer adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema, and smoking history. There was a significant linear decrease in risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of red wine among ever-smokers: hazard ratio (HR), 0.98; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.96-1.00 for increase of 1 drink per month. This relationship was slightly stronger among heavy smokers (>or=20 pack-years): HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00. When alcoholic beverage consumption was examined by frequency of intake, consumption of >or=1 drink of red wine per day was associated with an approximately 60% reduced lung cancer risk in ever-smokers: HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.14-1.08. No clear associations with lung cancer were seen for intake of white wine, beer, or liquor. Moderate red wine consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for confounders. Our results should not be extrapolated to heavy alcohol consumption.

  16. Dopamine release dynamics change during adolescence and after voluntary alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palm

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with high impulsivity and risk taking, making adolescent individuals more inclined to use drugs. Early drug use is correlated to increased risk for substance use disorders later in life but the neurobiological basis is unclear. The brain undergoes extensive development during adolescence and disturbances at this time are hypothesized to contribute to increased vulnerability. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use and addiction involve long-lasting changes in neural networks including a shift from the nucleus accumbens, mediating acute reinforcing effects, to recruitment of the dorsal striatum and habit formation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of increased dopamine release after a pharmacological challenge in adolescent rats. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and uptake was investigated using chronoamperometric dopamine recordings in combination with a challenge by amphetamine in early and late adolescent rats and in adult rats. In addition, the consequences of voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence on these effects were investigated. The data show a gradual increase of evoked dopamine release with age, supporting previous studies suggesting that the pool of releasable dopamine increases with age. In contrast, a gradual decrease in evoked release with age was seen in response to amphetamine, supporting a proportionally larger storage pool of dopamine in younger animals. Dopamine measures after voluntary alcohol intake resulted in lower release amplitudes in response to potassium-chloride, indicating that alcohol affects the releasable pool of dopamine and this may have implications for vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric diagnoses involving dopamine in the dorsal striatum.

  17. Effects of sample attrition in a longitudinal study of the association between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Johansen, Christoffer; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    of this study were to characterize participants who dropped out and to evaluate whether the missing information influenced the association between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality. Design and participants Data on the 18 974 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, with four measures of alcohol...... intake and other life-style factors during 28 years of follow-up, were linked with nation-wide registers on socio-economic covariates, mortality and disease incidence. Logistic regression was used to describe life-style and socio-economic determinants of attrition, and Poisson regression was used...

  18. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development......, the data of calculated daily macro- and micronutrient intake do not suggest any explicit influence of gender-specific nutrition in the development of ALD....

  19. Alcohol intake alters immune responses and promotes CNS viral persistence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Taylor, Jonathan; Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K; Huang, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to progressive liver disease and is associated with a variety of extrahepatic effects, including central nervous system (CNS) damage and neuropsychiatric impairments. Alcohol abuse can exacerbate these adverse effects on brain and behavior, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of alcohol in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a model for HCV infections in humans. Female and male BALB/c mice (n=94) were exposed to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) and water (or water only) using a two-bottle choice paradigm, followed one week later by infection with either LCMV clone 13 (causes chronic infection similar to chronic HCV), LCMV Armstrong (causes acute infection), or vehicle. Mice were monitored for 60days post-infection and continued to receive 24-h access to EtOH and water. Animals infected with LCMV clone 13 drank more EtOH, as compared to those with an acute or no viral infection. Six weeks after infection with LCMV clone 13, mice with EtOH exposure evidenced higher serum viral titers, as compared to mice without EtOH exposure. EtOH intake was also associated with reductions in virus-specific CD8(+) T cell frequencies (particularly CD11a(hi) subsets) and evidence of persistent CNS viremia in chronically infected mice. These findings support the hypothesis that EtOH use and chronic viral infection can result in combined toxic effects accelerating CNS damage and neuropsychiatric dysfunction and suggest that examining the role of EtOH in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with LCMV can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of comorbid alcohol use disorder and chronic viral infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Glycyl-glutamine in nucleus accumbens reduces ethanol intake in alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Garth E; Shridharani, Shyam; Millington, William R; Garris, David R; Simpson, C Wayne

    2005-10-05

    Opioid peptides and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) have been implicated in the control of ethanol consumption. A recognized beta-endorphin cleavage product, Gly-Gln, inhibits voluntary alcohol consumption when microinjected into the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) of P rats. To evaluate the site-specific efficacy of Gly-Gln on ethanol consumption following AcbSh application, ethanol preferring (P) rats were allowed to establish individual baseline ethanol/water consumption utilizing a voluntary self-administration paradigm. Subsequent to baseline ethanol consumption being established, bilateral guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted +1 mm dorsal to the AcbSh for subsequent Gly-Gln (100 nmol/microl) or saline vehicle (1 microl) injections. Alcohol intake, body weight, and water intake were measured at 24 h post-injection intervals. Unilateral Gly-Gln injections reduced ethanol consumption 35.6% (P < 0.05) from pre-established baseline consumption (6.24 +/- 0.64 g/kg to 4.06 +/- 0.28 g/kg). Bilateral Gly-Gln injections further reduced consumption to 51.9% (6.4 +/- 1.0 g/kg to 3.08 +/- 0.65 g/kg at 24 h (P < 0.01) below established baseline values within 24 h without significant changes in body weight or water consumption. Also, the amino acid constituents of the dipeptide had no influence on ethanol consumption behavior; however, Gly-Gln efficacy was shown to be comparable to central beta-endorphin-(1-27) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone-induced suppression of ethanol intake. These data indicate that the AcbSh exhibits a site-specific sensitivity to the suppressive actions of Gly-Gln or beta-endorphin-(1-27) injections that modulate voluntary ethanol consumption in P rats. These findings support the broader concept that select forebrain opioid-responsive neural sites may influence the development or expression of alcohol abuse syndromes in animal models or humans.

  1. Alcohol Intake Increases in Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice during Intermittent Cycles of Phase-Delayed, Long-Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gamsby

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to “social jetlag”, a state of circadian desynchrony (CD, in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod. In Experiment 1, CD produced a small but significant increase in the total alcohol intake per day as well as in intake in bouts, with the greatest increase over controls in the hours following the 6HR dark period. Additionally, the pattern of alcohol intake in bouts shifted to increase alcohol intake during the shorter dark period. In Experiment 2, the opposite effect occurred—the longer dark cycle led to lower alcohol drinking in the second half of the dark period. However, in Experiment 2, CD produced no significant changes in either total alcohol intake or alcohol intake in bouts. Conclusion: shifts in the light cycle that disrupt the regular pattern of day and night, and increase the length of the night phase, are sufficient to increase both drinking in bouts and restricted drinking in adolescent mice, modeling increased alcohol intake in adolescents during CD.

  2. Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Light to moderate alcohol intake lowers the risk of cardiovascular mortality, but whether this protective effect can be attributed to a specific type of beverage remains unclear. Moreover, little is known about the effects of long-term alcohol intake on life expectancy. Methods: The

  3. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Complex interactions between the subject factors of biological sex and prior histories of binge-drinking and unpredictable stress influence behavioral sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Sema G; Guzelian, Eugenie; Palmer, Mason A; Martin, Douglas L; Kim, Jennifer; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-10

    Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking. In Experiment 1, female mice were insensitive to the UCMS-induced increase in ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake under continuous alcohol-access. Experiment 2 revealed interactions between ethanol dose and sex (females>males), binge-drinking history (water>ethanol), and UCMS history (UCMS>controls), with no additive effect of a sequential prior history of both binge drinking and UCMS observed. We also observed an interaction between UCMS history and sex for righting recovery. UCMS history potentiated subsequent binge-drinking in water controls of both sexes and in male binge-drinking mice. Conversely, a prior binge-drinking history increased subsequent ethanol intake in females only, irrespective of prior UCMS history. In Experiment 3, a concurrent history of binge-drinking and UCMS did not alter ethanol intake, nor did it influence the ethanol dose-locomotor response function, but it did augment alcohol-induced sedation and reduced subsequent alcohol intake over that produced by binge-drinking alone. Thus, the subject factors of biological sex, prior stressor history and prior binge-drinking history interact in complex ways in mice to impact sensitivity to alcohol's motor-stimulating, -incoordinating and intoxicating effects, as well as to influence subsequent heavy drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  7. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  8. Five year change in alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie K; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    cancer of 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.23) and 1.29 (1.07 to 1.55), respectively, compared to women with stable intake, and adjusted for age, education, body mass index, smoking, Mediterranean diet score, parity, number of births, and hormone replacement therapy. For coronary heart disease......, corresponding hazard ratios were 0.89 (0.81 to 0.97) and 0.78 (0.64 to 0.95), respectively, adjusted for age, education, body mass index, Mediterranean diet score, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and diabetes. Results among women who reduced their alcohol intake over the five......-2012. PARTICIPANTS: 21 523 postmenopausal women who participated in the Diet, Cancer, and Health Study in two consecutive examinations in 1993-98 and 1999-2003. Information on alcohol intake was obtained from questionnaires completed by participants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of breast cancer, coronary heart...

  9. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  10. Recommendations regarding dietary intake and caffeine and alcohol consumption in patients with cardiac arrhythmias: what do you tell your patients to do or not to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Kathryn A; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2012-10-01

    The etiology of arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation is multifactorial. Most arrhythmias are associated with comorbid illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, or advanced age. Although it is tempting to blame a stimulant like caffeine as a trigger for arrhythmias, the literature does not support this idea. There is no real benefit to having patients with arrhythmias limit their caffeine intake. Caffeine is a vasoactive substance that also may promote the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, acute ingestion of caffeine (as coffee or tea) does not cause atrial fibrillation. Even patients suffering a myocardial infarction do not have an increased incidence of ventricular or other arrhythmias after ingesting several cups of coffee. Large epidemiologic studies have also failed to find a connection between the amount of coffee/caffeine used and the development of arrhythmias. As such, it does not make sense to suggest that patients with palpitations, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or supraventricular tachycardia, abstain from caffeine use. Energy drinks are a new phenomenon on the beverage market, with 30-50 % of young adults and teens using them regularly. Energy drinks are loaded with caffeine, sugar, and other chemicals that can stimulate the cardiac system. There is an increasing body of mainly anecdotal case reports describing arrhythmias or even sudden death triggered by exercise plus using energy drinks. Clearly, there must be more study in this area, but it is wise to either limit or avoid their use in patients with arrhythmias. Moderate to heavy alcohol use seems to be associated with the development of atrial fibrillation. The term "holiday heart" was coined back in 1978, to describe patients who had atrial fibrillation following binge alcohol use. Thus, it is reasonable to recommend to patients with arrhythmias that they limit their alcohol use, although unfortunately this treatment will likely not completely resolve their

  11. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    , a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1...... not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load.......Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  12. The Adolescent's Competency for Interacting with Alcohol as a Determinant of Intake: The Role of Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesús; Cubero, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Amate, Mari Carmen; Peralta, Francisco J.; Garzón, Angélica; Fiz Pérez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The competency for interacting with alcohol is a highly useful Educational Psychology model for preventing and for understanding the different behavioral levels of this interaction. Knowledge of facts, concepts and principles about alcohol use, self-regulated behavior, and attitudes toward alcohol are predictive of adequate interaction with alcohol. The objective of this study was to empirically evaluate this postulated relationship. A total of 328 Spanish adolescents participated, between the ages of 12 and 17. All were enrolled in 1st–4th year of compulsory secondary education, in the context of the ALADO Program for prevention of alcohol intake in adolescents. An ex post facto design was used, with inferential analyses and SEM analyses. Results show an interdependence relationship, with significant structural prediction between the behavioral levels defined and the level of alcohol intake, with principles, self-regulating control and attitudes carrying more weight. Analyses are presented, as are implications for psychoeducational intervention using preventive programs based on this competency model. PMID:29123492

  13. Individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake in rats: relationship with impulsivity, decision making and Pavlovian conditioned approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Flores Dourojeanni, Jacques P; de Git, Kathy C G; Baars, Annemarie M; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. This study aims to assess decision making, impulsivity, and Pavlovian-conditioned approach in rats that voluntarily consume low (LD) or high (HD) amounts of alcohol. LD and HD were tested in the rat gambling task (rGT) or the delayed reward task (DRT). Next, the effect of alcohol (0-1.0 g/kg) was tested in these tasks. Pavlovian-conditioned approach (PCA) was assessed both prior to and after intermittent alcohol access (IAA). Principal component analyses were performed to identify relationships between the most important behavioral parameters. HD showed more optimal decision making in the rGT. In the DRT, HD transiently showed reduced impulsive choice. In both LD and HD, alcohol treatment increased optimal decision making in the rGT and increased impulsive choice in the DRT. PCA prior to and after IAA was comparable for LD and HD. When PCA was tested after IAA only, HD showed a more sign-tracking behavior. The principal component analyses indicated dimensional relationships between alcohol intake, impulsivity, and sign-tracking behavior in the PCA task after IAA. HD showed a more efficient performance in the rGT and DRT. Moreover, alcohol consumption enhanced approach behavior to reward-predictive cues, but sign-tracking did not predict the level of alcohol consumption. Taken together, these findings suggest that high levels of voluntary alcohol intake are associated with enhanced cue- and reward-driven behavior.

  14. Impact of Alcohol and Coffee Intake on the Risk of Advanced Liver Fibrosis: A Longitudinal Analysis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients (ANRS HEPAVIH CO-13 Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issifou Yaya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coffee intake has been shown to modulate both the effect of ethanol on serum GGT activities in some alcohol consumers and the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis in some patients with chronic diseases. This study aimed to analyze the impact of coffee intake and alcohol consumption on advanced liver fibrosis (ALF in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Methods: ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH is a French, nationwide, multicenter cohort of HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data including alcohol and coffee consumption were prospectively collected using annual self-administered questionnaires during five years of follow-up. Mixed logistic regression models were performed, relating coffee intake and alcohol consumption to ALF. Results: 1019 patients were included. At the last available visit, 5.8% reported high-risk alcohol consumption, 27.4% reported high coffee intake and 14.5% had ALF. Compared with patients with low coffee intake and high-risk alcohol consumption, patients with low coffee intake and low-risk alcohol consumption had a lower risk of ALF (aOR (95% CI 0.24 (0.12–0.50. In addition, patients with high coffee intake had a lower risk of ALF than the reference group (0.14 (0.03–0.64 in high-risk alcohol drinkers and 0.11 (0.05–0.25 in low-risk alcohol drinkers. Conclusions: High coffee intake was associated with a low risk of liver fibrosis even in HIV-HCV co-infected patients with high-risk alcohol consumption.

  15. Sex difference in the interaction of alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus on the risk of cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Stroffolini

    Full Text Available The joint effect of the interaction of alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV on the risk of cirrhosis is still unexplored because a large sample size is required for this investigation.Evaluation of interaction of HBV, HCV and alcohol abuse on the risk of cirrhosis.We analysed 12,262 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease of various aetiologies referring to 95 Italian liver units in 2001 or 2014. To evaluate the interaction between alcohol abuse, HBV infection, and HCV infection, patients unexposed to either factors were used as reference category. Adjustment for BMI and age was done by multiple logistic regression analysis.Females were older than males (p<0.01 and less frequently showed HBV and alcoholic aetiology (p<0.01. In both sexes, an overtime increasing age and an increasing proportion of subjects with liver cirrhosis was observed, reflecting a better survival (0.01. An additive interaction is observed in females: the O.R. generated by the simultaneous presence of HBV, HCV, and alcohol (5.09; 95% C.I. 1.06-24.56 exceeds the sum (4.14 of the O.R. generated by a single exposure (O.R. = 0.72 for HBsAg positivity, OR = 1.34 for anti-HCV positivity, and O.R. = 2.08 for alcohol intake. No interaction is observed in male sex.The observed gender difference suggests that the simultaneous presence of HBV/HCV coinfection and risky alcohol intake enhances the mechanism of liver damage to a greater extent in females than in males.

  16. Alcohol and malnutrition in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M A

    1980-02-01

    In this study, the morphology and the catecholamine levels of the myocardium in both well-nourished and malnourished alcohol-fed rats were examined. Alcohol has been administered to rats for 16 weeks. Rats fed a diet containing alcohol corresponding to 40 per cent. of total calorific intake and inadequate amounts of calories and nutrients developed morphological changes in the heart, while the controls did not. In addition, an increase in cardiac noradrenaline concentration and heart: body weight ratio could be observed. There were no differences in myocardial morphology and catecholamine concentration between well-nourished rats fed alcohol as 35 per cent. of the calorific intake and pair-fed controls. A dispute exists about whether alcohol is directly toxic to the heart or indirectly injurious due to associated dietary deficiency. The present results, taken together, make the theory of cardiotoxicity of alcohol an unlikely one, at least in the case of the rat; and they offer considerable support for the hypothesis that the association between chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages and cardiomyopathy is a result of a primary multifactorial nutritional deficiency, resulting from displacement of nutrient-associated calories by the "empty" calories--devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals--of alcohol, and/or a secondary nutritional deficiency due to injurious effects of alcohol on the liver, pancreas and intestine. It is suggested that continued exposure to high levels of catecholamine, directly related to malnutrition, may play a role in the development of myocardial pathology.

  17. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  18. Acute Effect of Alcohol Intake on Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation During the First Hours of Sleep in a Large Real-World Sample of Finnish Employees: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Julia; Helander, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka; Myllymäki, Tero; Kujala, Urho M; Lindholm, Harri

    2018-03-16

    Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees. From a larger cohort, this study included 4098 subjects (55.81%, 2287/4098 females; mean age 45.1 years) who had continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recordings of good quality for at least 1 day with and for at least 1 day without alcohol intake. The participants underwent continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recording during their normal everyday life and self-reported their alcohol intake as doses for each day. Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and HRV-derived indices of physiological state from the first 3 hours of sleep were used as outcomes. Within-subject analyses were conducted in a repeated measures manner by studying the differences in the outcomes between each participant's days with and without alcohol intake. For repeated measures two-way analysis of variance, the participants were divided into three groups: low (≤0.25 g/kg), moderate (>0.25-0.75 g/kg), and high (>0.75 g/kg) intake of pure alcohol. Moreover, linear models studied the differences in outcomes with respect to the amount of alcohol intake and the participant's background parameters (age; gender; body mass index, BMI; physical activity, PA; and baseline sleep HR). Alcohol intake was dose-dependently associated with increased sympathetic regulation, decreased parasympathetic regulation, and insufficient recovery. In addition to moderate and high alcohol doses, the

  19. Chronic alcohol intake during adolescence, but not adulthood, promotes persistent deficits in risk-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Abigail G; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Clark, Jeremy J

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is a major public health concern and is strongly correlated with the development of alcohol abuse problems in adulthood. Adolescence is characterized by maturation and remodeling of brain regions implicated in decision making and therefore may be uniquely vulnerable to environmental insults such as alcohol exposure. We have previously demonstrated that voluntary alcohol consumption in adolescence results in maladaptive risk-based decision making in adulthood. However, it is unclear whether this effect on risk-based decision making can be attributed to chronic alcohol use in general or to a selective effect of alcohol use during the adolescent period. Ethanol (EtOH) was presented to adolescent (postnatal day [PND] 30 to 49) and adult rats (PND 80 to 99) for 20 days, either 24 hours or 1 h/d, in a gel matrix consisting of distilled water, gelatin, polycose (10%), and EtOH (10%). The 24-hour time course of EtOH intake was measured and compared between adolescent and adult animals. Following 20 days of withdrawal from EtOH, we assessed risk-based decision making with a concurrent instrumental probability-discounting task. Blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) were taken from trunk blood and assessed using the Analox micro-stat GM7 in separate groups of animals at different time points. Unlike animals exposed to EtOH during adolescence, animals exposed to alcohol during adulthood did not display differences in risk preference compared to controls. Adolescent and adult rats displayed similar EtOH intake levels and patterns when given either 24- or 1-hour access per day. In addition, while both groups reached significant BEC levels, we failed to find a difference between adult and adolescent animals. Here, we show that adolescent, but not adult, EtOH intake leads to a persistent increase in risk preference which cannot be attributed to differences in intake levels or BECs attained. Our findings support previous work implicating adolescence as a time

  20. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (pbiochemistry. Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect of alcohol intake on AST. HBV infection was slightly associated with ALP but not with other liver biochemistry parameters.

  1. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  2. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schafer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development...... of ALD in animal experiments, the hypothesis of the present retrospective cross-sectional study was that gender-dependent (micro-) nutrient intake in patients with ALD may cause the higher susceptibility of women to this disease. Methods: In 210 patients (male: 158, female: 52) with different stages...

  3. Prospective study of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy or lactation and risk of childhood asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; DeRoo, Lisa A; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J

    2014-04-01

    Many women drink during pregnancy and lactation despite recommendations to abstain. In animals, alcohol exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences lung and immune development, plausibly increasing risk of asthma and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Studies in humans are few. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, we examined maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy and lactation in relation to risk of current asthma at 36 months (49,138 children), recurrent LRTIs by 36 months (39,791 children), and current asthma at 7 years (13,253 children). Mothers reported frequency and amount of alcohol intake each trimester and the first 3 months following delivery. We calculated adjusted relative risk (aRR), comparing children of drinkers to nondrinkers, using Generalized Linear Models. A total of 31.8% of mothers consumed alcohol during first trimester, 9.7% during second trimester, and 15.6% during third trimester. Infrequent and low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure showed a modest statistically significant inverse association with current asthma at 36 months (aRRs ~ 0.85). No association was seen with the highest alcohol intakes during the first trimester when alcohol consumption was most common. RRs of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy with recurrent LRTIs were ~1, with sporadic differences in risk for some metrics of intake, but without any consistent pattern. For current asthma at 7 years, similar inverse associations were seen as with current asthma at 36 months but were not statistically significant. Among children breastfed throughout the first 3 months of life, maternal alcohol intake during this time was not significantly associated with any of the 3 outcomes. The low levels of alcohol exposure during pregnancy or lactation observed in this cohort were not associated with increased risk of asthma or recurrent LRTIs. The slight inverse associations of infrequent or low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure with asthma may not be causal

  4. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  5. Caffeine and Alcohol Intakes and Overall Nutrient Adequacy Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Performance among U.S. Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628–1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  6. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Peripherally Circulating Ghrelin Does Not Mediate Alcohol‐Induced Reward and Alcohol Intake in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Ivanoff, Lisa; Vater, Axel; Engel, Jörgen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of alcohol dependence, a chronic and relapsing disease, largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. By elucidating the mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, novel treatment strategies may be developed. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, acts as an important regulator of energy balance. Recently ghrelin and its receptor were shown to mediate alcohol reward and to control alcohol consumption in...

  8. The combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Østergaard; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Schnohr, Peter

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on the risk of subsequent fatal ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort study of 11 914 Danes aged 20 years or older and without pre...... had the highest HR of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality within each category of weekly alcohol intake. Thus, the HR of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality were low among the physically active who had a moderate alcohol intake. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity and a moderate weekly...... alcohol intake are both important to lower the risk of fatal IHD and all-cause mortality....

  9. [Intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index: A national sample of Chilean school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Patricia; Cerecera, Francisco; Amigo, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI) in Chilean school children. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94) of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707). Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04-0.2;p=0.01). School children consume sugar-sweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.

  10. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of nociceptin/orphanin FQ increases food and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Carlo; Guerrini, Remo; Massi, Maurizio; Polidori, Carlo

    2006-11-01

    Central administration of low doses of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the opioid-like orphan receptor NOP, have been shown to reduce ethanol consumption, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior in alcohol preferring rats. The present study evaluated the effect of continuous (7 days) lateral brain ventricle infusions of N/OFQ (0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 8 microg/h), by means of osmotic mini-pumps, on 10% ethanol intake in Marchigian-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats provided 2h or 24h access to it. N/OFQ dose-dependently increased food intake in msP rats. On the other hand, in contrast to previous studies with acute injections, continuous lateral brain ventricle infusion of high doses of N/OFQ increased ethanol consumption when the ethanol solution was available for 24h/day or 2h/day. The present study demonstrates that continuous activation of the opioidergic N/OFQ receptor does not blunt the reinforcing effects of ethanol. Moreover, the data suggest that continuous activation of the opioidergic N/OFQ receptor is not a suitable way to reduce alcohol abuse.

  11. Concomitant intake of alcohol may increase the absorption of poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Jonas H; Sjögren, Erik; Bergström, Christel A S

    2015-01-25

    Ethanol can increase the solubility of poorly soluble and hence present a higher drug concentration in the gastrointestinal tract. This may produce a faster and more effective absorption resulting in variable and/or high drug plasma concentrations, both of which can lead to adverse drug reactions. In this work we therefore studied the solubility and absorption effects of nine diverse compounds when ethanol was present. The apparent solubility was measured using the μDiss Profiler Plus (pION, MA) in four media representing gastric conditions with and without ethanol. The solubility results were combined with in-house data on solubility in intestinal fluids (with and without ethanol) and pharmacokinetic parameters extracted from the literature and used as input in compartmental absorption simulations using the software GI-Sim. Apparent solubility increased more than 7-fold for non-ionized compounds in simulated gastric fluid containing 20% ethanol. Compounds with weak base functions (cinnarizine, dipyridamole and terfenadine) were completely ionized at the studied gastric pH and their solubility was therefore unaffected by ethanol. Compounds with low solubility in intestinal media and a pronounced solubility increase due to ethanol in the upper gastric compartments showed an increased absorption in the simulations. The rate of absorption of the acidic compounds indomethacin and indoprofen was slightly increased but the extent of absorption was unaffected as the complete doses were readily absorbed even without ethanol. This was likely due to a high apparent solubility in the intestinal compartment where the weak acids are ionized. The absorption of the studied non-ionizable compounds increased when ethanol was present in the gastric and intestinal media. These results indicate that concomitant intake of alcohol may significantly increase the solubility and hence, the plasma concentration for non-ionizable, lipophilic compounds with the potential of adverse drug

  12. 30 Year patterns of mortality in Tobago, West Indies, 1976-2005: impact of glucose intolerance and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Molokhia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the main predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV mortality in a rural West Indian population in Plymouth, Tobago over 30 years. METHODS: Questionnaire survey for CV risk factors and alcohol consumption patterns administered at baseline in 1976 with 92.5% response rate. 831/832 patients were followed up until 2005 or death. RESULTS: Hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg was prevalent in 48% of men and 44% of women, and 21% of men and 17% of women had diabetes. Evidence showed most predictors for all cause and cardiovascular mortality having the main effects at ages 160/95 mm Hg (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09-2.60, diabetes (HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.89-5.69, and BMI (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07. The main predictors of cardiovascular mortality were similar in the fully adjusted model: high sessional alcohol intake (HR 2.47 95% CI 1.10-5.57, severe hypertension (HR 2.78 95% CI 1.56-4.95, diabetes (HR 3.68 95% CI 1.77-7.67 and additionally LVH, (HR 5.54 95% CI 1.38-22.26, however BMI did not show independent effects. For men, high sessional alcohol intake explains 27% of all cause mortality, and 40% of cardiovascular mortality at age <60 yrs. In adults aged <60 years, the attributable risk fraction for IGT/Diabetes and all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality is 28% in women vs. 11% in men, and 22% in women vs. 6% in men respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this Afro-Caribbean population we found that a major proportion of deaths are attributable to high sessional alcohol intake (in males, diabetes, and hypertension and these risk factors primarily operate in those below 60 years.

  13. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braganza, M Z; Rajaraman, P; Park, Y; Inskip, P D; Freedman, N D; Hollenbeck, A R; de González, A Berrington; Kitahara, C M

    2014-01-07

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking increase the risk of several cancers and certain components of cigarette smoke and alcohol can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it remains unclear whether these exposures influence the risk of glioma. We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective study of 477,095 US men and women ages 50-71 years at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using models with age as the time metric and adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. During a median 10.5 person-years of follow-up, 492 men and 212 women were diagnosed with first primary glioma. Among men, current, heavier smoking was associated with a reduced risk of glioma compared with never smoking, but this was based on only nine cases. No associations were observed between smoking behaviours and glioma risk in women. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of glioma, particularly among men (>2 drinks per day vs Smoking and alcohol drinking do not appear to increase the risk of glioma.

  14. Prevention of autoimmune hypothyroidism by modifying iodine intake and the use of tobacco and alcohol is manoeuvring between Scylla and Charybdis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Pedersen, Inge Bülow

    2012-01-01

    iodine intake, smoking cessation and alcohol intake are all strong modifiers of risk that, combined, may influence risk by a factor of up to 30. Unfortunately, promotion of an environment leading to substantial lowering of the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (i.e. improvement of dietary iodine...... deficiency, decrease or cessation of smoking, and moderate alcohol intake) is not incorporated within current public health promoting programs. Nevertheless, it is increasingly becoming evident that knowledge of the importance of these factors for disease development is likely to assist in the planning...

  15. La influencia de la historia familiar de consumo de alcohol en hombres y mujeres The influence of family history on alcohol intake in males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Natera-Rey

    2001-02-01

    ; parental alcohol intake is a main risk factor for developing alcohol dependence syndrome. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  16. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    and methods. Ten participants were investigated on four occasions. On one alcohol was ingested; on another alcohol was given after pretreatment with sucralfate; on a third water was ingested; and on a fourth sucralfate was ingested followed by water. Serum hormones and ethanol concentrations were determined......Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...

  17. Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas; Brown, Jamie; Beard, Emma; Buykx, Penny; Michie, Susan; Drummond, Colin

    2018-03-25

    To compare the proportion of people in England with probable alcohol dependence [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥ 20] with those with other drinking patterns (categorized by AUDIT scores) in terms of motivation to reduce drinking and use of alcohol support resources. A combination of random probability and simple quota sampling to conduct monthly cross-sectional household computer-assisted interviews between March 2014 and August 2017. The general population in all nine regions of England. Participants in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS), a monthly household survey of alcohol consumption among people aged 16 years and over in England (n = 69 826). The mean age was 47 years [standard deviation (SD) = 18.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 46.8-47] and 51% (n = 35 560) were female. χ 2 tests were used to investigate associations with demographic variables, motivation to quit drinking, attempts to quit drinking, general practitioner (GP) engagement and types of support accessed in the last 12 months across AUDIT risk zones. A total of 0.6% were classified as people with probable alcohol dependence (95% CI = 0.5-0.7). Motivation to quit (χ 2  = 1692.27, P AUDIT risk zone. People with probable dependence were more likely than other ATS participants to have a past-year attempt to cut down or quit (51.8%) and have received a specialist referral from their GP about drinking (13.7%), and less likely to report no motivation to reduce their drinking (26.2%). Those with probable dependence had higher use of self-help books and mobile applications (apps) than other ATS participants; however, 27.7% did not access any resources during their most recent attempt to cut down. Adults in England with probable alcohol dependence, measured through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, demonstrate higher motivation to quit drinking and greater use of both specialist treatment and self-driven support compared with those in other

  18. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Hippe, M; Schnohr, P

    1998-01-01

    cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, diabetes, body mass index, height, alcohol intake, physical activity, and level of education. CONCLUSION: Women may be more sensitive than men to some of the harmful effects of smoking. Interactions between components of smoke and hormonal factors......OBJECTIVE: To compare risk of myocardial infarction associated with smoking in men and women, taking into consideration differences in smoking behaviour and a number of potential confounding variables. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up of myocardial infarction. SETTING: Pooled data...... from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen. SUBJECTS: 11,472 women and 13,191 men followed for a mean of 12.3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First admission to hospital or death caused by myocardial infarction. RESULTS: 1251 men and 512 women had a myocardial infarction during follow up...

  19. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Mary J; Weiner, Jeff L

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders have been linked to increased anxiety, and enhanced central noradrenergic signaling may partly explain this relationship. Pharmacological interventions believed to reduce the excitatory effects of norepinephrine have proven effective in attenuating ethanol intake in alcoholics as well as in rodent models of ethanol dependence. However, most preclinical investigations into the effectiveness of these drugs in decreasing ethanol intake have been limited to acute observations, and none have concurrently assessed their anxiolytic effects. The purpose of these studies was to examine the long-term effectiveness of pharmacological interventions presumed to decrease norepinephrine signaling on concomitant ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats with relatively high levels of antecedent anxiety-like behavior. Adult male Long-Evans rats self-administered ethanol on an intermittent access schedule for eight to ten weeks prior to being implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either an a1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (prazosin, 1.5 mg/kg/day), a β1/2-adrenoreceptor antagonist (propranolol, 2.5 mg/kg/day), a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (duloxetine, 1.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide). These drugs were continuously delivered across four weeks, during which animals continued to have intermittent access to ethanol. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze before treatment and again near the end of the drug delivery period. Our results indicate that chronic treatment with a low dose of prazosin or duloxetine significantly decreases ethanol self-administration (P chronic treatment with putative inhibitors of central noradrenergic signaling may attenuate ethanol intake via a reduction in anxiety-like behavior.

  20. Negative Affect and Excessive Alcohol Intake Incubate during Protracted Withdrawal from Binge-Drinking in Adolescent, But Not Adult, Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41 are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOHadolescents influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience. For additional comparison, adult mice (EtOHadults with comparable drinking history (PND56-69 were subdivided into groups tested for anxiety/drinking either on PND70 (24 h withdrawal or PND98 (28 days withdrawal. Tissue from the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA was examined by immunoblotting for changes in the expression of glutamate-related proteins. EtOHadults exhibited some signs of hyperanxiety during early withdrawal (PND70, but not during protracted withdrawal (PND98. In contrast, EtOHadolescents exhibited robust signs of anxiety-l and depressive-like behaviors when tested as adults on PND70. While all alcohol-experienced animals subsequently consumed more alcohol than mice drinking for the first time, alcohol intake was greatest in EtOHadolescents. Independent of drinking age, the manifestation of withdrawal-induced hyperanxiety was accompanied by reduced Homer2b expression within the CeA and increased Group1 mGlu receptor expression within the AcbSh. The present data provide novel evidence that binge-drinking during adolescence produces a state characterized by profound negative affect and excessive alcohol consumption that incubates with the passage of time in withdrawal. These data extend our prior studies on the

  1. Effects of Gabra2 Point Mutations on Alcohol Intake: Increased Binge-Like and Blunted Chronic Drinking by Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Emily L; Gunner, Georgia; Huynh, Polly; Gachette, Darrel; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G; Rudolph, Uwe; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABA A receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABA A receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABA A receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively. Social approach by mutant and Wt mice in forced alcohol abstinence was compared to approach by EtOH-naïve controls. Social deficits in forced abstinence were treated with allopregnanolone (0, 3.0, 10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) or midazolam (0, 0.56, 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice with BZD-insensitive α2-containing GABA A receptors (H101R) escalated their binge-like drinking. Mutants harboring the Q241M point substitution in Gabra2 showed blunted chronic intake in the CA and IA protocols. S270H/L277A mutants consumed excessive amounts of alcohol but, unlike wild-types, they did not show forced abstinence-induced social deficits. These findings suggest a role for: (i) H101 in species-typical binge-like drinking, (ii) Q241 in escalated chronic drinking, and (iii) S270 and/or L277 in the development of forced abstinence-associated social deficits. Clinical findings report reduced BZD-binding sites in the cortex of dependent patients; the present findings suggest a specific role for BZD-sensitive α2-containing receptors. In addition, amino acid residue 241 in Gabra2 is

  2. Associations between intakes of individual nutrients or whole food groups and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Mi; Jo, An Na; Lee, Seung Min; Bae, Hyun Suk; Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Ahn, Sang Bong; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Seong Woo; Jang, Eun Chul

    2014-06-01

    Dietary factors are closely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Asian and Western diets differ in energy-nutrient composition, fatty-acid composition, and main nutritional sources; therefore, the implications would be limited if the Western-oriented study results were applied to Asian patients. We aimed to identify the nutrient and food group intakes of a typical Asian diet and assess their effects on NAFLD risk. In total, 348 subjects were recruited from 5 participating hospitals. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors were obtained through face-to-face interviews. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Dietary intakes were assessed with a 24-h recall applying a multiple-pass approach and 4-day food records that included 1 or 2 weekend days. There were no significant differences in health-related behaviors between the cases and controls except for smoking behavior. The cases had elevated triacylglycerol, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the controls. In men, after adjusting for variables, low intakes of vitamin C (odds ratio [OR], 4.23), vitamin K (OR, 3.93), folate (OR, 3.37), omega-3 fatty acids (OR, 2.16), and nuts and seeds (OR, 3.66) were associated with a significantly higher risk for developing NAFLD. In women, vitamin K (OR, 2.54) and vegetable (OR, 4.11) intakes showed a significant beneficial effect for lowering NAFLD risk. Adequate intakes of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, nuts and seeds, and vegetables may help in preventing NAFLD in Korean adults.

  3. Intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index: A national sample of Chilean school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Araneda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the association between the intake of sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages and body mass index (BMI in Chilean school children. Materials and methods. Food consumption frequency data were analyzed for school children aged 6 to 18. The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI was estimated by multivariate lineal regression models. Results. Sugar-sweetened beverages are consumed on a daily basis by 92% (95%CI:90-94 of subjects with daily intake medians of 424 mL (p25-p75:212-707. Every extra daily portion of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed by school children aged 6 to 13 is associated with 0.13 BMI z-scores (95%CI:0.04- 0.2;p=0.01. Conclusions. School children consume sugarsweetened beverages daily with intake medians close to 0.5 L. There is an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and higher BMI in Chilean school children.

  4. Optical coherence tomography plaque characterization in a patient with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction after cocaine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Antonsen, L.; Jensen, L. O.

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year old man presented to the Emergency Department with malaise after cocaine intake. After arrival he developed retrosternal chest pain and the electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevations in V1-V2 and ST segment depressions in V5-V6. An acute coronary angiogram revealed a focal non...

  5. BMI status and intake of red meat, dietary fiber and alcohol in colorectal cancer patients prior to diagnosis : -an interim analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sebelien, Mari Bøe

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) can be modified by diet- and lifestyle related factors such as intake of red meat, dietary fiber and alcohol, as well as obesity. These risk factors may also increase the risk of recurrence, secondary cancers and comorbidity. The prevalence of obesity and the habitual diet of CRC patients directly prior to diagnosis is, however, not well characterized. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to characterize BMI and dietary intake of...

  6. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  7. Intake of beer, wine and spirits and risk of heavy drinking and alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, Morten; Jensen, Majken K; Johansen, Ditte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Becker, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirit drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy drinker or developing alcoholic cirrhosis differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages. In a longitudinal setting we found that both the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker (above 14 and 21 drinks per week for women and above 21 and 35 drinks per week for men) and the risk of developing alcoholic cirrhosis depended on the individuals preference of wine, beer or spirits. We conclude that moderate wine drinkers appear to be at lower risk of becoming heavy and excessive drinkers and that this may add to the explanation of the reported beverage-specific differences in morbidity and mortality.

  8. Intake of Beer, Wine and Spirits and Risk of Heavy Drinking and Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORTEN GRØNBÆK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirit drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy drinker or developing alcoholic cirrhosis differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages. In a longitudinal setting we found that both the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker (above 14 and 21 drinks per week for women and above 21 and 35 drinks per week for men and the risk of developing alcoholic cirrhosis depended on the individuals preference of wine, beer or spirits. We conclude that moderate wine drinkers appear to be at lower risk of becoming heavy and excessive drinkers and that this may add to the explanation of the reported beverage-specific differences in morbidity and mortality.

  9. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, U.; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The esti......In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks...

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  13. Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholized red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo -- results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenrod, W; Stockley, C S; Burcham, P; Abbey, M; Fenech, M

    2005-12-11

    Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, de-alcoholized red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of de-alcoholized red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R=-0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin.

  14. B vitamins, methionine and alcohol intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to BRAF mutation and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Giovannucci, Edward; Baba, Yoshifumi; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism appears to play an important role in DNA methylation reaction. Evidence suggests that a low intake of B vitamins or high alcohol consumption increases colorectal cancer risk. How one-carbon nutrients affect the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) or BRAF mutation status in colon cancer remains uncertain. Utilizing incident colon cancers in a large prospective cohort of women (the Nurses' Health Study), we determined BRAF status (N = 386) and CIMP status (N = 375) by 8 CIMP-specific markers [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1], and 8 other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT-1, MINT-31, p14, and WRN). We examined the relationship between intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol and colon cancer risk, by BRAF mutation or CIMP status. Higher folate intake was associated with a trend towards low risk of CIMP-low/0 tumors [total folate intake ≥400 µg/day vs. CIMP-high tumor risks (P(heterogeneity) = 0.73). Neither vitamin B(6), methionine or alcohol intake appeared to differentially influence risks for CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 tumors. Using the 16-marker CIMP panel did not substantially alter our results. B vitamins, methionine or alcohol intake did not affect colon cancer risk differentially by BRAF status. This molecular pathological epidemiology study suggests that low level intake of folate may be associated with an increased risk of CIMP-low/0 colon tumors, but not that of CIMP-high tumors. However, the difference between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 cancer risks was not statistically significant, and additional studies are necessary to confirm these observations.

  15. Alcohol intake in relation to non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING: A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospecti...

  16. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mansouri, Shamma; Ojha, Shreesh; Al Maamari, Elyazia; Al Ameri, Mouza; Nurulain, Syed M; Bahi, Amine

    2014-09-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that brain CB2 cannabinoid receptors play a major role in alcohol reward. In fact, the implication of cannabinoid neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH) is becoming increasingly evident. The CB2 receptor agonist, β-caryophyllene (BCP) was used to investigate the role of the CB2 receptors in mediating alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) and sensitivity in mice. The effect of BCP on alcohol intake was evaluated using the standard two-bottle choice drinking method. The mice were presented with increasing EtOH concentrations and its consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was measured following the EtOH preference tests. Finally, the effect of BCP on alcohol reward and sensitivity was tested using an unbiased EtOH-CPP and loss of righting-reflex (LORR) procedures, respectively. BCP dose-dependently decreased alcohol consumption and preference. Additionally, BCP-injected mice did not show any difference from vehicle mice in total fluid intake in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded concentrations of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the CB2 receptor activation did not alter taste function. More importantly, BCP inhibited EtOH-CPP acquisition and exacerbated LORR duration. Interestingly, these effects were abrogated when mice were pre-injected with a selective CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Overall, the CB2 receptor system appears to be involved in alcohol dependence and sensitivity and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fenofibrate Administration Reduces Alcohol and Saccharin Intake in Rats: Possible Effects at Peripheral and Central Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivera-Meza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the administration of fenofibrate to high-drinker UChB rats markedly reduces voluntary ethanol intake. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonist, which induces the proliferation of peroxisomes in the liver, leading to increases in catalase levels that result in acetaldehyde accumulation at aversive levels in the blood when animals consume ethanol. In these new studies, we aimed to investigate if the effect of fenofibrate on ethanol intake is produced exclusively in the liver (increasing catalase and systemic levels of acetaldehyde or there might be additional effects at central level. High drinker rats (UChB were allowed to voluntary drink 10% ethanol for 2 months. Afterward, a daily dose of fenofibrate (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (as control was administered orally for 14 days. Voluntary ethanol intake was recorded daily. After that time, animals were deprived of ethanol access for 24 h and administered with an oral dose of ethanol (1 g/kg for acetaldehyde determination in blood. Fenofibrate reduced ethanol voluntary intake by 60%, in chronically drinking rats, at the three doses tested. Acetaldehyde in the blood rose up to between 80 μM and 100 μM. Considering the reduction of ethanol consumption, blood acetaldehyde levels and body weight evolution, the better results were obtained at a dose of 50 mg fenofibrate/kg/day. This dose of fenofibrate also reduced the voluntary intake of 0.2% saccharin by 35% and increased catalase levels 2.5-fold in the liver but showed no effects on catalase levels in the brain. To further study if fenofibrate administration changes the motivational properties of ethanol, a conditioned-place preference experiment was carried out. Animals treated with fenofibrate (50 mg/kg/day did not develop ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP.In an additional experiment, chronically ethanol-drinking rats underwent two cycles of ethanol

  19. Aging, chronic alcohol consumption, and low folate intake are determinants of genomic DNA methylation in the liver and colon of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors in the development of colon and liver cancer. Both factors are known to be associated with altered DNA methylation. Inadequate folate intake can also derange biological methylation pathways. We investigated the effects of aging,...

  20. Interaction between ADH1C Arg272Gln and alcohol intake in relation to breast cancer risk suggests that ethanol is the causal factor in alcohol related breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon Larsen, Signe; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer. We wanted to determine if ADH polymorphisms which modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, were associated with breast cancer risk. We matched 809 postmenopausal breast cancer cases with 809 controls, nested within the prospective Diet......, Cancer and Health study. Among variant allele carriers of ADH1C Arg(272)Gln, alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 14% (95% CI: 1.04-1.24) per 10g alcohol/day, but not among homozygous wild type carriers (p for interaction=0.06). Thus, slow oxidation of ethanol seemed to be associated...

  1. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C Kobayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders.Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Kingston General Hospital of 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls, all with normal age-specific PSA levels (to exclude latent prostate cancers. Participants completed a questionnaire on folate and alcohol intakes and potential confounders prior to knowledge of diagnosis, eliminating recall bias, and blood was drawn for MTHFR genotyping. Joint effects of exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and significance of multiplicative and additive interactions using general linear models.Results: Folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, and the CT and TT genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The highest tertile of lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk (OR=2.08; 95% CI: 1.12-3.86. Consumption of >5 alcoholic drinks/week was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among men with low folate intake (OR=2.38; 95% CI: 1.01-5.57 and higher risk among those with the CC MTHFR genotype (OR=4.43; 95% CI: 1.15-17.05. Increased risk was also apparent for weekly alcohol consumption when accounting for the multiplicative interaction between folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype (OR=3.22; 95% CI: 1.36-7.59.Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and this association is stronger among men with low folate intake, with the CC MTHFR genotype, and when accounting for the joint effect of folate intake and MTHFR C

  2. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Limburg, Heather; Miao, Qun; Woolcott, Christy; Bedard, Leanne L.; Massey, Thomas E.; Aronson, Kristan J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Kingston General Hospital of 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls, all with normal age-specific PSA levels (to exclude latent prostate cancers). Participants completed a questionnaire on folate and alcohol intakes and potential confounders prior to knowledge of diagnosis, eliminating recall bias, and blood was drawn for MTHFR genotyping. Joint effects of exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and significance of multiplicative and additive interactions using general linear models. Results: Folate, vitamins B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , methionine, and the CT and TT genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The highest tertile of lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.12–3.86). Consumption of >5 alcoholic drinks per week was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among men with low folate intake (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.01–5.57), and higher risk among those with the CC MTHFR genotype (OR = 4.43; 95% CI: 1.15–17.05). Increased risk was also apparent for average weekly alcohol consumption when accounting for the multiplicative interaction between folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype (OR = 3.22; 95% CI: 1.36–7.59). Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and this association is stronger among men with low folate intake, with the CC MTHFR genotype, and when accounting for the joint effect

  3. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    used were not sophisticated enough to elucidate the pattern. Using a more advanced statistical approach (e.g., Canonical discriminitive analysis...corticotrophin-releasing factor in stress-induced relapse to alcohol- seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:317-324. Lex BW (1991) Some gender ...Prunell M, Dimitsantos V, Nadal R, Escorihuela RM (2006) Environmental enrichment effects in social investigation in rats are gender dependent

  4. Tolcapone suppresses ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats performing a novel cued access protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCane, Aqilah M; Czachowski, Cristine L; Lapish, Christopher C

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been shown to play a central role in regulating motivated behavior and encoding reward. Chronic drug abuse elicits a state of hypodopaminergia in the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system in both humans and preclinical rodent models of addiction, including those modeling alcohol use disorders (AUD). Working under the hypothesis that reductions in the bioavailability of DA play an integral role in the expression of the excessive drinking phenotype, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone was used as a means to amplify cortical DA concentration and drinking behaviors were then assessed. Sucrose and ethanol (EtOH) consumption were measured in P and Wistar rats in both a free choice drinking protocol and a novel cued access protocol. Tolcapone attenuated the consumption of EtOH, and to a lesser extent sucrose, in P rats in the cued access protocol, while no effect was observed in the free choice drinking protocol. Tolcapone also decreased EtOH consumption in high drinking Wistar rats. A follow-up experiment using the indirect DA agonist d-amphetamine showed no change in EtOH consumption. Collectively, these data suggest that COMT inhibitors may be capable of alleviating the extremely motivating or salient nature of stimuli associated with alcohol. The hypothesis is put forth that the relative specificity of tolcapone for cortical DA systems may mediate the suppression of the high seeking/drinking phenotype. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Repeated light-dark phase shifts modulate voluntary ethanol intake in male and female high alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2007-10-01

    Chronic disruption of sleep and other circadian biological rhythms, such as occurs in shift work or in frequent transmeridian travel, appears to represent a significant source of allostatic load, leading to the emergence of stress-related physical and psychological illness. Recent animal experiments have shown that these negative health effects may be effectively modeled by exposure to repeated phase shifts of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle. As chronobiological disturbances are thought to promote relapse in abstinent alcoholics, and may also be associated with increased risk of subsequent alcohol abuse in nonalcoholic populations, the present experiment was designed to examine the effects of repeated LD phase shifts on voluntary ethanol intake in rats. A selectively bred, high alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rat line was utilized to increase the likelihood of excessive alcoholic-like drinking. Male and female rats of the selectively bred HAD1 rat line were maintained individually under a LD 12:12 cycle with both ethanol (10% v/v) and water available continuously. Animals in the experimental group were subjected to repeated 6-hour LD phase advances at 3 to 4 week intervals, while control rats were maintained under a stable LD cycle throughout the study. Contact-sensing drinkometers were used to monitor circadian lick patterns, and ethanol and water intakes were recorded weekly. Control males showed progressively increasing ethanol intake and ethanol preference over the course of the study, but males exposed to chronic LD phase shifts exhibited gradual decreases in ethanol drinking. In contrast, control females displayed decreasing ethanol intake and ethanol preference over the course of the experiment, while females exposed to experimental LD phase shifts exhibited a slight increase in ethanol drinking. Chronic circadian desynchrony induced by repeated LD phase shifts resulted in sex-specific modulation of voluntary ethanol intake, reducing ethanol intake in males while

  6. Optical coherence tomography plaque characterization in a patient with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction after cocaine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Morten Steen Svarer; Antonsen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year old man presented to the Emergency Department with malaise after cocaine intake. After arrival he developed retrosternal chest pain and the electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevations in V1-V2 and ST segment depressions in V5-V6. An acute coronary angiogram revealed a focal non-occlusive lesion with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. Supplementary optical coherence tomography (OCT) detected plaque erosion with adherent thrombus to be the responsible underlying pathophysiological mechanism. The patient received an effective antithrombotic regimen. Repeat angiogram with additional OCT one month later documented thrombus resolution and complete restoration of the previously eroded coronary vascular surface area. - Highlights: • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize a coronary artery plaque. • OCT detected coronary plaque erosion in a young male with MI due to cocaine abuse. • OCT was used to document thrombus resolution.

  7. Optical coherence tomography plaque characterization in a patient with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction after cocaine intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Steen Svarer, E-mail: morten.steen.hansen2@rsyd.dk [Emergency Department, Kolding Hospital, Skovvangen 2-8, DK-6000 Kolding (Denmark); Antonsen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Lisette Okkels [Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, DK-5000 Odense (Denmark)

    2016-04-15

    A 28-year old man presented to the Emergency Department with malaise after cocaine intake. After arrival he developed retrosternal chest pain and the electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevations in V1-V2 and ST segment depressions in V5-V6. An acute coronary angiogram revealed a focal non-occlusive lesion with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. Supplementary optical coherence tomography (OCT) detected plaque erosion with adherent thrombus to be the responsible underlying pathophysiological mechanism. The patient received an effective antithrombotic regimen. Repeat angiogram with additional OCT one month later documented thrombus resolution and complete restoration of the previously eroded coronary vascular surface area. - Highlights: • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize a coronary artery plaque. • OCT detected coronary plaque erosion in a young male with MI due to cocaine abuse. • OCT was used to document thrombus resolution.

  8. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH in healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, red wine, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, E; Hauge, C; Sommer, P; Mortensen, T

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol causes gastroesophageal reflux and mucosal damage in the oesophagus and the stomach. The transmucosal electrical potential difference gives information on gastric mucosal integrity and function, while the validity of oesophageal measurements have been discussed. Baseline oesophageal potential difference measurements were performed three times with an interval of at least one week. We found oesophageal potential difference measurements reliable with an acceptable reproducibility. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH were measured by use of a new microelectrode principle in 10 healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, wine and alcohol. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml coca-cola, 250 ml 11 vol% red wine and 60 ml 43 vol% whisky. Gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml ethanol 11 vol% and 60 ml ethanol 43 vol%. Intake of red wine and whisky resulted in a significant greater gastric potential difference decrease compared to similar concentrations and volumes of ethanol. The time until the potential difference had regained baseline level was longer after intake of red wine compared to coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. Oesophageal pH decreased after intake of coca-cola and red wine, but was unchanged after whisky. Gastric pH was unchanged after intake of all the drinks. In conclusion, the gastric potential difference reduction was not correlated to alcohol concentration. Red wine seems to affect the gastric potential difference more than coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. The observed changes in oesophageal and gastric potential difference might be due to changes in Cl- secretion and/or due to a damaging effect of the additives of the beverages.

  9. Comparison of general health status, myocardial infarction, obesity, diabetes, and fruit and vegetable intake between immigrant Pakistani population in the Netherlands and the local Amsterdam population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-12-01

    South Asians living in Western countries have shown higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and related non-communicable diseases as compared to the local populations. The aim of this study was to compare the general health status and prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, high blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fruit and vegetable intake between Pakistani immigrants in the Netherlands and local Amsterdam population. A health survey was conducted in 2012-2013 among Pakistanis in the Netherlands. Results were compared with a health survey conducted among inhabitants of Amsterdam in 2012. One hundred and fifty-four Pakistanis from four big cities of the Netherlands and 7218 inhabitants of Amsterdam participated. The data for Amsterdam population were weighed on the basis of age, gender, city district, marital status, ethnicity and income level while the data for Pakistanis were weighed on the basis of age and gender to make both data-sets representative of their general population. Pakistanis reported a high prevalence of MI (3.3%), diabetes (11.4%), high blood pressure (14.4%), overweight (35.5%) and obesity (18.5%) while Amsterdam population reported the prevalence as 2.5% for MI, 6.8% for diabetes, 15.3% for high blood pressure, 28.1% for overweight and 11.1% for obesity. Pakistanis had a significantly higher level of MI (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.19-6.14), diabetes (OR = 4.41; 95% CI: 2.66-7.33) and obesity (OR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12) after controlling for age, sex and educational level with Amsterdam population as the reference group. Pakistanis showed a higher intake of fruit and fruit juice as compared to Amsterdam population though the latter showed a higher intake of cooked vegetables. Higher prevalence of MI, diabetes and obesity among Pakistanis than Amsterdam population indicates the need for health scientists and policy-makers to develop interventions for tackling non-communicable diseases and its determinants among

  10. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A simplified approach to estimating the distribution of occasionally-consumed dietary components, applied to alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Chernova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within-person variation in dietary records can lead to biased estimates of the distribution of food intake. Quantile estimation is especially relevant in the case of skewed distributions and in the estimation of under- or over-consumption. The analysis of the intake distributions of occasionally-consumed foods presents further challenges due to the high frequency of zero records. Two-part mixed-effects models account for excess-zeros, daily variation and correlation arising from repeated individual dietary records. In practice, the application of the two-part model with random effects involves Monte Carlo (MC simulations. However, these can be time-consuming and the precision of MC estimates depends on the size of the simulated data which can hinder reproducibility of results. Methods We propose a new approach based on numerical integration as an alternative to MC simulations to estimate the distribution of occasionally-consumed foods in sub-populations. The proposed approach and MC methods are compared by analysing the alcohol intake distribution in a sub-population of individuals at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results The rate of convergence of the results of MC simulations to the results of our proposed method is model-specific, depends on the number of draws from the target distribution, and is relatively slower at the tails of the distribution. Our data analyses also show that model misspecification can lead to incorrect model parameter estimates. For example, under the wrong model assumption of zero correlation between the components, one of the predictors turned out as non-significant at 5 % significance level (p-value 0.062 but it was estimated as significant in the correctly specified model (p-value 0.016. Conclusions The proposed approach for the analysis of the intake distributions of occasionally-consumed foods provides a quicker and more precise alternative to MC simulation methods, particularly in the

  12. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  13. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati...

  15. Online health check for reducing alcohol intake among employees: a feasibility study in six workplaces across England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnie Khadjesari

    Full Text Available Most hazardous and harmful drinkers are of working age and do not seek help with their drinking. Occupational health services are uniquely placed to universally screen employees across the range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The aim was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering electronic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in the context of a health check in six different workplace settings.Employees were recruited from six workplaces across England, including three local authorities, one university, one hospital and one petro-chemical company. A total of 1,254 (8% employees completed the health check and received personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Most participants were female (65% and of 'White British' ethnicity (94%, with a mean age of 43 years (SD 11. Participants were mostly in Intermediate occupations (58%, followed by Higher managerial / professional (39% and Routine and manual occupations (2%. A quarter of participants (25% were drinking at hazardous levels (33% male, 21% female, which decreased with age. Sixty-four percent (n=797 of participants completed online follow-up at three months. Most participants were supportive of workplaces offering employees an online health check (95%, their preferred format was online (91% and many were confident of the confidentiality of their responses (60%. Whilst the feedback reminded most participants of things they already knew (75%, some were reportedly motivated to change their behaviour (13%.Online health screening and personalised feedback appears feasible and acceptable, but challenges include low participation rates, potentially attracting 'worried well' employees rather than those at greatest health risk, and less acceptance of the approach among older employees and those from ethnic minority backgrounds and routine or manual occupations.

  16. Online health check for reducing alcohol intake among employees: a feasibility study in six workplaces across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Murray, Elizabeth; Shenker, Don; Marston, Louise; Kaner, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Most hazardous and harmful drinkers are of working age and do not seek help with their drinking. Occupational health services are uniquely placed to universally screen employees across the range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The aim was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering electronic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in the context of a health check in six different workplace settings. Employees were recruited from six workplaces across England, including three local authorities, one university, one hospital and one petro-chemical company. A total of 1,254 (8%) employees completed the health check and received personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Most participants were female (65%) and of 'White British' ethnicity (94%), with a mean age of 43 years (SD 11). Participants were mostly in Intermediate occupations (58%), followed by Higher managerial / professional (39%) and Routine and manual occupations (2%). A quarter of participants (25%) were drinking at hazardous levels (33% male, 21% female), which decreased with age. Sixty-four percent (n=797) of participants completed online follow-up at three months. Most participants were supportive of workplaces offering employees an online health check (95%), their preferred format was online (91%) and many were confident of the confidentiality of their responses (60%). Whilst the feedback reminded most participants of things they already knew (75%), some were reportedly motivated to change their behaviour (13%). Online health screening and personalised feedback appears feasible and acceptable, but challenges include low participation rates, potentially attracting 'worried well' employees rather than those at greatest health risk, and less acceptance of the approach among older employees and those from ethnic minority backgrounds and routine or manual occupations.

  17. The association between pre-treatment maternal alcohol and caffeine intake and outcomes of assisted reproduction in a prospectively followed cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadia, L; Chiu, Y-H; Williams, P L; Toth, T L; Souter, I; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E; Gaskins, A J

    2017-09-01

    Is pre-treatment alcohol and caffeine intake associated with infertility treatment outcomes among women undergoing ART? Low to moderate alcohol and caffeine intakes in the year prior to infertility treatment were not related to ART outcomes. Alcohol and caffeine intake have been found to be associated with infertility in some studies. Nevertheless, data on their relation with outcomes of infertility treatments are scarce and inconsistent. We included 300 women (493 ART cycles) from the Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing cohort study (2006-2016). Pre-treatment intakes of alcohol and caffeine were assessed retrospectively using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Intermediate and clinical endpoints of ART were abstracted from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to account for multiple ART cycles per woman were used to evaluate the association with ART outcomes adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, protocol type, race, dietary patterns, and calories, vitamin B12 and folate intake. Median (range) pre-treatment alcohol and caffeine intakes were 5.6 (0.0-85.8) g/day and 124.9 (0.3-642.2) mg/day, respectively. The adjusted percentage of initiated cycles resulting in live birth (95% CI) for women in increasing categories of pre-treatment alcohol intake was 34% (20, 52%) for non-consumers, 46% (36, 57%) for 0.1-6 g/day, 41% (29, 53%) for 6.1-12 g/day, 42% (31, 55%) for 12.1-24 g/day, and 41% (22, 63%) for >24 g/day (P, trend = 0.87). The adjusted percentage of cycles resulting in live birth (95% CI) for women in increasing categories of caffeine intake was 46% (36-57%) for 300 mg/day (P, trend = 0.34). When specific types of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages were evaluated, no relations with ART treatment outcomes were observed. Residual confounding by other diet and lifestyle factors cannot be ruled out owing to the observational nature of this study. It is also unclear how

  18. B vitamins, methionine and alcohol intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to BRAF mutation and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva S Schernhammer

    Full Text Available One-carbon metabolism appears to play an important role in DNA methylation reaction. Evidence suggests that a low intake of B vitamins or high alcohol consumption increases colorectal cancer risk. How one-carbon nutrients affect the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or BRAF mutation status in colon cancer remains uncertain.Utilizing incident colon cancers in a large prospective cohort of women (the Nurses' Health Study, we determined BRAF status (N = 386 and CIMP status (N = 375 by 8 CIMP-specific markers [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1], and 8 other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT-1, MINT-31, p14, and WRN. We examined the relationship between intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol and colon cancer risk, by BRAF mutation or CIMP status.Higher folate intake was associated with a trend towards low risk of CIMP-low/0 tumors [total folate intake ≥400 µg/day vs. <200 µg/day; the multivariate relative risk = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53-1.02], whereas total folate intake had no influence on CIMP-high tumor risks (P(heterogeneity = 0.73. Neither vitamin B(6, methionine or alcohol intake appeared to differentially influence risks for CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 tumors. Using the 16-marker CIMP panel did not substantially alter our results. B vitamins, methionine or alcohol intake did not affect colon cancer risk differentially by BRAF status.This molecular pathological epidemiology study suggests that low level intake of folate may be associated with an increased risk of CIMP-low/0 colon tumors, but not that of CIMP-high tumors. However, the difference between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 cancer risks was not statistically significant, and additional studies are necessary to confirm these observations.

  19. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  20. The influence of long-term intake of alcohol on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Hirosuke; Kato, Iwao; Watanabe, Eiiti

    1983-01-01

    CT findings of the head in 120 chronic alcoholics aged 30 to 69 yrs. were compared with those of 93 controls matched in age. The patient group showed a definitely higher incidence of dilatation the brain surface and the ventricular system. The dilatation in the patients had no preferred site, both the brain surface and ventricular system being affected in most cases. In the patients no constant relation was noted between CT findings and the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, intellectual impairement, hepatic dysfunction or malnutrition. CT abnormality was not always reflected on EEG in the patients. The reversibility of abnormal CT could not be confirmed. CT findings of habitual drinkers (35 subjects in their 50s) living with no social or familial trouble were compared with those of non-drinkers (35 subjects in the same generation). The incidence of dilatation of various regions and the frequency of such cases in the habitual drinkers were definitely higher than those of the non-drinkers. (Chiba, N.)

  1. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-Hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  2. Reduction of brain mitochondrial β-oxidation impairs complex I and V in chronic alcohol intake: the underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Haorah

    Full Text Available Neuropathy and neurocognitive deficits are common among chronic alcohol users, which are believed to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. The specific type of brain mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (mRCC that are adversely affected by alcohol abuse has not been studied. Thus, we examined the alterations of mRCC in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice brain that were pair-fed the ethanol (4% v/v and control liquid diets for 7-8 weeks. We observed that alcohol intake severely reduced the levels of complex I and V. A reduction in complex I was associated with a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cPT1 and cPT2 levels. The mitochondrial outer (cPT1 and inner (cPT2 membrane transporter enzymes are specialized in acylation of fatty acid from outer to inner membrane of mitochondria for ATP production. Thus, our results showed that alterations of cPT1 and cPT2 paralleled a decrease β-oxidation of palmitate and ATP production, suggesting that impairment of substrate entry step (complex I function can cause a negative impact on ATP production (complex V function. Disruption of cPT1/cPT2 was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome C leakage, while reduction of complex I and V paralleled a decrease in depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ, monitored by JC-1 fluorescence and ATP production in alcohol intake. We noted that acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, a cofactor of cPT1 and cPT2 prevented the adverse effects of alcohol while coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 was not very effective against alcohol insults. These results suggest that understanding the molecular, biochemical, and signaling mechanisms of the CNS mitochondrial β-oxidation such as ALC can mitigate alcohol related neurological disorders.

  3. Reduction of brain mitochondrial β-oxidation impairs complex I and V in chronic alcohol intake: the underlying mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haorah, James; Rump, Travis J; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathy and neurocognitive deficits are common among chronic alcohol users, which are believed to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. The specific type of brain mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (mRCC) that are adversely affected by alcohol abuse has not been studied. Thus, we examined the alterations of mRCC in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice brain that were pair-fed the ethanol (4% v/v) and control liquid diets for 7-8 weeks. We observed that alcohol intake severely reduced the levels of complex I and V. A reduction in complex I was associated with a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cPT1) and cPT2 levels. The mitochondrial outer (cPT1) and inner (cPT2) membrane transporter enzymes are specialized in acylation of fatty acid from outer to inner membrane of mitochondria for ATP production. Thus, our results showed that alterations of cPT1 and cPT2 paralleled a decrease β-oxidation of palmitate and ATP production, suggesting that impairment of substrate entry step (complex I function) can cause a negative impact on ATP production (complex V function). Disruption of cPT1/cPT2 was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome C leakage, while reduction of complex I and V paralleled a decrease in depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ, monitored by JC-1 fluorescence) and ATP production in alcohol intake. We noted that acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, a cofactor of cPT1 and cPT2) prevented the adverse effects of alcohol while coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was not very effective against alcohol insults. These results suggest that understanding the molecular, biochemical, and signaling mechanisms of the CNS mitochondrial β-oxidation such as ALC can mitigate alcohol related neurological disorders.

  4. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  5. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Weischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77, current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3, increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14, physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17, but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10. At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300 and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27, but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  6. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  7. Gender differences in body-sway factors of center of foot pressure in a static upright posture and under the influence of alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Tamotsu; Demura, Shinichi; Noda, Masahiro; Yamada, Takayoshi

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to examine gender differences in 4 body-sway factors of the center of foot pressure (CFP) during a static upright posture and the influence of alcohol intake on them. Four body-sway factors were interpreted in previous studies using factor analysis (the principal factor method and oblique solution by promax-rotation) on 220 healthy young males and females as follows; unit time sway, front-back sway, left-right sway and high frequency band power. The CFP measurement for 1 min was carried out twice with 1 min rest. The measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, whole body reaction time, standing on one leg with eyes closed, and CFP were carried out before and after the alcohol intake using 11 healthy young males and females. The measurement device used was an Anima's stabilometer G5500. The data sampling frequency was 20 Hz. Reliability of 4 body-sway factors was very high. Significant gender differences were found in the left-right sway and the high frequency band power factors, but the influence on body-sway is, as a whole, can be disregarded. These four sway factors can determine the influence of alcohol intake as efficient as 32 sway parameters.

  8. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Giwercman Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor in this development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life. METHOD: The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma, followed up for 7 years with scheduled visits every 6 months as well as visits for acute exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Risk of atopic dermatitis from any alcohol consumption during pregnancy was analyzed as time-to-diagnosis and adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: 177 of 411 children developed atopic dermatitis before age 7 years. We found a significant effect of alcohol intake during pregnancy on atopic dermatitis development (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99 p=0.024. This conclusion was unaffected after adjustment for smoking, mother's education and mother's atopic dermatitis. LIMITATIONS: The selection of a high-risk cohort, with all mothers suffering from asthma, and all children having a gestational age above 35 weeks with no congenital abnormality, systemic illness, or history of mechanical ventilation or lower airway infection. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake by pregnant women with a history of asthma, is significantly associated with an increased risk for the child for developing atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life.

  9. Dose-related ethanol intake, Cx43 and Nav1.5 remodeling: Exploring insights of altered ventricular conduction and QRS fragmentation in excessive alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Lieh; Lai, Yu-Jun; Chi, Po-Ching; Chen, Liang-Chia; Tseng, Ya-Ming; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-I; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, Hung-I

    2018-01-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake has been linked with various electrical instabilities, conduction disturbances, and even sudden cardiac death, but the underlying cause for the latter is insufficiently delineated. We studied surface electrocardiography (ECG) in a community-dwelling cohort with moderate-to-heavy daily alcohol intake (grouped as >90g/day, ≤90g/day, and nonintake). Compared with nonintake, heavier alcohol users showed markedly widened QRS duration and higher prevalence of QRS fragmentation (64.3%, 50.9%, and 33.7%, respectively, χ 2 12.0, both pchronically given a 4% or 6% alcohol diet and showed dose-related slower action potential upstroke, reduced resting membrane potential, and disorganized or decreased intraventricular conduction (all pChronic excessive alcohol ingestion is associated with dose-related phenotypic intraventricular conduction disturbances and QRS fragmentation that can be recapitulated in mice. The mechanisms may involve suppressed gap junction and sodium channel functions, together with enhanced cardiac fibrosis that may contribute to arrhythmogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. Methods: we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  12. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Anton PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP, while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. Conclusions The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking

  13. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Viola, Thiago W; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2017-01-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume) for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1) or type 2 (CRFR2) receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2 . Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates alcohol

  14. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  16. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD.Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI, were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression.The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89, 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20, and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95 in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population.There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  17. Reduced alcohol intake and reward associated with impaired endocannabinoid signaling in mice with a deletion of the glutamate transporter GLAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Adermark, Louise; Molander, Anna

    2012-01-01

    mice with a deletion of GLAST to test this prediction. WT and GLAST KO mice were tested for alcohol consumption using two-bottle free-choice drinking. Alcohol reward was evaluated using conditioned place preference (CPP). Sensitivity to depressant alcohol effects was tested using the accelerating...... rotarod, alcohol-induced hypothermia, and loss of righting reflex. Extracellular glutamate was measured using microdialysis, and striatal slice electrophysiology was carried out to examine plasticity of the cortico-striatal pathway as a model system in which adaptations to the constitutive GLAST deletion...... deletion of GLAST unexpectedly results in markedly reduced alcohol consumption and preference, associated with markedly reduced alcohol reward. Endocannabinoid signaling appears to be down-regulated upstream of the CB1 receptor as a result of the GLAST deletion, and is a candidate mechanism behind...

  18. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  19. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man: influence of gastroprotection with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul; Brismar, Kerstin; Röjdmark, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Ten participants were investigated on four occasions. On one alcohol was ingested; on another alcohol was given after pretreatment with sucralfate; on a third water was ingested; and on a fourth sucralfate was ingested followed by water. Serum hormones and ethanol concentrations were determined. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol is hardly mediated by any of the hormones studied in this investigation, as the GLP-1 and obestatin levels were unaffected by alcohol, the ghelin level decreased, and leptin - although declining after alcohol - has not previously been found to have short-term inhibitory effect on hunger.

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  1. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  2. Individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake in rats : relationship with impulsivity, decision making and Pavlovian conditioned approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spoelder, Marcia; Flores Dourojeanni, Jacques P; de Git, Kathy C G; Baars, Annemarie M; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making, impulsivity, and Pavlovian-conditioned approach in rats that voluntarily consume low (LD) or high (HD) amounts of alcohol. METHODS: LD and HD were tested in the rat gambling task (rGT) or the delayed...

  3. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Protects against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy: Role of PTEN-Akt-mTOR Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Pang

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER plays an essential role in ensuring proper folding of the newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER homeostasis triggers ER stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. ADH is involved in catalyzing ethanol to acetaldehyde although its role in cardiovascular diseases other than ethanol metabolism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the impact of ADH on ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies and underlying mechanisms involved using cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 48 hrs. Myocardial mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+ properties, ER stress, autophagy and associated cell signaling molecules were evaluated.ER stress compromised cardiac contractile function (evidenced as reduced fractional shortening, peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged relengthening duration and impaired intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress and upregulated autophagy (increased LC3B, Atg5, Atg7 and p62, along with dephosphorylation of PTEN, Akt and mTOR, all of which were attenuated by ADH. In vitro study revealed that ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte anomaly was abrogated by ADH overexpression or autophagy inhibition using 3-MA. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of ADH was obliterated by autophagy induction, inhibition of Akt and mTOR. ER stress also promoted phosphorylation of the stress signaling ERK and JNK, the effect of which was unaffected by ADH transgene.Taken together, these findings suggested that ADH protects against ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies possibly via attenuation of oxidative stress and PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway-regulated autophagy.

  4. Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Pietinen, Pirjo; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2002-05-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity worldwide are suggested to be caused largely by an environment that promotes sedentariness and excessive food intake. We investigated associations of body mass index (BMI) and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol consumption, and smoking history. In addition, we examined the consistency of these associations over time, with the aim of assessing whether the significance of lifestyle variables as correlates of obesity increased over a 15-y period. Independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. Altogether, 24604 randomly selected men and women (aged 25-64 y) participated in these surveys. The subjects' weights and heights were measured, and data on lifestyle were collected with self-administered questionnaires. In men and women, perceived general health, leisure-time physical activity, and daily vegetable consumption were inversely associated with obesity, as were bread consumption in women and activity at work in men. Consumption of sausages, milk, and sour milk and heavy work (in women only) were positively associated with obesity. Obesity was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking history. Most associations were constant over the 15-y period. However, the inverse associations of BMI with physical activity in women and with perceived health in men seemed to strengthen over time. A physically active lifestyle with abstention from smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, and consumption of healthy foods maximizes the chances of having a normal weight. The significance of avoiding sedentariness increases over time as a factor associated with normal weight.

  5. Change in alcohol intake in relation to weight change in a cohort of United States men with 24 years of follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Mary Kathryn; Bertoia, Monica L; Mukamal, Ken J; Rimm, Eric B; Stampfer, Meir J

    2017-01-01

    Objective We sought to prospectively investigate potential effects of alcohol by subtype on reported long-term weight change. Methods We examined change in alcohol intake (total, wine, light beer, regular beer, liquor) and simultaneous change in reported body weight within four-year periods from 1986 to 2010 from U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We adjusted for age, change in lifestyle and dietary covariates and cardiovascular risk factors. Results We observed 44,603 four-year periods from 14,971 men. Total alcohol, total beer, regular beer, and liquor, modeled as the increase in weight per increase in drink/day, were each directly associated with moderate weight gain over four-year periods, in pounds: total alcohol: 0.23 (0.10–0.35); total beer: 0.29 (0.08–0.51); regular beer: 0.61 (0.22–1.00); liquor: 0.28 (0.09–0.48). Results for wine and light beer were wine: 0.16 (−0.04–0.36); light beer: −0.38 (−1.07–0.08). Results were strongest for men weight gain at levels unlikely to be clinically meaningful. Beverage specific differences are not substantial enough to make dietary recommendations for weight loss or maintenance by beverage type. The greatest risk of weight gain was among men that increased consumption to levels well above moderation. PMID:28940996

  6. The protective role of low-concentration alcohol in high-fructose induced adverse cardiovascular events in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqi; Pan, Bo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Lingjuan; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice. From the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio and the expression of hypertrophic marker ANP, we found high-fructose result in myocardial hypertrophy and the low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy from happening. In addition, we observed low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit mitochondria swollen induced by high-fructose. The elevated levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol in high-fructose group were reduced by low concentration alcohol. Low expression levels of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ induced by high-fructose were significantly elevated when fed with low-concentration alcohol. The histone lysine 9 acetylation (acH3K9) level was decreased in PPAR-γ promoter in high-fructose group but elevated when intake with low concentration alcohol. The binding levels of histone deacetylase SIRT1 were increased in the same region in high-fructose group, while the low concentration alcohol can prevent the increased binding levels. Overall, our study indicates that low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit high-fructose related myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac mitochondria damaged and disorders of glucose-lipid metabolism. Furthermore, these findings also provide new insights into histone acetylation-deacetylation mechanisms of low-concentration alcohol treatment that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease induced by high

  7. Individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake in rats : relationship with impulsivity, decision making and Pavlovian conditioned approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Flores Dourojeanni, Jacques P; de Git, Kathy C G; Baars, Annemarie M; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making,

  8. Individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake in rats: relationship with impulsivity, decision making and Pavlovian conditioned approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, M.; Dourojeanni, J.P.F.; Git, K.C.G. de; Baars, A.M.; Lesscher, H.M.; Vanderschuren, L.

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making,

  9. The role of smoking and alcohol intake in the development of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among high-risk HPV-positive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Munk, Christian; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus is considered a necessary factor in developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. However, most human papillomavirus positive women do not develop high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and other factors may be important...... for this transition. The objective of the present study was to examine if smoking and alcohol intake are associated with the risk of developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women positive for high-risk human papillomavirus types. METHODS: We used baseline information on exposures on 548 high......-risk human papillomavirus positive women with normal cytology, comparing 94 women who developed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with 454 women who remained cytologically normal. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, the odds ratio for high...

  10. Comparison of apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I and lipoprotein (total cholesterol/HDL ratio determinants. Focus on obesity, diet and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tognon

    Full Text Available The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.

  11. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Alexander; Lim, Sarah; Goh, Evan; Wong, Ophelia; Marsh, Philip; Knight, Virginia; Sievert, William; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-01-10

    There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females ( p disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness ( p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect ( p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease.

  12. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug......-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  13. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-04

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of and reasons for attempts to reduce alcohol intake: A population survey of adults in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Beard

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the predictors among high-risk drinkers in England of attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, the reasons given for these attempts and the association between the various reasons and alcohol consumption.Data came from 2,800 high-risk drinkers taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS between March 2014 and November 2016 who were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were asked questions regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to cut down and reasons for doing so.Those cutting down were significantly older (OR 1.01, p<0.001, were more likely to be female (OR 1.32, p<0.05, had higher AUDIT-C scores (OR 1.12, p<0. 001, were less likely to be of white ethnicity (OR 0.64, p<0. 001, and were more likely to reside in the South of England (OR 1.34, p<0. 001. They were also more likely to be of higher occupationally-based social-grades (p<0. 001. The main reported reasons for reducing consumption were: fitness (22.5%, weight loss (20.4%, future health (20.4%, advice from a health-care professional (7.9% and cost (7.6%. Those reporting the followings reasons for cutting down had higher AUDIT-C scores than those who did not report these reasons: a concern about further health problems (β 0.20, p<0.05, advice from a doctor/health worker (β 0.38, p<0.05, that drinking was too expensive (β 0.42, p<0.01 and detoxification (β 0.42, p<0.01. Lower AUDIT-C scores were noted among those who reported that they knew someone who was cutting down (β -0.67, p<0.05, that there was no reason (β -0.36, p<0.05, or they didn't know why they were cutting down (β -0.25, p<0.05.Around a fifth of high-risk drinkers in England report trying to reduce their drinking, particularly older, high-socioeconomic female drinkers from the south of England. Attempts to cut down appear to be driven by a desire to improve health, advice from

  15. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-08-03

    Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015-2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  16. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  17. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  18. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  19. Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenrod, W. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Stockley, C.S. [Australian Wine Research Institute, South Australia (Australia); Burcham, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Abbey, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia); Fenech, M. [CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Genome Health and Nutrigenomics Laboratory, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.fenech@hsn.csiro.au

    2005-12-11

    Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R = -0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin.

  20. Moderate acute intake of de-alcoholised red wine, but not alcohol, is protective against radiation-induced DNA damage ex vivo-Results of a comparative in vivo intervention study in younger men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenrod, W.; Stockley, C.S.; Burcham, P.; Abbey, M.; Fenech, M.

    2005-01-01

    Moderate intake of wine is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer however it remains unclear whether the potential health benefits of wine intake are due to alcohol or the non-alcoholic fraction of wine. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the non-alcoholic fraction of wine protects against genome damage induced by oxidative stress in a crossover intervention study involving six young adult males aged 21-26 years. The participants adhered to a low plant phenolic compound diet for 48 h prior to consuming 300 mL of complete red wine, dealcoholised red wine or ethanol on separate occasions 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h after beverage consumption. Baseline and radiation-induced genome damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and total plasma catechin concentration was measured. Consumption of dealcoholised red wine significantly decreased the gamma radiation-induced DNA damage at 1 and 2 h post-consumption by 20%. In contrast alcohol tended to increase radiation-induced genome damage and complete wine protected against radiation-induced genome damage relative to alcohol. The observed effects were only weakly correlated with the concentration of total plasma catechin (R = -0.23). These preliminary data suggest that only the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine protects DNA from oxidative damage but this effect cannot be explained solely by plasma catechin

  1. Pre-offense alcohol intake in homicide offenders and victims: A forensic-toxicological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Jonatan; Forsman, Jonas; Sturup, Joakim; Masterman, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Alcohol is associated with violent behavior, although little is known regarding to what extent alcohol increases homicide risk. We aimed to estimate risks of homicide offending and victimization conferred by the presence of ethanol in blood by using toxicological data from homicide victims and offenders and from controls who had died in vehicle-related accidents. From nationwide governmental registries and databases, forensic-toxicological results were retrieved for victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) of homicides committed during the years 2007-2009 and individuals killed in vehicle-related accidents (n = 1629) during the years 2006-2014. Ethanol levels in blood exceeding 0.01 g/100 ml were considered positive. Using logistic regression, we found that the presence of ethanol in blood conferred a significantly increased risk of homicide offending (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.3-5.6) and homicide victimization (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.0). After stratification by sex, risk estimates in females were about 3-fold greater than in males for both homicide offending ([aOR = 11.0, 95% CI = 2.4-49.8] versus [aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.9-4.9]) and victimization ([aOR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.4-12.2] versus [aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8]). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar estimates. The results of the present study are consistent with prior findings suggesting alcohol to be an important risk factor for homicide offending and victimization. Surprisingly, however, associations were more pronounced in females, although additional studies that control for potential confounders are warranted to facilitate speculations about causality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in Danish men and women with a prolonged heavy alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Frederiksen, M.E.; Thygesen, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    significant higher incidence rates than would be expected in a standard population were observed for cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart diseases, men: SIR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.69-1.83; women: SIR = 2.44; 95% CI 2.19-2.73) and cerebrovascular diseases (e.g., hemorrhagic stroke, men: SIR = 2.71; 95% CI 2...... rates of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than the population in general. METHODS: The cohort comprised 19,185 subjects (15,368 men and 3,817 women) who attended outpatient clinics for alcohol abusers within the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (1954 to 1992). Incidence rates were standardized (SIR......) according to sex, age and calendar time to compare subjects' cardio- and cerebrovascular incidence with that of the general population of Copenhagen. RESULTS: During the period 1977 to 2001 a total of 9,397 events of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease were observed. In both men and women, statistically...

  3. Alcohol, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupari, M; Koskinen, P

    1998-01-01

    Studies in experimental animals have shown varying and apparently opposite effects of alcohol on cardiac rhythm and conduction. Given acutely to non-alcoholic animals, ethanol may even have anti-arrhythmic properties whereas chronic administration clearly increases the animals' susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic heavy alcohol use has been incriminated in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias in humans. The evidence has come from clinical observations, retrospective case-control studies, controlled studies of consecutive admissions for arrhythmias, and prospective epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies have shown that acute alcohol administration facilitates the induction of tachyarrhythmias in selected heavy drinkers. The role of alcohol appears particularly conspicuous in idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Occasionally, ventricular tachyarrhythmias have also been provoked by alcohol intake. Several lines of evidence suggest that heavy drinking increases the risk of sudden cardiac death with fatal arrhythmia as the most likely mechanism. According to epidemiological studies this effect appears most prominent in middle-aged men and is only partly explained by confounding traits such as smoking and social class. The basic arrhythmogenic effects of alcohol are still insufficiently delineated. Subclinical heart muscle injury from chronic heavy use may be instrumental in producing patchy delays in conduction. The hyperadrenergic state of drinking and withdrawal may also contribute, as may electrolyte abnormalities, impaired vagal heart rate control, repolarization abnormalities with prolonged QT intervals and worsening of myocardial ischaemia or sleep apnoea. Most of what we know about alcohol and arrhythmias relates to heavy drinking. The effect of social drinking on clinical arrhythmias in non-alcoholic cardiac patients needs to be addressed further.

  4. Myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Jyoji; Yasuda, Hisakazu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy and 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy were utilized for the diagnoses of the presence, the region, and the extent of myocardial infarction. Exercise 201 Tl myocardial scintigrams and exercise radionuclide ventriculography were utilized for diagnosis of coronary artery lesions in angina pectoris. Radionuclide ventriculography was used to investigate effects of coronary artery lesions on cardiac function and hemodynamics. In order to select adequate treatments for myocardial infarction and estimate the prognosis, it was necessary to detect the presence, the region, and the extent of acute myocardial infarction and to investigate effects of partial infarction on hemodynamics by using radionuclide imaging. Exercise myocardial scintigraphy could be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly for diagnosis of coronal artery disease. Therefore, this method could be applied widely. It was possible to use this method as a screening test of coronary artery diseases for the diagnoses of asymptomatic patients who showed ST changes in ECG, the patients with cardiac neurosis and the patency after a reconstructive surgery of coronary artery. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi

    1982-01-01

    Among the various methods of image diagnosis of the cardiovascular disorder, nuclear cardiology provides noninvasive means for evaluation of myocardial perfusion as well as morphological and functional informations. In this article, clinical application and image diagnosis of myocardial scintigraphy including Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography with Tl-201, acute myocardial infarction scintigraphy with Tc-99m-pyrophosphate and Ga-67 imaging of the heart, were discussed. Multiplanar imaging of the heart with Tl-201 after stress and at redistribution was the accepted method for detection and evaluation of the ischemic heart disease. Although it achieved high sensitivity and specificity for ischemic heart disease, detection of the small ischemia and quantation of the regional Tl-201 accumulation were difficult with conventional multiplanar imaging. Application of emission computed tomography improved detectability and quantitativity of the ischemia. However, 7-pinhole tomography did not increase the diagnostic accuracy significantly. It had limited clinical applicability due to poor quantitativity in spite of improved image contrast and its tomographic nature. Advantage and limitation of these tomographic imaging and multiplanar imaging were discussed. Problems and prognostic significance of pyrophosphate imaging of the acute myocardial infarction were also discussed. Visualization of the heart with Ga-67 was helpful for identification of the tumor or inflammation of the heart as well as evaluation of the effect of the therapy. (author)

  6. Ethanol intake and 3H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets 3H-paroxetine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P.; Ernouf, D.; Breton, P.; Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of 3 H-paroxetine binding and 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in 3 H-paroxetine binding. When binding and 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  8. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  9. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  10. Selective effects of acute alcohol intake on the prospective and retrospective components of a prospective-memory task with emotional targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nora T; Bayen, Ute J

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something in the future and has a prospective component (remembering that something must be done) and a retrospective component (remembering what must be done and when it must be done). Initial studies reported an impairment in prospective-memory performance due to acute alcohol consumption. Retrospective-memory studies demonstrated that alcohol effects vary depending on the emotionality of the information that needs to be learned. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differential effects of a mild acute alcohol dose (0.4 g/kg) on the prospective and retrospective components of prospective memory depending on cue valence. Seventy-five participants were allocated to an alcohol or placebo group and performed a prospective-memory task in which prospective-memory cue valence was manipulated (negative, neutral, positive). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory (Smith and Bayen 2004) was used to measure alcohol and valence effects on the two prospective-memory components separately. Overall, no main effect of alcohol or valence on prospective-memory performance occurred. However, model-based analyses demonstrated a significantly higher retrospective component for positive compared with negative cues in the placebo group. In the alcohol group, the prospective component was weaker for negative than for neutral cues and the retrospective component was stronger for positive than for neutral cues. Group comparisons showed that the alcohol group had a significantly lower prospective component for negative cues and a lower retrospective component for neutral cues. This is the first study to demonstrate selective alcohol effects on prospective-memory components depending on prospective-memory cue valence.

  11. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    .1-32.2) higher free testosterone than men with a weekly intake between 1 and 10 units. Alcohol intake was not significantly associated with serum inhibin B, FSH or LH levels in either group of men. The study is the largest of its kind and has sufficient power to detect changes in semen quality and reproductive......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  12. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Bolca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d estimated diet records (EDR, n 64 and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79. Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted κ 0.25-0.66 and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87 with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33-0.80. In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  13. Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for estimating usual daily fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted kappa 0.25-0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted kappa 0.33-0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  14. Major Components of Metabolic Parameters and Nutritional Intakes in Different Genotypes of Adiponectin +276 G>T Gene Polymorphism in Non-Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Iranian Fatty Liver Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Fatemeh; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both involved in the etiology of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Among the genetic factors, certain polymorphisms of adiponectin gene are associated with NAFLD. In the current study, we investigated the association between metabolic parameters with different genotypes of adiponectin +276 G>T polymorphism among the Iranian NAFLD patients, and the effect of nutritional intake with development of NAFLD. In this study, 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) were calculated. Biochemical assays including FSG (Fasting Serum Glucose), liver enzymes, lipid profiles, Malondialdehyde, insulin resistance and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were measured after 12 hr fasting. Gene polymorphism study was done by using of sequencing method. Although, T allele frequency was more prevalent in patients with NAFLD than control, adiponectin +276 G>T polymorphism was not associated with risk of NAFLD. Among the metabolic parameters, TAC in TT genotype was significantly lower 1.44(0.69 to 2.81) p>0.05, AST in GT, GG genotypes, and ALT in all three genotypes were higher in NAFLD patients in compared to healthy subjects (pconsumption and vitamin E intake as compared to control group with the same genotype (pstudy, we showed the association of different genotypes of +276 G>T polymorphism in adiponectin gene with some metabolic parameters.

  15. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  16. Mediterranean Alcohol-Drinking Pattern and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality: The SUN Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Hernandez-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed the still unclear effect of the overall alcohol-drinking pattern, beyond the amount of alcohol consumed, on the incidence of cardiovascular clinical disease (CVD. Methods: We followed 14,651 participants during up to 14 years. We built a score assessing simultaneously seven dimensions of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP. It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, preference for wine, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. Results: During 142,177 person-years of follow-up, 127 incident cases of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality were identified. Compared with the category of better conformity with the MADP, the low-adherence group exhibited a non-significantly higher risk (HR of total CVD ((95% CI = 1.55 (0.58–4.16. This direct association with a departure from the traditional MADP was even stronger for cardiovascular mortality (HR (95% CI = 3.35 (0.77–14.5. Nevertheless, all these associations were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Better conformity with the MADP seemed to be associated with lower cardiovascular risk in most point estimates; however, no significant results were found and more powered studies are needed to clarify the role of the MADP on CVD.

  17. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  18. Prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol intake and nicotine consumption in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization.The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD, suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ, and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT.Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15-21 was detected in 1862 (39.6% individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women, and major depression (CESD sum score >21 in 613 (13.0% individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women. Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2% participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1% individuals. There were 887 (18.9% smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8% subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0% participants; 283 (6.0% subjects had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 (hazardous drinking, and 108 (4.63% subjects a score ≥ 13 (women or ≥ 15 (men (alcohol dependence.In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India.

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  20. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carson, Charlotte Giwercman; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor...

  1. Chronic alcohol intake promotes tumor growth in a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mouse model through increased Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) metabolism is involved in both initiating and promoting mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma progression in chronic alcoholics. In this study, we developed a mouse model to test the hypothesis that chronic EtOH consumption promotes tumor growth irrespective of EtOH-related initiati...

  2. Stereotypic information about drinkers and students' observed alcohol intake: an experimental study on prototype-behavior relations in males and females in a naturalistic drinking context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Larsen, H.; Kremer, K.A.; Kuntsche, E.; Gibbons, F.X.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that favorable drinker prototypes (i.e., perceptions about the typical drinker) are related to higher levels of alcohol consumption in adolescents and college students. So far, few studies have experimentally tested the causality of

  3. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    excessive prolonged alcohol intake . The study is underway; initial results are illustrated in Fig. 5. Rats which had chronically consumed liquid diet...subsequent alcohol intake and preference which are highly correlated with acoustic startle amplitude determined before the initial access to alcohol ...exhibiting high acoustic startle response (which is associated with increased anxiety- like behavior) develop increased subsequent alcohol intake and

  4. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  5. Myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1989-01-01

    To investigate myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia, we performed exercise stress myocardial tomography with thallium-201 (Tl) in 85 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise stress myocardial tomography was obtained both immediately after exercise and three hours later. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence (Symptomatic Group, n=36) or absence (Silent Group, n=49) of chest pain during exercise stress. Clinical features (age, gender and history of myocardial infarction) and arteriographically determined severity of CAD were the same in both groups. The extent of myocardial ischemia (% Ischemia) estimated by exercise stress myocardial tomography was the same in each group (30±10 % in Silent Group, 28±12 % in Symptomatic Group, NS). The severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was expressed as a minimal value of myocardial Tl washout rate (minimal WOR) of each patient. Although exercise heart rate was identical in both groups, minimal WOR in Silent Group was significantly higher than that of Symptomatic Group (4±10% vs -16±14%, p<0.001). The study in patients who exhibited both silent and symptomatic ischemia showed the same results. These findings suggest that the severity of ischemia is a fundamental factor in determining the presence or absence of pain during exercise induced ischemia. (author)

  6. Expectativas, consumo de alcohol y problemas asociados en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de México Alcohol use expectancy, intake, and related problems among college students in Mexico City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Mora-Ríos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Establecer la relación entre las expectativas hacia el consumo de alcohol, los patrones de su uso y los problemas asociados a su consumo en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en octubre de 1998, en el que participaron 678 estudiantes, hombres y mujeres entre los 17 y 25 años de edad, provenientes de universidades públicas y privadas. En él se midieron las expectativas a partir de un cuestionario de autorreporte, el Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ, que fue adaptado a esta población obteniendo una consistencia interna global elevada (alpha=0.93. RESULTADOS: Del total de los estudiantes, 31% presentó un consumo alto (mayor a cinco copas por ocasión de consumo en el último año, principalmente en los varones, mientras que 17% fueron no consumidores. Mediante un modelo estructural de ecuaciones se estudió la relación entre las subescalas de expectativas, el patrón de consumo y problemas asociados. El análisis de varianza mostró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre seis subescalas de expectativas (el alcohol como facilitador de la interacción grupal, expresividad verbal, desinhibición, incremento de la sexualidad, reducción de la tensión psicológica e incremento de la agresividad y las variables sexo, consumo de alcohol y problemas asociados (F=5.23, gl=1, phttp://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlOBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between alcohol use expectancies, drinking patterns, and alcohol-related problems, among college students in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 1998. Study subjects were 678 male and female college students aged between 17 and 25 years, from private and public schools. Alcohol expectancies were measured through the self-reported "Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire" (AEQ, adapted for this population, with a high overall internal reliability

  7. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  8. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  9. Use of a crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mouse model with the NIAAA-model of chronic-binge ethanol intake to study liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle J; Nazari, Shayan S; Jacobs, W Carl; Grahame, Nicholas J; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to compare mice bred to preferentially consume high amounts of alcohol (crossed-high alcohol preferring, cHAP) to c57BL/6 (C57) mice using a chronic-binge ethanol ingestion model to induce alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Male C57 and cHAP mice were randomized to a Lieber-DeCarli control (LDC) diet, Lieber-DeCarli 5% (v/v) ethanol (LDE) diet or free-choice between 10% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water (EtOH-DW) and DW. After 4 weeks mice were gavaged with either 9 g/kg maltose-dextrin (LDC+MD) or 5 g/kg EtOH (LDE+Binge, EtOH-DW+Binge). Nine hours later tissue and serum were collected and analyzed. cHAP mice on EtOH-DW consumed significantly more ethanol than cHAP or C57 mice maintained on LDE. However, cHAP and C57 mice on the LDE+Binge regiment had greater hepatosteatosis and overall degree of liver injury compared to EtOH-DW+Binge. Changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression was more pronounced in cHAP mice than C57 mice. Analysis of liver enzymes revealed a robust induction of CYP2E1 in C57 and cHAP mice maintained on EtOH-DW+Binge or LDE+Binge. However, while C57 mice exhibited higher basal hepatic glutathione than cHAP mice, these mice appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress following LDE+Binge than cHAP counterparts. Despite cHAP mice consuming more total ethanol prior to gavage when maintained on EtOH-DW, LDE followed by gavage created a more severe model of ALD in both C57 and cHAP mice. These data suggest factors other than total amount of alcohol consumed affect degree of ALD development in the chronic-binge model in cHAP mice. cHAP mice voluntarily consume high amounts of ethanol and exhibited hepatic injury when subject to chronic-binge ethanol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet. However, hepatic injury was reduced in cHAP mice in a chronic-binge model following voluntary high ethanol consumption in drinking water. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  11. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1.

  12. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1

  13. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  15. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat....../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high......-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHS: 20 % fat, 15 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) or a high-fat/very high-sucrose diet (HFvHS: 20 % fat, 25 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) for 16 and 25 weeks. Results All three high-fat diets induced dyslipidemia with increased concentrations of plasma cholesterol (p 

  16. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  17. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  18. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  19. Comparison of anamnestic history, alcohol intake and smoking, nutritional status, and liver dysfunction between thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyosawa, K.; Imai, H.; Sodeyama, T.; Franca, S.T.; Yousuf, M.; Furuta, S.; Fujisawa, K.; Kido, C.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the differences in past history, nutritional condition and, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and liver dysfunction between the thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not, 103 persons who had no primary liver cancer in January 1980 were studied. All subjects were military men who had undergone angiography with thorotrast between 1943 and 1946. Twenty persons developed hepatocellular carcinoma and 16 developed intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma by April 1987, whereas 67 are still alive without any cancer. There was no difference in age or period after thorotrast infusion between those two groups of patients in January 1980. A difference in history of hepatitis and/or jaundice and presence of hepatic dysfunction was found between the subjects who developed primary liver cancers and those who did not. These findings suggest that an anamnestic history of hepatitis and liver dysfunction are risks for development of thorotrast-induced liver cancer. On the basis of the above findings, early detection of liver dysfunction offers a possibility of early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

  20. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  1. Stimulation of appetite by alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, M. M.; Cameron, F.; Wallis, D. J.; Pirie, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake, 26 males attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion, they were given a standard breakfast. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger, desire to eat and fullness (appetite ratings) were recorded from before breakfast until their return to the laboratory for lunch. Thirty minutes before lunch, subjects either rested (baseline), were given 330 ml of a no-alcohol lager (264 kJ: no-alcohol condition) or 330 m...

  2. Asymptomatic myocardial ischemia following cold provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.J.; Deanfield, J.E.; deLandsheere, C.M.; Wilson, R.A.; Kensett, M.; Selwyn, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Cold is thought to provoke angina in patients with coronary disease either by an increase in myocardial demand or an increase in coronary vascular resistance. We investigated and compared the effects of cold pressor stimulation and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise on regional myocardial perfusion in 35 patients with stable angina and coronary disease and in 10 normal subjects. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed with positron emission tomography and rubidium-82. Following cold pressor stimulation 24 of 35 patients demonstrated significant abnormalities of regional myocardial perfusion with reduced cation uptake in affected regions of myocardium: 52 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 9 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Among these 24 patients only nine developed ST depression and only seven had angina. In contrast, 29 of 35 patients underwent supine exercise, and abnormal regional myocardial perfusion occurred in all 29, with a reduction in cation intake from 48 +/- 10 to 43 +/- 14 (p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects). Angina was present in 27 of 29 and ST depression in 25 of 29. Although the absolute decrease in cation uptake was somewhat greater following cold as opposed to exercise, the peak heart rate after cold was significantly lower than that after exercise (82 +/- 12 vs 108 +/- 16 bpm, p less than 0.05). Peak systolic blood pressures after cold and exercise were similar (159 +/- 24 vs 158 +/- 28). Thus, cold produces much more frequent asymptomatic disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion in patients with stable angina and coronary disease than is suggested by pain or ECG changes

  3. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  5. Intra-cardiac echocardiography in alcohol septal ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Robert M; Shahzad, Adeel; Newton, James

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy reduces left ventricular outflow tract gradients. A third of patients do not respond; inaccurate localisation of the iatrogenic infarct can be responsible. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using myocardial contrast can...

  6. Long term influence of regular intake of high dose n-3 fatty acids on CD40-ligand, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsetøy, Hildegunn; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Hetland, Øyvind; Grundt, Heidi; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2006-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), both zinc-binding endopeptidases, are abundantly expressed in ruptured and eroded plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The adhesion molecule CD-40 ligand (CD40L), expressed on activated platelets and T-lymphocytes, can activate metalloproteinases and thereby promote plaque-rupture. N-3 fatty acids, through their anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties, might reduce the levels of these proatherosclerotic markers and thereby the development of ACS. 300 patients were randomized on day 4 to 6 following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) to receive either 4 g of n-3 fatty acids or a similar daily dose of corn oil for at least one year. We compared levels of PAPP-A, MMP-9 and sCD-40 L at baseline and 12 months in each group, and also looked for inter-group changes. In the omega-3 group, the median level of PAPP-A rose from 0.47 mU/l to 0.56 mU/l (p < 0.001). In the same group, sCD-40 L decreased from a mean baseline value of 5.19 ng/ml to 2.45 ng/ml (p < 0.001) and MMP-9 decreased nonsignificantly from 360.50 ng/ml to 308.00 ng/ml. Corresponding values for the corn oil group were 0.54 mU/l to 0.59 mU/l for PAPP-A (p = 0.007), 5.27 ng/ml to 2.84 ng/ml for sCD-40 L (p < 0.001) and 430.00 ng/ml to 324.00 ng/ml for MMP-9 (p = ns), respectively. In conclusion; both interventions resulted in a significant rise in PAPP-A, a significant decrease in sCD40L and a non-significant decrease in MMP-9 after 12 months of treatment in MI survivors. No inter-group differences were noted.

  7. Orosensory responsiveness and alcohol behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Bajec, Martha; Pickering, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). Responsiveness to bitter and astringent stimuli was associated in a non-linear fashion with intake of all alcoholic beverage types, with the highest consumption observed in middle quantiles. Sourness responsiveness tended to be inversely associated with all measures of alcohol consumption. Regardless of sensation, the most responsive quantiles tended to drink less, although sweetness showed little relationship between responsiveness and intake. For wine, increased umami and metallic responsiveness tended to predict lower total consumption and frequency. A limited examination of individuals who abstain from all alcohol indicated a tendency toward higher responsiveness than alcohol consumers to sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness (biserial correlation), suggesting that broadly-tuned orosensory responsiveness may be protective against alcohol use and possibly misuse. Overall, these findings confirm the importance of orosensory responsiveness in mediating consumption of alcohol, and indicate areas for further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  9. Drinking patterns and biochemical signs of alcoholic liver disease in Danish and Greenlandic patients with alcohol addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavik, Berit; Holmegaard, Claes; Becker, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    . This study was designed to document the prevalence of alcoholic liver diseases in Greenlanders with a high alcohol intake, and to describe and compare the populations of patients with alcohol addiction in Greenland and Denmark. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical cross-sectional study of patients attending alcohol...

  10. Alcoholic epilepsy. A definition and a description of other convulsions related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Katoh, N

    1981-01-01

    The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.

  11. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  12. Porfiria cutánea tarda: asociación con mutaciones HFE, hepatitis virales, alcohol y otros factores de riesgo en Guipúzcoa, País Vasco Porphyria cutanea tarda: An analysis of HFE gene mutations, hepatitis viruses, alcohol intake, and other risk factors in 54 patients from Guipúzcoa, Basque Country, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castiella

    2008-12-01

    : no association was observed between C282Y mutation and PCT (5.76 vs. 5% in controls. A high H63D mutation frequency was observed in PCT (34.25% but was not statistically significant (controls 29.31% because of the high prevalence of this mutation in the Basque general population. The S65C mutation was lower in PCT than in controls. There is a similar presence for H63D heterozygosis in PCT (38.8 vs. 38.8%. HCV association was observed in 35.18% of patients with PCT. HBV infected 7.4% of patients. Heavy alcohol intake (> 60 g/day was present in 55.55% of patients. No HIV-infected patients were detected. The study of other risk factors revealed only one of the five women with PCT taking estrogens. Conclusion: our results found no relevant role for C282Y and H63D mutations. External factors such as HCV and alcohol could be determinant in the development of PCT in the Basque population.

  13. Treatment with the gap junction modifier rotigaptide (ZP123) reduces infarct size in rats with chronic myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Marcussen, Niels; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with non-selective drugs (eg, long-chain alcohols, halothane) that reduce gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, it has been suggested that gap junction intercellular communication stimulating ...

  14. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...

  15. Wine, alcohol and atherosclerosis: clinical evidences and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. da Luz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which may cause obstructions of the coronary, cerebral and peripheral arteries. It is typically multifactorial, most often dependent on risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, sedentarism, and obesity. It is the single main cause of death in most developed countries due to myocardial infarction, angina, sudden death, and heart failure. Several epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol intake, especially red wine, decrease cardiac mortality due to atherosclerosis. The alcohol effect is described by a J curve, suggesting that moderate drinkers may benefit while abstainers and heavy drinkers are at higher risk. Experimental studies indicate that most beneficial effects of drinking are attributable to flavonoids that are present in red wine, purple grape juice and several fruits and vegetables. The mechanisms include antiplatelet actions, increases in high-density lipoprotein, antioxidation, reduced endothelin-1 production, and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression which causes augmented nitric oxide production by endothelial cells. These findings lead to the concept that moderate red wine drinking, in the absence of contraindications, may be beneficial to patients who are at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Moreover, a diet based on fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids may be even more beneficial.

  16. Alcohol and Atrial Fibrillation: A Sobering Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Prabhu, Sandeep; Ling, Liang-Han; Kalman, Jonathan M; Kistler, Peter M

    2016-12-13

    Alcohol is popular in Western culture, supported by a perception that modest intake is cardioprotective. However, excessive drinking has detrimental implications for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) following an alcohol binge or the "holiday heart syndrome" is well characterized. However, more modest levels of alcohol intake on a regular basis may also increase the risk of AF. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between alcohol and AF may include direct toxicity and alcohol's contribution to obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology by which alcohol may be responsible for AF and determine whether alcohol abstinence is required for patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What makes us drink? : Alcohol consumption in the rat in connection with reward and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357805925

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD; often referred to as alcohol addiction or alcoholism) is a chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by loss of control over alcohol intake. Alcohol is among the most widely used substances in the world, and even though only a minority of the people who regularly

  18. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  19. An empirical analysis of the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    The question whether intake of alcohol is associated with liver cirrhosis mortality is analyzed using aggregate data for alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries. The empirical analysis gives support to a close association between cirrhosis morta...... mortality and intake of alcohol - and the latter also concerns each of the specific beverages, i.e. spirits, wine and beer, where other studies usually only find evidence of spirits and wine related to liver cirrhosis mortality.  ...

  20. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-01-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis. (orig.) [de

  1. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-12-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis.

  2. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Seizures in Patients With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hamerle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy

  3. Myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichte, H [Zentralkrankenhaus Gauting (Germany, F.R.). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.

    1977-04-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy with /sup 201/thallium is a non-invasive method for detection of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Redistribution-analysis as a sequential-scintigraphy of an exercise-scan permits to distinguish between myocardial scars and coronary vessel disease.

  4. Amount and type of alcohol consumption and missing teeth among community-dwelling older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen; Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists. Methods: A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-...

  5. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified.

  7. Myocardial myoglobin release after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P S; Saltissi, S; Coltart, D J; Croft, D N [Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK)

    1980-03-01

    The magnitude and time course of myoglobin release from the myocardium following infarction was assessed by radioimmunoassay. The assay showed acceptable precision over a working range from 50 to 750 ng cm/sup -3/, provided careful control of the assay temperature was maintained. The use of this radioimmunoassay as an early diagnostic test for infarction and as a potential measure of the extent of necrosis is considered and comparison made with the release of CK-MB, the myocardial specific isoenzyme of creatine kinase. Of the twenty patients studied with myocardial infarction, all had elevated levels of serum myoglobin including those admitted within 3 hours of the onset of pain. In contrast, CK-MB was not detected in the serum within 5 hours of the onset of pain. Peak serum levels of myoglobin (mean 852 +- 365 ng cm/sup -3/) and CK-MB (mean 71 +- 25 mIU cm/sup -3/) were detected at 8-16 hours and 20-24 hours respectively after the onset of pain. A comparison of peak serum levels of myoglobin and CK-MB showed a good correlation (r = 0.84).

  8. Reversible myocardial ischaemia or irreversible myocardial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, D.; Hanrath, P.; Kupper, W.; Bleifeld, W.; Montz, R.; Knop, J.; Stritzke, P.; Kroeger, E.; Bleese, N.

    1978-01-01

    The results of biphasis 201 thallium ( 201 Tl) scanning were compared with those of coronary arteriography, left ventricular angiography and stress ECG in 56 patients with coronary artery disease and six with no evidence of heart disease. There were 104 201 Tl defects, 50 of them reversible. The defects were always located in the area supplied by a critically stenotic coronary artery. Correlation of regional wall motion with 201 Tl activity demonstrated that in all forms of abnormal wall motion there was either ischaemia or fibrosis. The resting LV angiogram thus does not make it possible to distinguish between myocardial ischaemia and fibrosis. Taking the LV angiogram as a standard, the rate of false-positive 201 Tl scintigrams was 5%, that of false-negative ones 23%. The biphasic 201 Tl scintigram was more sensitive than the stress ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia. It furthermore made it possible to localize the ischaemic (or fibrotic) region within the LV and to estimate its size. (orig.) [de

  9. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  10. Myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Qiu Hong; Yang Weixian; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging was used to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Methods: Ninety-six patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery documented by coronary angiography were included in this study. All under- went exercise or pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion SPECT assessing myocardial ischemia. None had prior myocardial infarction. One year follow-up by telephone interview was performed in all patients. Results The mean stenotic severity of systolic phase on angiography was (65 ± 19)%. In the SPECT study, 20 of 96 (20.8%) patients showed abnormal perfusion. This percentage was significantly higher than that of stress electrocardiogram (ECG). The higher positive rate of SPECT perfusion images was showed in the group of patients with severe systolic narrowing (≥75%) than that with mild-to-moderate systolic narrowing (50% vs 6.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of abnormal image was significantly higher in ELDERLY PEOPLE; patients with STT change on rest ECG than in those with normal rest ECG (54.2% vs 9.7%, P<0.001). During follow-up, one patient with abnormal SPECT perfusion image sustained angina and accepted percutaneous coronary intervention, and no cardiac event occurred in patients with normal images. Conclusions: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can be used effectively for assessing myocardial ischemia and has potential prognostic value for patients with myocardial bridging. (authors)

  11. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  12. Clinical efficacy of 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Itaru; Sugioka, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasunori

    1993-01-01

    99m Tc-tetrofosmin is a lipophilic, cationic diphosphine which has been developed for myocardial imaging. We examined 9 patients with ischemic heart disease including 3 angina pectoris (AP), 4 old myocardial infarction (OMI), 1 AP with OMI and 1 syndrome X. One patient was examined before and after operation. Three hundred seventy MBq of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin was injected during exercise and 740 MBq at rest. And 74 MBq of 201 Tl myocardial exercise and redistribution scintigraphy was also performed to compare with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy. SPECT, multiple gated SPECT and anterior planar images were obtained in all cases. We calculated percent wall thickening (%WT) using multiple gated SPECT images. There was a decreased lung uptake in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin planar images compared to 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Liver and Biliary system uptake in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin images was decreased with intake of milk. Segmental comparison of SPECT images showed an agreement in 9/10 of the segment between 201 Tl and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin. We could obtain excellent quality of multiple gated SPECT images in all patients. We could calculate percent wall thickening (%WT) in all patients. We conclude that 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy should provide usefulness for detection of ischemic myocardium as same as 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy, although the biologic characteristics of two agents were different. These data and excellent quality of multiple gated SPECT images suggest that 99m Tc-tetrofosmin is a new 99m Tc agent for evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  13. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  14. Acquisition, Maintenance and Relapse-Like Alcohol Drinking: Lessons from the UChB Rat Line

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Yedy; Karahanian, Eduardo; Ezquer, Fernando; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Quintanilla, María E.

    2017-01-01

    This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%?95%) for rats to display ethanol?s reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol in...

  15. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years...

  16. Acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISCHPLER, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory processes after myocardial infarction have gained major interest in recent cardiovascular research. It is believed that not only the degree of cell recruitment to the heart plays a pivotal role in the quality of wound healing after myocardial infarction, but also the balance between different types or even subtypes of cells. It is also this balance which is thought to control key processes in tissue repair, such as apoptosis and neoangiogenesis. In this paper, we aim to review imaging strategies (with a special focus on nuclear molecular imaging strategies) that target cells and processes involved in postischemic inflammation and that have a high potential to be translated into clinic or that are already being used and evaluated in humans.

  17. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackers, F.J.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Three views are routinely obtained for 201 Tl scintigraphy: 0 0 anterior, 45 0 left-anterior-oblique, both views with the patient supine and a left-lateral view, with the patient lying on his right side. Following intravenous injection of 201 Tl, the scintiscans of a normal subject only demonstrate the left ventricle. In patients with normal myocardial perfusion, the left ventricle appears horseshoe or ovoid in shape. The central area of decreased activity represents the left ventricular cavity and is normal. The accumulation of 201 Tl in the normal left ventricle is usually homogeneous. However, some areas with apparent diminished uptake may occur in the normal subject. These variations of the normal image are discussed. The right ventricle, because of its smaller myocardial mass and relatively less 201 Tl accumulation per gram of tissue, is usually on a resting study not, or only faintly, visualized. However, following exercise, the right ventricle is clearly visualized. (Auth.)

  18. Dietary habits after myocardial infarction - results from a cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, Peter; Mattisson, Iréne; Tydén, Patrik; Berglund, Göran; Janzon, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Comparing habitual nutrient intakes in persons with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and age-matched controls. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects. Men and women (525 cases and 1890 matched controls), aged 47-73 years, of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Methods. Nutrient intakes were assessed by a validated modified diet history method. Body fatness was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Case ascertainment was provided by n...

  19. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  1. A Measure of the Intensity of Response to Alcohol in a Military Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuckit, M

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper explores characteristics of alcohol intake and associated difficulties, and their relationship to a self-report of the usual intensity of response to alcohol in a sample of U.S. Marines...

  2. Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Moyses de Oliveira; Figueiredo, Geraldo L.; Simoes, Marcus V.; Pyntia, Antonio O.; Marin Neto, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial and explains the occurrence of angina, in about 50% of patients. The pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia may be explained by the increase of the ventricular mass and relative paucity of the coronary microcirculation; the elevated ventricular filling pressures and myocardial stiffness causing a compression of the coronary microvessels; the impaired coronary vasodilator flow reserve caused by anatomic and functional abnormalities; and the systolic compression of epicardial vessel (myocardial bridges). Myocardial ischemia must be investigated by perfusion scintigraphic methods since its presence influences the prognosis and has relevant clinical implications for management of patients. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and documented myocardial ischemia usually need to undergo invasive coronary angiography to exclude the presence of concomitant atherosclerotic coronary disease. (author)

  3. Acute myocardial infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, H.

    1988-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a major complication of stenosing coronary artery disease and constitutes the most frequent single cause of death. It is caused by thrombotic occlusion of one of the major epicardial coronary arterial branches in most cases. Sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation is responsible for the majority of early fatalities. In 60% of all fatal infarcts, death occurs within 1 h of the onset of pain. The final extension of myocardial necrosis is reached within 2-4 h. An integrated programme has therefore been developed for the supervision and treatment of patients suffering acute coronary attack; it has been shown that it can markedly lower infarct mortality. It includes mobile prehospital care, intensive care treatment in the hospital, and rehabilitative procedures for application during reconvalescence. Early antiarrhythmic treatment and myocardial reperfusion via fibrinolysis are the main therapeutic procedures in the earliest stage. In hospital an operating room and an operating team must be available round the clock for the performance of coronary angiography followed by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery, which can be safely carried out in the acute stage provided the indications are strictly observed. Mortality and morbidity can be significantly lowered and both life expectancy and quality of life can be remarkably improved. (orig.) [de

  4. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  5. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  6. Alcohol consumption among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mathilde L; Larsen, Julie R; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.......0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week. RESULTS: High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes...... a problematic alcohol intake (men OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86, palcohol within the last year (men 13.5%; women 28.2%) compared with participants...

  7. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  8. Nutritional status of alcoholics in Peri-urban areas of the greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholism is a common problem in developing countries. Epidemiological studies on the relationship among excessive alcohol consumption, malnutrition and anaemia are inconclusive. The present study examined the association between alcohol intake and nutritional status of alcoholics in the Greater Accra Region of ...

  9. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  10. Intake of energy and nutrients. Euronut SENECA investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreiras, O; van Staveren, W A; Cruz, J A; Nes, M; Lund-Larsen, K

    1991-12-01

    As part of the Euronut SENECA study, food consumption has been assessed in 1217 men and 1241 women, born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 18 towns in 12 European countries. The method used was a standardized modified dietary history, including a 3-day estimated record and a food frequency list based on local food patterns. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol are described in this paper. As expected, a difference between men and women in energy and nutrient intake was observed in all towns. There was a great variation between towns in mean dietary intakes of all dietary components. Mean energy intake of men ranged from 12.7 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 8.2 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Chateau Renault-Amboise (France). For women the range was from 10.9 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 6.3 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal). A geographical pattern can be detected for the intake of fatty acids. Intakes of saturated fat were lower in southern than in northern European towns. The calculated ratio for intakes of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids plus monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) for all participants was higher in the southern European centres than in the northern centres and ranged from 2.7 in Markopoulo (Greece) to 1.2 in Elverum (Norway) and Marki (Poland). Alcohol consumption was considerable higher in men than in women. In men a north-south gradient in alcohol intake can be detected, with the highest intake in the two centres in Italy, where, on average 11% of energy intake was derived from alcohol.

  11. Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Barbier, Estelle; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Whitfield, Timothy W.; Logrip, Marian L.; Rivier, Catherine; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Sanna, Pietro P.; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol, loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence. We hypothesized that sustained activation of neuroendocrine stress systems (e.g., corticosteroid release via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) by alcohol intoxication and withdrawal and consequent alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation drive compulsive alcohol dri...

  12. Does alcohol increase the risk of preterm delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and preterm delivery. Women attending routine antenatal care at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1989–1991 and 1992–1996 were eligible. We included 18,228 singleton pregnancies in the analyses. We obtained prospective...... information on alcohol intake at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, other lifestyle factors, maternal characteristics, and obstetrical risk factors from self-administered questionnaires and hospital files. For women with alcohol intake of 1–2, 3–4, 5–9, and >=10 drinks/week the risk ratio (RR) of preterm delivery...

  13. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  14. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  15. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  16. Validity of self-reported intakes of wine, beer and spirits in population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M; Heitmann, B L

    1996-07-01

    To compare data on intake of wine, beer and spirits from a frequency questionnaire with intake of each type of alcoholic beverage estimated from a dietary interview. Cross-sectional study. The Danish MONICA study. A randomly selected sub-sample of 244 women and 249 men aged 35-65 y. Differences in intake of beer, wine and spirits as reported by the frequency questionnaire and the diet history interview. There was an overall agreement between the two methods, with very little or no systematic variation for all three alcoholic beverages. Compared to a more time consuming and thorough dietary interview, the traditional frequency questionnaires seem to sufficiently capture intakes of different types of alcohol. Bias in alcohol reporting by the frequency questionnaire does not seem responsible for the recently found decreased mortality among subjects with a daily intake of wine, nor the increased mortality from spirits drinking.

  17. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging. Patients had a myocardial bridge of at least 3 cm in length in the middle of LAD and with more than 70% compression during systole. Unroofing was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 and with off pump technique in 10 patients. In 6 patients repeat angiographies for control of myotomy were done. In one of them a nonsignificant 20% narrowing was seen. Postoperative scintigraphic and angiographic studies demonstrated restoration of coronary flow and myocardial perfusion without residual myocardial bridges under beta-stimulation in 24 patients. Two patients had residual narrowing. With off pump technique, 1 patient had perforation of the right ventricle and 1 patient underwent reoperation because of incomplete unroofing during the first operation. None of the patients with cardiopulmonary bypass technique had residual chest pain or other complications. Surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe and easy procedure with low operative risk and with excellent functional results.

  18. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  19. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  20. Acute alcohol effects on explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol in socially drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.

  1. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  2. [Acrodystrophic neuropathy in an alcoholic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Y; Hironaka, M; Shimoyama, M; Toyota, Y; Kurokawa, M; Kohriyama, T; Nakamura, S

    1993-01-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old alcoholic man with no contributory family history. At age 36 he had developed sensory dominant polyneuropathy with highly impaired temperature sensation and deep sensation in the lower extremities, recurrent ulcers of the toes, and sexual impotence. A sural nerve biopsy at this time revealed marked loss of myelinated fibers with relative preservation of the population of unmyelinated fibers. Subsequently, he developed muscle atrophy of the lower thighs, urinary incontinence, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, and became non-ambulatory at age 44. The peripheral nerve conduction findings suggested predominantly axonal degeneration. The entire course was characterized by alternative progression and partial recovery influenced by his alcohol intake and nutritional state. Alcoholic neuropathy is a major cause of solitary acrodystrophic neuropathy (ADN). Manifestations of autonomic and motor neuropathy are more marked in alcoholic ADN than in HSAN-I, and central nervous system involvement is the hallmark of alcoholic ADN. In the treatment of patients with alcoholic ADN, attention should be paid to diabetes mellitus, malnutritional state, and vitamin deficiency, which frequently complicate alcoholism.

  3. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2017-09-01

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  4. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  6. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Bandera, Elisa V; Terry, Kathryn L

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations.......Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations....

  7. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  8. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  9. Alcohol, smoking and benign hepato-biliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    through effects on bile cholesterol metabolism, the enterohepatic circulation, and gallbladder function. The impact of smoking on gallstone formation seems minor. Both alcohol intake and smoking do not alter the clinical course of gallstone disease carriers. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment...... for symptomatic gallstone disease. Studies about the impact of alcohol and smoking on the post-cholecystectomy state are few and future studies should be performed. Pancreatitis is associated with both excessive alcohol intake and smoking in observational studies. Interpretation of associations with pancreatitis...... is hampered by an incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms and by the co-existence of excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence is recommended in the treatment of pancreatitis, but higher-level evidence is needed....

  10. Lower risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis in wine drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    Although there is a well-known relationship between total alcohol intake and future risk for cirrhosis, other factors such as the type of alcohol consumed are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine compared with other types of alcoholic beverages on risk...... for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In 3 prospective studies, 30,630 participants from the Copenhagen area were followed-up for a total observation time of 417,325 person-years. Information on weekly intake of beer, wine, and spirits, and sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and education was obtained from...... with increasing alcohol intake. Individuals who drank more than 5 drinks per day had a relative risk of 14 to 20 for developing cirrhosis compared with non- or light drinkers. However, compared with individuals who drank no wine (relative risk set at 1.0), individuals drinking 16% to 30% wine of their total...

  11. Depression following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2013-01-01

    whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires...... between post-MI depression and new cardiovascular events or death, taking potential mediators into account (Paper III); 4. To examine the association between MI and suicide (Paper IV). Two different study designs were employed: a population-based cohort study using data obtained from registers......Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...

  12. Alcohol and cirrhosis: dose--response or threshold effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: General population studies have shown a strong association between alcohol intake and death from alcoholic cirrhosis, but whether this is a dose-response or a threshold effect remains unknown, and the relation among alcohol misusers has not been studied. METHODS: A cohort of 6152...... alcohol misusing men and women aged 15-83 were interviewed about drinking pattern and social issues and followed for 84,257 person-years. Outcome was alcoholic cirrhosis mortality. Data was analyzed by means of Cox-regression models. RESULTS: In this large prospective cohort study of alcohol misusers...... there was a 27 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in men and a 35 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in women compared to the Danish population. Number of drinks per day was not significantly associated with death from alcoholic cirrhosis, since there was no additional risk of death...

  13. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  14. Maternal Alcohol Use and Nutrition During Pregnancy: Diet and Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R Colin; Senekal, Marjanne; Dodge, Neil C; Bechard, Lori J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Molteno, Christopher D; Duggan, Christopher P; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-12-01

    Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among nonpregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk. One hundred and twenty-three heavy drinking Cape Coloured pregnant women and 83 abstaining controls were recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 3 prenatal study visits, each gravida was interviewed about alcohol, smoking, and drug use and weight, height, and arm skinfolds were measured. Dietary intakes of energy, protein, fat, and major micronutrients were assessed from three 24-hour recall interviews. The majority of women gained less than the recommended 0.42 kg/wk during pregnancy. Whereas methamphetamine use was associated with smaller biceps skinfolds, an indicator of body fat, alcohol consumption was not related to any anthropometric indicator. Alcohol was related to higher intake of phosphorus, choline, and vitamins B12 and D. Alcohol, cigarette, and methamphetamine use were related to lower vitamin C intake. Insufficient intake was reported by >85% of women for 10 of 22 key nutrients, and >50% for an additional 3 nutrients. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with meaningful changes in diet or anthropometric measures in this population, suggesting that poor nutrition among drinkers does not confound the extensively reported effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurobehavior. The poor gestational weight gain and high rates of insufficient intake for several nutrients in both the alcohol-exposed and control groups are also of public health importance. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Alcohol consumption and later risk of hospitalization with psychiatric disorders: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2011-01-01

    hospital with a psychiatric disorder. The prospective cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n=18,146), was used, containing three updated sets of alcohol intake and lifestyle covariates and up to 26 years follow-up. Alcohol intake was measured by self-report while psychiatric disorders were......The potential effects of alcohol intake upon the risk of psychiatric disorders have not often been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a population sample, the association between self-reported amount of alcohol intake and the later risk of being registered in a Danish.......31-3.04) compared to women drinking below the sensible drinking limits. For men, the risk functions were slightly U-shaped; thus, a weekly low or moderate alcohol intake seemed to have a protective effect towards developing psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest sex differences in the association between...

  16. Scan analysis in myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J [Landesunfallkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Inst. fuer Strahlenmedizin

    1976-08-01

    Myocardial scans with sup(99m)Tc-labelled phosphates are reported to be useful in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. A retrospective survey of 205 patients referred for sup(99m)Tc-phophate bone scanning and with no evidence of recent heart disease revealed an occurrence of 10% of false positive images, that is to say, uptake of phosphate in non-infarcted mayocardium. These striking findings stress the need for critical assessment of the usefulness of this diagnostic technique.

  17. The Carcinogenicity of Alcoholic Beverages: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sherafatmanesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is convincing evidence that alcohol consumption increases the risk of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, gastric, breast, prostate, colorectal, and liver cancers. Lifestyle behaviors, including drinking patterns and smoking status can synergistically increase the adverse outcomes of alcohol intake. This review aims at summarizing published data considering alcohol consumption as a risk factor for major cancers and possible mechanisms in its pathogenesis. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, Science direct, Google scholar, Medline, and Web of Science (ISI databases. The search was limited to studies published in English. 59 eligible articles were identified. The available data provided adequate scientific evidence which pointed toward a positive association between alcohol intake and development of oral, pharynx, esophagus, gastric, breast, prostate, colorectal, and liver cancer. This review provided sufficient evidence that alcohol, even at low intakes, significantly increases the risk of cancer in those sites where there is direct contact with alcohol such as the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus. Clinicians should always evaluate the patient-specific risk, considering the additive/synergistic behaviors, including drinking pattern and smoking status together.

  18. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat......Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage...... of alcohols will lead to high alcohol concentrations in peripheral bood for a considerable period. Increased hepatic NEFA uptake in the postpartum transition period may result in even further decreased hepatic capacity for alcohol metabolism making post-partum transition cows especially vulnerable to high...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  19. Myocardial scintigraphy: methods and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy comprises perfusion imaging using TI-201 or - more recently - Tc-99m-labeled compounds with high affinity to myocytes. Imaging with these agents has become an important procedure in the detection of coronary artery disease, particularly in patients with non-diagnostic stress-ECG, in the functional evaluation of coronary stenoses after angiographical documentation in order to meet the adequate therapy decision, in therapy monitoring and follow-up, in the post infarction assessment of myocardial viability and differentiation between severe ischemia and scar and, occasionally, in acute ischemia. The use of positron emitters does not offer significant advantages for mere perfusion imaging, but is indispensable for the scintigraphic investigation of certain aspects of myocardial metabolism, particularly for the differentiation of viable ischemic wall segments from irreversibly damaged tissue. Imaging of myocardial necrosis has been improved by the introduction of labeled antimyosin antibody fragments and offers a considerable clinical potential in the diagnosis of myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. Neurohumoral aspects are increasingly involved in our understanding of myocardial failure. Scintigraphy of innervation/neurotransmission contributes to the investigation of pathophysiological alterations in myocardial insufficiency and in heart transplants. (orig.) [de

  20. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  3. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  4. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  5. THE STUDY OF HEART MUSCLE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol affects many organs, especially the liver, pancreas and brain. Although, the beneficial effects of mild or moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to coronary artery disease, excessive ethanol consumption can result in Alcoholic Heart Muscle Disease (AHMD. AIMS Alcohol consumption, mainly arrack, is common social problem in Mangalore. This study has been undertaken to assess the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patient with history of consumption of about 6 units of alcohol per day for at least 5 days a week for at least 5 years who were admitted to Government Wenlock Hospital, Attavar K.M.C. and University Medical Centre, Mangalore, were selected as case and studied. RESULTS Alcohol intake is predominantly observed in males, majority of alcoholic had high blood pressure, serum levels of CPK-MB and LDH are elevated in chronic alcoholic patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, premature ventricular contraction and sinus tachycardia were common findings in the electrocardiograms of chronic alcoholic patients and development of alcoholic heart muscle disease is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol intake. CONCLUSION Overall, the present study has found high morbidity from chronic alcohol consumption highlighting the need for preventive measures to tackle this preventable hazard.

  6. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  7. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbaek, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time to pregna...

  9. Alcohol misuse in patients with psoriasis: identification and relationship to disease severity and psychological distress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAleer, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with increased alcohol intake and excessive mortality from alcohol-related causes. Alcohol biomarkers provide an objective measure of alcohol consumption. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is the single most sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker. OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis using standard alcohol screening questionnaires and biomarkers. We investigated whether there was an association between alcohol intake, anxiety, depression and disease severity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited and completed a range of anonymized assessments. Psoriasis severity, anxiety and depression, and the impact of psoriasis on quality of life were assessed. Alcohol screening questionnaires were administered. Blood specimens were taken and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and CDT were measured. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients completed the study. Using validated questionnaires, between 22% and 32% had difficulties with alcohol. Seven per cent had CDT > 1.6% indicating a heavy alcohol intake. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was superior to other validated questionnaires in detecting alcohol misuse. There were no significant associations between measures of excessive alcohol consumption and disease severity. Excessive alcohol intake as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was associated with increased depression (P = 0.001) but other measures of alcohol excess did not correlate with psychological distress. Men had significantly more difficulties with alcohol than women (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Alcohol misuse is common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Screening with the AUDIT questionnaire and CDT may allow the identification of patients who are misusing alcohol and allow appropriate intervention.

  10. Alcoholism and its treatment approach from a citizen perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Antoni; Arbesú, José Ángel; Zarco, José; López Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    The main objective of the study is to describe alcohol consumption in the general Spanish population, to discover citizens' opinion on their alcohol consumption, on alcoholism and on treatment approaches.   In 2015 a cross-sectional study was carried out by means of a telephone survey. A representative sample was selected. Participants were asked about their alcohol consumption, their perception of risk regarding their pattern of alcohol consumption, about their opinion on alcoholism, alcohol consequences and the treatment approach. A questionnaire was designed. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C was used to define the pattern of alcohol intake. A descriptive and an statistical inference analysis were done. 22.1% were classified as risky drinkers, with a higher proportion in young males. The majority of individuals think that alcoholism is an illness, and more than 75% agree that alcohol has negative consequences on health, social functioning, occupational functioning and family relationships. Furthermore, the perception of risk that citizens have regarding their own drinking pattern is high (37.6%). 67.7% considered that the general practitioner can manage alcoholism, with females and older people believing this most strongly. Alcohol consumption is very prevalent in the Spanish population, especially in young people (31.8%). The perception of alcohol risk is high. The majority agree with the fact that general practitioners are well prepared for treating alcohol problems.

  11. Plant-based foods containing cell wall polysaccharides rich in specific active monosaccharides protect against myocardial injury in rat myocardial infarction models

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Ha Lim; Yaesil Kim; Ki Na Yun; Jin Young Kim; Jung-Hee Jang; Mee-Jung Han; Jongwon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many cohort studies have shown that consumption of diets containing a higher composition of foods derived from plants reduces mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we examined the active components of a plant-based diet and the underlying mechanisms that reduce the risk of CHD using three rat models and a quantitative proteomics approach. In a short-term myocardial infarction (MI) model, intake of wheat extract (WE), the representative cardioprotectant identified by screening app...

  12. TO STUDY AND EVALUATE DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS OF ALCOHOLIC AND NON-ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cardiovascular dysfunction is the major component of morbidity in patients of liver cirrhosis and a cardinal prognostic indicator in patients undergoing liver transplantation. The constellation of hyperdynamic circulation, peripheral vasodilation and volume overload alters the systolic and diastolic dysfunction leading to cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM. In this study, we evaluated and compared the diastolic dysfunction among alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. AIMS 1 To Study the Prevalence of Diastolic Dysfunction in Alcoholic & Non-Alcoholic Cirrhotics and Controls. 2 To Compare the Diastolic functional status between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional case control study was conducted in 100 male cirrhotic patients consisting of alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic subjects with age matched 50 controls in Pt. JNM Medical College & Dr. BRAM Hospital, Raipur. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was assessed using echocardiographic parameters. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The range, median, standard deviation and statistical significance were calculated. Most of the data is analysed by Student Ttest, Mann Whitney U test, while the data with frequency distribution is analysed by Fisher’s exact. With p value 1. CONCLUSION Our study showed that patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis have higher occurrence of DD (49% and 46% respectively than controls owing to alterations in the myocardial contractile and relaxation function. It also shows that although DD is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There were no significant differences in diastolic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis concluding that alcohol likely plays a non-significant role in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhotics.

  13. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2003-01-01

    A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to have...... fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy....

  14. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  15. Wine, beer and spirits and the risk of myocardial infarction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleophas, T J

    1999-10-01

    Alcohol has beneficial and harmful effects on health at the same time. Wine may be more beneficial for the heart than other types of alcoholic beverages. 1. To assess the current status of knowledge regarding the relationship between death and alcohol consumption. 2. To assess the relationship between myocardial infarction (MI) and consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages, both low doses (1-4 drinks a day), and high doses (> 4 drinks a day). Meta-analysis of major cohort and case-control studies. For the assessment of death and alcohol consumption eight cohort studies were used; for the assessment of MI and different types of alcoholic beverages, 12 cohort and two case-control studies were used. 1. Small doses of alcohol (1-4 drinks a day) are associated with a slightly reduced risk of mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD). 2. Small doses (1-4 drinks a day) of wine, beer, and spirits are equally beneficial. 3. Apart from a direct beneficial effect of low doses of alcohol on mortality and CHD, some psychological factors may contribute to its beneficial effect. 4. High doses of alcohol (> or = 5 drinks a day) are not associated with a reduced risk of death and CHD. 5. Apart from a direct effect of alcohol, confounding factors, particularly those of a psychological nature, may very well again contribute to the loss of benefits.

  16. Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Ovbiagele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus (DM confers high vascular risk and is a growing national epidemic. We assessed clinical characteristics and prevalence of diagnosed DM among patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the US over the last decade. Methods. Data were obtained from all states within the US that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients admitted to hospitals between 1997 and 2006 with a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Time trends in the proportion of these patients with DM diagnosis were computed. Results. The portion of patients with comorbid diabetes among AMI hospitalizations increased substantially from 18% in 1997 to 30% in 2006 (<.0001. Absolute numbers of AMI hospitalizations in the US decreased 8% (from 729, 412 to 672, 243, while absolute numbers of AMI hospitalizations with coexisting DM rose 51% ((131, 189 to 198, 044, both (<.0001. Women with AMI were significantly more likely to have DM than similarly aged men, but these differences diminished with increasing age. Conclusion. Although overall hospitalizations for AMI in the US diminished over the last decade, prevalence of diabetes rose substantially. This may have important consequences for the future societal vascular disease burden.

  17. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  18. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  19. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  1. Early spontaneous intermittent myocardial reperfusion during acute myocardial infarction is associated with augmented thrombogenic activity and less myocardial damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.W.; Andreotti, F.; Hackett, D.R.; Tousoulis, D.; Kluft, C.; Maseri, A.; Davies, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated the influence of early spontaneous intermittent reperfusion on the extent of myocardial damage and its relation to endogenous hemostatic activity, Background. In the early phase of acute myocardial infarction coronary occlusion is often intermittent, even before

  2. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in acute-myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackers, F.J.Th.; Lie, K.I.; Sokole, E.B.; Wellens, H.J.J.; Samson, G.; Schoot, J.B. van der

    1980-01-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy has proven to be an early and highly sensitive technique to detect myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction. During the early phase of acute myocardial infarction, patients may be hemodynamically and electrically unstable. Therefore, scintigraphy is performed preferably at the bed side in the Coronary Care Unit using a mobile gamma camera. Additionally, in order to shorten imaging time in these often critically ill patients, the authors recommend injecting no less than 2 mCi of 201 Tl. Using this dosage, the imaging time per view will be approximately five minutes. Routinely, three views are taken: the first view is a supine 45 0 left-anterior-oblique view, followed by a supine anterior view and finally a left-lateral view, the latter with the patient turned on the right side. (Auth.)

  3. Myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the exercise stress test in diagnosing asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, exercise radionuclide imaging remains useful for detecting silent ischemia in numerous patient populations, including those who are totally asymptomatic, those who have chronic stable angina, those who have recovered from an episode of unstable angina or an uncomplicated myocardial infarction, and those who have undergone angioplasty or received thrombolytic therapy. Studies show that thallium scintigraphy is more sensitive than exercise electrocardiography in detecting ischemia, i.e., in part, because perfusion defects occur more frequently than ST depression and before angina in the ischemic cascade. Thallium-201 scintigraphy can be performed to differentiate a true- from a false-positive exercise electrocardiographic test in patients with exercise-induced ST depression and no angina. The development of technetium-labeled isonitriles may improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging. 11 references

  4. Alcohol consumption and augmentation index in healthy young men: The ARYA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, M.J.C.A. van; Beulens, J.W.J.; Bos, W.J.W.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, whereas increased alcohol intake is related to hypertension and intracerebral hemorrhage. We studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the augmentation index (AIx), a measure

  5. The high harm score of alcohol. Time for drug policy to be revisited?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create awareness of the negative health impact and economic burden and benefits associated to alcohol consumption. Worldwide about two billion people consume alcohol. Low intake of alcohol has a minor protective cardiovascular effect. On the other hand, even moderate

  6. Is Vitamin D Deficiency a Confounder in Alcoholic Skeletal Muscle Myopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnia, J.W.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; van der Wiel, A.; Mulder, C.L.; Nieuwenhuis, K.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Excessive intake of alcohol is often associated with low or subnormal levels of vitamin D even in the absence of active liver disease. As vitamin D deficiency is a well-recognized cause of myopathy, alcoholic myopathy might be related to vitamin D deficiency. Chronic alcoholic myopathy

  7. Alcohol drinking patterns and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Becker, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. METHODS: This cohort study...... was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain information on alcohol drinking patterns......, i.e. frequency of alcohol drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and consumption of wine, beer and spirits, from which we calculated beverage-specific and overall average weekly alcohol intake. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox...

  8. Myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Silber, S.; Klein, U.; Rudolph, W.

    1980-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy is an important non-invasive method for assessment of coronary artery disease. Other applications of the method such as delineation of the right ventricular free wall in right ventricular overload, or the detection of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies or myocardial infiltrations are of subordinate importance. In heart disease such as congestive cardiomyopathy and mitral valve prolapse thallium-201 uptake defects have been described, the clinical implications of these findings, however, cannot be adequately interpreted at this time. Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 is an active process, dependent on and proportional to perfusion. Differentiation between myocardial ischemia and myocardial scar is based on the presence or absence of thallium-201 'redistribution'. That is, in the presence of acute reversible ischemia there is increased thallium-201 uptake in the post-ischemic phase in previously hypoperfused myocardium and, subsequently, equilibrium of the initially registered activity differences. 'Redistribution' has also been described in the resting scintigram of patients with severe coronary artery disease and chronic hypoperfusion. (orig.) [de

  9. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic drinks and mortality. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol intake, smoking habit, income, education, and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--6051 men and 7234 women aged 30-70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of cause-specific deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--The risk of dying steadily decreased with an increasing intake of wine--from a relative risk of 1.00 for the subjects who never drank wine to 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.81) for those who drank three to five glasses a day. Intake of neither beer nor spirits, however, was associated with reduced risk. For spirits intake the relative risk of dying increased from 1.00 for those who never drank to 1.34 (1.05 to 1.71) for those with an intake of three to five drinks a day. The effects of the three types of alcoholic drinks seemed to be independent of each other, and no significant interactions existed with sex, age, education, income, smoking, or body mass index. Wine drinking showed the same relation to risk of death from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease as to risk of death from all causes. CONCLUSION--Low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and other causes. Similar intake of spirits implied an increased risk, while beer drinking did not affect mortality. PMID:7767150

  10. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2014-01-01

    myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, high p-creatinine, and diabetes mellitus. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for type 2 myocardial infarction was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0). With shock as the only exception, mortality was independent of the triggering conditions leading to type....../119) in those with type 2 myocardial infarction and 26% (92/360) in those with type 1 myocardial infarction (P high age, prior myocardial infarction, type 2...... 2 myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction is high, reaching approximately 50% after 2 years. Further descriptive and survival studies are needed to improve the scientific evidence on which treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction is based....

  11. Sgarbossa criteria and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Neha; Bathina, Jaya; Kranis, Mark; Angelis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block is difficult. present a case of acute myocardial infarction with LBBB diagnosed and treated using the Sgarbossa criteria.

  12. The endothelial glycocalyx protects against myocardial edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Bernard M.; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial tissue edema attributable to increased microvascular fluid loss contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia, cardiopulmonary bypass, hypertension, and sepsis. Recent studies suggest that carbohydrate structures on the luminal surface of microvascular endothelium are

  13. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  14. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    , smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...

  15. Psychoactive substance intake and gender on crime | Okediji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of psychoactive substance (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) intake and gender on crime. Three hundred and eighty participants (380) were randomly selected from inmates as models of prisons in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants comprised 314 males (82.63%) and 66 females ...

  16. Psychoactive substance intake and gender on crime | okediji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of psychoactive substance (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) intake and gender on crime. Three hundred and eighty participants (380) were randomly selected from inmates as models of prisons in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants comprised 314 males (82.63%) and 66 females ...

  17. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T.B.; Hjollund, N.H.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions...... in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires...... with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss....

  18. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  19. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be

  20. Factors related to alcohol and drug consumption in Swedish widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimby, Agneta; Johansson, Asa K

    2009-01-01

    The use of alcohol and medications among Swedish widows was analyzed in relation to various background variables. In Total, 1053 widows (640 widows younger than 65 years and 413 widows older than 65 years) answered the questionnaire. Many reported increased fatigue and sleeping problems. Around one-third of the widows reported drinking alcohol for relief of grief and inadequate support. Association existed between grief and increased intake of sedatives and sleeping pills, and between grief and drinking for relief of grief, as well as increase in intake of sedatives. In widows older than 65 years, perception of bad health, negative outlook for the future, and insufficient support seemed to increase the risk of more sedatives and sleeping pills. Negative outlook for the future also tended to lead to a heightened risk for increased intake of alcohol. There seems to be remaining health problems a long time after bereavement, and counseling may be needed especially when drugs and alcohol are extensively used.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association...... with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. CONCLUSION: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated...

  2. Myocardial infarction after near drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Bang; Lai, Yen-Chun; Chen, Chang-Chih; Chang, Wen-Han; Su, Yu-Jang

    2008-06-01

    During summer, near drowning is a common accident in Taiwan. It may lead to multiple organ damages in cases where severe hypothermia and hypoxemia occur. We present a case of myocardial infarction after near drowning. The patient was sent to our ED by the emergency medical services called by the witness. On arrival to our ED, hypothermia and hypoxemia overcame him. Endotracheal intubation and warm intravenous fluid were applied at once owing to drowsy consciousness, respiratory distress, and hypothermia. Electrocardiogram showed diffuse ST-segment elevation over the precordial leads V2-V6. The initial level of cardiac enzymes was within normal limit but elevated in troponin I on the second day after hospitalization. We presumed that the possibility of myocardial infarction resulted from near drowning-related hypoxemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case describing myocardial injury with electrocardiogram changes after near drowning.

  3. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Damiano; Eid, Marwen; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Jin, Kwang Nam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Tesche, Christian; Mangold, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  4. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Latina (Italy); Eid, Marwen [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  5. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Si Hassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  6. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-11-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the "tunnel" segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64 ± 9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23 ± 1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  7. Different Causes of Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Type 1, Type 2, and Myocardial Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Sascha; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Gerke, Oke; Hosbond, Susanne; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Data outlining the mortality and the causes of death in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and those with myocardial injury are limited. During a 1-year period from January 2010 to January 2011, all hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication were prospectively studied. Patients with at least one cardiac troponin I value >30 ng/L underwent case ascertainment and individual evaluation by an experienced adjudication committee. Patients were classified as having type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, or myocardial injury according to the criteria of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Follow-up was ensured until December 31, 2014. Data on mortality and causes of death were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Overall, 3762 consecutive patients were followed for a mean of 3.2 years (interquartile range 1.3-3.6 years). All-cause mortality differed significantly among categories: Type 1 myocardial infarction 31.7%, type 2 myocardial infarction 62.2%, myocardial injury 58.7%, and 22.2% in patients with nonelevated troponin values (log-rank test; P causes, vs 42.6% in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (P = .015) and 41.2% in those with myocardial injury (P causes of death did not differ substantially between patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and those with myocardial injury. Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury exhibit a significantly higher long-term mortality compared with patients with type 1 myocardial infarction . However, most patients with type 1 myocardial infarction die from cardiovascular causes in contrast to patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury, in whom noncardiovascular causes of death predominate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  10. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... and number of episodes) and between simple reaction time (SRT) and alcohol intake or binge drinking (timing and number of episodes) during pregnancy. Conclusion This was one of the first studies investigating IPT and prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking in early pregnancy. Daily prenatal...

  11. An angiographic study of left- and right-ventricular function in patients with alcoholic heart and dilatation cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Samko, A.N.; Smetnev, A.S.; Grudtsyn, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    An angiographic study of left- and right-ventricular function in 57 patients with alcoholic heart and dilatation cardiomyopathy demonstrated preclinical disorders of left-ventricular myocardial contractility and more marked right-ventricular changes in patients with second-stage chronic alcoholism. In cases of dilatation cardiomyopathy, left-ventricular dysfunction was predominant, while right-venricular changes were less pronouced

  12. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim ofthis study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthierand environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods...... from48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmarkfor dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (80...

  13. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  14. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  15. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease

  17. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  18. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  19. Intake of wine, beer, and spirits and the risk of clinical common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takkouche, Bahi; Regueira-Méndez, Carlos; García-Closas, Reina; Figueiras, Adolfo; Gestal-Otero, Juan J; Hernán, Miguel A

    2002-05-01

    To examine whether intakes of wine, beer, spirits, and total alcohol are associated with the risk of common cold, in 1998-1999 the authors analyzed data from a cohort study carried out in a population of 4,272 faculty and staff of five Spanish universities. Usual alcohol intake was assessed at baseline by means of a standardized frequency questionnaire that was validated in a random sample of the population. The authors detected 1,353 cases of common cold. Total alcohol intake and beer and spirits consumption were not related to the occurrence of common cold, whereas consumption of wine was inversely associated with the risk of common cold. When drinkers of >14 glasses of wine per week were compared with teetotalers, the relative risk was 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.8) after adjustment for age, sex, and faculty/staff status. The association was stronger for red wine. These results remained unaltered after adjustment for total alcohol intake and for other potential risk factors for common cold. Findings suggest that wine intake, especially red wine, may have a protective effect against common cold. Beer, spirits, and total alcohol intakes do not seem to affect the incidence of common cold.

  20. Myocardial contusion following nonfatal blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.A.; Puri, V.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Cortez, J.

    1983-01-01

    Currently available diagnostic techniques for myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma were evaluated. We investigated 30 patients prospectively over a period of 1 year for the presence of myocardial contusion. Among the 30 patients, eight were found to have myocardial contusion on the basis of abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated creatine phosphokinase MB fraction (CPK-MB), and positive myocardial scan. Myocardial scan was positive in seven of eight patients (87.5%). CPK-MB fraction was elevated in four of eight patients (50%). Definitive electrocardiographic changes were seen in only two of eight patients (25%). It appears that myocardial scan using technetium pyrophosphate and CPK-MB fraction determinations are the most reliable aids in diagnosis of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma

  1. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  2. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  3. Myocardial imaging with cesium-130

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.V.; Resnekov, L.; Stark, V.; Odeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Recently comparative studies using nitrogen-13 ammonia and cesium-130 have shown strikingly different myocardial localization patterns in the same subjects with ischemic heart disease. Initial localization of ammonia, an avidly extracted agent, reflects the perfusion pattern in viable myocardial tissue. The myocardial localization of cesium ion, taking place more slowly over 15 to 20 minutes, is apparently much less flow dependent, causing uptake defects shown with ammonia to be largely filled in. Cesium thus appears to provide information on the extent of the viable myocardial mass, apart from perfusion. Cesium-130 (t1/2 30 m) decays by positron emission and electron capture. The whole body radiation absorbed dose, assuming uniform distribution, is 24 mrad/mCi. While abundant production of Cs-130 results from proton bombardment of natural xenon [Xe-130(rho,n)Cs-130] at 15 MeV, small amounts of Cs-129, -131, and -132 are also produced, and enriched Xe-130 is not available. Alternatively almost completely uncontaminated Cs-130 is available by alpha bombardment of natural I-127. Anhydrous sodium iodide is dissolved in acetone and a thin layer (≅20 mg per centimeter squared) is evaporated onto the gold plated tip of the internal target backing which is oscillated vertically to spread out the area upon which the beam is incident. The target surface is inclined 2.5 degrees to the beam giving a power density of about 400 watts per centimeter squared at 100μA which is adequately handled by water cooling. A 30-minute bombardment yields 4 to 5 mCi of Cs-130 which is dissolved directly from the target. This approach appears to offer a new and helpful method for evaluating ischemic heart disease by permitting evaluation of viable myocardial mass

  4. Myocardial protection in heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    One of the unmet clinical needs in heart surgery is the prevention of myocardial stunning and necrosis that occurs as a result of ischemia-reperfusion. Myocardial stunning, a frequent consequence after heart surgery, is characterized by a requirement for postoperative inotropic support despite a technically satisfactory heart operation. In high-risk patients with marginal cardiac reserve, stunning is a major cause of prolonged critical care and may be associated with as much as a 5-fold increase in mortality. In contrast, the frequency of myocardial necrosis (myocardial infarction [MI]) after cardiac surgery is less appreciated and its consequences are much more subtle. The consequences may not be apparent for months to years. While we now have a much better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying myocardial stunning and MI, we still have no effective way to prevent these complications, nor a consistently effective means to engage the well-studied endogenous mechanisms of cardioprotection. The failure to develop clinically effective interventions is multifactorial and can be attributed to reliance on findings obtained from subcellular and cellular studies, to drawing conclusions from preclinical large animal studies that have been conducted in a disease-free state, and to accepting less than robust surrogate markers of injury in phase II clinical trials. These factors also explain the disappointing failure to identify effective adjuvant therapy in the setting of percutaneous coronary revascularization for acute MI (AMI) and reperfusion injury. These issues have contributed to the disappointing outcomes of large and costly phase III trials, resulting in a lack of enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in further drug development for this indication. The purpose of this review is to (1) define the scope of the clinical problem; (2) summarize the outcomes of selected phases II and III clinical trials; and (3) identify the gap that

  5. Myocardial ischemia in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    The detection of myocardial ischemia is essential for evaluation of patients with Kawasaki disease, especially who have had coronary artery lesions. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after dipyridamole infusion (maximum dose 0.70 mg/kg) for detecting myocardial ischemia, 44 patients with Kawasaki disease aged 7.7±4.8 years at the study and 10 age matched controls were observed. In the Kawasaki disease group, significant coronary artery stenosis was observed in 14, coronary aneurysm without stenosis in 18, the regression of the coronary aneurysms in 2 and without coronary lesions in 10 patients. In 24 of 44 patients, treadmill exercise stress test was also performed at the same period. Myocardial ischemic changes were observed in 11 patients, all combined with significant coronary artery stenosis. The sensitivity of SPECT for detection of overall coronary stenosis was 79%, coronary that of treadmill exercise test was only 33% (p<0.001). Furthermore, among the patients having significant coronary stenosis, the severity score was significantly elevated in patients who had electrocardiographic abnormal Q wave compared to those without abnormal Q wave (51.0±38.8 versus 20.0±12.1, p<0.05). These data suggest that the pharmacological stress scintigraphy using dipyridamole injection provides not only the accurate detection but quantitative evaluation of myocardial ischemia in these patients. This noninvasive technique may become one of the most useful index for detection and follow-up of myocardial ischemia in Kawasaki disease. (author)

  6. Myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, A.P.; Fox, K.M.; Jonathan, A.; Lavender, P.; Watson, I.

    1981-01-01

    Ambulatory monitoring of ST segment changes was performed in 60 patients presenting with angina, positive ECG stress tests and coronary artery disease, 85% of ischemic ECG events were asymptomatic, 37% occurred with no increase in heart rate and 15% of episodes either lasted 20 minutes or more or fluctuated in severity. A controlled pilot study in ten patients showed depression. Radionuclide studies in 50 patients with angina and coronary artery disease have shown that stress (i.e., atrial pacing) produced different patterns of disturbed regional myocardial perfusion related to the patient's exercise capacity and eventually leading to a decrease in regional myocardial perfusion during the ischemic episode. ST segment depression appeared only after the decrease in regional myocardial perfusion. These findings combined with past research suggest that patients with angina and coronary artery disease can suffer frequent asymptomatic disturbances of the regional myocardial perfusion. The frequency of these episodes and the time course for the recovery of the metabolic consequences mean that segments of ventricular myocardium may be constantly abnormal. The relative importance of changes in coronary tone and malfunction of platelets in the diseased coronary tree needs to be examined in clinical research. Pilot studies of antiplatelet agents have shown a significant beneficial effect on episodes of ischemia occurring at night and those occurring without any increase in heart rate. The techniques and observations in these patients with coronary artery disease all suggest that acute transient regional myocardial ischemia is caused by a variety of mechnisms. Further research using objective methods is required to discover the causes of ischemia and to rationalize treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Radioiodinated tracers for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.V.; Corbett, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficient production of high purity radioiodine (123I) and new efficient radiolabeling techniques have allowed the development of new classes of cardiovascular radiopharmaceuticals. These include 123I-labeled fatty acids to assess myocardial metabolism, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for myocardial neuronal activity, labeled monoclonal antibodies for myocardial necrosis, and labeled lipoproteins for receptor concentration. 123I-labeled fatty acids and MIBG are under clinical investigation with encouraging results. 123I- and 111In-labeled fragments of monoclonal antibodies to myosin have been used for imaging myocardial necrosis in humans. The development of radiotracers for imaging of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors is still in the experimental stage. Recent advances in imaging instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals have resulted in cardiac imaging applications beyond blood pool ventriculography, perfusion, and infarct-avid imaging. Developments of radioiodine (123I)-labeled agents promise to play an important role in the assessment of myocardial metabolism, neuronal activity, and receptor concentration. The chemistry of iodine is well defined compared with that of 99mTc; therefore, iodine isotopes are well suited for labeling biologically important molecules. Among the iodine isotopes, 123I has nearly ideal nuclear properties for nuclear medical applications with a 13.3-hour half-life (T1/2) and 159 keV gamma emission (83%). Despite the nearly ideal chemical and nuclear properties of 123I, the widespread application of 123I-based radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice has been limited by high production costs (123I is produced in a cyclotron), relatively limited availability, and the presence of undesirable radionuclidic impurities (124I, T1/2 = 4.2 days; 125I, T1/2 = 60 days; 126I, T1/2 = 13.1 days). 77 references

  8. Alcohol consumption and the risk of hypertension in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesso, Howard D; Cook, Nancy R; Buring, Julie E; Manson, JoAnn E; Gaziano, J Michael

    2008-04-01

    Heavy alcohol intake increases the risk of hypertension, but the relationship between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and incident hypertension remains controversial. We prospectively followed 28 848 women from the Women's Health Study and 13 455 men from the Physicians' Health Study free of baseline hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Self-reported lifestyle and clinical risk factors were collected. In women, total alcohol intake was summed from liquor, red wine, white wine, and beer; men reported total alcohol intake from a single combined question. During 10.9 and 21.8 years of follow-up, 8680 women and 6012 men developed hypertension (defined as new physician diagnosis, antihypertensive treatment, reported systolic blood pressure >or=140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure >or=90 mm Hg). In women, we found a J-shaped association between alcohol intake and hypertension in age- and lifestyle-adjusted models. Adding potential intermediates (body mass index, diabetes, and high cholesterol) attenuated the benefits of alcohol in the light-to-moderate range and strengthened the adverse effects of heavy alcohol intake. Beverage-specific relative risks paralleled those for total alcohol intake. In men, alcohol intake was positively and significantly associated with the risk of hypertension and persisted after multivariate adjustment. Models stratified by baseline systolic blood pressure (or=120 mm Hg) or diastolic blood pressure (or=75 mm Hg) did not alter the relative risks in women and men. In conclusion, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption decreased hypertension risk in women and increased risk in men. The threshold above which alcohol became deleterious for hypertension risk emerged at >or=4 drinks per day in women versus a moderate level of >or=1 drink per day in men.

  9. Transferrin metabolism in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, B.J.; Chapman, R.W.; Nunes, R.M.; Sorrentino, D.; Sherlock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of transferrin was studied using purified 125 I-labeled transferrin in 11 alcoholic patients; six with fatty liver and five with cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects whose alcohol intake was les than 40 gm daily were studied as a control group. There were no significant differences in the mean fractional catabolic rate and plasma volume in the alcoholic groups when compared with control subjects. A significantly decreased mean serum transferrin concentration was found in the alcoholic cirrhotic patients (1.8 +/- 0.3 gm per liter vs. 2.9 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01), resulting from diminished total body synthesis (0.9 +/- 0.2 mg per kg per hr vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the patients with alcoholic fatty liver, the mean total body transferrin synthesis (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg per kg per hr) was significantly increased when compared with controls (p less than 0.05). For all the alcoholic patients, the serum transferrin correlated with transferrin synthesis (r = +0.70; p less than 0.01) but the serum iron did not. These results suggest that, in alcoholic cirrhosis, transferrin synthesis is decreased, probably reflecting diminished synthetic capacity by the liver. In contrast, in patients with alcoholic fatty liver, transferrin turnover is accelerated

  10. Study progress of cardiac MRI technology in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Hao

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most common diseases that cause disability and death around the world. Correctly and effectively assessing the myocardial viability after myocardial infarction can reduce the disabled rate and mortality rate. At present, many methods could be used to assess myocardial viability. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology has a lot of advantages compared to other methods. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of CMR in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction, and compared CMR with other technologies. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of left ventricular function in patient with old myocardial infarction by 201-thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kanji; Shimohara, Yasuaki; Ito, Misao; Okada, Keisei [Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori

    1984-08-01

    Correlation between the ratio of myocardial defect calculated by 201-thallium myocardial scintigraphy and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by gated blood pool scintigraphy and the maximum level of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was studied in 70 patients with old myocardial infarction. There was a significant correlation between the defect ratio and the LVEF or CPK level in patients with anterior or septal myocardial infarction. In all patients with inferior myocardial infarction in whom no defect was seen, the LVEF was more than 40%. However, no distinct correlation between the defect ratio and the LVEF or CPK level was obtained in cases of inferior myocardial infarction.

  12. Alcohol consumption and prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men in the HPV in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Thompson, Zachary J; Egan, Kathleen M; Torres, B Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-02-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defence against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men enrolled in the HPV in Men (HIM) study using quantitative alcohol intake measured from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report, we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (N = 1313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPRs) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any (mPR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.27) HPV types and oncogenic (mPR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never-smokers and current smokers, but not among former smokers. These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiological data exist, especially among men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Etiopathogenic Considerations of Alcohol in Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Javier Pérez Ponce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relation between alcohol intake and pancreas deleterious effects. Between 80 and 100 grams alcohol daily for more than three or 5 years may damage the pancreas and inflame it. This work was aimed at explaining the alcohol action mechanisms in the pancreas, so as describing the physiopathology of acute and chronic pancreatitis. For that, a total of 24 bibliographic sources were consulted, among them journal articles, books and others, accessed through the main information managers. It was concluded that the pancreas may brake down alcohol either via oxidative or non oxidative way, causing an increase of free radicals, pancreatic edema, intracellular trypsin activation, and the induction of proinflammatory transcription factors, which stimulate the stellate cells leading to a systemic inflammatory response and organic insufficiency.

  14. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  15. The Efficacy of Disulfiram for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte H; Pedersen, Bolette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) involving hazardous, harmful, and addictive misuse of alcohol are widespread in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to review the effect of disulfiram in the treatment of patients with AUD. The effect of disulfiram was evaluated according...... to the primary outcome of an intake of alcohol below 30 and 20 g/d for men and women, respectively, as well as secondary outcomes such as days until relapse, alcohol intake, and numbers of drinking days. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central...

  16. Plant-based foods containing cell wall polysaccharides rich in specific active monosaccharides protect against myocardial injury in rat myocardial infarction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Ha; Kim, Yaesil; Yun, Ki Na; Kim, Jin Young; Jang, Jung-Hee; Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Jongwon

    2016-12-08

    Many cohort studies have shown that consumption of diets containing a higher composition of foods derived from plants reduces mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we examined the active components of a plant-based diet and the underlying mechanisms that reduce the risk of CHD using three rat models and a quantitative proteomics approach. In a short-term myocardial infarction (MI) model, intake of wheat extract (WE), the representative cardioprotectant identified by screening approximately 4,000 samples, reduced myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing ATP production, and maintaining protein homeostasis. In long-term post-MI models, this myocardial protection resulted in ameliorating adverse left-ventricular remodelling, which is a predictor of heart failure. Among the wheat components, arabinose and xylose were identified as active components responsible for the observed efficacy of WE, which was administered via ingestion and tail-vein injections. Finally, the food components of plant-based diets that contained cell wall polysaccharides rich in arabinose, xylose, and possibly fucose were found to confer protection against myocardial injury. These results show for the first time that specific monosaccharides found in the cell wall polysaccharides in plant-based diets can act as active ingredients that reduce CHD by inhibiting postocclusion steps, including MI and heart failure.

  17. Myocardial perfusion modeling using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, it is shown that it is possible to quantify myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance imaging in combination with gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Previously, a simple model and method for measuring myocardial perfusion using an inversion recovery...... turbo-FLASH (fast low-angle shot) sequence and Gd-DTPA has been presented. Here, an extension of the model is presented taking into account fast and slow water exchange between the compartments, enabling the calculation of the unidirectional influx constant (Ki) for Gd-DTPA, the distribution volume...... of Gd-DTPA (lambda), the vascular blood volume (Vb), and the time delay through the coronary arteries (delta T). The model was evaluated by computer simulation and used on experimental results from seven healthy subjects. The results in the healthy volunteers for a region of interest placed...

  18. Functional tests for myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, J.R.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Functional tests for myocardial ischemia are numerous. Most depend upon a combination of either exercise or pharmacologic intervention with analysis of the electrocardiogram, of regional perfusion with radionuclide imaging, or of regional wall motion with radionuclide imaging or echocardiography. While each test has unique features, especially at the research level, they are generally quite similar in clinical practice, so the clinician is advised to concentrate on one or two in which local expertise is high.22 references

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Milenković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and

  20. Cardiac MRI for myocardial ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Proper assessment of the physiologic impact of coronary artery stenosis on the LV myocardium can affect patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion by imaging the myocardium during a first-pass transit of an intravenous gadolinium bolus, with spatial and temporal resolution substantially higher than nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging. Coupled with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for infarction during the same imaging session, CMR with vasodilating stress perfusion imaging can qualitatively and quantitatively assess the myocardial extent of hypoperfusion from coronary stenosis independent of infarcted myocardium. This approach has been validated experimentally, and multiple clinical trials have established its diagnostic robustness when compared to stress single-photon emission computed tomography. In specialized centers, dobutamine stress CMR has been shown to have incremental diagnostic value above stress echocardiography due to its high imaging quality and ability to image the heart with no restriction of imaging window. This paper reviews the technical aspects, diagnostic utility, prognostic values, challenges to clinical adaptation, and future developments of stress CMR imaging.

  1. Effects of catecholamine agonists and antagonists on alcohol uptake in rats with different stages of experimental alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Yu V; Varov, A I

    1985-02-01

    The effects of various catecholamine agonists and antagonists on 15% ethanol ingestion by outbred albino rats were studied in relation to the stage of experimental alcoholism. In animals with stage I and II alcoholism, alcohol intake was most profoundly inhibited by administration of alpha-adrenoblockers (AA), klofelin, and alpha-methyl-DOPA (AMD), while L-DOPA and cocaine stimulated a significant increase in ethanol ingestion. In stage III alcoholism, both AA and L-DOPA depressed alcohol intake, while AMD and haloperidol had a stimulatory effect. It appears, therefore, that different neurochemical mechanisms are involved in alcohol dependence in different stages of experimental alcoholism in the rat. Furthermore, it seems evident that alpha-adrenergic receptors have a key function in maintaining alcohol dependence. In well-established physical dependence, the importance of the noradrenergic system seems to diminish and dopaminergic mechanisms appear to become predominant. Consequently, in the initial stages of alcoholism, agents which depress the noradrenergic system seem indicated, while at the stage of physical dependence agents which normalize noradrenergic mechanisms and depress dopaminergic mechanisms should be considered. 13 references.

  2. Ethanol intake and 3H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.; Boucly, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased in alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces 3 H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system

  3. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  4. Effects of alcohol on platelet functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, S C; Ruf, J C

    1996-03-15

    Recent epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that moderate intake of alcoholic beverages protect against morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. By contrast, alcohol drinking may also predispose to cerebral hemorrhage. These observations suggest an effect of alcohol similar to that of aspirin. Several studies in humans and animals have shown that the immediate effect of alcohol, either added in vitro to platelets or 10 to 20 min after ingestion, is to decrease platelet aggregation in response to most agonists (thrombin, ADP, epinephrine, collagen). Several hours later, as, in free-living populations deprived of drinking since the previous day it is mostly secondary aggregation to ADP and epinephrine and aggregation to collagen that are still inhibited in alcohol drinkers. By contrast, in binge drinkers or in alcoholics after alcohol withdrawal, response to aggregation, especially that induced by thrombin, is markedly increased. This rebound phenomenon, easily reproduced in rats, may explain ischemic strokes or sudden death known to occur after episodes of drunkenness. The platelet rebound effect of alcohol drinking was not observed with moderate red wine consumption in man. The protection afforded by wine has been recently duplicated in rats by grape tannins added to alcohol. This protection was associated with a decrease in the level of conjugated dienes, the first step in lipid peroxidation. In other words, wine drinking does not seem to be associated with the increased peroxidation usually observed with spirit drinking. Although further studies are required, the platelet rebound effect of alcohol drinking could be associated with an excess of lipid peroxides known to increase platelet reactivity, especially to thrombin.

  5. The role of taste in alcohol preference, consumption and risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Pickering, Gary J

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review. Ethanol, the compound common to all alcoholic beverages, is generally aversive as it primarily elicits bitterness and irritation when ingested. Individuals who experience orosensations (both taste and chemesthetic) more intensely tend to report lower liking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a preference for sweetness is likely associated with a paternal history of alcohol use disorders. However, conflicting findings in the literature are common and may be partially attributable to differences in the methods used to access orosensory responsiveness and taste phenotypes. We conclude that while taste is a key driver in alcohol preference, intake and use disorder, no single taste-related factor can adequately predict alcohol behaviour. Areas for further research and suggestions for improved methodological and analytical approaches are highlighted.

  6. Alcohol, Adipose Tissue and Lipid Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Steiner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long‐term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged. Study of the lipolytic and lipogenic pathways has identified several regulatory proteins modulated by alcohol that contribute to these effects. Glucose tolerance of adipose tissue is also impaired by chronic alcohol due to decreased glucose transporter‐4 availability at the membrane. As an endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT releases several adipokines that are negatively modulated following chronic alcohol consumption including adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. When these effects are combined with the enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators that are induced by chronic alcohol, a proinflammatory state develops within WAT, contributing to the observed lipodystrophy. Lastly, while chronic alcohol intake may enhance thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT, definitive mechanistic evidence is currently lacking. Overall, both WAT and BAT depots are impacted by chronic alcohol intake and the resulting lipodystrophy contributes to fat accumulation in peripheral organs, thereby enhancing the pathological state accompanying chronic alcohol use disorder.

  7. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Allen, Naomi E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N.; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between

  8. Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie Henriette; Grønbæk, Morten; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    and self-administered questionnaires. METHODS: The association between different aspects of alcohol intake (quantity of intake, occasional heavy drinking, and the modified CAGE questionnaire) and place of living were analysed using a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The population...... living in Denmark had a higher mean alcohol intake than those living in Greenland. Drinking above the sensible drinking limits (21 drinks per week for men and 14 drinks per week for women; where one drink contains 12 g alcohol) was also more prevalent in the population living in Denmark, whereas a higher...... proportion of those living in Greenland was abstaining. In contrast to the higher alcohol intake in the population living in Denmark, a higher proportion of individuals with episodes of heavy drinking (binge drinking), was observed in both large and small communities in Greenland. A higher proportion...

  9. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  10. A Mediterranean diet and risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidis, Thanasis G; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean diet, which is palatable and easily achievable, has been associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Data on heart failure (HF) and stroke types are lacking. The aim was to examine a Mediterranean diet in relation to incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), HF and stroke types in a Swedish prospective cohort. In a population-based cohort of 32,921 women, diet was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. The modified Mediterranean diet (mMED) score was created based on high consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fermented dairy products, fish and monounsaturated fat, moderate intakes of alcohol and low consumption of red meat, on a 0-8 scale. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 10 y of follow-up (1998-2008), 1109 MIs, 1648 HFs, 1270 ischemic strokes and 262 total hemorrhagic strokes were ascertained. A high adherence to the mMED score (6-8), compared to low, was associated with a lower risk of MI (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61-0.90, p = 0.003), HF (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93, p = 0.004) and ischemic stroke (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93, p = 0.007), but not hemorrhagic stroke (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.61-1.29, p = 0.53). Better adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of MI, HF and ischemic stroke. The Mediterranean diet is most likely to be beneficial in primary prevention of all major types of atherosclerosis-related CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding induces myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction, and steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan V; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Paloczi, Janos; Lajtos, Tamas; Erdelyi, Katalin; Nemeth, Balazs T; Nan, Mintong; Hasko, Gyorgy; Gao, Bin; Pacher, Pal

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt). Isocalorically pair-fed mice served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function and morphology were assessed by invasive pressure-volume conductance approach and by echocardiography. Mitochondrial complex (I, II, IV) activities, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, gene expression of markers of oxidative stress (gp91phox, p47phox), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and fibrosis were examined. Cardiac steatosis and fibrosis were investigated by histological/immunohistochemical methods. Chronic and binge EtOH feeding (already in 10 days EtOH plus single binge group) was characterized by contractile dysfunction (decreased slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and preload recruitable stroke work), impaired relaxation (decreased time constant of LV pressure decay and maximal slope of systolic pressure decrement), and vascular dysfunction (impaired arterial elastance and lower total peripheral resistance). This was accompanied by enhanced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress (3-NT; gp91phox; p47phox; angiotensin II receptor, type 1a) and deterioration of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV activities and mitochondrial biogenesis, excessive cardiac steatosis, and higher mortality. Collectively, chronic plus binge EtOH feeding in mice leads to alcohol-induced cardiomyopathies (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism models) characterized by increased myocardial oxidative

  13. Protective Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Toxicity Induced by Chronic and Moderate Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhawana; Dabur, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Heavy alcohol intake depletes the plasma vitamins due to hepatotoxicity and decreased intestinal absorption. However, moderate alcohol intake is often thought to be healthy. Therefore, effects of chronic moderate alcohol intake on liver and intestine were studied using urinary vitamin levels. Furthermore, effects of Tinospora cordifolia water extract (TCE) (hepatoprotective) on vitamin excretion and intestinal absorption were also studied. In the study, asymptomatic moderate alcoholics (n = 12) without chronic liver disease and healthy volunteers (n = 14) of mean age 39 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) were selected and divided into three groups. TCE treatment was performed for 14 days. The blood and urine samples were collected on Day 0 and 14 after treatment with TCE and analyzed. In alcoholics samples, a significant increase in the levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, HDL and LDL (P alcoholic samples; however, TCE intervention restored the CA and biotin levels. Vitamin metabolism biomarkers, i.e. homocysteine and xanthurenic acid, were also normalized after TCE intervention. Overall data depict that moderate alcohol intake is also hepatotoxic and decreases intestinal absorption. However, TCE treatment effectively increased the intestinal absorption and retaining power of liver that regulated alcohol-induced multivitamin deficiency. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....

  15. The Effect of Alcohol on Postprandial and Fasting Triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Van de Wiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a significant additive effect on the postprandial triglyceride peak when it accompanies a meal containing fat, especially saturated fat. This results from a decrease in the breakdown of chylomicrons and VLDL remnants due to an acute inhibitory effect of alcohol on lipoprotein lipase activity. Furthermore, alcohol increases the synthesis of large VLDL particles in the liver, which is the main source of triglycerides in the hypertriglyceridemia associated with chronic excessive alcohol intake. In case of chronic consumption, lipoprotein lipase activity seems to adapt itself. The effect of alcohol on adipose tissues is less clear. Sometimes, a severe hypertriglyceridemia induced by alcohol (SHIBA can be observed, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity increasing the risk of pancreatitis.

  16. Coronary artery calcium scoring in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslic, S.; Dalagija, F.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary artery calcium scoring and the assessment of the risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. During the period of three years, 27 patients with MI were analyzed. The average age of patients was 66.1 years (46 to 81). Coronary arteries calcium was evaluated by multi row detector computed tomography (MTDC) S omatom Volume Zoom Siemens , and, retrospectively by ECG gating data acquisition. Semi automated calcium quantification to calculate Agatston calcium score (CS) was performed with 4 x 2.5 mm collimation, using 130 ml of contrast medium, injected with an automatic injector, with the flow rate of 4 ml/sec. The delay time was determined empirically. At the same time several risk factors were evaluated. Results. Out of 27 patients with MI, 3 (11.1%) patients had low CS (10- 100), 5 (18.5%) moderate CS (101- 499), and 19 (70.4%) patients high CS (>500). Of risk factors, smoking was confirmed in 17 (63.0%), high blood pressure (HTA) in 10 (57.0%), diabetes mellitus in 7 (25.9%), positive family history in 5 (18.5%), pathological lipids in 5 (18.5%), alcohol abuse in 4 (1.8%) patients. Six (22.2%) patients had symptoms of angina pectoris. Conclusions. The research showed high correlation of MI and high CS (>500). Smoking, HTA, diabetes mellitus, positive family history and hypercholesterolemia are significant risk factors. Symptoms are relatively poor in large number of patients. (author)

  17. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  18. Risks and guidelines for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Daily average intake of alcohol during pregnancy has consistently been associated with short term adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction, a large variety of malformations, as well as long term adverse outcomes such as foetal alcohol syndrome, mental...... in accordance with the official recommendations, although a large proportion of women of child bearing age and pregnant women drink alcohol, especially before recognition of pregnancy. The discrepancy between guidelines and the information practice of health personnel is likely to continue to exist because...... retardation and general impairment of cognitive functions including intelligence, attention, learning abilities as well as social and behavioural functions. Weekly average consumption and alcohol binge drinking (usually defined as ≥ 5 drinks on a single occasion) independently of high daily average intake has...

  19. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  20. Screening for silent myocardial ischemia caseof diabetics : interest of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahri, Haifa

    2007-01-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Its diagnosis by noninvasive means such as myocardial SPECT would improve the management of these patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of silent myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic diabetics and their evolution. As a result, the myocardial SPECT is a reliable tool for screening for silent myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients. Its prognostic value allows to stratify the cardiac risk and guide therapeutic management. Its integration into a screening strategy in Tunisia seems limited by its low availability and cost. The latter could be reduced by better patient selection.

  1. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  2. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  3. Activated mesenchymal stem cell administration inhibits chronic alcohol drinking and suppresses relapse-like drinking in high-alcohol drinker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, Fernando; Quintanilla, María Elena; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Lespay-Rebolledo, Carolyne; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2017-10-18

    Neuroinflammation has been reported to follow chronic ethanol intake and may perpetuate alcohol consumption. Present studies determined the effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), known for their anti-inflammatory action, on chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like ethanol intake in a post-deprivation condition. Rats were allowed 12-17 weeks of chronic voluntary ethanol (10% and 20% v/v) intake, after which a single dose of activated hMSCs (5 × 10 5 ) was injected into a brain lateral ventricle. Control animals were administered vehicle. After assessing the effect of hMSCs on chronic ethanol intake for 1 week, animals were deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks and thereafter an ethanol re-access of 60 min was allowed to determine relapse-like intake. A single administration of activated hMSCs inhibited chronic alcohol consumption by 70% (P 80 mg/dl. The single hMSC administration reduced relapse-like blood ethanol levels to 20 mg/dl. Chronic ethanol intake increased by 250% (P chronic ethanol intake, an effect that was fully abolished by the administration of hMSCs. This study supports the neuroinflammation-chronic ethanol intake hypothesis and suggest that mesenchymal stem cell administration may be considered in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin--a valid marker of alcoholism in population studies? Results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Becker, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) was analyzed by a modified radioimmunoassay test in a random population sample of 400 individuals, and results were compared with reported alcohol intake derived from a structured questionnaire. Among the 180 men, the test was found to be acceptable...... with respect to detecting harmful alcohol intake (> 35 beverages/week) and alcohol intake above the recommended level (21 beverages/week), although the positive predictive values were low. Among the 220 women, the test was invalid with low predictive values. CDT was compared with other known markers of high...... alcohol intake, and it was observed that CDT had higher sensitivity and specificity than AST and short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (sMAST) in men, whereas the positive and negative predictive values were low in all tests. A combination of CDT and AST proved to be a better marker of both harmful...

  5. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  6. Outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders among subjects 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of 60+ years with excessive alcohol intake varies in western countries between 6-16 % among men and 2-7 % among women. Specific events related to aging (e.g. loss of job, physical and mental capacity, or spouse) may contribute to onset or continuation of alcohol use...... into the possible interaction of service system differences and related patient characteristics in predictionof treatment outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT02084173 , March 7, 2014....

  7. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion ...... the body as hidden water loss increases after alcohol consumption by up to 25-26% over control values.......AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion...... and certain renal functions in rats during a period of 12 months. ANIMALS AND STUDY DESIGN: Male Wistar rats received either alcohol (15% v/v; group A, n = 65) or tap water (group C, n = 35) as drinking fluid. Urine and faeces were collected from 6 rats of each group during 7 days, at monthly intervals...

  8. Dietary habits after myocardial infarction - results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, P; Mattisson, I; Tydén, P; Berglund, G; Janzon, L

    2005-04-01

    Comparing habitual nutrient intakes in persons with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and age-matched controls. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects. Men and women (525 cases and 1890 matched controls), aged 47-73 years, of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Nutrient intakes were assessed by a validated modified diet history method. Body fatness was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Case ascertainment was provided by national and regional registries. Men and women were analysed separately. Median time since AMI was 5.5 years in men and 3.8 years in women. Cases reported lower energy intakes (EIs) than controls, despite having similar basal metabolic rates. After adjustment for total EI, both male and female cases had lower fat intake and higher intake of several micronutrients, such as ascorbic acid, folate, and vitamin E, than controls, the difference being largest in men. Most of the cases reporting dietary change quoted 'disease' as their main reason for change. They had lower EI and lower energy-adjusted intake of fat than other cases. Survivors of AMI reported dietary habits more in line with current recommendations, particularly those who afterwards reported having changed their dietary habits. The possible bias introduced by social desirability is discussed.

  9. Myocardial contusion in patients with blunt chest trauma as evaluated by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, L.; Rouby, J.J.; Viars, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty five patients suffering from blunt chest trauma were studied to assess the diagnosis of myocardial contusion using thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients had consistent scintigraphic defects and were considered to have a myocardial contusion. All patients with scintigraphic defects had paroxysmal arrhythmias and/or ECG abnormalities. Of 38 patients, 32 had localized ST-T segment abnormalities; 29, ST-T segment abnormalities suggesting involvement of the same cardiac area as scintigraphic defects; 21, echocardiographic abnormalities. Sixteen patients had segmental hypokinesia involving the same cardiac area as the scintigraphic defects. Fifteen patients had clinical signs suggestive of myocardial contusion and scintigraphic defects. Almost 70 percent of patients with blunt chest trauma had scintigraphic defects related to areas of myocardial contusion. When thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy directly showed myocardial lesion, two-dimensional echocardiography and standard ECG detected related functional consequences of cardiac trauma

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Injury, and Nonelevated Troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponins have emerged as the preferred biomarkers for detecting myocardial necrosis and diagnosing myocardial infarction. However, current cardiac troponin assays do not discriminate between ischemic and nonischemic causes of myocardial cell death. Thus, when an increased...... troponin value is encountered in the absence of obvious myocardial ischemia, a careful search for other clinical conditions is crucial. METHODS: In 2010 to 2011, we prospectively studied hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication. An acute myocardial infarction...... was diagnosed in cases of a cardiac troponin I increase or decrease pattern with at least 1 value >30 ng/L (99th percentile) together with myocardial ischemia. Myocardial injury was defined as cardiac troponin I values >30 ng/L, but without signs or symptoms indicating overt cardiac ischemia. Patients with peak...

  11. Alcohol drinking, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and alcohol metabolic genotypes in drunk drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Sartore, Daniela; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    Regular and irregular abuse of alcohol are global health priorities associated with diseases at multiple sites, including cancer. Mechanisms of diseases induced by alcohol are closely related to its metabolism. Among conventional markers of alcohol abuse, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes is prognostic of alcohol-related cancer and its predictivity increases when combined with functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B [rs1229984] and ADH1C [rs698]) and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 [rs671]). Whether these genetic variants can influence abuse in alcohol drinking and MCV has never been examined in drunk-driving traffic offenders. We examined 149 drunk drivers, diagnosed as alcohol abusers according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls), all Caucasian males. Alcohol intake was assessed according to self-reported drink-units/d and MCV unadjusted and adjusted for age, smoking, and body mass index. Multivariable models were used to compute MCV adjusted means. Genotype analyses were performed by PCR on DNA from blood. The adjusted MCV mean was higher in drunk-driving abusers than in controls (92 vs. 91fL; Pdrunk-driving abusers (P=.008), reported higher drink-units/d (P=.0126), and had larger MCV (P=.035). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with MCV. ADH1B*1/*1 polymorphism is significantly associated with being a drunk-driving abuser, higher alcohol drinking, and MCV enlargement. This suggests that drunk drivers with augmented MCV modulated by the alcohol metabolic ADH1B*1/*1 genotype may be at higher risk of driving incapability and of alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  13. Nifedipine for angina and acute myocardial ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the mechanisms believed to be responsible for myocardial ischaemia and the mode of action of calcium antagonist drugs. The clinical management of patients with myocardial ischaemia is discussed in the context of current knowledge about patho-physiology and drug action.

  14. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  15. When is 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy indicated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201 has met with good acceptance in cardiology and has proven its value. The method implies only low risk and yields diagnostic results that allow verification or disqualification of suspected myocardial ischemia in those cases where there is only reduced accuracy of the exercise electrocardiogram. (TRV) [de

  16. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  17. Monitoring of myocardial edema following acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, E.; Sinn, M.; Avanesov, M.; Wien, J.; Saering, D.; Stehning, C.; Radunski, U. K.; Muellerleile, K.; Adam, G.; Lund, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Currently, myocardial edema monitoring after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on visualization of the region with increased signal-intensity on T2-weighted images. Native T1 and T2 mapping are promising novel MRI techniques to quantitatively assess myocardial edema. The purpose of the study was to quantitatively evaluate resorption of myocardial edema following AMI by native T1 and T2 -mapping cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). CMR (1.5 Tesla Philips Achieva) was performed in 30 patients four times after reperfused AMI at baseline (BL) at 9±6 days after infarction and at 7±1 weeks (follow-up 1, FU1), 3.6±0.5 months (FU2) and 6.5±0.7 months (FU3), respectively. Edema sensitive black-blood T2-weighted (T2w) STIR CMR was performed on end-diastolic LV short-axes. A free-breathing, navigatorgated multi-echo sequence was used for short-axis T2 mapping. T1 mapping was performed using the modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T2 maps were calculated from nine and T1 maps from eight echoes using a dedicated plug-in written for OsiriX software. Two experienced observers independently evaluated T2w-CMR as well as T1 and T2 mapping using the HeAT-Software applying a threshold method. Size of edema and prolongation of the native T1- or T2-time was measured using a cutoff >2SD of remote normal myocardium. Edema size continuously decreased from BL with 32.8 %LV to 24.6 %LV at FU1, to 19.1 %LV at FU2 and to 16.4 %LV at FU3 using T2w-CMR. An almost identical decrease of edema size was observed using native T1 and T2 - mapping. T2 times only decreased between BL from 79±5 ms to 73±2 ms at FU1 (P<0.05), but no further change was observed at later time points with 70±5 ms at FU2 and 70±6 ms at FU3. At all time points the T2 times of remote normal myocardium were about 50±2 ms and significantly lower compared to the edema zone. Also native T1 time within the edema was with 1253 ±103 ms significantly increased compared to remote

  18. Ventricular and myocardial scintiscanning: Methodical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.; Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is concerned with non invasive procedures to quantitate global and regional left ventricular function (Radionuclide ventriculography), also the imaging of vitally perfused myocardium (Myocardial scintigraphy) is achieved. A gammacamera and a minicomputer are necessary. Radionuclide ventriculography enables the analysis of global and regional time dependent left ventricular volume curves and hence the evaluation of contraction and contractility of the heart muscle. The basis is a sequence of scans covering an average heartcycle. This sequence may be produced either by first pass or equilibrium technique. Myocardial scintigraphy at rest images vital myocardium, scans immediately after exercise represent the interference of myocardial perfusion and muscle mass. The regional difference (Redistribution) between normalized exercise- and rest scans provide quantitative parameters to detect impairment of exercise-induced myocardial perfusion anomalies. The procedures of sectorial analysis of left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Weaved into the cultural fabric: a qualitative exploration of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among tribal women in Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Mahapatra, Pranab; Hansdah, Devraj; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Pati, Sandipana

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence-based research has documented the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital birth defects. Alcohol consumption is a complex behavior whose origins lay in cultural norms and the social structure. In tribal communities in India, alcohol misuse among women is a public health problem. This study is intended to explore perceptions and beliefs among tribal women and the community towards alcohol consumption d...

  20. Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to review physio-pathological effects of alcohol on cardiovascular and related systems and to describe its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol and hypertension is well known, and a reduction in the alcohol intake is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. Moreover, alcohol has both pressor and depressor actions. The latter actions are clear in Oriental subjects, especially in those who show alcohol flush because of the genetic variation in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Repeated alcohol intake in the evening causes an elevation in daytime and a reduction in nighttime blood pressure (BP), with little change in the average 24-h BP in Japanese men. Thus, the hypertensive effect of alcohol seems to be overestimated by the measurement of casual BP during the day. Heavy alcohol intake seems to increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia and heart failure. On the other hand, alcohol may act to prevent atherosclerosis and to decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease, mainly by increasing HDL cholesterol and inhibiting thrombus formation. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been observed between the level of alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality and total mortality. It is reasonable to reduce the alcohol intake to less than 30 ml per day for men and 15 ml per day for women in the management of hypertension. As a small amount of alcohol seems to be beneficial, abstinence from alcohol is not recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  1. ST-Segment Elevated Acute Myocardial Infarction: Changing Profile Over Last 24 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Trinath Kumar; Das, Biswajit

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rising in epidemic proportions with India not being an exception. CAD in Indian scenario has its onset at a younger age with multitude of risk factors. This study was carried out to obtain complete information about demographic profile, risk factors, clinical scenario, therapeutic modalities, natural course, outcome and changing profile of acute ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 45,122 acute STEMI patients admitted 1st March 1990 to 1st March 2014. A predefined performa was completed in every patient with detailed clinical history, physical examination, laboratory and investigation parameters, therapeutic interventions and inhospital outcome. Our population cohort presented with STEMI at age of 56.34±11.88 years with 82.48% male. Urban residency (64.35%), lower level of education (61.03%), middle and low socioeconomic status (81.01%), unemployment (56.47%), lack of exercise (78.80%) and poor dietary pattern including low intake of fruits and vegetables (58.80%) were pivotal players. Smoking was prevalent in 48.80% cases, with overweight and obesity (51.11%), diabetes mellitus (27.34%), hypertension (38.85%), hyperlipidemia (28.15%), alcoholism (28.80%) and family history (16.66%). Our population had mildly elevated LDL (101.4±33.38 mg/dl), low HDL (36.6±10.7 mg.dl) and high TC/HDL ratio (4.05±1.36). Majority harbored (52.06%) two or more risk factors, while in 16.60% no conventional risk factors were identified. Anterior wall STEMI (56.78%) far exceeded the inferior wall (37.55%). Less than half (47.77%) presented within the window period of 12 hours while only 0.8% of patients availed the golden period of 1 hour. 50.27% presented in Killip Class II or beyond. Angiography revealed single vessel disease (46.76%) with LAD involvement being most common (58.85%). Thrombolytic therapy was provided in 38.95% and primary PCI in 2.1%. Complications in the form of CHF

  2. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  3. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  4. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  5. The extent and nature of alcohol advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Roberts, Michele; Pescud, Melanie; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Current alcohol guidelines in Australia recommend minimising alcohol consumption, especially among minors. This study investigated (i) the extent to which children and the general population are exposed to television advertisements that endorse alcohol consumption and (ii) the themes used in these advertisements. A content analysis was conducted on alcohol advertisements aired over two months in major Australian cities. The advertisements were coded according to the products that were promoted, the themes that were employed, and the time of exposure. Advertising placement expenditure was also captured. In total, 2810 alcohol advertisements were aired, representing one in 10 beverage advertisements. Advertisement placement expenditure for alcohol products in the five cities over the two months was $15.8 million. Around half of all alcohol advertisements appeared during children's popular viewing times. The most common themes used were humour, friendship/mateship and value for money. Children and adults are regularly exposed to advertisements that depict alcohol consumption as fun, social and inexpensive. Such messages may reinforce existing alcohol-related cultural norms that prevent many Australians from meeting current intake guidelines. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Pneumopyopericardium mimicking an inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction with regional electrocardiogram changes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Eranda Chamara; Premaratne, Sandamali; Lokunarangoda, Niroshan; Fernando, Sanduni; Fernando, Nilanthi; Ponnamperuma, Chandrike; Santharaj, W Samuel

    2015-04-30

    Pneumopyopericardium is a rare disease with poor prognosis. The usual presentation is with fever, shortness of breath and haemodynamic compromise. The Electrocardiogram changes associated with this disease entity would be similar to pericarditis such as concave shaped ST elevations in all leads with PR sagging. Pneumopyopericardium mimicking an acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction, with regional Electrocardiogram changes has hitherto not been described in world literature. We describe the case of a 48 year old native Sri Lankan man, presenting with chest pain and Electrocardiogram changes compatible with an Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction, subsequently found to have Pneumopyopericardium secondary to an oesophageal tear. Retrospective history revealed repetitive vomiting due to heavy alcohol consumption, prior to presentation. It unfortunately led to a fatal outcome. Pneumopyopericardium may mimic an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction with associated regional Electrocardiogram changes. A high degree of suspicion should be maintained and an adequate history should always be obtained prior to any intervention in all ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction patients.

  7. Effect of type of alcoholic beverages on carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, sialic acid, and liver enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillanaukee, P.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Sierksma, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Strid, N.; Pönniö, M.; Nikkari, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Background: There are only limited data obtained under well controlled conditions on the effects of moderate drinking on markers of alcohol use disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate intake of different alcoholic beverages on these markers, including

  8. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive tr...... good reasons therefore....

  9. Alcohol in combination with malnutrition causes increased liver fibrosis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.; Seifert, W.F.; Thiel van - Ruiter, G.C.F. de; Leeuwen, R.E.W. van; Blauw, B.; Roholl, P.; Knook, D.L.; Brouwer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were malnourished for 12 months with a highly inadequate fat-rich, calorie-sufficient but otherwise poly-deficient liquid diet composed of mashed potatoes with mayonnaise, comparable with the nutritional intake of many chronic alcoholics. When alcohol was incorporated into this diet,

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  11. Direct Evidence that Myocardial Insulin Resistance following Myocardial Ischemia Contributes to Post-Ischemic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Chengfeng; Yang, Weidong; Gao, Chao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yan; Cui, Qin; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Wang, Jing; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A close link between heart failure (HF) and systemic insulin resistance has been well documented, whereas myocardial insulin resistance and its association with HF are inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the role of myocardial insulin resistance in ischemic HF and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed progressive left ventricular dilation with dysfunction and HF at 4 wk post-MI. Of note, myocardial insulin sensitivity was decreased as early as 1 wk after MI, which was accompanied by increased production of myocardial TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF-α in heart mimicked impaired insulin signaling and cardiac dysfunction leading to HF observed after MI. Treatment of rats with a specific TNF-α inhibitor improved myocardial insulin signaling post-MI. Insulin treatment given immediately following MI suppressed myocardial TNF-α production and improved cardiac insulin sensitivity and opposed cardiac dysfunction/remodeling. Moreover, tamoxifen-induced cardiomyocyte-specific insulin receptor knockout mice exhibited aggravated post-ischemic ventricular remodeling and dysfunction compared with controls. In conclusion, MI induces myocardial insulin resistance (without systemic insulin resistance) mediated partly by ischemia-induced myocardial TNF-α overproduction and promotes the development of HF. Our findings underscore the direct and essential role of myocardial insulin signaling in protection against post-ischemic HF. PMID:26659007

  12. Three-dimension structure of ventricular myocardial fibers after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Libin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the pathological changes of three-dimension structure of ventricular myocardial fibers after anterior myocardial infarction in dog heart. Methods Fourteen acute anterior myocardial infarction models were made from healthy dogs (mean weight 17.6 ± 2.5 kg. Six out of 14 dogs with old myocardial infarction were sacrificed, and their hearts were harvested after they survived the acute anterior myocardial infarction for 3 months. Each heart was dissected into ventricular myocardial band (VMB, morphological characters in infarction region were observed, and infarct size percents in descending segment and ascending segment were calculated. Results Six dog hearts were successfully dissected into VMB. Uncorresponding damages in myocardial fibers of descending segment and ascending segment were found in apical circle in anterior wall infarction. Infarct size percent in the ascending segment was significantly larger than that in the descending segment (23.36 ± 3.15 (SD vs 30.69 ± 2.40%, P = 0.0033; the long axis of infarction area was perpendicular to the orientation of myocardial fibers in ascending segment; however, the long axis of the infarction area was parallel with the orientation of myocardial fibers in descending segment. Conclusions We found that damages were different in both morphology and size in ascending segment and descending segment in heart with myocardial infarction. This may provide an important insight for us to understand the mechanism of heart failure following coronary artery diseases.

  13. Diagnostic value of exercise induced 18F-FDG myocardial metabolism scintigraphy in myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rui; He Zuoxiang; Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Tian Yueqin; Guo Feng; Wei Hongxing; Wu Yongjian; Qin Xuewen; Gao Runlin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of exercise induced myocardial imaging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in myocardial ischemia. Methods: Twenty-six patients with known or suspected coronary artery, disease (CAD) and with no prior myocardial infarction underwent simultaneous myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging following intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methoxy-isobutylisonitrile ( 99 Tc m -sestamibi) and 18 F-FDG at peak exercise. Subsequently rest perfusion imaging and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in all patients. Exercise 18 F-FDG myocardial imaging was compared with 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging and CAG. Results: In 22 patients with ≥50% narrowing over l coronary artery, 18 had perfusion abnormalities (sensitivity 82%), whereas 20 had abnormal myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake (sensitivity 91%, P>0.05). Patients with reversible (12 cases) or partial reversible (3 cases) perfusion abnormalities had increased myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake in abnormal perfusion segments. Compared with CAG, perfusion defect was seen in myocardial segments corresponding to 25 vascular territories of 51 vessels with ≥50% narrowing in 22 patients in 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging (sensitivity 49%), whereas increased 18 F-FDG uptake was seen in 34 vascular territories (sensitivity 67%, P=0.008). Conclusions: Exercise induced myocardial ischemia can be imaged directly with 18 F-FDG. Combined exercise 18 F-FDG and 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging provides a better assessment of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as compared with exercise-rest perfusion imaging. (authors)

  14. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  15. Amount of alcohol consumption and risk of developing alcoholism in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    was measured in 19 698 men and women randomly drawn from the Copenhagen Population Register in 1976-78. The study population was linked to three different registers in order to detect alcoholism, and average follow-up time was 25 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for all putative confounders, the risk...... of alcoholism for women increased significantly at 1-7 drinks per week with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 3.53) compared to never/almost never drinking; the HR for drinking monthly was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.85). The risk for men did not increase significantly before 22......-41 drinks per week (HR = 3.81, 95 % CI: 2.18, 6.68) or if they had a daily alcohol intake (HR = 3.55, 95 % CI: 2.11, 5.99). Smoking was independently associated with the risk of alcoholism for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing alcoholism increased significantly by very low intakes...

  16. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the w