WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol fuel cells

  1. Nano-gold Catalyst for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Ogumi; K.Miyazaki; Y.Iriyama; T.Abe

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Direct alcohol fuel cells have been regarded as attractive power sources for portable electric devices. One of the major roadblocks to the implementation of direct alcohol fuel cells is the exploration of the anode catalyst that can electrochemically oxidize alcohols at lower potentials. Carbon-monoxide (CO) produced through alcohol oxidation deteriorates catalytic activity of Pt, and therefore, the high tolerance for CO poisoning is an important issue to attain high voltage from direct alcoho...

  2. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Celorrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that the reactivity of Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures toward CO and HCOOH electro-oxidation is not only determined by the composition and structure of Pd overlayer but also by interaction with the support.

  3. Principles and Materials Aspects of Direct Alkaline Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Hao Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs have attracted increasing interest over the past decade because of their favourable reaction kinetics in alkaline media, higher energy densities achievable and the easy handling of the liquid fuels. In this review, principles and mechanisms of DAAFCs in alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction are discussed. Despite the high energy densities available during the oxidation of polycarbon alcohols they are difficult to oxidise. Apart from methanol, the complete oxidation of other polycarbon alcohols to CO2 has not been achieved with current catalysts. Different types of catalysts, from conventional precious metal catalyst of Pt and Pt alloys to other lower cost Pd, Au and Ag metal catalysts are compared. Non precious metal catalysts, and lanthanum, strontium oxides and perovskite-type oxides are also discussed. Membranes like the ones used as polymer electrolytes and developed for DAAFCs are reviewed. Unlike conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells, anion exchange membranes are used in present DAAFCs. Fuel cell performance with DAAFCs using different alcohols, catalysts and membranes, as well as operating parameters are summarised. In order to improve the power output of the DAAFCs, further developments in catalysts, membrane materials and fuel cell systems are essential.

  4. A novel alcohol/iron (III) fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Zou, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Guorong; Nie, Huidong; Zhou, Xiulin

    2016-07-01

    A novel alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using Fe3+ as the oxidation agent instead of the conventional O2. Various alcohols as the fuels are tested, including methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. In this fuel cell, the anode catalysts tested are PdSn/β-cd-CNT, PdSn/CNT, Pd/β-cd-CNT, Pd/CNT and Pd/β-cd-C, prepared by using multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon powder (C), as well as β-cyclodexdrin (β-cd) modified CNT (β-cd-CNT) and β-cd modified C (β-cd-C), as the substrates to immobilize PdSn and Pd nanoparticles in glycol solvent. The as-synthesized PdSn/β-cd-CNT catalyst presents significantly higher electroactivity for alcohol oxidation than the conventional Pd/C catalyst. Fe3+ reduction reaction is carried out on the cathode made of carbon powder. The anolyte (alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH) and catholyte (Fe3+ in 0.5 mol L-1 NaCl) are separated with a Nafion 117 membrane. Open circuit voltage (OCV) of the cell with the anode PdSn/β-cd-CNT is 1.14-1.22 V, depending upon the used alcohol. The maximum power densities with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol fuels are 15.2, 16.1, 19.9 and 12.2 mW cm-2, respectively.

  5. Recent advances on Zeolite modification for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    The increase of energy demand and global warming issues has driven studies of alternative energy sources. The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be an alternative energy source by (partially) replacing the use of fossil fuel which is in line with the green technology concept. However, the usage of hydrogen as a fuel has several disadvantages mainly transportation and storage related to its safety aspects. Recently, alcohol has gained attention as an energy source for fuel cell application, namely direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC). Among alcohols, high-mass energy density methanol and ethanol are widely used as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC), respectively. Currently, the performance of DMFC is still rudimentary. Furthermore, the use of ethanol gives some additional privileges such as non-toxic property, renewable, ease of production in great quantity by the fermentation of sugar-containing raw materials. Direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) still has weakness in the low proton conductivity and high alcohol crossover. Therefore, to increase the performance of DAFC, modification using zeolite has been performed to improve proton conductivity and decrease alcohol crossover. Zeolite also has high thermal resistance properties, thereby increasing DAFC performance. This paper will discuss briefly about modification of catalyst and membrane for DAFC using zeolite. Zeolite modification effect on fuel cell performance especially proton conductivity and alcohol crossover will be presented in detail.

  6. Novel materials process for alcohol based fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, K.; Smith, R.

    2005-07-01

    At present, the unit cost of producing alcohol fuel cells, in particular the cost of the ion-exchange membrane and the platinum catalyst, is limiting the sales. Since the cost of platinum cannot be reduced, an effective means of making the cells more attractive would be to increase the power output per unit area of membrane other than by operating at elevated temperatures. To replace the expensive Nafion, ITM and Cranfield University have developed a new membrane based on ionic hydrophilic polymers. Both acidic and alkaline-based membranes have been produced, the latter may well avoid the use of platinum thus gaining a further cost bonus. Conductivity of the new styrene-sulphonic acid graft membranes is more than double that of Nafion. Similarly, in cross-over tests, the new cells outperformed the Nafion cells. Palladium was investigated as a cheaper alternative to platinum. Based on this study, ITM have applied for five new patents. The study was conducted by ITM Power Plc under contract to the DTI.

  7. Mixtures of methanol and 2-propanol as a potential fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LJ. GOJKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of methanol, 2-propanol, and their mixtures was investigated on a Pt/C thin film electrode in acid solution. It was confirmed that the oxidation of 2-propanol commences at less positive potentials than that of methanol and exhibits significantly higher oxidation current densities at low potentials. When both methanol and 2-propanol were present in the solution, the onset of the oxidation current was the same as for the oxidation of pure 2-propanol. Although both alcohols inhibit the oxidation reaction of each other to a certain extent, steady-state polarization measurements showed that their mixture provides higher current densities than single alcohols over the entire potential region from the hydrogen region to oxide formation on the Pt surface. This implies that the addition of 2-propanol into the fuel may extend the operational range of direct methanol fuel cells.

  8. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance.

  9. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  10. Direct alcohol fuel cells: toward the power densities of hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxin; Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Fornasiero, Paolo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish A; Wang, Lianqin; Vizza, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    A 2 μm thick layer of TiO2 nanotube arrays was prepared on the surface of the Ti fibers of a nonwoven web electrode. After it was doped with Pd nanoparticles (1.5 mgPd  cm(-2) ), this anode was employed in a direct alcohol fuel cell. Peak power densities of 210, 170, and 160 mW cm(-2) at 80 °C were produced if the cell was fed with 10 wt % aqueous solutions of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, respectively, in 2 M aqueous KOH. The Pd loading of the anode was increased to 6 mg cm(-2) by combining four single electrodes to produce a maximum peak power density with ethanol at 80 °C of 335 mW cm(-2) . Such high power densities result from a combination of the open 3 D structure of the anode electrode and the high electrochemically active surface area of the Pd catalyst, which promote very fast kinetics for alcohol electro-oxidation. The peak power and current densities obtained with ethanol at 80 °C approach the output of H2 -fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  11. Low-cost polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel membrane electrolyte for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) chemical hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PCHME) for use in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The method of PCHME preparation was described along with its properties. The membrane is much less expensive than the commonly used Nafion membrane. A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) chemical hydrogel membrane electrolyte and a nickel-based composite anode was assembled in order to test the performance of the new membrane. The cathode catalysts were carbon-supported platinum and sputtered gold. Oxygen, air, and acidified hydrogen peroxide were used as oxidants in the DBFC. Performance characteristics of the PCHME-based DBFC were obtained at different temperatures and compared with similar DBFCs using Nafion membrane electrolytes under the same operating conditions. The peak power density of the PCHME-based DBFC was somewhat higher than that of the Nafion membrane electrolyte based DBFC at 60 degrees C. The borohydride-oxygen fuel cell with PCHME yielded a maximum peak power density of 242 mW cm{sup -2} at 60 degrees C. It was concluded that the membrane presents an inexpensive alternative to widely used polymer membrane electrolytes.

  12. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane as electrolyte for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N A Choudhury; S K Prashant; S Pitchumani; P Sridhar; A K Shukla

    2009-09-01

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) is reported. The DBFC employs an AB5 Misch metal alloy as anode and a goldplated stainless steel mesh as cathode in conjunction with aqueous alkaline solution of sodium borohydride as fuel and aqueous acidified solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Room temperature performances of the PHME-based DBFC in respect of peak power outputs; ex-situ cross-over of oxidant, fuel, anolyte and catholyte across the membrane electrolytes; utilization efficiencies of fuel and oxidant, as also cell performance durability are compared with a similar DBFC employing a Nafion®-117 membrane electrolyte (NME). Peak power densities of ∼30 and ∼40 mW cm-2 are observed for the DBFCs with PHME and NME, respectively. The crossover of NaBH4 across both the membranes has been found to be very low. The utilization efficiencies of NaBH4 and H2O2 are found to be ∼24 and ∼59%, respectively for the PHME-based DBFC; ∼18 and ∼62%, respectively for the NME-based DBFC. The PHME and NME-based DBFCs exhibit operational cell potentials of ∼ 1.2 and ∼ 1.4 V, respectively at a load current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ∼100 h.

  13. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  14. An investigation into the electro-oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol for application in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sagar Sen Gupta; Jayati Datta

    2005-07-01

    A comparative study of the electro-oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol was carried out on carbon-supported platinum particles. Cyclic voltammetry, steady state polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the oxidation reactions. A difference in the mechanistic behaviour of the oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol on Pt was observed, thereby highlighting the fact that the molecular structure of the alcohol has great influence on its electroreactivity. The study emphasizes the fact that 2-propanol is a promising fuel candidate for a direct alcohol fuel cell.

  15. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  16. Biobutanol as Fuel for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells-Investigation of Sn-Modified Pt Catalyst for Butanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Brett, Dan J L; Russell, Andrea E; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-05-25

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies are available for longer chain alcohols such as butanol. A significant development in the production of biobutanol and its proposed application as an alternative fuel to gasoline in the past decade makes butanol an interesting candidate fuel for fuel cells. Different butanol isomers were compared in this study on various Pt and PtSn bimetallic catalysts for their electro-oxidation activities in acidic media. Clear distinctive behaviors were observed for each of the different butanol isomers using cyclic voltammetry (CV), indicating a difference in activity and the mechanism of oxidation. The voltammograms of both n-butanol and iso-butanol showed similar characteristic features, indicating a similar reaction mechanism, whereas 2-butanol showed completely different features; for example, it did not show any indication of poisoning. Ter-butanol was found to be inactive for oxidation on Pt. In situ FTIR and CV analysis showed that OHads was essential for the oxidation of primary butanol isomers which only forms at high potentials on Pt. In order to enhance the water oxidation and produce OHads at lower potentials, Pt was modified by the oxophilic metal Sn and the bimetallic PtSn was studied for the oxidation of butanol isomers. A significant enhancement in the oxidation of the 1° butanol isomers was observed on addition of Sn to the Pt, resulting in an oxidation peak at a potential ∼520 mV lower than that found on pure Pt. The higher activity of PtSn was attributed to the

  17. Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol/fumed silica (QPVA/FS was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm2 was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the majority of published reports. The results confirm that QPVA/FS exhibits promise as a future polymeric electrolyte for use in direct alkaline alcoholic fuel cells.

  18. Performance study of direct borohydride fuel cells employing polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel membrane and nickel-based anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Choudhury, N.A.; Sahai, Y.; Buchheit, R.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel membrane and a nickel-based composite anode is reported. Carbon-supported platinum and sputtered gold have been employed as cathode catalysts. Oxygen, air and acidified hydrogen peroxide have been used as oxidants in the DBFC. Performance of the PVA hydrogel membrane-based DBFC was tested at different temperatures and compared with similar DBFCs employing Nafion registered membrane electrolytes under identical conditions. The borohydride-oxygen fuel cell employing PVA hydrogel membrane yielded a maximum peak power density of 242 mW cm{sup -2} at 60 C. The peak power densities of the PVA hydrogel membrane-based DBFCs were comparable or a little higher than those using Nafion registered 212 membranes at 60 C. The fuel efficiency of borohydride-oxygen fuel cell based on PVA hydrogel membrane and Ni-based composite anode was found to be between 32 and 41%. The cell was operated for more than 100 h and its performance stability was recorded. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  20. Fuel cell-based instrumentation for ethanol determination in alcoholic beverages, fermentations, and biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to devise an alternative method for ethanol assay, employing an electrochemical fuel cell sensor. Thus, the early part of this thesis describes the work carried out in the development of a new analytical technique for this purpose. This work resulted in the production of a successful prototype unit which has led to the development of a commercial instrument, vis., the Lion Drinks Alcolmeter (DA-1) available from Lion Laboratories Ltd. The problem of determining the ethanol content of a fermenting liquor at any point during a fermentation process was also broached and a novel technique combining a flow dilution system, dynamic headspace analysis and a fuel cell sensor was developed. This procedure, suitably automated, will enable the ethanolic content of a fermenting beverage to be determined at any stage during a fermentation, the results obtained in this manner being in excellent agreement with those obtained gas chromatographically. Methods of extending the linear working range of a fuel cell-based sampling system are reported in the hope that the encouraging results obtained may initiate further progress in this field. Finally, the sensing system used in this work has also been utilized with an alternative sampling procedure for the determination of ethanol in biological fluids, mainly for clinical and forensic applications. This work has also led to the production of a commercial instrument, viz. the Lion AE-D3 Alcolmeter.

  1. Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162033.html Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk The more men ... and Australian scientists found a significant association between alcohol and prostate cancer risk, though they did not ...

  2. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  3. Plasma-grafted alkaline anion-exchange membranes based on polyvinyl chloride for potential application in direct alcohol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chengxu; Cong, Jie; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Meng, Yuedong

    2011-05-01

    Plasma grafting is employed to prepare alkaline anion-exchange membranes in this study. The attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis demonstrate that the benzyltrimethylammonium cationic groups are successfully introduced into the polyvinyl chloride matrix via plasma grafting, quaternization and alkalization. The plasma-grafted alkaline anion-exchange membrane exhibits a satisfactory ionic exchange capacity (1.01 mmol g-1), thermal stability, mechanical property, ionic conductivity (0.0145 S cm-1) and methanol permeability (9.59 × 10-12 m2 s-1), suggesting a great potential for application in direct alcohol fuel cells. The open circuit voltage of air-breathing ADAFC using plasma-grafted alkaline anion-exchange membrane is 0.796 V with 1 M EtOH solution at ambient temperature.

  4. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  5. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...

  6. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  7. Graphite oxide incorporated crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol and sulfonated styrene nanocomposite membrane as separating barrier in single chambered microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Ruchira; Kumar, Vikash; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2017-02-01

    Different membranes with varied molar concentrations of graphite oxide (GO), 'in situ' polymerized sulfonated polystyrene (SS) and glutaraldehyde (GA) cross linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), have been analyzed as an effective and low cost nanocomposite barrier in single chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The synthesized composite membranes, namely GO0.2, GO0.4 and GO0.6 exhibited comparatively better results with reduced water uptake (WU) and swelling ratios (SR) over the native PVA. The variation in properties is illustrated with membrane analyses, where GO0.4 showed an increased proton conductivity (PC) and ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 0.128 S cm-1 and 0.33 meq g-1 amongst all of the used membranes. In comparison, reduced oxygen diffusivity with lower water uptake showed a two-fold decrease in GO0.4 over pure PVA membrane (∼2.09 × 10-4 cm s-1). A maximum power density of 193.6 mW m-2 (773.33 mW m-3) with a current density of 803.33 mA m-2 were observed with GO0.4 fitted MFC, where ∼81.89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed using mixed firmicutes, as biocatalyst, in 25 days operation. In effect, the efficacy of GO incorporated crosslinked PVA and SS nanocomposite membrane has been evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for harnessing bio-energy from single chambered MFCs.

  8. Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of activated carbon cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2013-09-01

    High-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) air cathodes were constructed using a combination of inexpensive materials for the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst and the electrode separator. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based electrode separator enabled high coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in MFCs with activated carbon (AC) cathodes without significantly decreasing power output. MFCs with AC cathodes and PVA separators had CEs (43%-89%) about twice those of AC cathodes lacking a separator (17%-55%) or cathodes made with platinum supported on carbon catalyst (Pt/C) and carbon cloth (CE of 20%-50%). Similar maximum power densities were observed for AC-cathode MFCs with (840 ± 42 mW/m2) or without (860 ± 10 mW/m2) the PVA separator after 18 cycles (36 days). Compared to MFCs with Pt-based cathodes, the cost of the AC-based cathodes with PVA separators was substantially reduced. These results demonstrated that AC-based cathodes with PVA separators are an inexpensive alternative to expensive Pt-based cathodes for construction of larger-scale MFC reactors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  10. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  11. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  12. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  13. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  14. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  15. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Pt-Ni and Pt-M-Ni (M = Ru, Sn Anode Catalysts for Low-Temperature Acidic Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermete Antolini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of a possible use as anode materials in acidic direct alcohol fuel cells, the electro-catalytic activity of Pt-Ni and Pt-M-Ni (M = Ru, Sn catalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation has been widely investigated. An overview of literature data regarding the effect of the addition of Ni to Pt and Pt-M on the methanol and ethanol oxidation activity in acid environment of the resulting binary and ternary Ni-containing Pt-based catalysts is presented, highlighting the effect of alloyed and non-alloyed nickel on the catalytic activity of these materials.

  17. BIOCHEMICAL FUEL CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    used to evaluate kinetics of alcoholic fermentation . Evaluation of results indicated that 1% ethanol can be generated in 1 hour. One per cent ethanol is the minimum fuel concentration required for this system. (Author)

  18. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  19. Electrooxidation of ethylene glycol and glycerol on Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C anodes in direct alcohol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, Andrea; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Chen, Yan-Xin; Filippi, Jonathan; Fornasiero, Paolo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish; Wang, Lianqin; Vizza, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    The electrooxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (G) has been studied: in alkaline media, in passive as well as active direct ethylene glycol fuel cells (DEGFCs), and in direct glycerol fuel cells (DGFCs) containing Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C as an anode electrocatalyst, that is, Pd nanoparticles supported on a Ni-Zn phase. For comparison, an anode electrocatalyst containing Pd nanoparticles (Pd/C) has been also investigated. The oxidation of EG and G has primarily been investigated in half cells. The results obtained have highlighted the excellent electrocatalytic activity of Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C in terms of peak current density, which is as high as 3300 A g(Pd)(-1) for EG and 2150 A g(Pd)(-1) for G. Membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA) have been fabricated using Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C anodes, proprietary Fe-Co/C cathodes, and Tokuyama A-201 anion-exchange membranes. The MEA performance has been evaluated in either passive or active cells fed with aqueous solutions of 5 wt % EG and 5 wt % G. In view of the peak-power densities obtained in the temperature range from 20 to 80 °C, at Pd loadings as low as 1 mg cm(-2) at the anode, these results show that Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C can be classified amongst the best performing electrocatalysts ever reported for EG and G oxidation.

  20. Pd and Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their use in passive and active direct alcohol fuel cells with an anion-exchange membrane (alcohol = methanol, ethanol, glycerol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambagioni, Valentina; Bianchini, Claudio; Marchionni, Andrea; Filippi, Jonathan; Vizza, Francesco; Teddy, Jacques; Serp, Philippe; Zhiani, Mohammad

    Palladium and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are prepared by the impregnation-reduction procedure. The materials obtained, Pd/ MWCNT and Pt-Ru/ MWCNT, are characterized by TEM, ICP-AES and XRPD. Electrodes coated with Pd/ MWCNT are scrutinized for the oxidation of methanol, ethanol or glycerol in 2 M KOH solution in half cells. The catalyst is very active for the oxidation of all alcohols, with glycerol providing the best performance in terms of specific current density and ethanol showing the lowest onset potential. Membrane-electrode assemblies have been fabricated using Pd/ MWCNT anodes, commercial cathodes and anion-exchange membrane and evaluated in both single passive and active direct alcohol fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of 10 wt.% methanol, 10 wt.% ethanol or 5 wt.% glycerol. Pd/ MWCNT exhibits unrivalled activity as anode electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation. The analysis of the anode exhausts shows that ethanol is selectively oxidized to acetic acid, detected as acetate ion in the alkaline media of the reaction, while methanol yields carbonate and formate. A much wider product distribution, including glycolate, glycerate, tartronate, oxalate, formate and carbonate, is obtained from the oxidation of glycerol. The results obtained with Pt-Ru/ MWCNT anodes in acid media are largely inferior to those provided by Pd/ MWCNT electrodes in alkaline media.

  1. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  2. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2011-02-01

    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  5. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  6. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-10-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K2PtCl4 and InCl3.xH2O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt2In3 intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt2In3 catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be ~3.2 and ~2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt2In3 nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  7. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  8. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  9. Office of Alcohol Fuels Program plan, FY 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The goal of the Office of Alcohol Fuels is to promote the production, distribution, and use of alcohol fuels. The program objectives are defined and the strategy for implementation is described. An organizational model of the operation is included. The roles of the 3 program offices and various field offices are described. (DMC)

  10. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  11. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  12. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal...... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....

  13. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  14. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  15. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  16. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  17. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  18. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  19. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoskins, Daniel L.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Separators are used to protect cathodes from biofouling and to avoid electrode short-circuiting, but they can adversely affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. A spray method was used to apply a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) separator to the cathode. Power densities were unaffected by the PVA separator (339 ± 29 mW/m2), compared to a control lacking a separator in a low conductivity solution (1mS/cm) similar to wastewater. Power was reduced with separators in solutions typical of laboratory tests (7-13 mS/cm), compared to separatorless controls. The PVA separator produced more power in a separator assembly (SEA) configuration (444 ± 8 mW/m2) in the 1mS/cm solution, but power was reduced if a PVA or wipe separator was used in higher conductivity solutions with either Pt or activated carbon catalysts. Spray and cast PVA separators performed similarly, but the spray method is preferred as it was easier to apply and use.

  20. SULPHONATED POLY ETHER ETHER KETONE/POLYVINYL ALCOHOL/PHOSPHOTUNGSTIC ACID COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR PEM FUEL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Guhan; N.Arun Kumar; D.Sangeetha

    2009-01-01

    Composite membranes with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),sulphonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and phosphotungstic acid (PWA) were prepared using solvent casting method.The proton conductivities of such membranes were found to be in the order of 10-3 S/cm in the fully hydrated condition at room temperature as measured by impedance spectroscopy.The crystalline properties were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis.The thermal properties were determined by TGA and DSC techniques.The tensile strength and percentage elongation were obtained from UTM studies.Water and methanol uptake of these membranes were studied.

  1. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  2. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  3. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  4. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  5. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  6. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  7. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  8. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  9. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  10. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  11. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  12. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  13. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  14. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  16. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  17. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  18. Mass transfer in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Developments in the following areas are reported: surface area and pore size distribution in electrolyte matrices, electron microscopy of electrolyte matrices, surface tension of KOH solutions, water transport in fuel cells, and effectiveness factors for fuel cell components.

  19. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  20. Partial Substitution of Fuel Alcohol for Oil Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of the national economy in the 21st century, China has constantly increased its oil consumption and already depends on imported oil for close to 50% of its supply. Due to various factors, the price of oil keeps increasing. Various biological energy sources have therefore aroused people's interest. As fuel alcohol was developed ahead of the pack, and its technology has now matured worldwide, it has become a focus as a partial substitute in petroleum based fuels.

  1. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  2. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  3. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  4. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  5. Experimental Studies of Selected Aqueous Electrochemical Systems Relevant for Materials Processing in the Fabrications of Microelectronic Components and Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingzhao

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this dissertation to investigate a selected set of aqueous electrochemical systems that are relevant for materials processing in the fabrication of microelectronic devices and direct alcohol fuel cells. In terms of technical applications, this work covers three main experimental systems: (i) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), (ii) electro-less nickel deposition, and (iii) direct alkaline glycerol fuel cells. The first two areas are related to electronic device fabrications and the third topic is related to cost-effective energy conversion. The common electrochemical aspect of these different systems is that, in all these cases the active material characteristics are governed by complex (often multi-step) reactions occurring at metal-liquid (aqueous) interfaces. Electro-analytical techniques are ideally suited for studying the detailed mechanisms of such reactions, and the present investigation is largely focused on developing adequate analytical strategies for probing these reaction mechanisms. In the fabrication of integrated circuits, certain steps of materials processing involve CMP of Al deposited on thin layers of diffusion barrier materials like Ta/TaN, Co, or Ti/TiN. A specific example of this situation is found in the processing of replacement metal gates used for high-k/metal-gate transistors. Since the commonly used barrier materials are nobler than Al, the Al interface in contact with the barrier can become prone to galvanic corrosion in the wet CMP environment. Using model systems of coupon electrodes and two specific barrier metals, Ta and Co, the electrochemical factors responsible for these corrosion effects are investigated here in a moderately acidic (pH = 4.0) abrasive-free solution. The techniques of cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy are combined with strategic measurements of galvanic currents and open circuit potentials (OCPs). L-ascorbic acid (AA) is employed as a

  6. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  7. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  8. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Scott; M. Mamlouk

    2006-01-01

    One of the major issues limiting the introduction of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the low temperature of operation which makes platinum-based anode catalysts susceptible to poisoning by the trace amount of CO, inevitably present in reformed fuel. In order to alleviate the problem of CO poisoning and improve the power density of the cell, operating at temperature above 100 ℃ is preferred. Nafion(R) -type perfluorosulfonated polymers have been typically used for PEMFC. However, the conductivity of Nafion(R) -type polymers is not high enough to be used for fuel cell operations at higher temperature ( > 90 ℃) and atmospheric pressure because they dehydrate under these condition.An additional problem which faces the introduction of PEMFC technology is that of supplying or storing hydrogen for cell operation,especially for vehicular applications. Consequently the use of alternative fuels such as methanol and ethanol is of interest, especially if this can be used directly in the fuel cell, without reformation to hydrogen. A limitation of the direct use of alcohol is the lower activity of oxidation in comparison to hydrogen, which means that power densities are considerably lower. Hence to improve activity and power output higher temperatures of operation are preferable. To achieve this goal, requires a new polymer electrolyte membrane which exhibits stability and high conductivity in the absence of liquid water.Experimental data on a polybenzimidazole based PEMFC were presented. A simple steady-state isothermal model of the fuel cell is also used to aid in fuel cell performance optimisation. The governing equations involve the coupling of kinetic, ohmic and mass transport. This paper also considers the advances made in the performance of direct methanol and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells and considers their limitations in relation to the source and type of fuels to be used.

  9. Development of Methanol-Reforming Catalysts for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Vehicles powered by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuelcells are approaching commercialisation. Being inherently cleanand efficient sources of power, fuel cells constitute asustainable alternative to internal combustion engines to meetfuture low-emission legislation. The PEM fuel cell may befuelled directly by hydrogen, but other alternatives appearmore attractive at present, due to problems related to theproduction, transportation and handling of hydrogen. Fuelling with an alcohol fuel, such...

  10. Fuel Cell Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    AD-A009 587 FUEL CELL STACKS Bernard S. Baker Energy Research Corporation Prepared for: Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center April... Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center Unclassified For- Belvoir, Virginia 22060 [15. DE.CLASSIFICATION/L.TWNOGRADING SCREOUJLE 16...the majority of effort has been directed at translating technoilogy for small comn- ponent manufacture on a laboratory scale into large size components

  11. Experimental Investigation of Using Fuel Additives - Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Fayyad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an investigation of the effects of ethanol addition to low octane numbergasoline, on the fuel octane number and on the performance of the engine. In this study, the tested gasoline(octane number = 90 is blended with five different percentages of ethanol, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% onvolume basis. Then these fuel blends, as well as the base gasoline fuel, w ere burnt in the tested engine. It isfound that the octane number of gasoline increases continuously and linearly with increasing the ethanolpercentage in gasoline. Hence, ethanol is an effective compound for increasing the value of the octane numberof gasoline. Also, it is also noticed that the best performance of the engine was obtained when 15% of ethanolwas used in the gasoline blend.

  12. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  13. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  14. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    directly to diesel fuel in a one pot reaction consisting of: conversion of glycerol to synthesis gas over a Pt-Re/C catalyst followed by conversion of the produced synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a Ru/TiO2 catalyst. Oxidation of aqueous solutions of ethanol over gold...

  15. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  16. Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

  17. Pathway to fuel additives or designer fuels from bio-based alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreuz, Klaas; Menne, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Kraft, Axel

    2013-06-01

    A continuous heterogeneous-catalytic gas-phase process developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT makes it possible to condense small alcohols and ketones to larger hydrocarbon molecules containing only one atom of oxygen per molecule. After an optional oxygen-removing step such as hydrotreatment, fuel-identical hydrocarbons are yielded. The overall conversion of feedstock to fuel additives or fuels is depicted below: Alcohol - Conversion to higher alcohols - Condensation with acetone - Hydrotreatment (Schematic process flow for the production of fuel-identical hydrocarbons and additives). Depending on raw materials and process conditions, a tailor-made product distribution is possible. The products can be used as fuel additives or as drop-in fuel, matching either diesel or kerosene specifications. The intermediates - secondary alcohols - are valuable as raw materials for several chemical applications, i.e. plasticizer, surfactants, solvents or lubricants. This process offers an attractive alternative to other competing processes producing long-chain hydrocarbons, like Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreatment of fats and oils. Being based on economical, stable and commercially available catalysts as well as on a wide range of possible raw materials, this method 1s ready for scale up and related process development. (orig.)

  18. Mass Spectrometry of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johánek, Viktor; Ostroverkh, Anna; Fiala, Roman; Rednyk, Andrii; Matolín, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    The chemical analysis of processes inside fuel cells under operating conditions in either direct or inverted (electrolysis) mode and their correlation with potentiostatic measurements is a crucial part of understanding fuel cell electrochemistry. We present a relatively simple yet powerful experimental setup for online monitoring of the fuel cell exhaust (of either cathode or anode side) downstream by mass spectrometry. The influence of a variety of parameters (composition of the catalyst, fuel type or its concentration, cell temperature, level of humidification, mass flow rate, power load, cell potential, etc.) on the fuel cell operation can be easily investigated separately or in a combined fashion. We demonstrate the application of this technique on a few examples of low-temperature (70°C herein) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (both alcohol- and hydrogen-fed) subjected to a wide range of conditions.

  19. Mass Spectrometry of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroverkh, Anna; Fiala, Roman; Rednyk, Andrii; Matolín, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    The chemical analysis of processes inside fuel cells under operating conditions in either direct or inverted (electrolysis) mode and their correlation with potentiostatic measurements is a crucial part of understanding fuel cell electrochemistry. We present a relatively simple yet powerful experimental setup for online monitoring of the fuel cell exhaust (of either cathode or anode side) downstream by mass spectrometry. The influence of a variety of parameters (composition of the catalyst, fuel type or its concentration, cell temperature, level of humidification, mass flow rate, power load, cell potential, etc.) on the fuel cell operation can be easily investigated separately or in a combined fashion. We demonstrate the application of this technique on a few examples of low-temperature (70°C herein) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (both alcohol- and hydrogen-fed) subjected to a wide range of conditions. PMID:28042492

  20. Mass Spectrometry of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Johánek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis of processes inside fuel cells under operating conditions in either direct or inverted (electrolysis mode and their correlation with potentiostatic measurements is a crucial part of understanding fuel cell electrochemistry. We present a relatively simple yet powerful experimental setup for online monitoring of the fuel cell exhaust (of either cathode or anode side downstream by mass spectrometry. The influence of a variety of parameters (composition of the catalyst, fuel type or its concentration, cell temperature, level of humidification, mass flow rate, power load, cell potential, etc. on the fuel cell operation can be easily investigated separately or in a combined fashion. We demonstrate the application of this technique on a few examples of low-temperature (70°C herein polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (both alcohol- and hydrogen-fed subjected to a wide range of conditions.

  1. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  2. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  3. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  4. Making alcohol fuels for transportation via biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: ilkka.hannula@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project was to examine and identify process configurations that prove most promising for the largescale production of transportation fuels via biomass gasification. Special attention was given to the production of alcohol fuels. Other objectives of the project included: reviewing the status of biomass-to-syngas technology in the US, strengthening of networks between Finland and the US in the area of biomass gasification, deepening VTT's process evaluation know-how in the biomass-to-liquids area, and investigation of availability and gasification properties of selected North American agricultural residues and energy crops.

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF FUEL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This work provides literature data to improve solid oxide fuel cells by a direct methane fuel cell and electrode settings of uninterrupted space. The possibility of electrochemical generators SOFC as synthesis gas from natural gas. We describe progress in the creation of new nanomaterials for components SOFC and modern technologies for their manufacture. Briefly described features of the operation and use molten carbonate fuel cells and their accessories and SOFC in cogeneration system (three...

  6. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells - Degradation and Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon

    A harmonious mix of renewable and alternative energy sources, including fuel cells is necessary to mitigate problems associated with the current fossil fuel based energy system, like air pollution, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, and economic dependence on oil, and therefore on unstable areas...... of the globe. Fuel cells can harness the excess energy from other renewable sources, such as the big players in the renewable energy market, Photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines, which inherently suffer from intermittency problems. The excess energy can be used to produce hydrogen from water or can...... be stored in liquid alcohols such as methanol, which can be sources of hydrogen for fuel cell applications. In addition, fuel cells unlike other technologies can use a variety of other fuels that can provide a source of hydrogen, such as biogas, methane, butane, etc. More fuel flexibility combined...

  7. Fuel cells problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive, accessible introduction to fuel cells, their applications, and the challenges they pose Fuel cells-electrochemical energy devices that produce electricity and heat-present a significant opportunity for cleaner, easier, and more practical energy. However, the excitement over fuel cells within the research community has led to such rapid innovation and development that it can be difficult for those not intimately familiar with the science involved to figure out exactly how this new technology can be used. Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions, Second Edition addresses this i

  8. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  9. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  10. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  11. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  12. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL ELECTRODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    optimization of fuel cell electrodes. Hydrogen oxidation and reduction, the reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of formic acid, a soluble organic...substance, were selected for these studiees because of their relevance to fuel cell systems and because of their relative simplicity. The electrodes

  13. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  14. Thermally regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, F. A.; Kindler, A.; McHardy, J.

    1991-10-01

    The three phase project was undertaken to investigate solventless ionic liquids as possible working fluids for a new type of thermally regenerative fuel cell (TRFC). The heart of the new device, invented at Hughes Aircraft Company in 1983, is an electrochemical concentration cell where acid and base streams react to produce electrical energy. Thermal energy is then used to decompose the resulting salts and regenerate the cell reactants. In principle, a TRFC can be matched to any source of thermal energy simply by selecting working fluids with the appropriate regeneration temperature. However, aqueous working fluids (the focus of previous studies) impose limitations on both the operating temperatures and the achievable energy densities. It was the need to overcome these limitations that prompted the present investigation. Specific aims were to identify possible working fluids for TRFC systems with both low and high regeneration temperatures. A major advantage of our aqueous-fluid TRFC systems has been the ability to use hydrogen electrodes. The low activation and mass transfer losses of these electrodes contribute substantially to overall system efficiency.

  15. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  16. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  17. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  18. Development of fuel alcohol technology. Development of flash fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    This is an annual report for 1984 on the development of fuel alcohol fermentation technology. (1) Continuous operation (total 6,000 hours) with a compact fermentation unit (1 l/d alcohol production) increased the productivity up to 1.5 times by a flush fermentation for a high density bacillus. (2) Salt resistance of the bacillus stock for flush fermentation was examined for the selection of the stock to be used in the operation of the test plant. (3) Zaimomonus-mobilis stock was utilized to examine the influence of high-density condition of a light-curing resin on the fermentation characteristics. (4) For a high density bacillus to be loaded in a test plant, a condition for the stable storage for more than 3 months was selected. (5) A test plant with 5 kl/d alcohol production was installed at Izumi Alcohol Plant of NEDO. (6) A unit for preparing high density bacillus granules for loading in the test plant was installed at Kinuura Laboratory of NIKKI K.K..

  19. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  20. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  1. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  2. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  3. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  4. The Fuel Cells Are Coming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    By the middle of next year, three hydrogen-powered buses will be roving the streets of Washington,D. C.,Los Angeles,and Chicago as part of a government-sponsored test of the effectiveness of fuel cells and alternative fuels in reducing vehicle emissions.

  5. Dimension Health: Ignored in Alcohol Fuel Politics (PAC in Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García-Lozada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide debate about global warming of the atmosphere, and the recognition of the decisive contribution of fossil fuels to gas emissions that intensify this phenomenon, have allowed the resurgence of energy options such as biomass, with the goal of reducing carbon emissions and provide benefits to farmers. These suppositions, currently quite controversial, leave out considerations about potential impacts on ecosystems and public health, due to the emission of high-risk substances, such is the case when ethanol mixed with gasoline is burned. This article examines how Alcohol Fuel politics are surging in the country and the way that the public health dimension is contemplated in those politics; through the use of the “multiple streams” model proposed by Kingdon and a narrative method to understand the process as well as the context of political decisions.

  6. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  7. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  8. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  9. Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    energy numbers are 2.3X and 5.7X the theoretical values for lithium thionyl chloride respectively (1100 Whr/liter and 590 Whr/kg), which has the...REPORT Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Advances in lithium primary battery technology, which serves as the...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 16-Aug-2010 Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell Report Title ABSTRACT Advances in lithium primary battery technology

  10. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  11. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  12. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  13. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable...

  14. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  15. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  16. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  17. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  18. Solid alkaline membrane fuel cell : what are they advantages and drawbacks compared to proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutanceau, C.; Baranton, S.; Simoes, M. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR CNRS

    2010-07-01

    Low temperature fuel cells such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) are promising power sources for portable electronics and transportation applications. However, these fuel cells require high amounts of platinum at the anodes to achieve high cell performance. Although alkaline membrane fuel cells (AFCs) may be an alternative to PEMFCs, the technology of low temperature fuel cells is less developed than that of fuel cells working with a solid acid electrolyte. Interest in solid alkaline membrane fuel cells (SAMFCs) has increased in recent years because it is easier to activate the oxidation and reduction reactions in alkaline medium than in acidic medium. Fewer platinum based catalysts are needed due to higher electrode kinetics. The development of hydroxyl conductive membrane makes this technology available, but the fuel to be used in the system must be considered. Pure hydrogen or hydrogen-rich gases offer high electric efficiency, but their production, storage, and distribution are not sufficient for a large-scale development. This paper discussed the relatively good electroreactivity of polyols such as glycerol and ethylene glycol in a SAMFC, as well as sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as an alternative. The working principle of SAMFCs was also presented along with considerations regarding the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes, and requirements concerning the catalysts, the triple phase boundary in the electrode and the anionic membrane. Palladium based catalysts were found to be an interesting alternative to platinum in SAMFCs. In situ FTIR measurements and oxidation products analysis was used to determine the electrooxidation pathways of alcohol and NaBH{sub 4}in alkaline medium. The study also included a comparison with oxidation mechanisms in acid medium. 8 refs.

  19. Application of tungsten-based catalytic materials to direct alcohol fuel cell production%钨基催化材料在直接醇类燃料电池中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜慧; 周阳; 梁福永; 曲慧男; 温和瑞

    2015-01-01

    直接醇类燃料电池(DAFC)具有能量密度高、携带方便以及环境友好等优点。电极催化剂是改善DAFC性能的关键材料,目前DAFC催化剂要解决的关键问题是提高催化剂的电催化活性、抗CO等中间产物毒化能力以及降低催化剂成本,文中综述了2种钨基催化材料的制备、性能表征及其在DAFC中的应用研究进展,指出了目前钨基复合催化剂需要重点研究的基础问题。%Direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) has the advantages of high energy density , convenient packaging and environment friendliness. The key problem of anode catalyst for DAFC is how to improve the catalytic activity of anodic oxidation, and enhance the ability of resistance to CO poisoning and lower the price of catalyst. This paper reviews the synthesis , electric catalytic properties and applications in DAFC of two kinds of tungsten-based catalysts. The existing basic problems of tungsten-based composite catalysts are proposed.

  20. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  1. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  2. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  3. Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2. Fuel Storage Tank: The fuel storage tanker was completely drained and returned to BakerCorp IAW the lease agreement . 3. Aircraft: The...tests, use of the JP-8/ATJ blend was transparent to all fuel wetted systems including the engines. REFERENCES. 1. Test Record, Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8

  4. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  5. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  6. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  7. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  8. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  9. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  10. Polymer Materials for Fuel Cell Membranes :Sulfonated Poly(ether sulfone) for Universal Fuel Cell Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyoung-Juhn Kim

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been spotlighted because they are clean and highly efficient power generation system. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which use reformate gases or pure H2 for a fuel, have been employed for automotives and residential usages. Also, liquid-feed fuel cells such as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) were studied for portable power generation.

  11. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  12. HDS for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsolami, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate the feasibility of developing a catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process operating under low pressure and high temperature conditions to produce a near-zero sulfur content diesel suitable for fuel cell applications. As expected, it was found that d

  13. Fuel-Cell Drivers Wanted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Todd; Jones, Rick

    2004-01-01

    While the political climate seems favorable for the development of fuel-cell vehicles for personal transportation, the market's demand may not be so favorable. Nonetheless, middle level students will be the next generation of drivers and voters, and they need to be able to make informed decisions regarding the nation's energy and transportation…

  14. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    and adsorbents. Ordered mesoporous carbon ( OMC ) has the advantages of high surface area, tunable pore size, interconnected pore network, and...tailorable surface properties. Recently, OMC as support for metal nanocatalysts for electrode materials in low-temperature fuel cells has been attracting much

  15. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  16. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  18. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has...

  19. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  20. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...... temperature allows for utilization of the excess heat for fuel processing. Moreover, it provides an excellent CO tolerance of several percent, and the system needs no purification of hydrogen from a reformer. Continuous service for over 6 months at 150°C has been demonstrated....

  1. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  2. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines1, 2, 3, 4. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number5. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes6. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  3. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-09

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  4. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fuel cell ( SOFC ) technology has been of great interest over many years due to its...All Rights Reserved iii ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell ( SOFC ) technology has been of great interest over many years due to its... Fuel Cell (PAFC) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) This classification in fuel cells broadly depends on the type

  5. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  6. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Operation With Dual Fuel Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    oxygen PAFC Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell PEMFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell PDS Propane Desulfurization System ppm parts per million psig...range of power outputs. In addition , instantaneous and on-load fuel switching from natural gas to propane and back was demonstrated without loss of...issues that required additional investigation included identifying the number and volume of propane tanks needed and a vaporization sys- tem to

  7. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells is...

  8. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  9. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  10. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  11. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  12. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  13. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  14. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  15. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  16. Influence of the fuel and dosage on the performance of double-compartment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Y; Fernandez-Marchante, C M; Lobato, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript focuses on the evaluation of the use of different types and dosages of fuels in the performance of double-compartment microbial fuel cell equipped with carbon felt electrodes and cationic membrane. Five types of fuels (ethanol, glycerol, acetate, propionate and fructose) have been tested for the same organic load (5,000 mg L(-1) measured as COD) and for one of them (acetate), the range of dosages between 500 and 20,000 mg L(-1) of COD was also studied. Results demonstrate that production of electricity depends strongly on the fuel used. Carboxylic acids are much more efficient than alcohols or fructose for the same organic load and within the range 500-5,000 mg L(-1) of acetate the production of electricity increases linearly with the amount of acetate fed but over these concentrations a change in the population composition may explain a worse performance.

  17. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  18. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...... be estimation as a function of the load current. The data is based on an experiment conducted using a single BASF prototype Celtec P2100 HTPEM fuel cell (45 cm2 ) operated at 160 C, installed in a Greenlight fuel cell test station....

  19. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  1. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  2. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . The most common type of fuel cell used for automotive applications is PEM fuel cell. They are known for their high efficiency, low emissions and high reliability. However, lack of a hydrogen infrastructure, cost and durability of the stack is considered the biggest obstacles to the introduction of fuel...... cell vehicles. The overall aim of this research is studying different fuel cell systems and find out the system with the highest efficiency and less complexity. This will be achieved by modelling and optimization of the fuel cell system followed by some experimental tests. Efficiency of the stack...... is about 50%. But efficiency of whole the system is less than this value, because some part of electricity produced by the stack would run the auxiliary components. The work deals with development of steady state model of necessary components in the fuel cell system (humidifier, fuel cell stack and ejector...

  3. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  4. STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

    2002-08-29

    TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

  5. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-17

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells.

  6. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  8. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  9. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies...... to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...

  10. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  11. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  12. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  13. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  14. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  15. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Aviation Turbine Fuels5 are not feasible. The total water concentration of three samples from the influent and effluent of the filter-separator...International. ASTM D3240-11: Standard Test Method for Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuel, March 2011 6. MIL-DTL-5624V, Detail Specification...Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-001 17 October 2014

  16. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  17. Durability study of PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.F.; Yuan, X.Z.; Martin, J.J.; Wang, H.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation; Bi, X.T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Pei, P.C.; Huang, H.Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Technical challenges limit the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM) for use in stationary applications and transport. These include: on-board storage and infrastructure for hydrogen fuel as well as the fuel cell system itself; high costs; and, durability under a wide range of operational conditions. Durability is defined as the maximum service life of a fuel cell system with no more than 10 per cent loss in efficiency at the end of life. This paper presented a literature review and analysis in order to provide a unified definition of PEM fuel cell service life when operated at either steady state or dynamic load conditions. The paper presented an analysis of different operating conditions and the dependence of PEM fuel cell durability on the operating condition. The paper also reviewed durability studies of the different components of a PEM fuel cell, and also examined various degradation mechanisms. These included: load or thermal cycles; fuel or oxidant starvation; high or low humidification levels; and, reformate or simulated reformed gases as fuels. A relationship between the accelerated service life of a PEM fuel cell and the real service life was then developed. To obtain real service life under normal testing conditions, statistical models based on accelerated service life data were illustrated. It was concluded that the service life of a fuel cell and its components is a function of more than one or two variables. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  19. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  20. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  1. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  2. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  3. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  4. Consumption of oil fuels and alcohol fuels 1980-1992; Consumo de derivados de petroleo e alcool carburante 1980-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Sectorial studies about the consumption evolution of petroleum derivatives and alcohol fuels during the years 1980 to 1992, are presented. The tables include the fuel consumption on the industrial and automotive fuels on Brazilian states, the fuel pattern, the quantity spent by year, the percentage and the increase of consumption rates. 3 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-15

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  6. The direct formate fuel cell with an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrom, Amy M.; Haan, John L.

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an operating Direct Formate Fuel Cell employing formate salts as the anode fuel, air or oxygen as the oxidant, a polymer anion exchange membrane, and metal catalysts at the anode and cathode. Operation of the DFFC at 60 °C using 1 M KOOCH and 2 M KOH as the anode fuel and electrolyte and oxygen gas at the cathode produces 144 mW cm-2 of peak power density, 181 mA cm-2 current density at 0.6 V, and an open circuit voltage of 0.931 V. This performance is competitive with alkaline Direct Liquid Fuel Cells (DLFCs) previously reported in the literature and demonstrates that formate fuel is a legitimate contender with alcohol fuels for alkaline DLFCs. A survey of the literature shows that a formate-oxygen fuel cell has a high theoretical potential, and the safe, renewable formate fuel does not poison the anode catalyst.

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  8. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  9. Regulation of Power Conversion in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Mu-zhong; ZHANG J.; K. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Here we report a regulation about power conversion in fuel cells. This regulation is expressed as that total power produced by fuel cells is always proportional to the square of the potential difference between the equilibrium potential and work potential. With this regulation we deduced fuel cell performance equation which can describe the potential vs. the current performance curves, namely, polarization curves of fuel cells with three power source parameters: equilibrium potential E0; internal resistance R; and power conversion coefficient K. The concept of the power conversion coefficient is a new criterion to evaluate and compare the characteristics and capacity of different fuel cells. The calculated values obtained with this equation agree with practical performance of different types of fuel cells.

  10. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  11. Commercialization of fuel cells: myth or reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junye

    2014-01-01

    Despite huge investment and efforts in the last decades, fuel cells are still known as a fledgling industry after 170 years of the first fuel cell. It becomes clear that these investment and efforts did not address the critical questions. Why upscaling of fuel cells failed often when many researchers stated their successes in small scale? Why the fuel cells with simpler structure still lag far from the internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines? Could the current investment of the hydrogen infrastructure reduce substantially the fuel cell cost and make a breakthrough to the key issues of durability, reliability and robustness? In this paper, we study these fundamental questions and point out a must-way possible to reduce cost of fuel cells and to substantially improve durability and reliability.

  12. Fuel cells - Fundamentals and types: Unique features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. R.

    An overview of the working principles, thermodynamic efficiencies, types, and engineering aspects of fuel cells is presented. It is noted that fuel cells are distinguished from other direct energy conversion devices by the existence of charge separation at the electrodes involving ions in an electrolyte. The electrical energy produced by a fuel cell is shown to be equal to the change in the free energy of the reactants, and thermodynamic balances of reactions in different fuel cells are provided. The production of electricity in the discharge mode involves a spontaneous reaction of overproduction of electrons at the anode and consumption of the electrons at the cathode, with the total ionic current being equal to the electronic current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the operations and problems of acid, alkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells, in addition to applications of electro-organic fuel cells.

  13. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  14. Polybenzimidazoles based on high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Leon, Jose Joaquin; Camargo, Ana Paula M.; Ashino, Natalia M.; Morgado, Daniella L.; Frollini, Elisabeth; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bajo, Justo Lobato [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an interesting approach in order to enhance the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) by means of an increase in the operational temperature. For this, two polymeric materials, Poly(2,5-bibenzimidazole) (ABPBI) and Poly[2,2'-(m-phenyl en)-5,5' bib enzimidazol] (PBI), impregnated with phosphoric acid have been utilized. These have shown excellent properties, such as thermal stability above 500 deg C, reasonably high conductivity when impregnated with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and a low permeability to alcohols compared to Nafion. Preliminary fuel cells measurements on hydrogen based Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) displayed an interestingly reasonable good fuel cell performance, a quite reduced loss when the hydrogen stream was polluted with carbon monoxide, and finally, when the system was tested with an ethanol/water (E/W) fuel, it displayed quite promising results that allows placing this system as an attractive option in order to increase the cell performance and deal with the typical limitations of low temperature Nafion-based PEMFC. (author)

  15. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  16. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Su Jang; Dong Sam Park

    2009-01-01

    Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of m...

  17. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  18. DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots E2S2 Conference May 7, 2009 Rob Hardison LMI rhardison@lmi.org Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and fuel cells offer potential „green‟ solutions •DLA‟s efforts to measure and improve viability of fuel cells DoD is supporting long term solutions

  19. PEM fuel cell testing and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiujun

    2013-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Testing and Diagnosis covers the recent advances in PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems, focusing on instruments and techniques for testing and diagnosis, and the application of diagnostic techniques in practical tests and operation. This book is a unique source of electrochemical techniques for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of fuel cells. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are currently considered the most promising clean energy-converting devices for stationary, transportation, and micro-power applications due to their

  20. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  1. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  2. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  3. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  4. Multiphase transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric D.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enable efficient conversion of fuels to electricity. They have enormous potential due to the high energy density of the fuels they utilize (hydrogen or alcohols). Power density is a major limitation to wide-scale introduction of PEMFCs. Power density in hydrogen fuel cells is limited by accumulation of water in what is termed fuel cell `flooding.' Flooding may occur in either the gas diffusion layer (GDL) or within the flow channels of the bipolar plate. These components comprise the electrodes of the fuel cell and balance transport of reactants/products with electrical conductivity. This thesis explores the role of electrode materials in the fuel cell and examines the fundamental connection between material properties and multiphase transport processes. Water is generated at the cathode catalyst layer. As liquid water accumulates it will utilize the largest pores in the GDL to go from the catalyst layer to the flow channels. Water collects to large pores via lateral transport at the interface between the GDL and catalyst layer. We have shown that water may be collected in these large pores from several centimeters away, suggesting that we could engineer the GDL to control flooding with careful placement and distribution of large flow-directing pores. Once liquid water is in the flow channels it forms slugs that block gas flow. The slugs are pushed along the channel by a pressure gradient that is dependent on the material wettability. The permeable nature of the GDL also plays a major role in slug growth and allowing bypass of gas between adjacent channels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have analogous multiphase flow issues where carbon dioxide bubbles accumulate, `blinding' regions of the fuel cell. This problem is fundamentally similar to water management in hydrogen fuel cells but with a gas/liquid phase inversion. Gas bubbles move laterally through the porous GDL and emerge to form large bubbles within the

  5. Recent advances in Carbon Nanotube based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eCosnier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols or hydrogen at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2 at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes, enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons, involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes, can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications.

  6. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  7. Mathematical modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ruy; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    Fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been receiving more and more attention. Modeling plays an important role in the development of fuel cells. In this paper, the state-of-the-art regarding modeling of fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane is reviewed. Modeling has allowed detailed studies concerning the development of these cells, e.g. in discussing the electrocatalysis of the reactions and the design of water-management schemes to cope with membrane dehydration. Two-dimensional models have been used to represent reality, but three-dimensional models can cope with some important additional aspects. Consideration of two-phase transport in the air cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell seems to be very appropriate. Most fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel. Besides safety concerns, there are problems associated with production, storage and distribution of this fuel. Methanol, as a liquid fuel, can be the solution to these problems and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications. Mass transport is a factor that may limit the performance of the cell. Adsorption steps may be coupled to Tafel kinetics to describe methanol oxidation and methanol crossover must also be taken into account. Extending the two-phase approach to the DMFC modeling is a recent, important point.

  8. Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Fuel Blending Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic Fuel, JP-8, diesel engine , combustion 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...stock into JP-8 in order to understand the effect ATJ fuel blends will have on ground vehicle engines and support equipment. This subtask under Work...paraffinic ATJ blending stock into JP-8 in order to understand the effect ATJ fuel blends will have on ground vehicle engines and support equipment. This

  9. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  10. Proceedings of the Queen's-RMC Fuel Cell Research Centre fuel cell technology day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Queen's-RMC Fuel Cell Research Centre was formed to conduct research on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells as well as fuel processing and hydrogen production and storage technologies. The centre focuses on the development of manufacturing methods, mathematical modelling, catalysis and reaction engineering, and computational thermodynamics. The fuel cell technology day provided a forum for research leaders from various institutions to discuss recent studies related to PEM and SOFC fuel cells. Issues related to materials and system degradation in fuel cells were discussed along with recent developments in the micro-engineering of SOFC cathodes. Commercialization plans for megawatt fuel cells were also discussed, and recent spectroscopy and voltammetry studies of PEM fuel cells were presented. A panel discussion was also held to determine research directions for the future. The technology day featured 7 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  11. Micro solid oxide fuel cell at ARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, P.; Rho, H. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A fuel cell generates electricity by electrochemically converting chemical energy to electrical energy. The basic components of a fuel cell are the electrolyte, anode, cathode and current collectors. The Alberta Research Council has developed a design and manufacturing process for a high volumetric density Micro Solid Oxide Tubular fuel cell with a diameter of less than 5 mm. The advantage of this newly developed fuel cell is that the power per unit volume is increased significantly because the power of a fuel cell is directly proportional to the electrolyte surface area. The fuel cell also has quick start up. Calculations show that a decrease in tube diameter from 22 mm to 2 mm will increase the electrolyte surface area in a stack by approximately 8 times. The thin wall of the Micro Solid Oxide Fuel Cell has a very high thermal shock resistance and low thermal mass. These are 2 basic characteristics needed to reduce start up and turn off time for the solid oxide fuel cell system (SOFC). The added advantage of high volumetric power is that smaller devices can be fabricated for portable applications. Samples were manufactured using a sequential electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method used to fabricate complex shapes and microstructures. Single cell SOFCs were made using EPD with an electrolyte thickness of less than 10 {mu}m. The cell power was found to be comparable to standard tubular SOFC but with a lower production cost. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  13. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  14. Integrated regenerative fuel cell experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of an integrated regenerative fuel cell (IRFC) concept. The IRFC consists of a separate fuel cell unit and electrolysis cell unit in the same structure, with internal storage of fuel cell product water and external storage of electrolysis cell produced hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell unit incorporates an enhanced Orbiter-type cell capable of improved performance at reduced weight. The electrolysis cell features a NiCo2O4 catalyst oxygen evolution eletrode with a porous Teflon cover to retard electrolyte loss. Six complete IRFC assemblies were assembled and performance tested at an operating temperature of 200 F (93.3 C) and reactant pressures up to 170 psia (117.2 n/cu cm) on IRFC No. 4. Anomalous pressure charge/discharge characteristics were encountered during performance evaluation. A reversible fuel cell incorporating a proprietary bi-functional oxygen electrode operated satisfactory at 200 F (93.3 C) at reactant pressures up to 50 psia (41.4 n/cu cm) as a regenerative fuel cell for one cycle, before developing an electrical short in the fuel cell mode. Electrolysis cell 300-hour endurance tests demonstrated the electrolyte retention capability of the electrode Teflon cover and the performance stability of the bi-functional oxygen electrode at high potential.

  15. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  16. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  17. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-08-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  18. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.; Prokopius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented both for multimegawatt systems for electric utility applications and for multikilowatt systems for on-site integrated energy system applications. Improving fuel cell performance, reducing cost, and increasing durability are the technology drivers at this time. Electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, and fuel selection are discussed.

  19. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  20. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  1. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  2. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Martin; Brodd, Ralph J

    2004-10-01

    Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

  3. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  4. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  5. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  6. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  7. Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maynard K.

    1990-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

  8. Organic fuel cell methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A liquid organic, fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  9. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  10. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  11. Foaming-electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanis, L.; Saunders, A. P.

    1970-01-01

    Foam structure feeds fuel gas solution into electrolyte. Fuel gas reacts at static, three-phase interface between fuel gas, electrolyte, and electrode material. The foam forms an electrical contact between main body of electrolyte and the electrode, and aids in removal of by-products of the chemical reaction.

  12. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  13. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  14. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  15. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... and discussed in the following. Parallel acquisition using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to detect possible minor differences in the supply of gas to the individual cells, which is important when going to high fuel utilizations. The fuel flow distribution was determined and provides...... carried out on an experimental 14-cell SOFC stack at varying frequencies and fuel utilizations. The results illustrated that THD can be used to detect increasing non-linearities in the current-voltage characteristics of the stack when the stack suffers from fuel starvation by monitoring the stack sum...

  17. Development and optimization of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, D.; Vigues, N.; Sanchez, O.; Garrido, L.; Tomas, N.; Mas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Genetica y Microbiologia; Esquivel, J.P.; Sabate, N.; Del Campo, F.J.; Munoz, F.J. [Inst. de Microelectronica de Barcelona-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    While global energy demand increases daily, fossil fuel sources are being depleted at an unsustainable pace. Fuel cells represent a solution as they are more efficient than other energy sources. A microbial fuel cell is an electrochemical device capable of continuously converting chemical energy into electrical energy for as long as adequate fuel and oxidant are available. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) adds the benefit of converting chemical energy from organic compounds, such as simple carbohydrates or organic waste matter, into electricity by using bacteria as biocatalysts. This article described the effect of several parameters that affect the operation of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The study is based on a methodology utilized in previous studies which employed escherichia coli as biocatalyst and neutral red as the electron mediator in a mediated electron transfer (MET) microbial fuel cell. The study analysed the influence of the bacterial concentration, the effective area of electrode and the volume of the cell. It was concluded that there is a proportional energy production to the bacterial concentration present in the anode compartment. It was demonstrated that an increase in the volume of the cell negatively affects the power produced by the cells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  19. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  20. Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

    1999-06-01

    Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are

  1. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  2. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  3. Micro PEM Fuel Cells and Stacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-shing; Hsieh

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The effects of different operating parameters on micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance were experimentally studied for three different flow field configurations (interdigitated,mesh,and serpentine).Experiments with different cell operating temperatures and different backpressures on the H2 flow channels,as well as various combinations of these parameters,have been conducted for three different flow geometries.The micro PEM fuel cells were designed and fabricated in-house t...

  4. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  5. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  6. Method for Making a Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Setlock, John A. (Inventor); Farmer, Serene C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which an electrolyte layer is supported between porous electrodes. The porous electrodes may be made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze-drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that, subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode. The electrode scaffold comprising the anode includes a layer of liquid metal. The pores of the electrode scaffolds gradually increase in diameter as the layer extends away from the electrolyte layer. As a result of this diameter increase, any forces that would tend to pull the liquid metal away from the electrolyte are reduced while maintaining a diffusion path for the fuel. Advantageously, the fuel cell of the invention may utilize a hydrocarbon fuel without pre-processing to remove sulfur.

  7. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  8. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  9. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  10. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  11. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  12. Opportunities for portable Ballard Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, H.H.; Huff, J.R. [Ballard Power Systems Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of portable electronic devices in both commercial and military markets, the need has arisen for small, lightweight power supplies that can provide increased operating life over those presently available. A solution to this power problem is the development of portable Ballard Fuel Cell power systems that operate with a hydrogen fuel source and air. Ballard has developed PEM fuel cell stacks and power systems in the 25 to 100 watt range for both of these markets. For military use, Ballard has teamed with Ball Corporation and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. and has provided the Ballard Fuel Cell stack for an ambient PEM fuel cell power system for the DoD. The system provides power from idle to I 00 watts and has the capability of delivering overloads of 125 watts for short periods of time. The system is designed to operate over a wide range of temperature, relative humidity and altitude. Hydrogen is supplied as a compressed gas, metal hydride or chemical hydride packaged in a unit that is mated to the power/control unit. The hydrogen sources provide 1.5, 5 and 15 kWh of operation, respectively. The design of the fuel cell power system enables the unit to operate at 12 volts or 24 volts depending upon the equipment being used. For commercial applications, as with the military, fuel cell power sources in the 25 to 500 watt range will be competing with advanced batteries. Ambient PEM fuel cell designs and demonstrators are being developed at 25 watts and other low power levels. Goals are minimum stack volume and weight and greatly enhanced operating life with reasonable system weight and volume. This paper will discuss ambient PEM fuel cell designs and performance and operating parameters for a number of power levels in the multiwatt range.

  13. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  14. Pancreatic Stellate Cells and Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a disease often characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain accompanied by progressive pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency [1] and it sometimes requires multiple hospitalizations. Obstructive jaundice, duodenal stenosis, left-sided portal hypertension, pseudocyst and mass formation, and pancreatic carcinoma may occur as complications of chronic pancreatitis. The disease is frequently the result of chronic alcohol abuse, even if other factors such as genetic alterations, autoimmune disorders, and obstructive disease of the biliary tract and the pancreas may cause the disease [2]. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice for most patients and it is based on substitutive therapy for either exocrine or endocrine insufficiency and on analgesics for pain control. In the presence of intractable pain, surgical management is the main option [3] even if, in recent years, other therapeutic options such as endoscopic therapy [4], thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy [5], and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy have been applied in clinical practice [6]. From a pathological point of view, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irregular sclerosis with destruction and loss of the exocrine parenchyma, and complete replacement of acinar, ductal and endocrine tissue by fibrotic tissue. It has recently been reported that acute alcoholic pancreatitis develops in a pancreas already affected by chronic pancreatitis [7]. In 1982, Watari et al. [8] reported the presence of vitamin A-containing cells in the vitamin A-fed rat pancreas. These were later described and characterized as stellate cells in the rat and the human pancreas [9, 10]. Pancreatic stellate cells are morphologically similar to hepatic stellate cells. They bear long cytoplasmic processes and are situated close to the pancreatic acini. In the quiescent state, these cells contain lipid droplets, store vitamin A and express markers such as desmin, glial

  15. Fuel cells. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Fuel cell applications, components, fabrication, design, catalysts, and chemistry are covered. The citations discuss different types of fuel cells such as hydrogen oxygen cells, hydrocarbon air cells, and biochemical cells.

  16. Water Soluble Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Joe Hwang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relentless increase in the demand for useable power from energy-hungry economies continues to drive energy-material related research. Fuel cells, as a future potential power source that provide clean-at-the-point-of-use power offer many advantages such as high efficiency, high energy density, quiet operation, and environmental friendliness. Critical to the operation of the fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane responsible for internal proton transport from the anode to the cathode. PEMs have the following requirements: high protonic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment. Water soluble polymers represent an immensely diverse class of polymers. In this comprehensive review the initial focus is on those members of this group that have attracted publication interest, principally: chitosan, poly (ethylene glycol, poly (vinyl alcohol, poly (vinylpyrrolidone, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and poly (styrene sulfonic acid. The paper then considers in detail the relationship of structure to functionality in the context of polymer blends and polymer based networks together with the effects of membrane crosslinking on IPN and semi IPN architectures. This is followed by a review of pore-filling and other impregnation approaches. Throughout the paper detailed numerical results are given for comparison to today’s state-of-the-art Nafion® based materials.

  17. Chitosan chemical hydrogel electrode binder for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Nurul A.; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-01-15

    A novel and cost-effective electrode binder consisting of chitosan chemical hydrogel (CCH) is reported for direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). The DBFCs have been assembled with Misch-metal-based AB{sub 5} alloy as anode, carbon-supported palladium (Pd/C) as cathode and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) as well as Nafion {sup registered} -117 membrane electrolyte (NME) as separators. Operating in passive mode without using peristaltic pump and under ambient conditions of temperature as well as pressure, the DBFC exhibited a maximum peak power density of about 81 mW cm{sup -2}. (author)

  18. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  19. What happens inside a fuel cell? Developing an experimental functional map of fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Kucernak, Anthony R; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C; Brandon, Nigel P; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-09-10

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an 'experimental functional map' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models.

  20. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  1. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  2. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  3. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  4. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  5. Environmental Impact of Fuel Cell Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, N.T.; Day, M.J. [Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [T.H.Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Shemilt, J.E. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells potentially offer environmental benefits when compared to conventional technology but it is important to consider the full environmental impact including the manufacturing and disposal steps. This paper describes a case study that compares the energy requirements for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fabrication routes. The results show that that, when compared to the benefits during use, the associated environmental impact is relatively small. Therefore the choice of manufacturing routes will have little effect on the overall advantage of implementing Fuel Cell systems. The total environmental impact of fuel cell fabrication will also include the production of materials. This could contribute a large share of the total environmental burden, however it could be minimised by adopting a design that allows the materials to be recycled in an efficient manner. (author)

  6. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  7. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiongxiao Wu

    2012-12-15

    consequently on the catalytic activity. (3) Addition of 3 mol % CO{sub 2} to the H2/CO feed stream leads to a significant loss of activity for the Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst contrary to the case for the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. DFT calculations show in accordance with previous surface science studies that oxygen on the surface could lead to an enrichment of the Ni-content in the surface. (4) Silica supported bimetallic Cu-Ni catalysts with different ratios of Cu to Ni have been prepared by impregnation. In situ reduction of Cu-Ni alloys with combined synchrotron XRD and XAS reveal a strong interaction between Cu and Ni, resulting in improved reducibility of Ni as compared to monometallic Ni. At high nickel concentrations silica supported Cu-Ni alloys form a homogeneous solid solution of Cu and Ni, whereas at lower nickel contents, copper and nickel are separately aggregated and form metallic Cu and Cu-Ni alloy phases. At the same reduction conditions, the particle sizes of reduced Cu-Ni alloys decrease with increasing in Ni content. A maximum methanol productivity of 0.66 kg kgcat-1 h-1 with methanol selectivity up to 99.2 mol % has been achieved for a Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-co-precipitation method. There is no apparent catalyst deactivation observed during the tested time on stream (40-100 h), contrary to the observation for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. For higher alcohol synthesis, the main work has been performed on CO hydrogenation over supported Mo2C. Mo2C supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over supported Mo2C are significantly higher compared to bulk Mo2C. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20 wt % Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active

  8. Compact mixed-reactant fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, Michael A.; Kotzeva, Vega P.; Fish, Deborah J.; Nilsson, Eva M.

    The compact mixed-reactant (CMR) fuel cell is an important new "platform" approach to the design and operation of all types of fuel cell stacks. Amongst several other advantages, CMR has the potential to reduce polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack component costs by around a third and to raise volumetric power densities by an order of magnitude. Mixed-reactant fuel cells, in which the fuel and oxidant within a cell are allowed to mix, rely upon the selectivity of anode and cathode electrocatalysts to separate the electrochemical oxidation of fuel and reduction of oxidant. A comprehensive review of the 50-year history of mixed-reactant literature has demonstrated that such systems can perform as well as and, in some circumstances, much better than conventional fuel cells. The significant innovation that Generics has introduced to this field is to combine the concept of mixed-reactant fuel cells with that of a fully porous membrane electrode assembly (MEA) structure. Passing a fuel-oxidant mixture through a stack of porous cells allows the conventional bipolar flow-field plates required in many fuel cell designs to be eliminated. In a conventional PEM stack, for example, the bipolar carbon flow-field plates may block up to half of the active cell area and account for up to 90% of the volume of the stack and of the order of one-third of the materials costs. In addition to all the advantages of mixed-reactant systems, the "flow-through" mode, embodied in Generics' CMR approach, significantly enhances mass-transport of reactants to the electrodes and can reduce reactant pressure drops across the stack. Redesigning fuel cells to operate in a CMR mode with selective electrodes offers the attractive prospect of much reduced stack costs and significantly higher stack power densities for all types of fuel cell. Initial modeling and proof of principle experiments using an alkaline system have confirmed the validity of the CMR approach and the potential for substantial

  9. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  10. [Bioanode for a microbial fuel cell based on Gluconobacter oxydans inummobilized into a polymer matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, S V; Minaĭcheva, P R; Arliapov, V A; Asulian, L D; Alferov, V A; Ponomareva, O N; Reshetilov, A N

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius RKM V-1280 were immobilized into a synthetic matrix based on polyvinyl alcohol modified with N-vinylpyrrolidone and used as biocatalysts for the development ofbioanodes for microbial fuel cells. The immobilization method did not significantly affect bacterial substrate specificity. Bioanodes based on immobilized bacteria functioned stably for 7 days. The maximum voltage (fuel cell signal) was reached when 100-130 µM of an electron transport mediator, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, was added into the anode compartment. The fuel cell signals reached a maximum at a glucose concentration higher than 6 mM. The power output of the laboratory model of a fuel cell based on the developed bioanode reached 7 mW/m2 with the use of fermentation industry wastes as fuel.

  11. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  12. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  13. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  14. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  15. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  16. Mechanisms of Combustion of Hydrocarbon/Alcohol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    Ingenieria , UNAM, Mexico, and Professor M. D. Smooke at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. The principal...of element m in a molecule of species i; Ym,F is the value of Ym in the fuel, and Yo,o is the value of YO in the ambient oxidizer stream. The dashed...of the duct, M, were 0.0358 gm/cm2/s and 0.098 gm/cm2/s, respectively, and the temperature of the ambient oxidizing gas stream was T., = 298 K. Fig, 5

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  18. Fuel cell commercialization issues for light-duty vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E.

    The major challenges facing fuel cells in light-duty vehicle applications relate to the high cost of the fuel cell stack components (membrane, electro-catalyst and bipolar plate) which dictate that new manufacturing processes and materials must be developed. Initially, the best fuel for a mass market light-duty vehicle will probably not be the best fuel for the fuel cell (hydrogen); refueling infrastructure and energy density concerns may demand the use of an on-board fuel processor for petroleum-based fuels since this will increase customer acceptance. The use of fuel processors does, however, reduce the fuel cell system's efficiency. Moreover, if such fuels are used then the emissions benefit associated with fuel cells may come with a significant penalty in terms of added complexity, weight, size and cost. However, ultimately, fuel cells powered by hydrogen do promise to be the most efficient and cleanest of automotive powertrains.

  19. Farm Fuel Alcohol Project: preliminary report on facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R S; Badger, P C; Roetheli, J C; Waddell, Jr, E L

    1979-09-01

    This report describes the design of a farm-based ethanol production system to be built by TVA at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. This facility will include cooking, fermentation, and distillation equipment to allow production of 8000 to 12,000 gallons of fuel ethanol during a three to four month period each year. Output will be about 10 gallons of 190-proof ethanol per hour. Present components are sized to allow 12 to 14 hour daily operation as a semi-continuous batch system. Intent of the project is to document equipment and energy requirements, ethanol yields, and feasibility of small farm-based ethanol plants for farm fuel self-sufficiency. Cooking and fermentation will be batch-type operations, and packed distillation columns will be used for separating ethanol from the fermented beer. Energy recovery and waste heat use are integrated when feasible. The fermented beer will be fed directly to the distillation columns without separation of solids. Although this is an area of concern, an economical method of separation could not be identified.

  20. Performance of direct ethanol and methanol fuel cells as function of alcohol concentration applied to the anode of those cells; Desempenho de celulas a combustivel com alimentacao direta de etanol (CCADE) e celulas a combustivel com alimentacao direta de metanol (CCADM) em funcao da concentracao do alcool aplicado ao anodo destas celulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchor, P.M.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Correa, J.P.; Kuhn, C.K.; Carpenter, D. [FURB -Fundacao Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper aimed to compare the performance of a CCADE and a CCADM as function of diminishing of concentration of alcohol applied top the anode of each cell. As result, reaching a diminishing the concentration of each alcohol through the mix of each one with the deionized water, one obtained a improved humidification and sensible reduction of the permeability of cationic membrane, generating a gain of performance of the functioning both cells. (author)

  1. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  2. Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Work is reported on phase 5 of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) Fuel Cell Technology Development program. The SPE fuel cell life and performance was established at temperatures, pressures, and current densities significantly higher than those previously demonstrated in sub-scale hardware. Operation of single-cell Buildup No. 1 to establish life capabilities of the full-scale hardware was continued. A multi-cell full-scale unit (Buildup No. 2) was designed, fabricated, and test evaluated laying the groundwork for the construction of a reactor stack. A reactor stack was then designed, fabricated, and successfully test-evaluated to demonstrate the readiness of SPE fuel cell technology for future space applications.

  3. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  4. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence NF&LCFT REPORT 441/14-015 20 June 2014 Prepared By...Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence 1.0 BACKGROUND In October 2009, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus directed the Navy to decrease its...0 ɛ 1 Existent Gum (mg/100 mL) D381 7.0 5.0 Particulate Matter (mg/L) D5452 1.0 0.2 Filtration Time (minutes) MIL-DTL- 5624V 15 6 Micro

  5. High temperature PEM fuel cells - Degradation and durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, S.S.

    2012-12-15

    This work analyses the degradation issues of a High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC). It is based on the assumption that given the current challenges for storage and distribution of hydrogen, it is more practical to use liquid alcohols as energy carriers for fuel cells. Among these, methanol is very attractive, as it can be obtained from a variety of renewable sources and has a relatively low reforming temperature for the production of hydrogen rich gaseous mixture. The effects on HT-PEMFC of the different constituents of this gaseous mixture, known as a reformate gas, are investigated in the current work. For this, an experimental set up, in which all these constituents can be fed to the anode side of a fuel cell for testing, is put in place. It includes mass flow controllers for the gaseous species, and a vapor delivery system for the vapor mixture of the unconverted reforming reactants. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is used to characterize the effects of these impurities. The effects of CO were tested up to 2% by volume along with other impurities. All the reformate impurities, including ethanol-water vapor mixture, cause loss in the performance of the fuel cell. In general, CO{sub 2} dilutes the reactants, if tested alone at high operating temperatures (180 C), but tends to exacerbate the effects of CO if they are tested together. On the other hand, CO and methanol-water vapor mixture degrade the fuel cell proportionally to the amounts in which they are tested. In this dissertation some of the mechanisms with which the impurities affect the fuel cell are discussed and interdependence among the effects is also studied. This showed that the combined effect of reformate impurities is more than the arithmetic sum of the individual effects of reformate constituents. The results of the thesis help to understand better the issues of degradation and durability in fuel cells, which can help to make them more durable and

  6. HYDROGEN-OXYGEN PRIMARY EXTRATERRESTRIAL (HOPE) FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HOPE (Hydrogen-Oxygen Primary Extraterrestrial) Fuel Cell Program is a multi-phase effort to advance the state-of-the-art of fuel cells by...configuration fuel cell module. The HOPE spacecraft, fuel supply tanks, pneumatics, and thermal systems were designed and fabricated to provide...verify water removal, thermal design, and 30-day shelf-life of the fuel cell . The 35-cell module was subjected to a series of performance tests

  7. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  8. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  9. Selectivity and mixed reactant fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Mixed reactant fuel cells (MR-FCs), are aimed at using a uniform mixture of fuel and oxygen applied to both the anode and the cathode. This allows redesign of fuel cells with a significantly simpler construction, having potentially a higher power density, better fuel utilization and be less expensive. The challenge in realizing MR-FCs is finding selective electrodes that can enhance oxygen reduction at the cathode, fuel oxidation at the anode while inhibiting the chemical reaction between the fuel and oxygen in the gas mixture. This task is in particular challenging in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as they operate at elevated temperatures, where many reactions are easily activated and selectivity is difficult to achieve. As a result no true MR-FC of the SOFC type were reported while some were found for low temperature fuel cells (FCs). The so-called single-chamber-SOFC are not true MR-FCs as they do not contain two selective electrodes, as required. We shall discuss potential ways to search for and develop selective anodes and cathodes for SOFC type MR-FCs. We first consider material properties which should contribute to that goal. This refers to electronic properties of the bulk, band banding under adsorbed specie, point defects in the bulk and on the surface. We then proceed to show how cell design, in particular electrode structure, can contribute to selectivity. Finally operation conditions are considered and it is shown that they also can contribute to selectivity. The operation condition considered are gas mixture composition, gas mixture residence time in the hot zone, hence gas flow rate, current density and temperature. The topics discussed hold for all FC types but are crucial for the SOFC type because of the difficulty to achieve selectivity at elevated temperatures. It is suggested that a concerted effort taking advantage of all those options should allow development of a true SOFC type MR-FC.

  10. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  11. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  12. A transient fuel cell model to simulate HTPEM fuel cell impedance spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a spatially resolved transient fuel cell model applied to the simulation of high temperature PEM fuel cell impedance spectra. The model is developed using a 2D finite volume method approach. The model is resolved along the channel and across the membrane. The model considers...

  13. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  14. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Technologies Program eere.energy.gov BMW Manufacturing site. Courtesy of Waste Management World ona power supp y 9 Additional vehicle fuel source...commercial demand • HEB, Whole Foods, Coca Cola, Sysco Nestle FedEx BMW etc , , , , ¾DLA Demonstrations helped enable Codes and Standard approval of

  15. Novel proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes to improve performance of reversible fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim Matthew

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells react fuel and oxidant to directly and efficiently produce electrical power, without the need for combustion, heat engines, or motor-generators. Additionally, PEM fuel cell systems emit zero to virtually zero criteria pollutants and have the ability to reduce CO2 emissions due to their efficient operation, including the production or processing of fuel. A reversible fuel cell (RFC) is one particular application for a PEM fuel cell. In this application the fuel cell is coupled with an electrolyzer and a hydrogen storage tank to complete a system that can store and release electrical energy. These devices can be highly tailored to specific energy storage applications, potentially surpassing the performance of current and future secondary battery technology. Like all PEM applications, RFCs currently suffer from performance and cost limitations. One approach to address these limitations is to improve the cathode performance by engineering more optimal catalyst layer geometry as compared to the microscopically random structure traditionally used. Ideal configurations are examined and computer modeling shows promising performance improvements are possible. Several novel manufacturing methods are used to build and test small PEM fuel cells with novel electrodes. Additionally, a complete, dynamic model of an RFC system is constructed and the performance is simulated using both traditional and novel cathode structures. This work concludes that PEM fuel cell microstructures can be tailored to optimize performance based on design operating conditions. Computer modeling results indicate that novel electrode microstructures can improve fuel cell performance, while experimental results show similar performance gains that bolster the theoretical predictions. A dynamic system model predicts that novel PEM fuel cell electrode structures may enable RFC systems to be more competitive with traditional energy storage technology options.

  16. PEM Fuel Cell System Replacement for BA-559O Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    H Power Corp. developed a fuel cell system to demonstrate that fuel cells can be effectively designed for missions requiring a high degree of...equivalent in size to that of a BA-5590 battery. The system comprised an air-cooled fuel cell stack, a metal-hydride-based fuel storage section, and a

  17. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix, and operates in the intermediate temperature range of 180-300 C. Studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the ratecontrolling step in the kinetics of the anodic oxidation of ammonia. A new type of Ni/NiOOH reference electrode was developed for the measurement of single electrode potentials in experimental galvanic fuel cells employing this type of matrix electrolyte. In addition to various exploratory studies, two statistical analysis

  18. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan (Rochester, NY)

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  19. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  20. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  1. SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORYREGENERATIVE FUEL CELL PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T

    2008-11-11

    A team comprised of governmental, academic and industrial partners led by the Savannah River National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a regenerative fuel cell system for backup power applications. Recent market assessments have identified emergency response and telecommunication applications as promising near-term markets for fuel cell backup power systems. The Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC) consisted of a 2 kg-per-day electrolyzer, metal-hydride based hydrogen storage units and a 5 kW fuel cell. Coupling these components together created a system that can produce and store its own energy from the power grid much like a rechargeable battery. A series of test were conducted to evaluate the performance of the RFC system under both steady-state and transit conditions that might be encountered in typical backup power applications. In almost all cases the RFC functioned effectively. Test results from the demonstration project will be used to support recommendations for future fuel cell and hydrogen component and system designs and support potential commercialization activities. In addition to the work presented in this report, further testing of the RFC system at the Center for Hydrogen Research in Aiken County, SC is planned including evaluating the system as a renewable system coupled with a 20kW-peak solar photovoltaic array.

  2. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  3. High-Temperature Chemistry in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: In Situ Optical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Michael B; Walker, Robert A; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C

    2012-10-18

    Solid oxide fuels cells (SOFCs) are promising devices for versatile and efficient power generation with fuel flexibility, but their viability is contingent upon understanding chemical and material processes to improve their performance and durability. Newly developed in situ optical methods provide new insight into how carbon deposition varies with different hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels and depends on operating conditions. Some findings, such as heavier hydrocarbon fuels forming more carbon than lighter fuels, are expected, but other discoveries are surprising. For example, methanol shows a greater tendency to form carbon deposits than methane at temperatures below 800 °C, and kinetically controlled steam reforming with ethanol at high temperatures (∼800 °C) is less detrimental to SOFC performance than operating the device with dry methanol as the fuel. In situ optical techniques will continue to provide the chemical information and mechanistic insight that is critical for SOFCs to become a viable energy conversion technology.

  4. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions

  5. Monolithic cells for solar fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; TAULELLE, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutio...

  6. New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, R. P.; Breuer, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on site total energy systems, industrial cogeneration, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting are power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.

  7. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  8. Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

    1995-09-01

    A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

  9. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  10. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  11. Alcohol abuse in sickle cell disease: the Pisces Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L; McClish, Donna K; Dahman, Bassam A; Penberthy, Lynne T; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Roseff, Susan D; Smith, Wally R

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is common in patients with chronic painful medical disorders, but it has not been studied in sickle cell disease (SCD). In a prospective cohort study of SCD adults, 31.4% were identified as abusing alcohol. There were no significant differences between alcohol abusers and nonabusers on demographics, biological variables, depression, anxiety, measures of crisis and noncrisis pain, or opioid use, but abusers reported more pain relief from opioids than nonabusers did. Alcohol abusers had fewer unscheduled clinic visits, emergency room visits, hospital days, and any health care utilization for SCD, but this was only significant for emergency room visits. Quality of life was similar between both groups, except that alcohol abusers unexpectedly had better overall physical summary scores. Alcohol abusers were more likely to report coping by ignoring pain, diverting attention, and using particular self-statements.

  12. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  13. Government net income in the fuel alcohol marketing; Estimativa do saldo do governo na comercializacao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnaro, Caetano

    1992-12-31

    This study aims to analyse the fuel price formation structures in order to estimate the governmental net income in fuel alcohol marketing and to develop a mathematical model to forecast these estimates under alternative economic scenarios. Three scenarios - an optimistic, an intermediary and a pessimistic were set up through intuitive projections and the mathematical model developed was applied to them. 33 refs., 9 tabs.

  14. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Microfluidic fuel cells for energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, M; Jänis, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-08-07

    Sustainable energy generation is of recent interest due to a growing energy demand across the globe and increasing environmental issues caused by conventional non-renewable means of power generation. In the context of microsystems, portable electronics and lab-on-a-chip based (bio)chemical sensors would essentially require fully integrated, reliable means of power generation. Microfluidic-based fuel cells can offer unique advantages compared to conventional fuel cells such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, ease of integration, cost effectiveness and portability. Here, we summarize recent developments which utilize the potential of microfluidic devices for energy generation.

  16. Fuel cells: a survey of current developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Mark A. J.; Geiger, Stefan; Jollie, David M.

    Since the first practical uses of fuel cells were developed, it has become clear that they could find use in many products over a wide power range of milliwatts to tens of megawatts. Throughout the 1990s, and later, there has been significant work carried out on adapting the various different fuel cell technologies for use in targetted consumer and industrial applications. This paper discusses these developments and gives details on the specific market segments for providing power to vehicles, portable devices and large- and small-scale stationary power generation.

  17. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  18. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters...... of the book describe rationalization and illustration of approaches to high temperature PEM systems. Chapters 6 - 13 are devoted to fabrication, optimization and characterization of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes, the very first electrolyte system that has demonstrated the concept...

  19. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, R. J.

    1981-10-01

    A carbon substrate for use in fabricating phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes was modified by catalytic oxidation to stabilize the platinum catalyst by retarding the sintering of small platinum crystallites. Results of 100-hour operational tests confirmed that the rate of platinum surface area loss observed on catalytically oxidized supports was less than that observed with unmodified supports of the same starting material. Fuel cell electrodes fabricated from Vulcan XC-72R, which was modified by catalytic in a nitric oxide atmosphere, produced low platium sintering rates and high activity for the reduction of oxygen in the phosphoric acid environment.

  20. Control of Fuel Cell Power System

    OpenAIRE

    KOCALMIŞ BİLHAN, Ayşe; Wang, Caisheng

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, it is gettingattention for renewable energy sources such as Fuel Cell (FC), batteries,ultracapacitors or photovoltaic panels (PV) for distributed power generationsystems (DG) or electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a DC/DC converter andDC/AC inverter scheme to combine the Fuel Cell Stack (FC). The power systemconsist of a FC stack, a DC/DC converter, inverter and load. A FC mostly couldnot produce necessary output voltage, the DC/DC boost converter is used forobtaining th...

  1. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  2. Method of operating a molten carbonate fuel cell, a fuel cell, a fuel cell stack and an apparatus provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    A method of operating a molten carbonate fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and in between a matrix comprising molten carbonate. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the matrix at a distance from the cathode. This greatly reduces the cathode's deterioration and in the system design increases the c

  3. Study of fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental awareness and the interest in distributed generation caused by electricity market de-regulation are factors that promote research on renewable energies. Fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in fuel into electricity by means of electrochemical reactions. Among the different fuel cell types, high temperature fuel cells (HTFCS) have many advantages: high efficiency, low emissions, fuel flexibility, modularity and high quality waste heat. The main disadvant...

  4. Solid Acid Fuel Cell Stack for APU Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, Hau H. [SAFCell, Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Solid acid fuel cell technology affords the opportunity to operate at the 200-300 degree centigrade regime that would allow for more fuel flexibility, compared to polymer electrode membrane fuel cell, while avoiding the relatively more expensive and complex system components required by solid oxide fuel cell. This project addresses many factors such as MEA size scalability, fuel robustness, stability, etc., that are essential for successful commercialization of the technology.

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Fanglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Popov, Branko [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chao, Yuh [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Xue, Xingjian [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-07-31

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  7. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  8. Batteries and fuel cells: Design, employment, chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, K.-J.

    The history of electrochemical current sources is considered along with primary cells, standard cells, high-energy primary cells, high-energy storage batteries, and fuel cells. Aspects of battery research and development are also discussed, taking into account general considerations related to technological development projects, the introduction of mathematical methods into battery research, resistance measurements, autoradiography and other radiochemical methods, color photography as an aid in research, electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, spin resonance methods, and electrical measurements involving powders. Attention is given to zinc/manganese dioxide cells, zinc/mercury cells, zinc/silver oxide primary cells, cells utilizing atmospheric oxygen, lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron and nickel-cadmium storage batteries, zinc/silver storage batteries, dry cells with organic depolarizers, dry cells with solid electrolyte, and storage batteries utilizing hydrogen.

  9. Electrolysis cell for reprocessing plutonium reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William E.; Steindler, Martin J.; Burris, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for refining a mixture of metals including spent fuel containing U and Pu contaminated with other metals, the cell including a metallic pot containing a metallic pool as one anode at a lower level, a fused salt as the electrolyte at an intermediate level and a cathode and an anode basket in spaced-apart positions in the electrolyte with the cathode and anode being retractable to positions above the electrolyte during which spent fuel may be added to the anode basket and the anode basket being extendable into the lower pool to dissolve at least some metallic contaminants, the anode basket containing the spent fuel acting as a second anode when in the electrolyte.

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    in which fuel cell appli‐ cations create synergy effects with other components of the system, as well as in which the efficiency improvements achieved by using fuel cells are lost elsewhere in the system. In order to identify suitable applications of fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy sys‐ tems...... be considered which fuels such technologies can utilise and how these fuels can be distributed. Natural gas is not an option in future renewable energy systems and the de‐ mand for gaseous fuels, such as biogas or syngas, will increase significantly. Hence, fuel cell CHP plants represent a more fuel...... of transport, battery electric vehicles are more suitable than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in future energy system. Battery electric ve‐ hicles may, for a part of the transport demand, have limitations in their range. Hybrid tech‐ nologies may provide a good option, which can combine the high fuel efficiency...

  13. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  14. Past, present and future of fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Though the fuel cell was invented by Grove in 1839,there are no commercially viable products at present.The development of fuel cells can be conveniently divided into three phases-exploratory phase(1839-1967).The main emphasis of the work is to increase the area of the three-phase interface at the electrode.The problem was solved by Bacon who invented the dual porosity,biporous nickel electrode.He demonstrated the first H2/O2 fuel cell(180℃,20atm).This cell was later improved and scaled up to power the Apollo lunar mission.However,the cost is too high for civilian applications and we come to the development phase (1967-2001).The main emphasis has been on the use of Teflon bonded electrodes and novel catalysts(PtRu,Pt/WO3 and Pt-Ru/WO3 anode catalyst for the anodic oxidation of impure H2 and methanol.In addition,the recent discovery of gadolinium doped ceria has reduced the operating temperature of solid oxide electrolytes to ~500℃ instead of 1 000℃.From 2001 onwards,we may be entering the breakthrough phase where the most favourable candidates are direct methanol vapor fuel cells and solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells.In the former case,there is a need to reduce the cross-over of methanol to the cathode compartment and the development of air cathode catalyst which are less affected by methanol and in the latter case,there is a need to improve the activity of the anode and cathode catalysts.

  15. Microfabrication of microchannels for fuel cell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho Su; Park, Dong Sam

    2010-01-01

    Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of microchannel technology. In this study, the conventional method of chemical etching and the mechanical machining method of micro end milling were used for the microfabrication of microchannel for fuel cell separators. The two methods were compared in terms of their performance in the fabrication with regards to dimensional errors, flatness, straightness, and surface roughness. Following microchannel fabrication, the powder blasting technique is introduced to improve the coating performance of the catalyst on the surface of the microchannel. Experimental results show that end milling can remarkably increase the fabrication performance and that surface treatment by powder blasting can improve the performance of catalyst coating.

  16. Microbial Fuel Cells for Sulfide Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, K.; Sompel, van de S.; Maignien, L.; Boon, N.; Aelterman, P.; Clauwaert, P.; Schamphelaire, de L.; The Pham, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Verhaege, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thus far, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to convert carbon-based substrates to electricity. However, sulfur compounds are ubiquitously present in organic waste and wastewater. In this study, a MFC with a hexacyanoferrate cathodic electrolyte was used to convert dissolved sulfide to eleme

  17. Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rozendal, R.A.; Schröder, U.; Keller, J.; Freguia, S.; Aelterman, P.; Verstraete, W.; Rabaey, K.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. The construction and analysis of MFCs requires knowledge of differe

  18. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  19. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  20. Batteries and fuel cells working group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Advanced Transportation Materials); Landgrebe, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems); Lemons, R.; Wilson, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); MacAurther, D. (CH

    1991-01-01

    Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

  1. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Su Jang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of microchannel technology. In this study, the conventional method of chemical etching and the mechanical machining method of micro end milling were used for the microfabrication of microchannel for fuel cell separators. The two methods were compared in terms of their performance in the fabrication with regards to dimensional errors, flatness, straightness, and surface roughness. Following microchannel fabrication, the powder blasting technique is introduced to improve the coating performance of the catalyst on the surface of the microchannel. Experimental results show that end milling can remarkably increase the fabrication performance and that surface treatment by powder blasting can improve the performance of catalyst coating.

  2. Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  3. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  4. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  5. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Man [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Goodenough, J.B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Huang Keqin [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Milliken, C. [Cerematec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800 C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800 C was achieved, our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum gallate and achieve higher power density at 800 C from solid oxide fuel cells. (orig.)

  6. Alcohol fuels in spark ignition engines. Use characteristics and engine wear. Alkoholipolttoaineet ottomoottorissa. Kaeyttoeominaisuudet ja moottorin kuluminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Kytoe, M.; Eklund, T.; Sipilae, K.

    1986-09-01

    A field test with different alcohol fuels was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in 1981-1984. The test involved 19 passenger cars. The engines of the test vehicles were dismantled both before and after the test. In addition to engine wear, driveability was also studied during the test. Finland's cold climate emphasizes difficulties arising with alcohol fuels. E15/M15 fuels demand only minor adjustment in the fuel systems to restore driveability. E15 fuel was used both in new and old cars and this fuel did not cause any corrosion problems. M15 is a more difficult fuel both in regard to corrosion and fuel stability. None of the test engines showed signs of accelerated wear of the kind that could have shortened the lifetime of the engine considerably. Cylinders, piston rings, earings and valve train were monitored. Temperature has a strong effect on engine wear and the driveability of engines running on neat alcohol have been presented. For these reasons the Research Centre developed, in cooperation with Oy Saab-Valmet Ab, a dual fuel system for gasoline and alcohol. The system is automatic and change-over from gasoline to alcohol takes place at a coolant temperature of 70 deg C. In two series of tests dual fuel cars and cars with a simple fuel system (gasoline as starting aid) were compared regarding engine wear and driveability. The second series of tests involved 2+2 cars. Each car was driven 50,000 km. The driveability of the dual fuel car does not differ from that of a normal gasoline vehicle. Including the portion of gasoline in the main M90 fuel, the part of energy coming gasoline was 30-40%. The cam/tappet mechanism was found critical with regard to wear. In the most severe operating conditions only the dual fuel system can prevent the engine from excessive wear. A very efficient system for preheating the inlet air was used in all neat alcohol test vehicles.

  7. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  8. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  9. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Biert, L.; Godjevac, M.; Visser, K.; Aravind, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    Progressing limits on pollutant emissions oblige ship owners to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. Fuel cells may provide a suitable solution, since they are fuel efficient while they emit few hazardous compounds. Various choices can be made with regard to the type of fuel cell system and logistic fuel, and it is unclear which have the best prospects for maritime application. An overview of fuel cell types and fuel processing equipment is presented, and maritime fuel cell application is reviewed with regard to efficiency, gravimetric and volumetric density, dynamic behaviour, environmental impact, safety and economics. It is shown that low temperature fuel cells using liquefied hydrogen provide a compact solution for ships with a refuelling interval up to a tens of hours, but may result in total system sizes up to five times larger than high temperature fuel cells and more energy dense fuels for vessels with longer mission requirements. The expanding infrastructure of liquefied natural gas and development state of natural gas-fuelled fuel cell systems can facilitate the introduction of gaseous fuels and fuel cells on ships. Fuel cell combined cycles, hybridisation with auxiliary electricity storage systems and redundancy improvements are identified as topics for further study.

  10. Durable and Robust Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an attractive technology for the generation of electricity with high efficiency and low emissions. Risø DTU (now DTU Energy Conversion) works closely together with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S in their effort to bring competitive SOFC systems to the market. This 2-year...... project had as one of its’ overarching goals to improve durability and robustness of the Danish solid oxide fuel cells. The project focus was on cells and cell components suitable for SOFC operation in the temperature range 600 – 750 °C. The cells developed and/or studied in this project are intended...... for use within the CHP (Combined Heat and Power) market segment with stationary power plants in the range 1 – 250 kWe in mind. Lowered operation temperature is considered a good way to improve the stack durability since corrosion of the interconnect plates in a stack is lifetime limiting at T > 750 °C...

  11. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...

  12. Tungsten based electrocatalyst for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Joel B. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Global Tungsten and Powders R and D, Hawes Street, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Smith, Sean P.E. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Global Tungsten and Powders R and D, Hawes Street, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States); Whittingham, M. Stanley [Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Abruna, Hector D. [Cornell University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Ithaca, NY 14653 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A barrier to the widespread use of fuel cells is their reliance on expensive and scarce platinum and other precious metal catalysts. We present a catalyst for hydrogen oxidation, prepared electrochemically from high-purity aqueous tungstate salt precursors. The 24-electron reduction of ammonium metatungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]) yields a material with electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrogen in acid electrolyte which approaches 25% that of platinum. Moreover, the tungstate catalyst is unusually tolerant to CO and H{sub 2}S contaminants in the fuel stream. (author)

  13. Conductive polymer layers to limit transfer of fuel reactants to catalysts of fuel cells to reduce reactant crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanis, Ronald J.; Lambert, Timothy N.

    2016-12-06

    An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.

  14. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  15. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  16. Energy storage in ultrathin solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Kerman, Kian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-07-11

    The power output of hydrogen fuel cells quickly decreases to zero if the fuel supply is interrupted. We demonstrate thin film solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured vanadium oxide anodes that generate power for significantly longer time than reference porous platinum anode thin film solid oxide fuel cells when the fuel supply is interrupted. The charge storage mechanism was investigated quantitatively with likely identified contributions from the oxidation of the vanadium oxide anode, its hydrogen storage properties, and different oxygen concentration at the electrodes. Fuel cells capable of storing charge even for short periods of time could contribute to ultraminiaturization of power sources for mobile energy.

  17. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  18. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  19. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; McPheeters, C. C.

    1989-12-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  20. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John C.; Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  1. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  2. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  3. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-13

    Fact sheet describing the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  4. 77 FR 50488 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy... open meeting (Webinar) of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The Federal..., DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Applied for Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is investigated. PEMFC may be the most promising technology for fuel cell automotive systems, which is operating at quite low temperatures, (between 60 to 80℃). In this study the fuel cell motive power part of a lift truck has...

  6. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  7. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  8. Fuel cell elements with improved water handling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Lee, Albany (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell components for use in liquid feed fuel cell systems are provided. The components include biplates and endplates, having a hydrophilic surface and allow high efficiency operation. Conductive elements and a wicking device also form a part of the fuel cell components of the invention.

  9. Cathode-supported hybrid direct carbon fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Gurauskis, Jonas; Deleebeeck, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The direct conversion of coal to heat and electricity by a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) is a highly efficient and cleaner technology than the conventional combustion power plants. HDCFC is defined as a combination of solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell. This work...

  10. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  11. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  12. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technology Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prabhakar; Minh, Nguyen Q.

    2004-08-01

    In its most common configuration, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses an oxygen ion conducting ceramic electrolyte membrane, perovskite cathode and nickel cermet anode electrode. Cells operate in the 600-1000 C temperature range and utilize metallic or ceramic current collectors for cell-to-cell interconnection. Recent development in engineered electrode architectures, component materials chemistry, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes have led to significant improvement in the electrical performance and performance stability as well as reduction in the operating temperature of such cells. Large kW-size power generation systems have been designed and field demonstrated. This paper reviews the status of SOFC power generation systems with emphasis on cell and stack component materials, electrode reactions, materials reactions and corrosion processes

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Department of Energy Contract DEAC21-87MC23270, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology Improvement.'' This work was conducted over a three year period and consisted of three major efforts. The first major effort was the power plant system study which reviewed the competitive requirements for a coal gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, produced a conceptual design of a CG/MCFC, and defined the technology development requirements. This effort is discussed in Section 1 of the report. The second major effort involved the design and development of a new MCFC cell configuration which reduced the material content of the cell to a level competitive with competing power plants, simplified the cell configuration to make the components more manufacturable and adaptable to continuous low cost processing techniques, and introduced new-low-pressure drop flow fields for both reactant gases. The new flow fields permitted the incorporation of recirculation systems in both reactant gas systems, permitting simplified cooling techniques and the ability to operate on both natural gas and a wide variety of gasifier fuels. This cell technology improvement is discussed in Section 2. The third major effort involved the scaleup of the new cell configuration to the full-area, 8-sq-ft size and resulted in components used for a 25-kW, 20-cell stack verification test. The verification test was completed with a run of 2200 hours, exceeding the goal of 2000 hours and verifying the new cell design. TWs test, in turn, provided the confidence to proceed to a 100-kW demonstration which is the goal of the subsequent DOE program. The scaleup and stack verification tests are discussed in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this report.

  15. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-03-30

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  16. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  17. Regenerative Fuel Cells for Space Power and Energy Conversion (NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cell Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Miley, George H.; Luo, Nie; Burton, Rodney; Mather, Joseph; Hawkins, Glenn; Byrd, Ethan; Gu, Lifeng; Shrestha, Prajakti Joshi

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing hydrogen peroxide and sodium borohydride development is shown. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 4) MEA Optimization; 5) 500-Watt Stack Testing; 6) System Modeling: Fuel Cell Power Source for Lunar Rovers; and 7) Conclusions

  18. Modeling of Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fueled with Syngas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with proton conducting electrolyte (H-SOFCs) are promising power sources for stationary applications. Compared with other types of fuel cells, one distinct feature of SOFC is their fuel flexibility. In this study, a 2D model is developed to investigate the transport and reaction in an H-SOFC fueled with syngas, which can be produced from conventional natural gas or renewable biomass. The model fully considers the fluid flow, mass transfer, heat transfer and r...

  19. Reviews on Fuel Cell Technology for Valuable Chemicals and Energy Co-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisitsree Wiyaratn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of co-generation process in fuel cell type reactor to produce valuable chemical compounds along with electricity. The chemicals and energy co-generation processes have been shown to be a promising alternative to conventional reactors and conventional fuel cells with pure water as a byproduct. This paper reviews researches on chemicals and energy co-generation technologies of three types of promising fuel cell i.e. solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, alkaline fuel cell (AFC, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. In addition, the research studies on applications of SOFCs, AFCs, and PEMFCs with chemical production (i.e. nitric oxide, formaldehyde, sulfur oxide, C2 hydrocarbons, alcohols, syngas and hydrogen peroxide were also given. Although, it appears that chemicals and energy co-generation processes have potential to succeed in commercial applications, the development of cheaper catalyst materials with longer stability ,and understanding in thermodynamic are still challenging to improve the overall system performance and enable to use in commercial market.

  20. Stationary fuel cell applications: electrical equipment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Schmutz, C.; Buchsbaum, L.; Lacarnoy, A. [Schneider Electric, Research Center, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kuzkin, G. [US Research Center, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Schneider Electric is a global company providing market leadership in two core businesses: Electrical Distribution, and Industrial Control and Automation. Schneider operates within four main markets: private residences, commercial buildings, industrial control, and electrical infrastructure. Schneider teams, on both sides of the Atlantic, have used their technical knowledge and global market vision to optimize fuel cell system performance and cost, and to present a power system solution that contains the best global architecture. This work includes high efficiency power conversion modules designed for low voltage / high current fuel cells, grid connection devices that integrate new functionality such as energy optimization and secure power, protection apparatus, advanced control-command strategies, and system optimization hardware. All of this equipment will provide beneficial cost and efficiency impacts to the end user. (authors)

  1. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  2. Advanced laser processing in fuel cells production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollhof, J.; Havrilla, D.; Schaupp, R. [TRUMPF Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States); Loeffler, K. [TRUMPF Laser und Systemtechnik TLD, Ditzingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed TRUMPF methods of joining bipolar plates to create fuel cell stacks and manufacture thin foils using diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs). Beam delivery systems and processing optics were discussed. CW disk lasers were used to allow spot diameters smaller than 30 {mu}m and combined with a Galvo technology-based scanning optics systems to enable welding speeds greater than 1 m/s. A TruFiber 300 diffraction limited fiber laser was used for CW laser cutting. Short and ultra-short laser pulses were used to drill thousands of holes per second without a measurable heat-affected zone. The attributes and specifications of the 3 major TRUMPF lasers developed to manufacture fuel cells were also provided.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J. P.; Young, J. E.

    1983-10-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. The core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  4. Hepatic stellate cells and innate immunity in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang-Gun Suh; Won-Il Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Constant alcohol consumption is a major cause of chronic liver disease, and there has been a growing concern regarding the increased mortality rates worldwide. Alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) range from mild to more severe conditions, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is enriched with innate immune cells (e.g. natural killer cells and Kupffer cells) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and interestingly, emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity contributes to the development of ALDs (e.g. steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis). Indeed, HSCs play a crucial role in alcoholic steatosis via production of endocannabinoid and retinol metabolites. This review describes the roles of the innate immunity and HSCs in the pathogenesis of ALDs, and suggests therapeutic targets and strategies to assist in the reduction of ALD.

  5. Multiply manifolded molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.; Geyer, H.K.; Johnson, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    This study consists of research and development activities related to the concept of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with multiple manifolds. Objective is to develop an MCFC having a higher power density and a longer life than other MCFC designs. The higher power density will result from thinner gas flow channels; the extended life will result from reduced temperature gradients. Simplification of the gas flow channels and current collectors may also significantly reduce cost for the multiply manifolded MCFC.

  6. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  7. Fuel cell technology development forges ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 11 June, 2006, a bright red sightseeing van attracted much attention at the Xinghai Square in Dalian, a coastal city of northeast China's Liaoning Province. This is no ordinary tour coach, as it is jointly driven by fuel cells (FC) and storage batteries. Acting as its "heart," the FC system could generate electricity not only for driving the mini-coach, but also for re-charging the storage battery system when excess power is yielded.

  8. The status of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.B.

    1991-02-20

    This brief status report provides an introduction to what fuel cells are, why they are important, what uses have been made of them to date, the goals and timetables of current programs, and who the players are in this vital technology. Copies of most of the slides presented and additional diagrams are appended to this paper. Further details can be obtained from the comprehensive texts cited in the bibliography. 11 refs., 44 figs.

  9. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  10. Polyarylenethioethersulfone Membranes for Fuel Cells (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    release; distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions described on inside pages STINFO COPY © 2007 The Electrochemical Society AIR...PAO Case Number: 88ABW-2007-1713; Clearance Date: 24 July 2007. © 2007 The Electrochemical Society . The U.S. Government is joint author of the work...it to be a potential candidate for membranes in fuel cells. © 2007 The Electrochemical Society . DOI: 10.1149/1.2755881 All rights reserved

  11. Integrating fuel cells into science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolensky, J. [Heliocentris Energy Systems, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Colell, H. [heliocentris Energiesysteme GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    The development of quick-to-market commercial products designed primarily for the science and engineering education markets is the niche market of a small, private company based in Germany, called Heliocentris Energiesysteme GmbH. A complete solar hydrogen system, consisting of solar panel module, electrolyser module and fuel cell was the first product marketed by the company in 1997 for the middle school and high school market. For the primary and middle school market, the only product available is the Hyco{sup TM} Hydrogen Model Fuel Cell Car, which demonstrates the potential for a sustainable pollution-free vehicle. Other products designed for secondary school and the vocational and university market are also available and were briefly described. It is believed that the overall growth of the hydrogen market relies in large part on the integration of fuel cell products into education. Partnerships with industry in the promotion of hydrogen technology awareness to the general population has been undertaken by the company. 6 figs.

  12. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  13. Protozoan grazing reduces the current output of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L; Woodard, Trevor L; Strickland, Justin N; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-10-01

    Several experiments were conducted to determine whether protozoan grazing can reduce current output from sediment microbial fuel cells. When marine sediments were amended with eukaryotic inhibitors, the power output from the fuel cells increased 2-5-fold. Quantitative PCR showed that Geobacteraceae sequences were 120 times more abundant on anodes from treated fuel cells compared to untreated fuel cells, and that Spirotrichea sequences in untreated fuel cells were 200 times more abundant on anode surfaces than in the surrounding sediments. Defined studies with current-producing biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens and pure cultures of protozoa demonstrated that protozoa that were effective in consuming G. sulfurreducens reduced current production up to 91% when added to G. sulfurreducens fuel cells. These results suggest that anode biofilms are an attractive food source for protozoa and that protozoan grazing can be an important factor limiting the current output of sediment microbial fuel cells.

  14. PEM Fuel Cells Redesign Using Biomimetic and TRIZ Design Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Keith Kin Kei

    Two formal design methodologies, biomimetic design and the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, were applied to the redesign of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Proof of concept prototyping was performed on two of the concepts for water management. The liquid water collection with strategically placed wicks concept demonstrated the potential benefits for a fuel cell. Conversely, the periodic flow direction reversal concepts might cause a potential reduction water removal from a fuel cell. The causes of this water removal reduction remain unclear. In additional, three of the concepts generated with biomimetic design were further studied and demonstrated to stimulate more creative ideas in the thermal and water management of fuel cells. The biomimetic design and the TRIZ methodologies were successfully applied to fuel cells and provided different perspectives to the redesign of fuel cells. The methodologies should continue to be used to improve fuel cells.

  15. Sterion membranes in Direct Methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J. J.; Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Fernandez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) has been postulated as an alternative to traditional hydrogen fed Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (H2-PEMFCs). Among their advantages, it can be pointed out the low cost of the fuel, simplicity of design, large availability, easy handling and distribution. However, there are still some challenges in this field, such as the development of electrocatalysts which can enhance the electrokinetics of methanol oxidation, the discovery of an electrolyte membrane with high conductivity and low methanol crossover at the same time and the production of methanol-tolerant electrocatalysts with high activity for oxygen reduction. So far, Nafion 117 has been the polymer membrane most widely used in DMFCs. Yet, it is well known that Nafion (Du Pont Inc.) membranes are not good barrier for methanol, so that the coulombic efficiency of Nafion-based DMFCs is significantly reduced by the chemical oxidation of methanol in the cathode. Recently, a new perfluorinated polymer with sulphonic acid groups (PFSA) has been developed, under the commercial name of Sterion (David Fuel Cell Components). As a difference as opposed to Nafion, this membrane is cast by the solution casting method, which provides a different sulphonic cluster configuration as compared to the extrusion cast Nafion membranes, which may give rise to different methanol crossover behaviour. In this work, it has been studied and analysed the suitability of Sterion in the DMFCs field. For that, it has been measured the methanol permeability of this membrane at different solute concentration and temperature, and its performance in an actual fuel cell at different operational conditions, such as methanol concentration, temperature and back pressure. Tests have been made using both oxygen and air in the cathode and half-cell potentials have been evaluated in some measurements in order to discriminate the contribution of both semi-reactions to the overall cell overvoltage. A lifetime

  16. Alcohol and cardiovascular disease--modulation of vascular cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul A; Redmond, Eileen M

    2012-04-01

    Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking patterns, with frequent moderate consumption of alcohol being salutary and binge drinking or chronic abuse being deleterious to one's health. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the many effects of alcohol consumption is beginning to emerge, as well as a clearer picture as to whether these effects are due to the direct actions of alcohol itself, or caused in part by its metabolites, e.g., acetaldehyde, or by incidental components present in the alcoholic beverage (e.g., polyphenols in red wine). This review will discuss evidence to date as to how alcohol (ethanol) might affect atherosclerosis that underlies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and the putative mechanisms involved, focusing on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects.

  17. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... (RDE) and (ii) a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) setup designed for experiments in conc. H3PO4. The pressurized cell is demonstrated by tests on polycrystalline platinum electrodes up to 150 ºC. Functionality of the RDE system is proved studying the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at temperatures up...... to 140 ºC and oxygen pressures up to ~100 bar at room temperature. The GDE cell is successfully tested at 130 ºC by means of direct oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. In the second part of the thesis, the emphasis is put on the ORR in H3PO4 with particular focus on the mass transport...

  18. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  19. Biorefinery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Das; Thomas T. Adams; Mark A. Eiteman; John Stickney; Joy Doran Peterson; James R. Kastner; Sudhagar Mani; Ryan Adolphson

    2012-06-12

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [1] establishment of pyrolysis processing systems and characterization of the product oils for fuel applications, including engine testing of a preferred product and its pro forma economic analysis; [2] extraction of sugars through a novel hotwater extaction process, and the development of levoglucosan (a pyrolysis BioOil intermediate); [3] identification and testing of the use of biochar, the coproduct from pyrolysis, for soil applications; [4] developments in methods of atomic layer epitaxy (for efficient development of coatings as in fuel cells); [5] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics, [6] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery, and [7] development of catalysts from coproducts. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the pyrolysis biooil based diesel fuel supplement, sugar extraction from lignocelluose, use of biochar, production of algal biomass in wastewaters, and the development of catalysts. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The various coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  20. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  1. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Mustafa Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices

  2. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cell

  3. Hydrogen and fuel cells; Hydrogene et piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fuel cell power generation system. Nenryo denchi hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Shiba, Y.

    1993-06-11

    It is general to fabricate the primary cooling water system including the fuel cell main body using corrosion resistant stainless steel, while the secondary cooling system including absorption type freezer is made of carbon steel. For this structure, returning the cooling water of the secondary cooling system to the primary cooling system can cause the corrosion of the primary cooling system. That is, the water of inferior quality in the secondary system can corrode the primary system including the fuel cell. This invention solves the problem. The fuel cell bypass which is branched from the fuel cell cooling water inlet, detours the fuel cell, and it is connected to the water-vapor separator installed to the fuel cell. And the heat exchanger is installed at any of fuel cooling water outlet line, fuel cell cooling water inlet line, or fuel cell bypass line. With this structure, recovering the heat generated during the power generation by the fuel cell at the secondary side of the heat exchanger can be achieved while separating the primary and secondary cooling water. So that the trouble of fuel cell operation caused by the contamination of the primary cooling water with the secondary cooling water which contains corrosive impurities can be avoided. 6 figs.

  5. FUEL CELL ELECTRODES FOR ACID MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuel cell electrodes for acid media. Activated carbon electrodes were prepared, wetproofed with paraffin or Teflon, and catalyzed with platinum. The wetproofing agent was applied by immersion or electrodeposition and the catalyst applied by chemical decomposition of H2P+Cl6 solutions. Half cell studies with hydrogen anodes and oxygen (air) cathodes showed that electrochemical performance is essentially the same for paraffin and Teflontreated electrodes; however, the life of the Teflon-treated electrodes under equal conditions of load is greater than that for

  6. Alcoholic hepatitis: The pivotal role of Kupffer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duminda; B; Suraweera; Ashley; N; Weeratunga; Robert; W; Hu; Stephen; J; Pandol; Richard; Hu

    2015-01-01

    Kupffer cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis(AH). It is believed that alcohol increases the gut permeability that results in raised levels of serum endotoxins containing lipopolysaccharides(LPS). LPS binds to LPS-binding proteins and presents it to a membrane glycoprotein called CD14, which then activates Kupffer cells via a receptor called tolllike receptor 4. This endotoxin mediated activation of Kupffer cells plays an important role in the inflammatory process resulting in alcoholic hepatitis. There is no effective treatment for AH, although notable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the underlying mechanism of alcoholic hepatitis. We specifically review the current research on the role of Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of AH and the treatment strategies. We suggest that the imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and the anti-inflammatory process as well as the increased production of reactive oxygen species eventually lead to hepatocyte injury, the final event of alcoholic hepatitis.

  7. Alcohol-induced steatosis in liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol-induced fatty liver (steatosis) was believed to result from excessive generation of reducing equivalents from ethanol metabolism, thereby enhancing fat accumulation. Recent findings have revealed a more complex picture in which ethanol oxidation is still required,but specific transcription as well as humoral factors also have important roles. Transcription factors involved include the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1)which is activated to induce genes that regulate lipid biosynthesis. Conversely, ethanol consumption causes a general down-regulation of lipid (fatty acid) oxidation, a reflection of inactivation of the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) that regulates genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. A third transcription factor is the early growth response-1 (Egr-1), which is strongly induced prior to the onset of steatosis. The activities of all these factors are governed by that of the principal regulatory enzyme, AMP kinase. Important humoral factors, including adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), also regulate alcohol-induced steatosis. Their levels are affected by alcohol consumption and by each other. This review will summarize the actions of these proteins in ethanol-elicited fatty liver. Because steatosis is now regarded as a significant risk factor for advanced liver pathology, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms in its etiology is essential for development of effective therapies.

  8. Structure and Control Strategies of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 孙逢春; 钟秋海

    2004-01-01

    The structure and kinds of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) and the mathematical model of the fuel cell processor are discussed in detail. FCV includes many parts: the fuel cell thermal and water management, fuel supply, air supply and distribution, AC motor drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall vehicle control system. So it requires different kinds of control strategies, such as the PID method, zero-pole method, optimal control method, fuzzy control and neural network control. Along with the progress of control method, the fuel cell vehicle's stability and reliability is up-and-up. Experiment results show FCV has high energy efficiency.

  9. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  10. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-Espasandín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC, their fuels (hydrogen and methanol, and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  11. A novel supercapacitor-fuel cell hybrid cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Y; ZHENG Jim P

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic hybrid fuel cell (MHFC) with a novel configuration was proposed in an effort to improve the fuel cell performance during instantaneous power changes. A modified direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with a layer of hydrous ruthenium dioxide (RuO2·xH2O) sandwiched between the anode catalyst layer and membrane was used to demonstrate the principle of the MHFC. Experimental results indicate that the RuO2·xH2O layer is equivalent to a resistor-capacitor transmission line and functions similar to a capacitor in parallel with the anode electrode. The improvement in dynamic response of the MHFC was experimentally confirmed under step current change and square current pulse operating. The ionic conductivity of the RuO2·xH2O layer was also obtained.

  12. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  13. Extended Two Dimensional Nanotube and Nanowire Surfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Alia, Shaun Michael

    2011-01-01

    Extended network nanomaterials of platinum (Pt), silver (Ag), palladium (Pd), and gold (Au) are synthesized and characterized as proton exchange membrane (PEMFC), hydroxide exchange membrane (HEMFC), and direct alcohol (DAFC) fuel cell catalysts.Porous Pt nanotubes (PPtNTs), 5 nm thick, are synthesized by the galvanic displacement of Ag nanowires (AgNWs) for PEMFCs and DAFCs. PPtNTs produce oxygen reduction (ORR) and durability characteristics significantly higher than supported Pt nanopartic...

  14. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  15. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  16. Proceedings of the fuel cells 1994 contractors review meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C. P., II; Mayfield, M. J.

    1994-08-01

    METC annually sponsors this conference to provide a forum for energy executives, engineers, etc. to discuss advances in fuel cell research and development projects, to exchange ideas with private sector attendees, and to review relevant results in fuel cell technology programs. Two hundred and three people from industry, academia, and Government attended. The conference attempts to showcase the partnerships with the Government and with industry, by seeking activity participation and involvement from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EPRI, GRI, and APRA. In addition to sessions on fuel cells (solid oxide, molten carbonate, etc.) for stationary electric power generation, sessions on US DOE's Fuel Cell Transportation Program and on DOD/APRA's fuel cell logistic fuel program were presented. In addition to the 29 technical papers, an abstract of an overview of international fuel cell development and commercialization plans in Europe and Japan is included. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. A Development of Ethanol/Percarbonate Membraneless Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell using platinum electrodes in alkaline-acidic media is investigated. In this cell, ethanol is used as the fuel and sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidant for the first time in an alkaline-acidic media. Sodium percarbonate generates hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. At room temperature, the laminar-flow-based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 18.96 mW cm−2 with a fuel mixture flow rate of 0.3 mL min−2. The developed fuel cell features no proton exchange membrane. The simple planar structured membraneless ethanol fuel cell presents with high design flexibility and enables easy integration of the microscale fuel cell into actual microfluidic systems and portable power applications.

  18. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  19. Performance enhancement of phosphoric acid fuel cell using phosphosilicate gel based electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajari Kargupta; Swati Saha; Dipali Banerjee; Mrinal Seal; Saibal Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of phosphoric acid electrolyte by phosphosilicate gel based electrolytes is proposed for performance enhancement of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFG).Phosphosilicate gel in paste form and in powder form is synthesized from tetraethoxysilane and orthophosphoric acid using sol-gel method for two different P/Si ratio of 5 and 1.5 respectively.Replacement of phosphoric acid electrolyte by phosphosilicate gel paste enhances the peak power generation of the fuel cell by 133% at 120 ℃ cell temperature; increases the voltage generation in the ohmic regime and extends the maximum possible load current.Polyinyl alcohol (PVA) is used to bind the phosphosilicate gel powder and to form the hybrid crosslinked gel polymer electrolyte membrane.Soaking the membrane with phosphoric acid solution,instead of that with water improves the proton conductivity of the membrane,enhances the voltage and power generation by the fuel cell and extends the maximum possible operating temperature.At lower operating temperature of 70 ℃,peak power produced by phosphosilicate gel polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PGMFC ) is increased by 40% compared to that generated by phosphoric acid fuel cell ( PAFC ).However,the performance of composite membrane diminishes as the cell temperature increases.Thus phosphosilicate gel in paste form is found to be a good alternative of phosphoric acid electrolyte at medium operating temperature range while phosphosilicate gel-PVA composite offers performance enhancement at low operating temperatures.

  20. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  1. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  2. Blend Concepts for Fuel Cell Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Kerres

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are an alternative to lithium ion batteries as energy supply for mobile applications such as laptops, PDA's and cellphones. It would be advantageous if pure or highly concentrated methanol could be used as the fuel in these DMFC, due to the high energy density of meOH. However, most of the ionomer membranes used up to now as proton conductor in DMFC can not withstand pure or highly concentrated methanol due to extreme swelling or even dissolution under these conditions. Therefore it is required to prepare H+ -conducting membranes which remain dimensionally stable in pure or highly concentrated methanol. One way to approach this goal is to cross-link the ionomer membranes so that the swelling under the desired methanol-rich conditions is limited.

  3. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  4. Sealants for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2005-09-09

    One of the major challenges for implementation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the development of suitable sealant materials to separate the air and fuel. Several approaches have been used to achieve the necessary adherence, mechanical integrity and stability, including both rigid seals (no applied load during operation) and compressive seals (load applied to seal during operation). The most common approach is to use rigid glass or glass-ceramic seals, the properties of which can be tailored specifically for use in SOFCs through variation of the glass composition. However, these ceramic materials are inherently brittle, so metallic, metallic-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic composite seals, in both the rigid and compressive configurations, have been developed. The use of multiphase seals allows for improvement in factors, such as wettability, compliance at interfaces and strain relief, to improve the gas-tightness and stability of the seal. In this paper, the different approaches for developing SOFC sealants are reviewed. (author)

  5. Catalysis in solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorte, R J; Vohs, J M

    2011-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEs) hold much promise as highly efficient devices for the direct interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Commercial application of these devices, however, requires further improvements in their performance and stability. Because the performance of SOFC and SOE electrodes depends on their microstructures, electronic and ionic conductivities, and chemical reactivities, the needed improvements require the expertise of various disciplines, with catalytic science playing an important role. Highly active and thermally stable catalysts are required to limit the internal losses in the devices, increase the range of fuels they can use, and decrease the temperatures at which they operate. In this article we review some of the most important recent advances in catalysis for SOFC and SOE electrodes and highlight additional improvements that are needed.

  6. Nanotubular array solid oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Munekazu; Chao, Cheng-Chieh; An, Jihwan; Jung, Hee Joon; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Friedrich B

    2014-01-28

    This report presents a demonstration and characterization of a nanotubular array of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) made of one-end-closed hollow tube Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia/Pt membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The tubular MEAs are nominally ∼5 μm long and have fuel. The paper also introduces a fabrication methodology primarily based on a template process involving atomic layer deposition and electrodeposition for building the nanotubular MEA architecture as an important step toward achieving high surface area ultrathin SOFCs operating in the intermediate to low-temperature regime. A fabricated nanotubular SOFC theoretically attains a 20-fold increase in the effective surface, while projections indicate the possibility of achieving up to 40-fold.

  7. Microbial fuel cell as new technol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, great attentions have been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs due to their mild operating conditions and using variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. The traditional MFC consisted of anode and cathode compartments but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are generated. MFCs could be utilized as power generator in small devices such as biosensor. Besides the advantages of this technology, it still faces practical barriers such as low power and current density. In the present article different parts of MFC such as anode, cathode and membrane have been reviewed and to overcome the practical challenges in this field some practical options have been suggested. Also, this research review demonstrates the improvement of MFCs with summarization of their advantageous and possible applications in future application. Also, Different key factors affecting bioelectricity generation on MFCs were investigated and these key parameters are fully discussed.

  8. Microbial fuel cells using Cellulomonas spp. with cellulose as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuya; Khawdas, Wichean; Aso, Yuji; Ohara, Hitomi

    2017-03-01

    Cellulomonas fimi, Cellulomonas biazotea, and Cellulomonas flavigena are cellulose-degrading microorganisms chosen to compare the degradation of cellulose. C. fimi degraded 2.5 g/L of cellulose within 4 days, which was the highest quantity among the three microorganisms. The electric current generation by the microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the cellulose-containing medium with C. fimi was measured over 7 days. The medium in the MFC was sampled every 24 h to quantify the degradation of cellulose, and the results showed that the electric current increased with the degradation of cellulose. The maximum electric power generated by the MFC was 38.7 mW/m(2), and this numeric value was 63% of the electric power generated by an MFC with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a well-known current-generating microorganism. Our results showed that C. fimi was an excellent candidate to produce the electric current from cellulose via MFCs.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of biofuels as fuels for high temperature fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milewski Jarosław

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, applicativity of various biofuels on high temperature fuel cell performance are presented. Governing equations of high temperature fuel cell modeling are given. Adequate simulators of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC have been done and described. Performance of these fuel cells with different biofuels is shown. Some characteristics are given and described. Advantages and disadvantages of various biofuels from the system performance point of view are pointed out. An analysis of various biofuels as potential fuels for SOFC and MCFC is presented. The results are compared with both methane and hydrogen as the reference fuels. The biofuels are characterized by both lower efficiency and lower fuel utilization factors compared with methane. The presented results are based on a 0D mathematical model in the design point calculation. The governing equations of the model are also presented. Technical and financial analysis of high temperature fuel cells (SOFC and MCFC are shown. High temperature fuel cells can be fed by biofuels like: biogas, bioethanol, and biomethanol. Operational costs and possible incomes of those installation types were estimated and analyzed. A comparison against classic power generation units is shown. A basic indicator net present value (NPV for projects was estimated and commented.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of biofuels as fuels for high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Jarosław; Bujalski, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Janusz

    2013-02-01

    Based on mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, applicativity of various biofuels on high temperature fuel cell performance are presented. Governing equations of high temperature fuel cell modeling are given. Adequate simulators of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) have been done and described. Performance of these fuel cells with different biofuels is shown. Some characteristics are given and described. Advantages and disadvantages of various biofuels from the system performance point of view are pointed out. An analysis of various biofuels as potential fuels for SOFC and MCFC is presented. The results are compared with both methane and hydrogen as the reference fuels. The biofuels are characterized by both lower efficiency and lower fuel utilization factors compared with methane. The presented results are based on a 0D mathematical model in the design point calculation. The governing equations of the model are also presented. Technical and financial analysis of high temperature fuel cells (SOFC and MCFC) are shown. High temperature fuel cells can be fed by biofuels like: biogas, bioethanol, and biomethanol. Operational costs and possible incomes of those installation types were estimated and analyzed. A comparison against classic power generation units is shown. A basic indicator net present value (NPV) for projects was estimated and commented.

  11. Flow and Pressure Distribution in Fuel Cell Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Bang, Mads; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2010-01-01

    The manifold is an essential part of the fuel cell stack. Evidently, evenly distributed reactants are a prerequisite for an efficient fuel cell stack. In this study, the cathode manifold ability to distribute air to the cells of a 70 cell stack is investigated experimentally. By means of 20...

  12. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  14. Fuel cell energy service Enron`s commerical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Enron, the premier provider of clean fuels worldwide, has launched a unique energy service based on fuel cell technology. The goal of this program is to bring the benefits of fuel cell power to the broad commercial marketplace. Enron`s Energy Service is currently based on a 200 kilowatt phosphoric acid power plant manufactured by ONSI Corporation. This plant is fueled by natural gas or propane, and exhibits superior performance. Enron offers a `no hassle` package that provides customers with immediate benefits with no upfront capital or technical risks. This paper describes Enron`s fuel cell commercial program.

  15. Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Used in a Direct Hydrocarbon Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a direct hydrocarbon phosphoric acid fuel cell, PAFC, was investigated using petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and n-hexadecane as the fuels. We believe this is the first study of a fuel cell being operated with petroleum diesel as the fuel at the anode. Degradation in fuel cell performance was observed prior to reaching steady state. The degradation was attributed to a carbonaceous material forming on the surface of the anode. Regardless of the initial degradation, a steady-state operation was achieved with each of the diesel fuels. After treating the anode with water the fuel cell performance recovered. However, the fuel cell performance degraded again prior to obtaining another steady-state operation. There were several observations that were consistent with the suggestion that the carbonaceous material formed from the diesel fuels might be a reaction intermediate necessary for steady-state operation. Finally, the experiments indicated that water in the phosphoric acid electrolyte could be used as the water required for the anodic reaction. The water formed at the cathode could provide the replacement water for the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the need to provide a water feed system for the fuel cell.

  16. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  17. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  18. Polymer Separators for High-Power, High-Efficiency Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-12-26

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) separators showed higher Coulombic efficiencies (94%) and power densities (1220 mW m-2) than cells with porous glass fiber separators or reactors without a separator after 32 days of operation. These remarkable increases in both the coublomic efficiency and the power production of the microbial fuel cells were made possible by the separator\\'s unique characteristics of fouling mitigation of the air cathode without a large increase in ionic resistance in the cell. This new type of polymer gel-like separator design will be useful for improving MFC reactor performance by enabling compact cell designs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Rick [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Troy, MI (United States); Wall, Mark [Independent Energy Partners Technology, LLC., Parker, CO (United States); Sullivan, Neal [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  20. Proton-conducting membrane based on epoxy resin-poly(vinyl alcohol)-sulfosuccinic acid blend and its nanocomposite with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes for fuel-cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Nitul; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A blend of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGB) in the presence of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) was investigated as hydrolytically-stable proton-conducting membrane. The PVA modification was carried out by varying the DGB:SSA ratio (20:20, 10:20, and 5:20). A nanocomposite of the blend (20:20) was prepared with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes (viz., 1, 3 and 5 wt%). The water uptake behavior and the proton conductivity of the prepared membranes were evaluated. The ionic conductivity of the membranes and the water uptake behavior depended on the s-MWCNT and the DGB contents. The ionic conductivity showed an enhancement for the blend and for the nanocomposite membrane as compared to the pristine polymer.

  1. Acid membranes of poly(vinyl alcohol) for direct ethanol fuel cell applications; Membranes acidas de poli(alcool vinilico) para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel via etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra Filho, Jose C.; Gomes, Ailton S. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: asgomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Proton-conducting hybrid membranes composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), phosphotungstic acid (HPW) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) where prepared. The effect of HPW doping and crosslink with DTPA on the membranes properties such as uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity was investigated. Uptake and permeated flux decreases with increasing content of HPW and DTPA. Ethanol permeabilities obtained was about two orders of magnitude smaller than Nafion 117. FTIR spectra indicated that HPW was incorporated into the polymer matrix and DTPA acted as crosslink agent. The proton conductivity was in the order of 10-3 S.cm-1 with added 4 wt.% of DTPA and generally increases with the addition of HPW. (author)

  2. Robust and reliable fuel cells; Robusta och tillfoerlitliga braensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Joakim [Cellkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    For fuel cells to be a viable alternative for backup power in applications, where reliability is a critical factor, the reliability of fuel cells has to be high and documented. Based on intrinsic properties of fuel cells, it is safe to argue that it is possible to make them highly reliable, but to unleash the full reliability potential of fuel cells, some great engineering work has to be performed. Cellkraft has since many years been addressing this issue and this project is an important piece of this puzzle. The project included both a large number of laboratory testing of fuel cells and long experiments in field environment to verify the results from the laboratory work. The development work performed within this project is a solid base for the continuous work to fulfil Cellkraft's own, tough, technical reliability targets. The project targets below were achieved within this project: 1. The fuel cell start with 100 % reliability. 2. The fuel cell provides nominal power within 30 seconds in 100 % of the cases. 3. The fuel cell keeps providing nominal power as long as there is a demand in 100 % of the cases. 4. No cell in the fuel cell deviates from the mean cell potential with more than 0,1 V at full power.

  3. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  4. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D’Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115). PMID:26610582

  5. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  6. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  7. Fuel cells and the theory of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocciarelli, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    Metal theory is used to study the role of metal catalysts in electrocatalysis, with particular reference to alkaline hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. Use is made of a simple model, analogous to that used to interpret field emission in vacuum. Theoretical values for all the quantities in the Tafel equation are obtained in terms of bulk properties of the metal catalysts (such as free electron densities and Fermi level). The reasons why some processes are reversible (H-electrodes) and some irreversible (O-electrodes) are identified. Selection rules for desirable properties of catalytic materials are established.

  8. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  9. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  10. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Battery Replacement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    Electrochemical Society Meeting, ABS#1089, Oct. 16th 2008, Hawaii, USA. 2. Hall, T.D.; Grice, C.R.; Swenson, L.R.; Smotkin, E.S., “Reversible and irreversible...degradation modes of DMFC anode catalysts”, 212th Electrochemical Society Meeting, ABS#819, Oct. 14th 2008, Hawaii, USA. 3. Yuan Zhang, James Cooper...Paul McGinn “Combinatorial Screening of Fuel Cell Catalysts” 211th Electrochemical Society Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, May, 2008 4. Hall, T.D.; Grice, Corey

  11. Dendronized Polymer Architectures for Fuel Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi‐step synthetic pathways to low‐ion exchange capacity (IEC) polysulfone (PSU) with sulfonic acid functionalized aliphatic dendrons and sulfonated comb‐type PSU structures are developed and investigated in a comparative study as non‐fluorinated proton exchange membrane (PEM) candidates. In each...... evaluated as PEMs for use in fuel cells by proton conductivity measurements, and in the case of dendronized architectures: thermal stability. The proposed synthetic strategy facilitates exploration of a non‐fluorous system with various flexible side chains where IEC is tunable by the degree of substitution....

  12. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  13. Stable, Electroinactive Wetting Agent For Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Surya G.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Straight-chain perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (C8 acid) identified as innocuous and stable wetting agent for use with polytetrafluoroethylene-containing electrodes in liquid-feed direct-oxidation fuel cells suggested for use in vehicles and portable power supplies. C8 acid in small concentrations in aqueous liquid solutions of methanol, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane enables oxidation of these substances by use of commercially available electrodes of type designed originally for use with gases. This function specific to C8 acid molecule and not achieved by other related perfluorolkanesulfonic acids.

  14. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in investigating......Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesting...

  15. INVESTIGATION OF PEM FUEL CELL FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mohiuddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out on a  fuel cell car model by implementing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM types of fuel cell as the source of power to propel the prototype car. This PEMFC has capability to propel the electric motor by converting chemical energy stored in hydrogen gas into useful electrical energy. PEM fuel cell alone is used as the power source for the electric motor without the aid of any other power source such as battery associated with it. Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the characteristics of fuel cell used and the performance of the fuel cell car. Investigated papameters are the power it develops, voltage, current and speed it produces under different load conditions. KEYWORDS: fuel cell; automotive; proton exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane; internal combustion engine

  16. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    Modern way of life demands enormous amounts of energy, which so far has been mainly produced by combustion of various types of fossil fuel. Increased amounts of atmospheric CO2 and global warming leading to severe climate changes are the consequence. There is a need to make the energy production...... sustainable and break the dependency on fossil fuels. Hydrogen economy provides such a solution, where hydrogen produced by renewables, such as wind and solar power, becomes the energy carrier. The storage, handling and transportation of hydrogen are the main obstacles on the route to a sustainable future...... when it comes to powering small and medium sized applications, transportation sector in particular. This is mainly due to the gravimetric energy density being immensely inferior to the liquid fuels gasoline and diesel. Dimethyl ether has already been identified as an excellent renewable fuel...

  17. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  18. Combustion Characterization and Model Fuel Development for Micro-tubular Flame-assisted Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarek, Ryan J; Garrett, Michael J; Baskaran, Amrish; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-10-02

    Combustion based power generation has been accomplished for many years through a number of heat engine systems. Recently, a move towards small scale power generation and micro combustion as well as development in fuel cell research has created new means of power generation that combine solid oxide fuel cells with open flames and combustion exhaust. Instead of relying upon the heat of combustion, these solid oxide fuel cell systems rely on reforming of the fuel via combustion to generate syngas for electrochemical power generation. Procedures were developed to assess the combustion by-products under a wide range of conditions. While theoretical and computational procedures have been developed for assessing fuel-rich combustion exhaust in these applications, experimental techniques have also emerged. The experimental procedures often rely upon a gas chromatograph or mass spectrometer analysis of the flame and exhaust to assess the combustion process as a fuel reformer and means of heat generation. The experimental techniques developed in these areas have been applied anew for the development of the micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cell. The protocol discussed in this work builds on past techniques to specify a procedure for characterizing fuel-rich combustion exhaust and developing a model fuel-rich combustion exhaust for use in flame-assisted fuel cell testing. The development of the procedure and its applications and limitations are discussed.

  19. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  20. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  1. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Gangi, Jennifer

    2013-10-31

    This October 2013 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, continues to build on the April 2010 State of the States report that provided a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. This update report provides more details on the progress and activities that happened since the third report, issued in August 2012.

  2. SULFUR DIOXIDE - SULFUR TRIOXIDE REGENERATIVE FUEL CELL RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermodynamics and electrolytic characteristics are discussed of an SO2-SO3 regenerative, closed-cycle fuel cell , and summarizes the electrolytic...electrochemical, and phase separation research conducted during a study program to determine the practicability of such a fuel cell . The...experimental results obtained were at such wide variance with the theoretical concept that it became apparent that a fuel cell of this type is not feasible. (Author)

  3. Power Conversion System Strategies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushik Rajashekara

    2005-01-01

    Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly fuel cell vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, power conversion strategies for propulsion and auxiliary power unit applications are described. The power electronics strategies for the successful development of the fuel cell vehicles are presented. The fuel cell systems for propulsion and for auxiliary power unit applications are also discussed.

  4. CHOICE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR FUEL CELL ECO-MOBIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramchuk, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of choice of fuel cell of choice to drive the car competitor of Shell-EcoMarathon are considered. The analysis of the concepts of fuel cells, chosen as the most rational scheme and main parameters of the components of the power plant is done. The results of calculation of the characteris-tics of the sports car with a fuel cell are given.

  5. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    provide waste heat for hot water and energy to drive absorption chillers for cooling. If no attractive opportunities exist for energy savings as a result...07-32 2 Table 1. Operating characteristics of conventional fuel cells vs. DCFCs. PEMFC PAFC MCFC SOFC DCFC Electrolyte Polymer Phosphoric acid...consuming facilities. Currently, waste heat generated by 200–250 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell ( MCFC ) units

  6. Anode Material Testing for Marine Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    the plumping centered over billet, and the electrical feed through fitting with connecting wire. The solid graphite plate will be tested by...state conditions, using a liquid bath of glucose as the substrate (17). Chaudhuri and Lovley 2005, showed that the graphite foam increased production...Microbial fuel cells: performances and perspectives. Biofuels for fuel cells: biomass fermentation towards usage in fuel cells. IWA Publishing, London

  7. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  8. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  9. Diesel fuel processor for hydrogen production for 5 kW fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, D.; Melgar, A.; Briceno, Y. [Fundacion CIDAUT. Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo, P. 209, 47151 Boecillo (Valladolid) (Spain); Navarro, R.M.; Alvarez-Galvan, M.C. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco (Madrid) (Spain); Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera San Juan del Puerto-Matalascanas, km 33, 21130 Mazagon-Moguer (Huelva) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The present paper describes a diesel fuel processor designed to produce hydrogen to feed a PEM fuel cell of 5 kW. The fuel processor includes three reactors in series: (1) oxidative steam reforming reactor; (2) one-step water gas shift reactor; and (3) a preferential oxidation reactor. The design of the system was accomplished by means of a one-dimensional model. A specific study of the fuel-air mixing chamber was carried out with Fluent by taking into account fuel evaporation and cool flame processes. The assembly of the installation allowed the characterisation of each component and the control of each working parameter. The first experimental results obtained in the reformer system using decaline and diesel fuels demonstrate the feasibility of the design to produce hydrogen suitable to feed a PEM fuel cell. (author)

  10. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running...

  11. Thin-Layer Fuel Cell for Teaching and Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanzadeh, M.

    2009-01-01

    A thin-layer fuel cell is described that is simple and easy to set up and is particularly useful for teaching and classroom demonstrations. The cell is both an electrolyzer and a fuel cell and operates using a thin layer of electrolyte with a thickness of approximately 127 micrometers and a volume of approximately 40 microliters. As an…

  12. Environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Hörmandinger, Günter

    The potential environmental benefits of using fuel cells in cars, buses and stationary combined heat and power (CHP) plants of different sizes have not been well-researched. This environmental analysis was conducted for the UK on a `full fuel cycle' basis, encompassing all greenhouse gas and regulated pollutant emissions for the supply chain and end-use technology under consideration. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) with methanol or natural gas reformers were analysed for cars, SPFCs and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) with on-board hydrogen for buses. CHP plants were PAFCs or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each option was compared with one or more conventional technologies. In all cases fuel cell technologies have substantially reduced emissions in comparison with conventional technologies. Regulated emissions are lowest, by up to two orders of magnitude, and those that do occur are primarily in the fuel supply chain. The fuel cell technologies are more efficient in all cases, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced broadly in line with energy savings. Methane emissions increase due to fuel switching, e.g. from petrol to natural gas powered buses, but from a very low base. The study pinpoints some areas in which alternative approaches could be made - the methods for generating and transporting hydrogen have a significant bearing on energy consumption and emissions. However, it is clear that from an overall emissions perspective the use of fuel cells in transport and power generation is highly beneficial.

  13. Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsman, Eric D; Lee, Kang Taek

    2011-11-18

    Fuel cells are uniquely capable of overcoming combustion efficiency limitations (e.g., the Carnot cycle). However, the linking of fuel cells (an energy conversion device) and hydrogen (an energy carrier) has emphasized investment in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells as part of a larger hydrogen economy and thus relegated fuel cells to a future technology. In contrast, solid oxide fuel cells are capable of operating on conventional fuels (as well as hydrogen) today. The main issue for solid oxide fuel cells is high operating temperature (about 800°C) and the resulting materials and cost limitations and operating complexities (e.g., thermal cycling). Recent solid oxide fuel cells results have demonstrated extremely high power densities of about 2 watts per square centimeter at 650°C along with flexible fueling, thus enabling higher efficiency within the current fuel infrastructure. Newly developed, high-conductivity electrolytes and nanostructured electrode designs provide a path for further performance improvement at much lower temperatures, down to ~350°C, thus providing opportunity to transform the way we convert and store energy.

  14. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  15. Electrically Conductive, Hydrophilic Porous Membrane for Fuel Cell Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to produce a conductive polyethersulfone (PES) microporous membrane for fuel cell water management applications. This membrane will...

  16. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. The possible mechanisms of the parameter effects and their interrelationships are discussed. In order to assess the validity of the developed model a real PEM fuel cell system has been used to generate experimental data. The comparison shows good agreements between the modelling results and the experimental data. The model is shown a very useful for estimating the performance of PEM fuel cell stacks and optimization of fuel cell system integration and operation.

  17. Functionalized Graphitic Supports for Improved Fuel Cell Catalyst Stability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) together with the University of Connecticut (UCONN) proposes to demonstrate the improved fuel cell catalyst support durability offered...

  18. Engineered glass seals for solid-oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdoval, Wayne; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Stevenson, Jeffry; Muth, Joseph Thomas; Armstrong, Beth L.; Shyam, Amit; Trejo, Rosa M.; Wang, Yanli; Chou, Yeong Shyung; Shultz, Travis Ray

    2017-02-07

    A seal for a solid oxide fuel cell includes a glass matrix having glass percolation therethrough and having a glass transition temperature below 650.degree. C. A deformable second phase material is dispersed in the glass matrix. The second phase material can be a compliant material. The second phase material can be a crushable material. A solid oxide fuel cell, a precursor for forming a seal for a solid oxide fuel cell, and a method of making a seal for a solid oxide fuel cell are also disclosed.

  19. Fuel cell added value for early market applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Scott; Chandan, Amrit; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Fuel Cells are often considered in the market place as just power providers. Whilst fuel cells do provide power, there are additional beneficial characteristics that should be highlighted to consumers. Due to the high price premiums associated with fuel cells, added value features need to be exploited in order to make them more appealing and increase unit sales and market penetration. This paper looks at the approach taken by two companies to sell high value fuel cells to niche markets. The first, SFC Energy, has a proven track record selling fuel cell power providers. The second, Bloom Energy, is making significant progress in the US by having sold its Energy Server to more than 40 corporations including Wal-Mart, Staples, Google, eBay and Apple. Further to these current markets, two prospective added value applications for fuel cells are discussed. These are fuel cells for aircraft APUs and fuel cells for fire prevention. These two existing markets and two future markets highlight that fuel cells are not just power providers. Rather, they can be used as solutions to many needs, thus being more cost effective by replacing a number of incumbent systems at the same time.

  20. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Douglas [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Tech's comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.