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Sample records for alcohol exposure influences

  1. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  2. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26835604

  3. Driving simulator sickness: Impact on driving performance, influence of blood alcohol concentration, and effect of repeated simulator exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. PMID:27322638

  4. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  5. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  6. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  9. In Utero Alcohol Exposure, Epigenetic Changes, and Their Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ungerer, Michelle; Knezovich, Jaysen; Ramsay, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol has serious consequences for the developing fetus, leading to a range of conditions collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Most importantly, alcohol exposure affects the development of the brain during critical periods of differentiation and growth, leading to cognitive and behavioral deficits. The molecular mechanisms and processes underlying the teratogenic effects of alcohol exposure remain poorly understood and are complex, because the specific ...

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  12. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and be...

  13. Increased Exposure to Alcohol and Cannabis Education and Changes in Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G.

    1989-01-01

    Used data from Ontario Alcohol and Drug Use Among Students survey (N=4,267) to determine how reported alcohol and cannabis (marijuana) use changed with increased exposure to drug education. Concluded drug education had stronger influence on younger students and lighter drinkers but little impact on heavy drinkers. Found decrease in cannabis use…

  14. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was r...

  15. [Influence of alcohol beverage vending machine on alcohol dependence syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, A; Fujita, S

    1994-12-01

    The vending machines which sell alcohol beverages (AVM) can be found quite easily in front of shops or on the roadside in this country. Although it is easily supposed that these vending machines might have badly influenced on developing alcohol dependence syndrome, no scientific study has been reported in this regard so far. In this study, we analyzed the present status of alcoholics (n = 759) and their family members (n = 512) and of ordinary people (n = 334) in terms of their "relation" and "attitudes" to the vending machines by a questionnaire method. The results obtained show as follows: The majority of alcoholics (60%) had used AVM a couple of times or more often in a week, and 18% of alcoholics had not used AVM at all. It was found that the natures of AVM such as "machine," "long time operation," "easy accessibility," are closely related to the development of their alcohol seeking behavior, resulting in forming unfavorable drinking patterns such as concealed drinking, gulping, early morning drinking or binge drinking. Unusual patterns of using AVM were also noticed among them, such as, go to AVM before 5 a.m. and wait until it starts to work, go to a far away AVM deliberately, or, visiting AVM one after another. It was noticed that these drinking habits affected seriously not only the alcoholics but their families also. The number of the family members who insisted that AVM affected badly on the course of alcohol dependence syndrome is larger than that of alcoholics who admit the same thing. As for the future abolition of AVM, 91% of the family members, 70% of alcoholics and 39% of ordinary persons agreed with. The rate of "agreed with abolition" is higher than that of "disagreed with abolition" among ordinary persons. PMID:7695515

  16. Interpersonal violence exposure and alcohol treatment utilization among medical inpatients with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Emily F.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Pedley, Alison; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Palfai, Tibor; Liebschutz, Jane; Saitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal violence exposure and utilization of alcohol treatment after medical hospitalizations among adults with alcohol dependence. We analyzed data collected from a prospective cohort of 238 adults with alcohol dependence who were inpatients in a large, urban hospital. Participants who reported interpersonal violence victimization had 1.6 times the odds (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI 0.92–2.91) of receiving alcohol treatment du...

  17. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Theresa W.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensiv...

  18. Reducing Youth Exposure to Alcohol Ads: Targeting Public Transit

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure. To address this problem, the Marin Institute, an alcohol industry watchdog group in Northern California, conduct...

  19. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Infant Information Processing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A total of 403 black, inner-city infants born to women recruited prenatally on basis of their alcohol consumption during pregnancy were assessed on a battery of tests focusing on information processing and complexity of play. Increased prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with longer fixation duration, a result indicative of less efficient…

  1. Fetal alcohol exposure and development of the integument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhurst WD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available William D Longhurst,1 Jordan Ernst,2 Larry Burd3 1Center for Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA Background: The physiology of fetal alcohol exposure changes across gestation. Early in pregnancy placental, fetal, and amniotic fluid concentrations of alcohol exposure are equivalent. Beginning in mid-pregnancy, the maturing fetal epidermis adds keratins which decrease permeability resulting in development of a barrier between fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Barrier function development is essential for viability in late pregnancy and in the extra-uterine environment. In this paper we provide a selected review of the effects of barrier function on fetal alcohol exposure. Methods: We utilized a search of PubMed and Google for all years in all languages for MeSH on Demand terms: alcohol drinking, amnion, amniotic fluid, epidermis, ethanol, female, fetal development, fetus, humans, keratins, permeability, and pregnancy. We also reviewed the reference lists of relevant papers and hand-searched reference lists of textbooks for additional references. Results: By 30 gestational weeks, development of barrier function alters the pathophysiology of ethanol dispersion between the fetus and amniotic fluid. Firstly, increases in the effectiveness of barrier function decreases the rate of diffusion of alcohol from fetal circulation across fetal skin into the amniotic fluid. This reduces the volume of alcohol entering the amniotic fluid. Secondly, barrier function increases the duration of fetal exposure by decreasing the rate of alcohol diffusion from amniotic fluid back into fetal circulation. Ethanol is then transported into

  2. Thermoregulatory deficits following prenatal alcohol exposure: structural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol delays the development of thermoregulation in newborn rats. This study examined two possible physiological correlates of this effect. In the first experiment, the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the availability of brown adipose tissue for nonshivering thermogenesis was investigated in rat pups from birth to weanling age. Male and female pups were chosen from independent litters with one of three prenatal treatment histories: 35% ethanol-derived calories (35% EDC), pair-fed control (0% EDC), or lab-chow control (LC). Prenatal alcohol exposure resulted in decreased body weight from postnatal (PN) day 1 to 20 compared to controls. Similarly, alcohol-exposed subjects had lighter interscapular brown adipose tissue pads than controls. However, the proportion of brown adipose tissue to body weight in alcohol-exposed pups was not different from controls. It appears that thermoregulatory deficits at birth due to prenatal alcohol exposure are not due to decreased substrate availability. In the second experiment, the relative growth rate of the tail compared to the growth rate of the body was measured in male and female pups from the three prenatal treatment groups. Five-day-old rat pups exposed to alcohol prenatally had relatively slower tail growth than control pups. Since tail growth rate has been associated with ambient temperature, these results suggest that alcohol-exposed rat pups may be experiencing transient periods of cold stress in the nest because of their thermoregulatory deficiencies, which, in turn, could have important implications for neural and body growth retardation seen in Alcohol Related Birth Defects. PMID:2818842

  3. Fetal alcohol exposure and development of the integument

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Larry

    2016-01-01

    William D Longhurst,1 Jordan Ernst,2 Larry Burd3 1Center for Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA Background: The physiology of fetal alcohol exposure changes across ges...

  4. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:27208641

  5. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with zinc deficiency and impaired renal tubular function. Whether maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes renal tubular cell injury is unknown.Material & Methods: Renal function was studied in 8 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and 8 healthy age-matched infants. Renal function and structure were also examined in 11 offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during gestation.Findings: Infants with FAS had limited ability to concentrate urine after water restriction (P<0.001 and impaired acidification after acute acid loading (P<0.001 compared to control group. Plasma zinc levels were lower (P<0.001 and urinary zinc excretion was higher (P<0.001 in infants with FAS compared to control infants. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed cytoplasmic mitochondrial hypertrophy and vacuolar structures of the epithelial cells of the cortical collecting ducts in the rat kidney following fetal exposure to alcohol.Conclusion: These findings suggest that offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during fetal life have renal functional and structural abnormalities that may be responsible in the genesis of renal functional abnormalities as described in infants with FAS.

  6. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates. PMID:23819941

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohr, H.L.; Willms, J. (Rittberg Hospital of the German Red Cross, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Pediatrics); Steinhausen, H.C. (Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

    1993-04-10

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of congenital mental retardation but little is known about the long-term development and adolescent outcome of children with FAS. In a 10-year follow-up study of 60 patients diagnosed as having FAS in infancy and childhood, the authors investigated the long-term sequelae of intrauterine alcohol exposure. The authors found that the characteristic craniofacial malformations of FAS diminish with time, but microcephaly and, to a lesser degree, short stature and underweight (in boys) persist; in female adolescents body weight normalizes. Persistent mental retardation is the major sequela of intrauterine alcohol exposure in many cases, and environmental and educational factors do not have strong compensatory effects on the intellectual development of affected children.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Adult Brain Plasticity. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Moderate Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Neurogenic Response to an Enriched Environment in Adult Mice" (I. Y. Choi; A. M. Allan; and L. A. Cunningham). Observations of mice…

  9. Long-Term Consequences of Developmental Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure and Function: Therapeutic Benefits of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian F. Hamilton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental alcohol exposure both early in life and during adolescence can have a devastating impact on normal brain structure and functioning, leading to behavioral and cognitive impairments that persist throughout the lifespan. This review discusses human work as well as animal models used to investigate the effect of alcohol exposure at various time points during development, as well as specific behavioral and neuroanatomical deficits caused by alcohol exposure. Further, cellular and molecular mediators contributing to these alcohol-induced changes are examined, such as neurotrophic factors and apoptotic markers. Next, this review seeks to support the use of aerobic exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention for alcohol-related impairments. To date, few interventions, behavioral or pharmacological, have been proven effective in mitigating some alcohol-related deficits. Exercise is a simple therapy that can be used across species and also across socioeconomic status. It has a profoundly positive influence on many measures of learning and neuroplasticity; in particular, those measures damaged by alcohol exposure. This review discusses current evidence that exercise may mitigate damage caused by developmental alcohol exposure and is a promising therapeutic target for future research and intervention strategies.

  10. Impaired Odor Identification in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to...

  11. Reducing youth exposure to alcohol ads: targeting public transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michele

    2008-07-01

    Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure. To address this problem, the Marin Institute, an alcohol industry watchdog group in Northern California, conducted a survey of alcohol ads on San Francisco bus shelters. The survey received sufficient media attention to lead the billboard company, CBS Outdoor, into taking down the ads. Marin Institute also surveyed the 25 largest transit agencies; results showed that 75 percent of responding agencies currently have policies that ban alcohol advertising. However, as the experience in San Francisco demonstrated, having a policy on paper does not necessarily mean it is being followed. Communities must be diligent in holding accountable government officials, the alcohol industry, and the media companies through which advertising occurs. PMID:18389374

  12. The Influence of Alcohol Advertising on Students' Drinking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Peggy J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceived influence of alcohol advertising in a daily campus newspaper on the drinking behaviors of students. Findings indicated that college students do perceive that their drinking patterns are influenced by alcohol promotions in the campus newspaper and, furthermore, that self-identified binge drinkers were influenced significantly…

  13. INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL IN CRANIOROFACIAL INJURIES

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    Yasseen Aly Yasseen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has become a part of daily life for people ranging from lower to upper class individuals. However, addiction of alcohol can lead to impaired judgment and undue physical harm. This study shows that alcohol intoxication plays a major role in craniorofacial trauma and incidence of road traffic accidents is extremely high in India. A strict law has to be reinforced to ban/decrease the usage of alcohols for welfare of the society.

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan A. Khan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher’s exact or McNemar’s test as appropriate. Results. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n=71 reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n=38 of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n=54 who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester, most (35% reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n=25 of participants with an additional 18% (n=29 reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p<0.0001 and 2nd trimester (p<0.0001. A history of tobacco use (p=0.0403 and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (p<0.0001 were also associated with binge drinking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  15. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hendriks; B. van den Putte; G.J. de Bruijn

    2014-01-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational

  16. How the quality of peer relationships influences college alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Borsari, Brian; Carey, Kate B.

    2006-01-01

    Peer relationships are consistently linked to alcohol use in college students. However, this disparate literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of peer influence. In this review, we use an organisational framework based on social learning theory (SLT) to demonstrate how the quality of peer relationships may influence personal alcohol use. We propose that the quality of peer relationships enhance the influence of social reinforcement, modelling and cogni...

  17. TRANSIENT CORTICAL ASTROGLIOSIS INDUCED BY ALCOHOL EXPOSURE DURING THE NEONATAL BRAIN GROWTH SPURT IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The astrocyte response to central nervous system injury induced by neonatal alcohol exposure was evaluated using radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). at pups were exposed to alcohol on postnatal days 4 through 9 via artificial rearin...

  18. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  20. Effect of Alcohol Administration on Blood Sugar of Normal and Alcohol Habituated Rates during Acute Cold Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory failure of alcohol administered fasted rates has been studied under acute cold stress. Twentyfour hour fasted rates developed acute hypoglycemia on being given a single oral dose of ethanol (1.3g/kg body weight during a two hour exposure at -20 degree calcius. Alcohol habituated rates, under similar conditions, more or less maintained their blood sugar concentration.

  1. Absolut memory distortions: alcohol placebos influence the misinformation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefi, Seema L; Garry, Maryanne

    2003-01-01

    Can the simple suggestion that you have consumed alcohol affect your memory for an event? Alcohol placebos affect social behaviors but not nonsocial ones, and have not previously been shown to affect memory. We investigated the effect of alcohol placebos using materials that revealed both the social and the nonsocial influences of memory Subjects drank plain tonic water, but half were told it was a vodka and tonic; then all subjects took part in an eyewitness memory experiment. Subjects who were told they drank alcohol were more swayed by misleading postevent information than were those who were told they drank tonic water, and were also more confident about the accuracy of their responses. Our results show that the mere suggestion of alcohol consumption may make subjects more susceptible to misleading information and inappropriately confident. These results also provide additional confirmation that eyewitness memory is influenced by both nonsocial and social factors. PMID:12564758

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between peer alcohol use and own alcohol use in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Tom; Shelton, Katherine; Lifford, Kate; Rice, Frances; McBride, Andrew; Nikolov, Ivan; Neale, Michael C.; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2007-01-01

    Aims Genetically influenced aspects of adolescent behaviour can play a role in alcohol use and peer affiliation. We explored the correlations between friends' alcohol use and adolescent own use with a genetically sensitive design. Design Genetic and environmental factors were estimated on adolescent reports of their friends' alcohol use and their own use and problem use of alcohol. The correlations between the genetic and environmental factors that influence friends' alcohol use and adolescen...

  3. Influences on radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1,553 single examinations of 25 roentgendiagnostic procedures and measurements of interventional radiology, the patients' doses were determined. Influence of patient features and training of the radiologist for average radiation exposure were examined. Special control measurements examinations with highest radiation exposures showed up to 20% diminishing of dose. (orig.)

  4. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  5. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  6. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  7. Impact of alcohol checks and social norm on driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesmann, Uta; Martensen, Heike; Dupont, Emmanuelle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of alcohol checks and social norm on self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol above the legal limit (DUI). The analysis was based on the responses of 12,507 car drivers from 19 European countries to the SARTRE-4 survey (2010). The data were analysed by means of a multiple logistic regression-model on two levels: (1) individual and (2) national level. On the individual level the results revealed that driving under the influence (DUI) was positively associated with male gender, young age (17-34), personal experience with alcohol checks, the perceived likelihood of being checked for alcohol, perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends (social norm) and was negatively associated with higher age (55+). On a national level, the results showed a negative association with a lower legal alcohol limit (BAC 0.2g/l compared with BAC 0.5g/l) and the percentage of drivers checked for alcohol. DUI was positively associated with the percentage of respondents in the country that reported that their friends drink and drive (social norm). The comparison of the results obtained on national and individual levels shows a paradoxical effect of alcohol checks: Countries with more alcohol checks show lower DUI (negative association) but respondents who have been personally checked for alcohol show a higher chance of DUI (positive association). Possible explanations of this paradox are discussed. The effects of the social norm variable (perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends) are positively associated with DUI on both levels. PMID:25957934

  8. Alcohol Cue Exposure Effects on Craving and Attentional Bias in Underage College Student Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jason J.; Monti, Peter M.; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of alcohol cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention towards alcohol cues, which in turn perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce...

  9. High precision liquid chromatography analysis of dopaminergic and serotoninergic responses to acute alcohol exposure in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish is gaining popularity in behavioral neuroscience in general and in alcohol research in particular. Alcohol is known to affect numerous molecular mechanisms depending on dose and administration regimen. Prominent among these mechanisms are several neurotransmitter systems. Here we analyze the responses of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems of zebrafish to acute alcohol treatment (1 h long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol)...

  10. Hippocampal Neuron Populations Are Reduced in Vervet Monkeys With Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Burke; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with i...

  11. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Sandra J.; Day, Nancy; Streissguth, Ann P.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development causes central nervous system alterations in both humans and animals. Although the most common behavioral manifestation of these alterations is a reduction in cognitive abilities, it is becoming increasingly apparent that deficits in social behavior may be very prevalent sequelae of developmental alcohol exposure. In infancy and early childhood, deficits in attachment behavior and state regulation are seen in both alcohol-exposed people and animals, suggest...

  12. Exposure to Traumatic Events Among Treatment-Seeking, Alcohol Dependent Women and Men without PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Candace S.; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Blom, Thomas J.; Anthenelli, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined lifetime exposure to a range of traumatic events in 106 abstinent, treatment-engaged (85% residential; 15% outpatient), alcohol dependent women (n = 53) and men without current or lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder. Alcohol dependent women reported greater severity of childhood trauma, but similar lifetime exposure to traumatic events compared with men. Alcohol dependent women without cocaine abuse or dependence (n = 10) reported greater severity of childhood trauma than women...

  13. Influencing the carbromal metabolism by means of alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of alcohol on the distribution and metabolism of carbromal was investigated on rats using 14-C-labelled Carbromal. Over a period of 2 hours, the carbromal levels reached in the various organs were compared. The time span chosen was equal to the interval in which alcohol is resorbed, metabolized, and eliminated in rats. In all organs of the alcohol groups, the carbromal levels 30-90 minutes after the application of carbromal were higher by 30-60% than in the control groups. In a discussion, an increased intestinal resorption or a blocked decomposition of carbromal by alcohol were named as possible reasons. To control the carbromal metabolism while applying alcohol, a thin-layer chromotographic separation and detection of the 14-C-labelled substance by means of thin-layer-scanning was carried out after having gone through the biological material and extracted the pharmaceutical. An influence of alcohol on the carbromal metabolism was not detected; there were no significant differences in the metabolism with and without alcohol. It was not found out if the extraction method used has to be regarded as the cause of this finding. (orig./MG)

  14. Fetal alcohol exposure and temporal vulnerability regional differences in alcohol-induced microencephaly as a function of the timing of binge-like alcohol exposure during rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S E; Chen, W J; Miller, J A; West, J R

    1997-11-01

    In humans, microcephaly (small head for body size) is a common feature of fetal alcohol syndrome. An analogous measure, termed microencephaly (small brain for body size), can be used for evaluating the detrimental effects of the differential timing of alcohol exposure on brain development in animal model systems. Timed-pregnant rats were exposed to binge-like alcohol during either the first 10 days (first trimester equivalent) or second 10 days of gestation (second trimester equivalent), or the combination of first and second trimesters equivalent for prenatal treatments. Offspring from some of the animals exposed to alcohol during the combined first and second trimesters equivalent were raised artificially from postnatal day (P) 4 through P9 (part of the third trimester equivalent), and also received binge-like alcohol during this period, producing animals that were exposed to alcohol during all three trimesters equivalent. Offspring from untreated dams were also raised artificially and received alcohol only from P4 to P9, thus creating animals that were exposed to alcohol only during part of the third trimester equivalent. All pups were perfused on P10. Appropriate controls (nutritional and normally reared) were used for every alcohol treatment combination. Peak blood alcohol concentrations were not different among the treatment groups for a given sampling time. Significant somatic growth deficits occurred in offspring exposed to alcohol for the equivalent of all three trimesters, compared with offspring exposed to alcohol during other periods. Brain growth in offspring also was significantly affected by the timing of alcohol exposure. The whole brain, forebrain, and cerebellum to body weight ratios of pups exposed to alcohol during the third trimester had more significant brain growth deficits than pups in groups exposed to alcohol during other times of brain development. Although alcohol exposure during the third trimester had a significant detrimental impact

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  16. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Burden of epigenetic reprogramming, synaptic remodeling, and adult psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J Kyzar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can delay these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood.

  17. Effects of methylmercury and alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster: Potential risks in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2016-06-01

    Extensive evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated whether methylmercury (MeHg) and/or alcohol exposure has deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). A diet containing different concentrations of MeHg in Drosophila induced free radical generation and increased lipid peroxidation (markers of oxidative stress) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of MeHg on oxidative stress was enhanced by further exposure to alcohol. It was observed that alcohol alone could also induce free radical generation in flies. After alcohol exposure, MeHg did not affect the immobilization of flies, but it increased the recovery time in a concentration-dependent manner. MeHg significantly inhibited the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a dose-dependent manner. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between ADH activity and recovery time upon alcohol exposure in the flies fed a diet with MeHg. This relationship between ADH activity and recovery time after alcohol exposure was confirmed by adding 4-methyl pyrazole (an inhibitor of ADH) to the diet for the flies. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers who are exposed to MeHg may lead to increased oxidative stress and to increased length of time for alcohol clearance, which may have a direct impact on the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27151262

  18. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  19. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R;

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of...... pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally...

  20. In vitro and in vivo models of acute alcohol exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Dolganiuc; Gyongyi Szabo

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a global problem due to the financial burden on society and the healthcare system. While the harmful health effects of chronic alcohol abuse are well established, more recent data suggest that acute alcohol consumption also affects human wellbeing. Thus, there is a need for research models in order to fully understand the effect of acute alcohol abuse on different body systems and organs. The present manuscript summarizes the interdisciplinary advantages and disadvantages of currently available human and non-human models of acute alcohol abuse,and identifies their suitability for biomedical research.

  1. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties. PMID:24713220

  2. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue. PMID:16943763

  3. The Effects of Alcohol Problems, PTSD, and Combat Exposure on Nonphysical and Physical Aggression Among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Simpson, Tracy; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Aggression among combat veterans is of great concern. Although some studies have found an association between combat exposure and aggressive behavior following deployment, others conclude that aggression is more strongly associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that alcohol misuse may influence this association. Many of these studies have assessed aggression as a single construct, whereas the current study explored both nonphysical aggression only and physical agg...

  4. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices. PMID:24284473

  5. Epigenetic Targets for Reversing Immune Defects Caused by Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Brenda J.; Zahs, Anita; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption alters factors that modify gene expression without changing the DNA code (i.e., epigenetic modulators) in many organ systems, including the immune system. Alcohol enhances the risk for developing several serious medical conditions related to immune system dysfunction, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), liver cancer, and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Binge and chronic drinking also render patients more susceptible to many infectious pathogens and advance...

  6. Embryonic Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Dopaminergic System and Social Behavioral Responses in Adult Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Rampersad, Mindy; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background: The zebrafish is a powerful neurobehavioral genetics tool with which complex human brain disorders including alcohol abuse and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders may be modeled and investigated. Zebrafish innately form social groups called shoals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that a single bath exposure (24 hours postfertilization) to low doses of alcohol (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1% vol/vol) for a short duration (2 hours) leads to impaired group forming, or shoaling, in adu...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Understanding the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Supporting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) affect a significant number of children in this country. This article addresses diagnostic issues related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related disabilities, discusses associated features and behaviors of FASD, and introduces interventions to support children with FASD in…

  8. Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to dr...

  9. Neurotoxicity of prenatal alcohol exposure on medullary pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-li Ji; Yun-hong Wu; Zhi-bin Qian

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts the development of normal fetal respiratory function, but whether it perturbs respiratory rhythmical discharge activity is unclear. Furthermore, it is un-known whether the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is involved in the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In the present study, pregnant female rats received drinking water containing alcohol at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% or 10% (v/v) throughout the gestation period. Slices of the medulla from 2-day-old neonatal rats were obtained to record respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels in the pre-Bötzing-er complex of the respiratory center were measured by western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Compared with the 0% alcohol group, respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in medullary slices in the 4%, 8% and 10% alcohol groups was decreased, and the reduc-tion was greatest in the 8% alcohol group. Respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the 10%alcohol group was irregular. Thus, 8% was the most effective alcohol concentration at attenuating respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. These ifndings suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure attenuates respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in neonatal rats by downregulating 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels.

  10. Visual attention to advertising under the influence of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Jeppesen, Heine

    An eye-tracking experiment is reported in which the effects of alcohol intoxication on visual attention were tested. Based on findings from the psychopharmacological literature, it was hypothesised that the salience of visual elements in complex advertisements would be amplified, whereas...... the processing of conceptual information would be impaired. The results indicate that the visual salience of logos (either brand and corporate) is selectively increased under the influence of alcohol whilst other pictorial elements (representations of products or human models) are unaffected. Processing...

  11. The effects of acute alcohol exposure on the response properties of neurons in visual cortex area 17 of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.

  12. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  13. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  14. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  15. Neonatal binge alcohol exposure increases microglial activation in the developing rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, K E; Ruggiero, M J; Klintsova, A Y

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant activation of the developing immune system can have long-term negative consequences on cognition and behavior. Teratogens, such as alcohol, activate microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, which could contribute to the lifelong deficits in learning and memory observed in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigates the microglial response of the brain 24h following neonatal alcohol exposure (postnatal days (PDs) 4-9, 5.25g/kg/day). On PD10, microglial cell counts and area of cell territory were assessed using unbiased stereology in the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes was analyzed. A significant decrease in microglial cell counts in CA1 and DG was found in alcohol-exposed and sham-intubated (SI) animals compared to undisturbed suckle controls (SCs), suggesting overlapping effects of alcohol exposure and intubation alone on the neuroimmune response. Cell territory was decreased in alcohol-exposed animals in CA1, CA3, and DG compared to controls, suggesting the microglia have shifted to a more activated state following alcohol treatment. Furthermore, both alcohol-exposed and SI animals had increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, CD11b, and CCL4; in addition, CCL4 was significantly increased in alcohol-exposed animals compared to SI as well. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β compared to both SI and SCs. In summary, the number and activation of microglia in the neonatal hippocampus are both affected in a rat model of FASD, along with increased gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study shows that alcohol exposure during development induces a neuroimmune response, potentially contributing to long-term alcohol-related changes to cognition, behavior and immune function. PMID:26996510

  16. A natural experiment of peer influences on youth alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Li, Yi; Owen, Craig; Wang, Hongyu; Duncan, Greg J

    2015-07-01

    This study estimates peer effects on alcohol use, drawing from a database of about 2000 randomly-assigned roommates on a college campus. The estimation of peer influences also takes into consideration ego's history of alcohol use and friendship with the peer. College students averaged an additional two-fifths of a binge drinking episode per month and an additional one-half of a drinking episode per month when randomly assigned a roommate who drank in high school than when assigned a roommate who did not drink in high school. An individual's prior history of alcohol use proves important. Peer effects on binge drinking as well as drinking for those who already drank in high school were about twice as large as average peer effects. When one did not have a history of alcohol use, negative peer influences were absent. Also important is the friendship between peers. When a peer is considered a best friend, the step-up effect (or positive interaction effect) increased by 1.25-1.61 drinking episodes per month. However, even when a peer is not considered a best friend, a drinking peer still increased ego's drinking episodes by 0.75-1.00 per month. PMID:26004457

  17. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65-70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume. PMID:25913787

  18. Facebook Influence among Incoming College Freshmen: Sticky Cues and Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angelo, Jonathan; Zhang, Chong; Eickhoff, Jens; Moreno, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol displays on Facebook are ever-present and can be socially desirable for college students. As problematic drinking is a concern for college students, this research sought to understand how different types of information on a Facebook page influence likelihood to drink. Telephone interviews were conducted with 338 incoming college freshmen from two large national universities. Data were obtained from a vignette prompt which presented a scenario in which a senior college student’s Facebo...

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  20. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  1. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television--25 markets, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions. PMID:24196664

  2. Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men’s and Women’s Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Tammy W.; Thomas K. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers’ self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other’s driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label’s drunk driving message on taking ac...

  3. Strain dependent neurochemical changes induced by embryonic alcohol exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disease of the child resulting from alcohol (ethanol) consumption by pregnant women. Despite being preventable, FASD represents a prevalent problem throughout the world. Embryonic alcohol induced abnormalities in behavioral responses to social stimuli have been shown in humans and zebrafish. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the abnormalities remain obscured. Here we start a mechanistic analysis by investigating the effect of embryonic alcohol exposure on the neurochemistry of zebrafish. The differing severity of symptoms seen in FASD may be partially due to genetic factors. To explore such genetic effects, here we analyzed two distinct zebrafish strains: AB and TU. Zebrafish were exposed to one of the following concentrations of alcohol, 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, or 1.00% (vol/vol %) at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) for 2h. From whole brain extracts we analyzed the amount of neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin and their metabolites across 4 different developmental time points: 15, 40, 70 and 102 days post-fertilization (dpf) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AB zebrafish exhibited a significant dose dependent embryonic alcohol exposure effect which increased in robustness with age. However, TU showed no such concentration effect: the levels of neurochemicals remained mainly unaltered by embryonic alcohol exposure in all age groups. We also analyzed the amount of alcohol reaching the embryo in the two strains and ruled out the possibility that TU has a more protective chorion. We conclude that the uncovered strain differences are due to genetic differences that protect TU from the deleterious effects of embryonic alcohol exposure. PMID:24225385

  4. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  5. Influence of Motivational Interviewing on Explicit and Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognition and Alcohol Use in At-Risk Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thush, Carolien; Wiers, Reinout W.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    Both implicit and explicit cognitions play an important role in the development of addictive behavior. This study investigated the influence of a single-session motivational interview (MI) on implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognition and whether this intervention was successful in consequently decreasing alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were assessed at pretest and one month posttest in 125 Dutch at-risk adolescents ranging in age from...

  6. Long-Term Consequences of Developmental Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure and Function: Therapeutic Benefits of Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Klintsova, Anna Y.; Gillian F. Hamilton; Karen E. Boschen

    2012-01-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure both early in life and during adolescence can have a devastating impact on normal brain structure and functioning, leading to behavioral and cognitive impairments that persist throughout the lifespan. This review discusses human work as well as animal models used to investigate the effect of alcohol exposure at various time points during development, as well as specific behavioral and neuroanatomical deficits caused by alcohol exposure. Further, cellular and mol...

  7. Focus On: Biomarkers of Fetal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the ongoing challenges for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is the difficulty of confirming whether a mother drank during her pregnancy. Commonly used screening questionnaires often are unreliable, and current established biomarkers of alcohol consumption are not sensitive enough for use with many pregnant women. These limitations underscore the critical need to develop novel biomarkers with greater sensitivity for detecting ...

  8. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  9. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella pneumoniae Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V. Raju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.

  10. Fetal alcohol exposure and IQ at age 8: evidence from a population-based birth-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Lewis

    Full Text Available Observational studies have generated conflicting evidence on the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring cognition mainly reflecting problems of confounding. Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother's intake but also by genetic variants carried by both the mother and the fetus. Associations between children's cognitive function and both maternal and child genotype at these loci can shed light on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on offspring cognitive development.We used a large population based study of women recruited during pregnancy to determine whether genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in this cohort of women and their children were related to the child's cognitive score (measured by the Weschler Intelligence Scale at age 8.We found that four genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in 4167 children were strongly related to lower IQ at age 8, as was a risk allele score based on these 4 variants. This effect was only seen amongst the offspring of mothers who were moderate drinkers (1-6 units alcohol per week during pregnancy (per allele effect estimates were -1.80 (95% CI= -2.63 to -0.97 p=0.00002, with no effect among children whose mothers abstained during pregnancy (0.16 (95%CI= -1.05 to 1.36 p=0.80, p-value for interaction  =0.009. A further genetic variant associated with alcohol metabolism in mothers was associated with their child's IQ, but again only among mothers who drank during pregnancy.

  11. Initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence: Links with exposure to community violence across time

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie, Mrug; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Early alcohol use initiation has been linked with exposure to community violence, but the direction of these associations and the roles of witnessing violence vs. victimization are not clear. This study used a cross-lagged structural equation model to examine the prospective relationships between alcohol use initiation and witnessing community violence and victimization in early adolescence. A sample of 603 boys and girls provided two waves of data 16 months apart. After controlling for conti...

  12. Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Alcohol Exposure during Development on the Processing of Social Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Sandra J.; Leggett, Darnica C.; Cronise, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The study used an animal model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure during a period equivalent to all three trimesters in humans on social recognition memory. It was hypothesized that the effects on specific aspects of social recognition memory would be sexually dimorphic. Methods: This study exposed rats to ethanol during both the prenatal and early postnatal periods. Two control groups included a group exposed to the administration p...

  13. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  14. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.;

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: The stomach is involved in first-pass metabolism of alcohol in humans. As conflicting data were published regarding the influence of age and gender on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in human gastric mucosa, the present study aimed at the investigation of these and other potenti...

  15. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Regionally Thinner Cortex During the Preadolescent Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Frances C; Narr, Katherine L; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-07-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology, neurobehavioral deficits, and reduced brain volume. Studies of cortical thickness in FASD have yielded contradictory findings, with 3 reporting thicker cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal brain regions and 2 showing thinner cortex across multiple regions. All 5 studies included subjects spanning a broad age range, and none have examined continuous measures of prenatal alcohol exposure. We investigated the relation of extent of in utero alcohol exposure to cortical thickness in 78 preadolescent children with FASD and controls within a narrow age range. A whole-brain analysis using FreeSurfer revealed no significant clusters where cortical thickness differed by FASD diagnostic group. However, alcohol dose/occasion during pregnancy was inversely related to cortical thickness in 3 regions-right cuneus/pericalcarine/superior parietal lobe, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and supramarginal/postcentral gyrus. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on IQ was mediated by cortical thickness in the right occipitotemporal region. It is noteworthy that a continuous measure of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis and that the effect on cortical thickness was most evident in relation to a measure of maternal binge drinking. PMID:26088967

  16. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    : 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through......, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....

  17. The development of thermoregulation after prenatal exposure to alcohol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Ballard, G A; Riley, E P

    1987-01-01

    The effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol on the development of thermoregulation and behavioral thermogenesis was assessed in rats. Pups at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of age were chosen from litters with one of three prenatal treatment histories: liquid diet with 35% ethanol-derived-calories (35% EDC), pair-fed control (0% EDC), or lab chow control (LC). Subjects were removed from the home nest and had their initial rectal temperatures recorded before placement alone in the center of an observational chamber in a testing room maintained at 23-24 degrees C. Rectal temperatures were recorded again every hour for the next 4 h. Speed to reach the wall for behavioral thermogenesis (wall-huddling) was also measured at each hourly interval. With increasing age, all pups displayed increasing ability to maintain their initial core temperature, but prenatal exposure to alcohol had a significant effect in retarding the development of thermoregulation. At 5 and 10 days of age, alcohol-exposed pups had significantly lower rectal temperatures at 1-4 h out of the nest compared to control pups. In addition, the speed to reach the wall was slower in 35% EDC pups than in pups from the two control groups, suggesting a deficit in behavioral thermogenesis as well. These results agree with others demonstrating alcohol-induced development delays, and may have implications for other behavioral deficits seen after prenatal exposure to alcohol. PMID:3108928

  18. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB;

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  19. Neonatal Binge Alcohol Exposure Produces Dose Dependent Deficits in Interstimulus Interval Discrimination Eyeblink Conditioning in Juvenile Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kevin L.; Burman, Michael A.; Duong, Huan B.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in neonatal rats produces cerebellar damage and is widely used to model 3rd-trimester human fetal alcohol exposure. Neonatal “binge-like” exposure to high doses of alcohol (5 g/kg/day or more) impairs acquisition of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC), a cerebellar-dependent Pavlovian motor learning task. We have recently found impairments in interstimulus interval (ISI) discrimination – a complex task variant of EBC - in adult rats following postnatal day (PD) 4–9 alcoh...

  20. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical we

  1. Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmel Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.

  2. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  3. Limiting the Exposure of Young People to Alcohol Advertising - Seventh Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2014-01-01

    The task of the Monitoring Body is to oversee the implementation of and adherence to Voluntary Codes of Practice to limit the exposure of young people, under the age of 18 years, to alcohol advertising.  The Monitoring Body is chaired by Mr Peter Cassells  Download the seventh annual report here

  4. Violence Exposure and Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: An Exploratory Study of Family Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelli W.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal exploratory interview study, the relations between exposure to community violence and subsequent alcohol use were examined, with a focus on caregiver and family variables as moderators. Maternal caregivers and their children (N = 101 families; 98% African American; M child age = 11.2 yrs) were interviewed separately…

  5. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  6. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol...

  9. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810

  10. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  11. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit. PMID:27037188

  12. Facebook Influence among Incoming College Freshmen: Sticky Cues and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Zhang, Chong; Eickhoff, Jens; Moreno, Megan

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol displays on Facebook are ever-present and can be socially desirable for college students. As problematic drinking is a concern for college students, this research sought to understand how different types of information on a Facebook page influence likelihood to drink. Telephone interviews were conducted with 338 incoming college freshmen from two large national universities. Data were obtained from a vignette prompt which presented a scenario in which a senior college student's Facebook profile displayed wall-posts, pictures, and status updates that were drinking-related or pro-social in nature. Participants were asked to report intention to drink alcohol with that student if together at a party. Findings supported the hypotheses: wall-posts were most influential (the stickiest), followed by pictures, followed by status updates. Findings provide additional empirical support for established online impression formation patterns, and additionally provide evidence that virtual cues are being ingrained as schema in interpersonal communication. These results are discussed in relation to the conception of "sticky cues" in impression formation. PMID:25328264

  13. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  14. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. PMID:25138642

  15. Impact of Exposure to Childhood Maltreatment on Transitions to Alcohol Dependence in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M.; Smith, Philip H.; Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment decreases age of first use and speeds the transition from first use to dependence (i.e., telescoping) for alcohol use, however, it is currently unknown whether this influence is the same for men and women. Method Analyses were conducted with the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653). Outcome variables included: age of alcohol initiation and time to onset of DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Predictor variables included: gender and childhood maltreatment. Linear and Poisson regression analyses were conducted. Results Results demonstrated that in regards to age of drinking initiation, individuals who experienced childhood maltreatment initiated 1 year earlier than those without maltreatment, however, there was no interaction of this relationship with gender. Regarding the time to dependence, it was found that women who experienced childhood maltreatment demonstrated telescoping (shorter time between onset and dependence) compared to women without maltreatment and men (both with and without maltreatment). Conclusion Women with a history of childhood maltreatment are particularly vulnerable to an accelerated time from initiation of alcohol use until dependence, a pattern indicative of increased negative alcohol related outcomes. Findings highlight the need for development of gender-specific prevention efforts and behavioral treatments to aid in early intervention of problematic alcohol use in women. PMID:26130105

  16. Factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction among patients attending a de-addiction Centre, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Poornima; Srinivas, Raju; Vishwanathan, Kashi; Raavi, Abhilash

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the com...

  17. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Anna B Gilmore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies...

  18. Influence of alcohol intake on postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, C; Jensen, L M; Tønnesen, H

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy was prospectively studied in 229 consecutive patients in our departments. The incidence of alcohol abuse (greater than 60 gm of alcohol daily) and social drinking (between 25 and 60 gm of alcohol daily) was 6.5% for each. When compared with the social...... drinkers and the control group, the alcohol abuse group had significantly more complications (80% vs 27% and 80% vs 13%, respectively)....

  19. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  20. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  1. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana dependence in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Aharonovich, Efrat; Strous, Rael; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance dependence is more common among trauma-exposed individuals; however, most studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) accounts for the link between trauma exposure (TE) and substance dependence. Objectives This study examined associations between TE and substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), and whether PTSD accounted for this association. Method 1,317 Jewish Israeli household residents completed in-person structured interviews assessing TE, PTSD, and substance (alcohol, nicotine, marijuana) dependence between 2007–2009. Regression analyses examined associations among TE, PTSD, and substance dependence. Results In the full sample, mean number of traumatic events was 2.7 (sd=2.2), with 83.7% experiencing at least one event. In the full sample, mean number of PTSD symptoms was 2.5 (sd=3.4), with 13.5% meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria. Prevalence of alcohol dependence was 13.4%; nicotine dependence 52.8%; and marijuana dependence 12.1%. Number of traumatic events was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2–1.4) and nicotine (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3) dependence. Similarly, any traumatic event exposure was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR= 3.1; 95% CI= 1.6–6.0) and nicotine (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2–2.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms were associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3), nicotine (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.1–1.2), and marijuana (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.04–1.2) dependence; similarly, a PTSD diagnosis was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.1–5.5), nicotine (OR=2.2; 95% CI = 1.4–3.4), and marijuana (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2–5.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms accounted for a sizeable proportion of the TE effect on alcohol (46%) and nicotine dependence (31%). Conclusion Individuals with more traumatic events had heightened risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence, and PTSD symptoms partially accounted for this risk. However, marijuana

  2. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C.; Hong, Kwangik A.; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  3. Developmental alcohol exposure leads to a persistent change on astrocyte secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Pablo; Hampton, Brian; Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is the most common cause of mental disabilities in the western world. It has been quite established that acute alcohol exposure can dramatically affect astrocyte function. Because the effects of early alcohol exposure on cell physiology can persist into adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure in ferrets during a period equivalent to the last months of human gestation leads to persistent changes in astrocyte secretome in vitro. Animals were treated with ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline between postnatal day (P)10-30. At P31, astrocyte cultures were made and cells were submitted to stable isotope labeling by amino acids. Twenty-four hour conditioned media of cells obtained from ethanol- or saline-treated animals (ET-CM or SAL-CM) were collected and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry in tandem with liquid chromatography. Here, we show that 65 out of 280 quantifiable proteins displayed significant differences comparing ET-CM to SAL-CM. Among the 59 proteins that were found to be reduced in ET-CM we observed components of the extracellular matrix such as laminin subunits α2, α4, β1, β2, and γ1 and the proteoglycans biglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, and lumican. Proteins with trophic function such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, pigment epithelium-derived factor, and clusterin as well as proteins involved on modulation of proteolysis such as metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also reduced. In contrast, pro-synaptogeneic proteins like thrombospondin-1, hevin as well as the modulator of extracelular matrix expression, angiotensinogen, were found increased in ET-CM. The analysis of interactome maps through ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the amyloid beta A4 protein precursor, which was found reduced in ET-CM, was previously shown to interact with ten other proteins that exhibited significant changes in the ET-CM. Taken together our results

  4. Limiting the Exposure of Young People to Alcohol Advertising - Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2013-01-01

    Our task as a Monitoring Body is to oversee the implementation of and adherence to Voluntary Codes of Practice to limit the exposure of young people under the age of 18 years to alcohol advertising. As this Sixth Annual Report shows there was overall compliance in 2011 by television, radio, cinema, outdoor advertisers and newspapers and magazines with the obligations set down in the Codes. Click here to download PDF 2.03MB

  5. Ankle fractures and alcoholism. The influence of alcoholism on morbidity after malleolar fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Pedersen, A; Jensen, M R; Møller, A; Madsen, J C

    1991-01-01

    The postoperative morbidity after osteosynthesis of malleolar fractures was investigated retrospectively by comparing 90 alcohol abusers with 90 controls. The two groups were selected from 626 male patients and were matched regarding trauma, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary and endocrine...... diseases, age, weight, smoking habits, anaesthesia and duration of surgery. The alcohol abusers developed significantly more early complications, especially infections, after surgery. Follow-up at six, nine and 12 weeks after surgery also revealed a significantly higher morbidity among the alcoholics....

  6. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    symptoms. The pharmacokinetics of toluene is complex and there is a large individual variation in the excretion of the metabolites. This variation can only to a limited extend be related to known variables. Intake of alcohol during exposure inhibits the metabolism of toluene and increases the internal dose...... exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed to the...... most frequent solvent, toluene. Toluene in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of the metabolites were measured and the acute effects of toluene were assessed by the performance in a series of test of the perceptual and psychomotor functions as well as a standardized registration of annoyance and...

  7. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  8. Familiar and social influence on alcohol use of college youth

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa F. Lema S; María T. Varela A; Carolina Duarte A; María V. Bonilla G

    2011-01-01

    Objetive: to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use in youth from a private university in Cali – Colombia, and its relation with familiar and social factors. Methodology: secondary source analysis, from a prevalence study. 548 college youth participated, selected through a randomized stratified sampling. Results: the prevalence of alcohol use in life was 96%, last year was 89% and last month was 67%. Actual alcohol use and age of first use were similar between men and women. Age of first use...

  9. Alcoholic liver injury:Influence of gender and hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; K; Eagon

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses several subjects pertinent to a consideration of the role of gender and hormones in alcoholic liver injury (ALI). Beginning with an overview of factors involved in the pathogenesis of ALI, we review changes in sex hormone metabolism resulting from alcohol ingestion, summarize research that points to estrogen as a cofactor in ALI, consider evidence that gut injury is linked to liver injury in the setting of alcohol, and briefly review the limited evidence regarding sex hormones and gut...

  10. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  11. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  12. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Migliorini, R; Moore, EM; Glass, L.; Infante, MA; Tapert, SF; Jones, KL; Mattson, SN; Riley, EP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n=. 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n=. 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging ...

  13. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  14. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.

  15. The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…

  16. Let them experience a ride under the influence of alcohol; A successful intervention program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K. A.; de Waard, D.; Steyvers, F. J. J. M.; Bijsterveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    A considerable amount of all traffic accidents can be attributed to driving under the influence of alcohol. In particular the group of drivers aged 18-24 years is involved in many serious traffic accidents where alcohol turns out to be a major factor. In fact this age group shows about three times a

  17. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  18. Novel oxytocin gene expression in the hindbrain is induced by alcohol exposure: transgenic zebrafish enable visualization of sensitive neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrín M Coffey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD are a collection of disorders resulting from fetal ethanol exposure, which causes a wide range of physical, neurological and behavioral deficits including heightened susceptibility for alcoholism and addictive disorders. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for how ethanol exposure disrupts brain development, with selective groups of neurons undergoing reduced proliferation, dysfunction and death, the induction of a new neurotransmitter phenotype by ethanol exposure has not yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of embryonic and larval ethanol exposure on brain development were visually monitored using transgenic zebrafish expressing cell-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP marker genes. Specific subsets of GFP-expressing neurons were highly sensitive to ethanol exposure, but only during defined developmental windows. In the med12 mutant, which affects the Mediator co-activator complex component Med12, exposure to lower concentrations of ethanol was sufficient to reduce GFP expression in transgenic embryos. In transgenic embryos and larva containing GFP driven by an oxytocin-like (oxtl promoter, ethanol exposure dramatically up-regulated GFP expression in a small group of hindbrain neurons, while having no effect on expression in the neuroendocrine preoptic area. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol exposure during limited embryonic periods impedes the development of specific, identifiable groups of neurons, and the med12 mutation sensitizes these neurons to the deleterious effects of ethanol. In contrast, ethanol exposure induces oxtl expression in the hindbrain, a finding with profound implications for understanding alcoholism and other addictive disorders.

  19. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996......: 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely...

  20. Fraternity and Sorority Involvement, Social Influences, and Alcohol Use Among College Students: A Prospective Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Christy; Wood, Mark D.; Borsari, Brian; Laird, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This study used latent growth curve modeling to investigate whether the effects of gender and Greek involvement on alcohol use and problems over the first 2 years of college are best characterized by selection, socialization, or reciprocal influence processes. Three social influences (alcohol offers, social modeling, and perceived norms) were examined as potential mediators of these effects. Undergraduate participants (N = 388) completed self-report measures prior to enrollment and in the spr...

  1. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M.; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Methods Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 200...

  2. Effect of alcohol exposure on hepatic superoxide generation and hepcidin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu; Dee; Harrison-Findik; Sizhao; Lu; Emily; M; Zmijewski; Jocelyn; Jones; Matthew; C; Zimmerman

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To understand the role of mitochondrial-produced superoxide(O 2 ?) in the regulation of iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin by alcohol in the liver. METHODS: For alcohol experiments, manganese superoxide dismutase knockout mice heterozygous for Sod2 gene expression(Sod2 +/) and age-matched littermate control mice(LMC), expressing Sod2 gene on both alleles, were exposed to either 10%(w/v) ethanol in the drinking water or plain water(control) for 7 d. Total cellular O 2 ? levels in hepatocytes isolated from the livers of mice were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mitochondrial-targeted, O 2 ?-sensitive fluorogenic probe, MitoSOX Red and flow cytometry were utilized to measure O 2 ? in mitochondria. Gene and protein expression were determined by Taqman Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Sod2 +/- mice expressed 40% less MnSOD protein(SOD2) in hepatocytes compared to LMC mice. The deletion of Sod2 allele did not alter the basal expression level of hepcidin in the liver. 10% ethanol exposure for 1 wk inhibited hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression three-fold both in Sod2 +/ and LMC mice. O 2 ? levels in hepatocytes of untreated Sod2 +/ mice were three-fold higher than in untreated LMC mice, as observed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. O 2 ? levels in mitochondria of Sod2 +/ mice were four-fold higher than in mitochondria of untreated LMC mice, as measured by MitoSOX Red fluorescence and flow cytometry. Alcohol induced a two-fold higher increase in O 2 ? levels in hepatocytes of LMC mice than in Sod2 +/ mice compared to respective untreated counterparts. In contrast, 1 wk alcohol exposure did not alter mitochondrial O 2 ? levels in both Sod2 +/- and control mice. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial O2 ? is not involved in the inhibition of liver hepcidin transcription and thereby regulation of iron metabolism by alcohol. These findings also suggest that short-term alcohol consumption significantly

  3. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  5. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users...

  6. Unspoken Cultural Influence: Exposure to and Influence of Nonverbal Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in e...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Wynne, Olivia; Jabbar, Shaima; Nasello, Cara; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma) development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL) protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2) and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a). When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells. PMID:26509893

  8. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2 and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a. When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells.

  9. A moderate dose of alcohol does not influence experience of social ostracism in hazardous drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph OL Buckingham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4g/kg or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, Cyberball. In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i social inclusion and (ii social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users.

  10. A Moderate Dose of Alcohol Does Not Influence Experience of Social Ostracism in Hazardous Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Joseph; Moss, Abigail; Gyure, Krisztina; Ralph, Neil; Hindocha, Chandni; Lawn, Will; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, "Cyberball." In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i) social inclusion and (ii) social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users. PMID:27148155

  11. Gestational Alcohol Exposure and Other Factors Associated With Continued Teenage Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2016-08-01

    Purpose A longitudinal cohort of adolescents who initiated drinking before age 15 were studied to determine which factors distinguished between early initiators who continued to drink (persisters) from those who stopped drinking (desisters). There were 308 early initiators in the total sample (n = 917); 247 were persisters, and 61 were desisters. Method A stepwise discriminant analysis identified differences between the two groups. Considered risk/protective factors were parenting practices, peer drinking, child and maternal depression, child behavior, prenatal alcohol exposure, home environment, and demographic factors. Results Desistence was significantly related to African American race and more parental strictness. Exposure to ≥1 drink/day during pregnancy and high levels of autonomy from parents were significant predictors of persistent drinking. Conclusions Early initiation places adolescents at risk for continued and heavier drinking. Identifying characteristics of those who start early but do or do not continue drinking can inform education programs to better target the most appropriate adolescents. PMID:27405800

  12. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  13. Effects of Prenatal Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Exposure on Processing Speed, Visual-Motor Coordination, and Interhemispheric Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Willford, Jennifer A.; Chandler, Lynette S.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-y...

  14. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital......-in premium scheme. The effect of differences in risk exposure from the support schemes is significant and cannot be neglected in policy making, especially when deciding between support instruments or when determining adequate support levels....

  15. The influence of gene-environment interactions on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Prescott, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    Since 2005, a rapidly expanding literature has evaluated whether environmental factors such as socio-cultural context and adversity interact with genetic influences on drinking behaviors. This article critically reviews empirical research on alcohol-related genotype-environment interactions (GxE) and provides a contextual framework for understanding how genetic factors combine with (or are shaped by) environmental factors to influence the development of drinking behaviors and alcohol use disorders. Collectively, evidence from twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies indicates that the degree of importance of genetic influences on risk for drinking outcomes can vary in different populations and under different environmental circumstances. However, methodological limitations and lack of consistent replications in this literature make it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the nature and effect size of alcohol-related GxE. On the basis of this review, we describe several methodological challenges as they relate to current research on GxE in drinking behaviors and provide recommendations to aid future research. PMID:21530476

  16. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to

  17. [The influence of alcohol use and violent behaviour on the beliefs related to alcohol use and aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácskai, Erika; Pintye, István; Gerevich, József

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of personal involvement (drinking, violent behaviour) on beliefs concerning the causal connections between drinking alcohol and aggressive behavior. The sample of the study comprised 1200 persons representative of the population over 18 years of age and was selected by a two-step, group stratified sampling method. The measuring instruments used for the study were the questionnaire on alcohol-aggression beliefs applied by Paglia and Room, the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the sociodemographic characteristics of gender, age and education. Analyses using multivariate regression models showed that aggressive behaviour, particularly verbal and physical aggression, and heavy drinking significantly influence the belief of a causal connection between alcohol and aggression. The more a person drinks and the more aggressive he becomes, the more likely he is not to believe the opinion that drinking leads to aggression. Women and older people have a stronger belief in the causal role played by alcohol in aggressive behaviour. These results draw attention to the importance of the cognitive effect of personal involvement. Heavy drinking and aggressivity can prevent a person from recognizing the danger that drinking can have aggressive, criminal consequences. This relationship can be used well in clinical and criminological practice of crime prevention strategy for patients treated with drinking problems and facing proceedings or condemned for criminal actions. The findings of the study also raise a theoretical consideration that the theory of social learning is not a sufficient explanatory model for the connections between drinking and aggression. PMID:16783033

  18. Influence of amine-modified poly(vinyl alcohol)s on vibrating-membrane nebulizer performance and lung toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Samsonova, Olga; Nguyen, Juliane; Schmehl, Thomas; Seeger, Werner; Kissel, Thomas

    2016-04-30

    A suitable aerosol droplet size and formulation output rate is essential for the therapy of lung diseases under application of nebulizers. The current study investigated the potential of amine-modified poly(vinyl alcohol)s as excipients for inhalation delivery. A change of conductivity (effective at 0.1mg/ml) of samples that were supplemented with charge-modified polymers had a significant influence on the generated droplet size (shift from ~8 to ~4μm) and formulation throughput rate (shift from ~0.2 to ~1.0g/min), where polymers with a higher amine density (and molecular weight) showed an elevated activity. Biocompatibility assessment of polymers in A549 cells and an isolated lung model resulted in cell lysis and lung edema formation dependent on the type (degree of amine substitution) and dose of polymer applied. Suitable compositions and concentrations of amine-modified poly(vinyl alcohol)s were identified with respect to an optimized nebulizer performance and acceptable biocompatibility. Charge-modified polymers represent novel excipients with potential to improve inhalation therapy. PMID:26946442

  19. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gautam; S.C. Nuñez; Narr, K.L.; E.C. Kan; Sowell, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to diffe...

  20. The influence of behavioural and health problems on alcohol and drug use in late adolescence - a follow up study of 2 399 young Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratberg Grete H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both early alcohol debut, behavioural and health problems are reported to enhance adolescence substance use. This prospective study investigate the influence of behavioural and health problems on adolescents' alcohol and drug use. Method Prospective population based cohort study of 2 399 adolescents attending the Young-HUNT study, aged 13-15 at baseline in 1995/97, and 17-19 at follow-up 4 years later. Exposure variables were self reported conduct problems, attention problems, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and muscular pain and tension. Outcome variables at follow-up were frequent alcohol use and initiation of drug use. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models, influence of gender and drinking status at baseline were controlled for by stratification. Results At follow-up 19% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more frequently. Baseline conduct problems (OR 2.2, CI 1.7-3.0 and attention problems (OR 1.5, CI 1.2-2.0 increased the risk for frequent alcohol use at follow-up in the total population. Girls who had experienced alcohol-intoxications at baseline showed strong association between baseline problems and frequent alcohol use at follow-up. Conduct problems (OR 2.5, CI 1.3-4.8, attention problems (OR 2.1, CI 1.2-3.4, anxiety/depressive symptoms (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.1 and muscular pain and tension (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9 all were associated with frequent alcohol use among early intoxicated girls. 14% of the students had tried cannabis or other drugs at follow-up. Conduct problems at baseline increased the odds for drug use (OR 2.6, CI 1.9-3.6. Any alcohol intoxications at baseline, predicted both frequent alcohol use (boys OR 3.6, CI 2.4-5.2; girls OR 2.8, CI 1.9-4.1, and illegal drug use (boys OR 4.7; CI 3.2-7.0, girls OR 7.7, CI 5.2-11.5 within follow-up. Conclusions Conduct problems in high-school more than doubles the risk for both frequent alcohol use and initiation of drug use later in adolescence

  1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in coke oven workers relative to exposure, alcohol consumption, and metabolic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J; Ichiba, M.; Hara, K.; S. Zhang; Hanaoka, T.; Pan, G.; Yamano, Y.; K. Takahashi; Tomokuni, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the influence of personal lifestyle—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the association of 1-OHP concentrations with the genetic polymorphism of several metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs).
METHODS—The study population contained 162 coke oven workers and 58 controls employ...

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  3. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. PMID:24776849

  4. Early puberty and adolescent pregnancy: The influence of alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Julianna; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Christopher, F Scott; Roosa, Mark W.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Early pubertal timing predicts deleterious outcomes for young girls, including substance use, risky sexual behavior, and pregnancy. In turn, adolescent pregnancy predicts long-term negative consequences such as reduced educational attainment and income-earning potential. Despite evidence of the direct links between early puberty and negative outcomes, this study is the first to examine the role that alcohol plays in the timing of sexual intercourse and pregnancy among early-maturin...

  5. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Linda M Bartoshuk; Mennella, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches inc...

  6. The influence of resource strategy on childhood phthalate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled. This...... corresponds to the recycling of 6.3% of DEHP, 20.3% of DBP, and 5.1% of BBP in the percentage of total manufactured amount of these phthalates. To examine the potential influence of the phthalate exposure through recycling, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed in...... recycled paper and plastics has been performed as exemplified by the two countries: Denmark and Korea. The result shows that an increase in recycled paperboard and PET bottles in food packaging causes a significant increase in childhood exposure to DBP corresponding to an additional exposure of 0.355 and 0...

  7. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  8. Neuroplastic alterations in the limbic system following cocaine or alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Garret D; Hopf, F Woodward; Tye, Kay M; Chen, Billy T; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes in the CNS are thought to be a fundamental component of learning and memory. While pioneering studies in the hippocampus and cerebellum have detailed many of the basic mechanisms that can lead to alterations in synaptic transmission based on previous activity, only more recently has synaptic plasticity been monitored after behavioral manipulation or drug exposure. In this chapter, we review evidence that drugs of abuse are powerful modulators of synaptic plasticity. Both the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area as well medium spiny neurons in nucleus accumbens show enhanced excitatory synaptic strength following passive or active exposure to drugs such as cocaine and alcohol. In the VTA, both the enhancement of excitatory synaptic strength and the acquisition of drug-related behaviors depend on signaling through the N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) which are mechanistically thought to lead to increased synaptic insertion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). Synaptic insertion of AMPARs by drugs of abuse can be long lasting, depending on the route of administration, number of drug exposures, or whether the drugs are received passively or self-administered. PMID:21161748

  9. Differential expression of astrocytic connexins in a mouse model of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Meera; Mylvaganam, Shanthini; Krawczyk, Michal; Wang, Lihua; Zoidl, Christiane; Brien, James; Reynolds, James N; Kapur, Bhushan; Poulter, Michael O; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2016-07-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during gestation can cause serious injury to the fetus, and may result in a range of physiological and behavioral impairments, including increased seizure susceptibility, that are collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The cellular mechanisms underlying increased seizure susceptibility in FASD are not well understood, but could involve altered excitatory coupling of neuronal populations mediated by gap junction proteins. We utilized a mouse model of the prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) to study the expression pattern of connexin (Cx) major components of gap junctions, and pannexin proteins, which form membrane channels, in the brain of 2-3weeks old PAE and control postnatal offspring. PAE during the first trimester-equivalent period of pregnancy in mice resulted in significant up-regulation of Cx30 mRNA and Cx30 total protein in the hippocampus of PAE animals compared to age-matched controls. Surface level expression of both dimeric and monomeric Cx30 were also found to be significantly up-regulated in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex of PAE animals compared to age-matched controls. On the membrane surface, the fast migrating form of Cx43 was found to be up-regulated in the hippocampus of PAE mice. However, we did not see any up-regulation of the phosphorylated forms of Cx43 on the membrane surface. These results indicate that the expression and processing of astrocytic connexins (Cx30, Cx43) are up-regulated in the brain of PAE offspring, and these changes could play a role in the cerebral hyperexcitability observed in these animals. PMID:26951949

  10. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings. PMID:26960969

  11. Initial subjective reward: single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisel, Judith E; Beasley, John B; Bertram, Emma C; Decker, Brooke E; Duan, Chunyu A; Etuma, Mahder; Hand, Annie; Locklear, Mallory N; Whitmire, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug's reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction. PMID:25408633

  12. Initial subjective reward: Single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E. Grisel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.

  13. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided. PMID:26202432

  14. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The presen

  15. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The presen

  16. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  17. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  18. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  19. Influence of Exposure Time on Prototyping Accuracy in Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴懋亮; 方明伦; 胡庆夕; 戴春祥; 卢秉恒

    2004-01-01

    A novel stereolithgraphy system with conventional UV light as a light source uses the 2D worktable as moving components,whose characteristics determine the accuracy of the prototyping parts. Many factors including mass of the worktable, elasticity and damp coefficients, speed and acceleration affect the non-uniform exposure time of the resin, and eventually influence the cured line shape and the curing accuracy. A light shuttle is used to eliminate the cure errors, greatly improving accuracy of the parts.

  20. Support mechanisms for renewables: How risk exposure influences investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    KITZING, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to giv...

  1. Influence of periodic nitrogen functionality on the selective oxidation of alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E. [Universita di Milano, Italy; Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Kaiasam, Kamalakannan [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Thomas, Arne [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin)

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we attribute the enhancement in catalytic alcohol oxidation activity to the presence of nitrogen heteroatoms on the external surface of a support material surface. The same Pd particles (3.1 3.2 nm) were supported on polymeric carbon-nitrogen supports and used as catalysts to selectively oxidize benzyl alcohol. The polymeric carbon-nitrogen materials include covalent triazine frameworks (CTF) and carbon nitride (CN) materials with nitrogen content varying from 9 to 58 atomic percent N. Withcomparable metal exposure, via XPS, the activity of these catalysts correlates with the concentration of nitrogen species on the surface which enhanced the Lewis basicity of these moieties thus promoting alcoholate formation and subsequent hydride abstraction.

  2. Sustained alterations in neuroimmune gene expression after daily, but not intermittent, alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Anny; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Deak, Terrence

    2016-09-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication is associated with Rapid Alterations in Neuroimmune Gene Expression (RANGE), including increased Interleukin (IL)-6 and Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα), and suppressed IL-1β and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, yet little is known about adaptations in cytokines across the first few ethanol exposures. Thus, the present studies examined central cytokines during intoxication (3h post-ethanol) following 2, 4 or 6 intragastric ethanol challenges (4g/kg) delivered either daily or every-other-day (EOD). Subsequent analyses of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) and corticosterone were performed to determine whether the schedule of ethanol delivery would alter the pharmacokinetics of, or general sensitivity to, subacute ethanol exposure. As expected, ethanol led to robust increases in IL-6 and IκBα gene expression in hippocampus, amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), whereas IL-1β and TNFα were suppressed, thereby replicating our prior work. Ethanol-dependent increases in IL-6 and IκBα remained significant in all structures - even after 6 days of ethanol. When these doses were administered EOD, modest IL-6 increases in BNST were observed, with TNFα and IL-1β suppressed exclusively in the hippocampus. Analysis of BECs revealed a small but significant reduction in ethanol after 4 EOD exposures - an effect which was not observed when ethanol was delivered after 6 daily intubations. These findings suggest that ethanol-induced RANGE effects are not simply a function of ethanol load per se, and underscore the critical role that ethanol dosing interval plays in determining the neuroimmune consequences of alcohol. PMID:27208497

  3. Factors Associated with Sex under the Influence of Alcohol among Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Carratala, Elena; Carballo, Jose L.; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the association of diverse individual variables, traditionally associated with sexual risk practices in the general population, with sex under the influence of alcohol in adolescents with divorced parents. A sample of 132 adolescents provided information about their knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and sexual risk…

  4. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  5. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    OpenAIRE

    AllisonM.J.Anacker

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored ...

  6. Peers and the Emergence of Alcohol Use: Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Ragan, Daniel T.; Wallace, Lacey; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E; Moody, James

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses not only influence and selection of friends as sources of similarity in alcohol use, but also peer processes leading drinkers to be chosen as friends more often than non-drinkers, which increases the number of adolescents subject to their influence. Analyses apply a stochastic actor-based model to friendship networks assessed five times from 6th through 9th grades for 50 grade cohort networks in Iowa and Pennsylvania, which include 13,214 individuals. Results show definit...

  7. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  8. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:26524279

  9. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures. PMID:26132299

  10. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Renske eKoordeman; Doeschka J. eAnschutz; Rutger C. M. E. eEngels

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers...

  11. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers ...

  12. Effects of gestational alcohol exposure on the fatty acid composition of umbilical cord serum in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Y M; Woods, J; Whitty, J E; Hannigan, J H; Martier, S S; Sokol, R J; Salem, N

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal periconceptional alcohol intake on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations in human neonates. The area percentage of each fatty acid in cord blood serum from 12 infants born to control women (who consumed alcohol intake averaged > or = 30mL absolute ethanol/d. Periconceptional alcohol use was associated with a 30% increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in cord blood (3.0% of total lipid in control infants compared with 3.9% in alcohol-exposed infants; P alcohol-exposed infants increased 54% (P alcohol-exposed group (25%, P fetal alcohol syndrome and other alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders may be due in part to PUFA dysregulation. PMID:10617986

  13. Acute alcohol exposure during neurulation: Behavioral and brain structural consequences in adolescent C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, E W; Holloway, H T; Rumple, A; Baker, L K; Wieczorek, L A; Moy, S S; Paniagua, B; Parnell, S E

    2016-09-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can induce physical malformations and behavioral abnormalities that depend in part on thedevelopmental timing of alcohol exposure. The current studies employed a mouse FASD model to characterize the long-term behavioral and brain structural consequences of a binge-like alcohol exposure during neurulation; a first-trimester stage when women are typically unaware that they are pregnant. Time-mated C57BL/6J female mice were administered two alcohol doses (2.8g/kg, four hours apart) or vehicle starting at gestational day 8.0. Male and female adolescent offspring (postnatal day 28-45) were then examined for motor activity (open field and elevated plus maze), coordination (rotarod), spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), sensory motor gating (acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition), sociability (three-chambered social test), and nociceptive responses (hot plate). Regional brain volumes and shapes were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. In males, PAE increased activity on the elevated plus maze and reduced social novelty preference, while in females PAE increased exploratory behavior in the open field and transiently impaired rotarod performance. In both males and females, PAE modestly impaired Morris water maze performance and decreased the latency to respond on the hot plate. There were no brain volume differences; however, significant shape differences were found in the cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, and corpus callosum. These results demonstrate that alcohol exposure during neurulation can have functional consequences into adolescence, even in the absence of significant brain regional volumetric changes. However, PAE-induced regional shape changes provide evidence for persistent brain alterations and suggest alternative clinical diagnostic markers. PMID:27185739

  14. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on sub

  15. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  16. In Utero Exposure to Low-Dose Alcohol Induces Reprogramming of Mammary Development and Tumor Risk in MMTV-erbB-2 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that prenatal exposure to environmental factors may modify breast cancer risk later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol on mammary development and tumor risk. Pregnant MMTV-erbB-2 mice were exposed to alcohol (6 g/kg/day between day 13 and day 19 of gestation, and the female offspring were examined for tumor risk. Whole mount analysis indicated that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induced significant increases in ductal extension at 10 weeks of age. Molecular analysis showed that in utero alcohol exposure induced upregulation of ERα signaling and activation of Akt and Erk1/2 in pubertal mammary glands. However, enhanced signaling in the EGFR/erbB-2 pathway appeared to be more prominent in 10-week-old glands than did signaling in the other pathways. Interestingly, tumor development in mice with in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol was slightly delayed compared to control mice, but tumor multiplicity was increased. The results indicate that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induces the reprogramming of mammary development by mechanisms that include altered signaling in the estrogen receptor (ER and erbB-2 pathways. The intriguing tumor development pattern might be related to alcohol dose and exposure conditions, and warrants further investigation.

  17. Social network influences of alcohol and marijuana cognitive associations

    OpenAIRE

    Coronges, Kathryn; Stacy, Alan W.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Decision-making is a social process whereby behaviors are often driven by social influences and social consequences. Research shows that social context also plays an integral role in decision-making processes. In particular, evidence suggests that implicit or non-conscious cognitions are linked to social information in memory and that implicit attitudes can be communicated and assimilated between people on an unconscious level. This study assesses social contagion of implicit cognitions regar...

  18. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kostin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  19. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  20. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure did not affect impulsivity in rats that performed delay or probability discounting tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pupe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who fall under the spectrum of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have a higher prevalence of several cognitive disturbances, including a greater probability of being diagnosed with attention-defcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Some of these effects, such as hyperactivity and attentional impairments, are already well established in the literature. The assessment of impulsive choice, however, has received little attention in human and animal studies. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on two tasks related to impulsive choice that have never been studied in this condition: delay and probability discounting. Method: Rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (liquid diets with 0%, 10%, or 35% ethanol-derived calories [EDC] or laboratory chow were trained to respond for food in either delay (n = 21 or probability (n = 48 discounting tasks performed in computer-controlled operant conditioning chambers. Results: Prenatal treatment failed to differentiate the rates at which the rats chose the larger reinforcer associated with delay - in a task in which 35% EDC was not tested - or risk, although the results suggest that further tests are warranted.

  2. [Gender influence on the formation of alcohol preference and combination of alcohol with caffein in the condition of the long-term experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, E O; Egorov, A Iu; Filatova, E V; Kulagina, K O; Chernikova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was the investigation of ethanol and caffeine influence on the alcohol preference formation and behavior in male and female rats under the conditions of long-term experiment. For both sexes, the long consumption of caffeine, ethanol and their combination leads to the increase of alcohol consumption compared to the controls. The maximum ethanol consumption has been observed in the group with ethanol + caffeine intake. In these experiments, the behavioral activity has increased compared to the rats who received only alcohol and controls. The significant elevation of anxiety levels was noted in female, but not in male, rats in all experimental groups compared to the controls. PMID:23235416

  3. The role of acetaldehyde in pregnancy outcome after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, M L; Einarson, T R; Koren, G

    2001-08-01

    It is not known why some heavy-drinking women give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) whereas others do not. The objective of this study was to determine whether the frequency of elevated maternal blood acetaldehyde levels among alcoholics is in the range of ARBD among alcoholic women. MEDLINE was searched from 1980 to 2000 using the key words acetaldehyde, pharmacokinetics, and alcoholism for controlled trials reporting blood or breath acetaldehyde levels in alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Separately, using the key words fetal alcohol syndrome, epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, and frequency, articles were identified reporting ARBD incidences among the offspring of heavy drinkers. Of 23 articles reporting acetaldehyde levels in alcoholics, four met the inclusion criteria. Forty-three studies reported on the rate of ARBD in heavy drinkers, and 14 were accepted. Thirty-four percent of heavy drinkers had a child with ARBD, and 43% of chronic alcoholics had high acetaldehyde levels. The similar frequencies of high acetaldehyde levels among alcoholics and the rates of ARBD among alcoholic women provide epidemiologic support to the hypothesis that acetaldehyde may play a major role in the cause of ARBD. PMID:11477328

  4. Evaluating the influence of alcohol advertising on alcohol consumption among the youth in the Vaal Region / Leshata Peter Ledwaba

    OpenAIRE

    Ledwaba, Leshata Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among the youth in the Vaal triangle, south of Gauteng. The study was conducted in four high schools under Sedibeng West District of the Gauteng Department of Education. A quantitative approach in the form of a questionnaire was used to conduct the research. Results obtained indicated that there is no significant correlation between alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among th...

  5. State Alcohol Advertising Laws: Current Status and Model Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The concern about alcohol marketing and underage drinking has been heightened by recent findings in the scientific research community. Studies have established that alcohol advertising exposure influences a young person's beliefs about alcohol and his/her intention to drink. They also suggest that advertising may have a direct impact on youth…

  6. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Audrey E.; Griffin, William C.; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S.; Elissa J Chesler; Miles, Michael F.; Robert W Williams; Randall, Patrick K.; Woodward, John J.; Howard C Becker; Patrick J Mulholland

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kc...

  7. The NIfETy Method for Environmental Assessment of Neighborhood-level Indicators of Violence, Alcohol, and Other Drug Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Smart, M. J.; Pokorni, J. L.; Ialongo, N. S.; Leaf, P. J.; Holder, H D; Anthony, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    There are limited validated quantitative assessment methods to measure features of the built and social environment that might form the basis for environmental preventive interventions. This study describes a model approach for epidemiologic assessment of suspected environmental determinants of violence, alcohol and other drug (VAOD) exposure and fills this gap in current research. The investigation sought to test the feasibility of a systematic and longitudinal assessment of residential bloc...

  8. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Jürgen Rehm

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dos...

  9. An fMRI study of behavioral response inhibition in adolescents with and without histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Infante, M. Alejandra; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Tapert, Susan F.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure results in a range of deficits, including both volumetric and functional changes in brain regions involved in response inhibition such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. The current study examined blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response during a stop signal task in adolescents (ages 13–16 y) with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 21) and controls (CON, n = 21). Task performance was measured using percent correct inhibits during three difficulty conditions: easy, medium, and hard. Group differences in BOLD response relative to baseline motor responding were examined across all inhibition trials and for each difficulty condition separately. The contrast between hard and easy trials was analyzed to determine whether increasing task difficulty affected BOLD response. Groups had similar task performance and demographic characteristics, except for full scale IQ scores (AE < CON). The AE group demonstrated greater BOLD response in frontal, sensorimotor, striatal, and cingulate regions relative to controls, especially as task difficulty increased. When contrasting hard vs. easy inhibition trials, the AE group showed greater medial/superior frontal and cuneus BOLD response than controls. Results were unchanged after demographics and FAS diagnosis were statistically controlled. This was the first fMRI study to utilize a stop signal task, isolating fronto-striatal functioning, to assess response inhibition and the effects task difficulty in adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure. Results suggest that heavy prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts neural function of this circuitry, resulting in immature cognitive processing and motor-association learning and neural compensation during response inhibition. PMID:25281280

  10. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers. PMID:26260252

  11. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  12. STRAIN DEPENDENT NEUROCHEMICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY EMBRYONIC ALCOHOL EXPOSURE IN ZEBRAFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disease of the child resulting from alcohol (ethanol) consumption by pregnant women. Despite being preventable, FASD represents a prevalent problem throughout the world. Embryonic alcohol induced abnormalities in behavioral responses to social stimuli have been shown in humans and zebrafish. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the abnormalities remain obscured. Here we start a mechanistic analysis by investigating the effect of emb...

  13. Effects of Exercise and Environmental Complexity on Deficits in Trace and Contextual Fear Conditioning Produced by Neonatal Alcohol Exposure in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, W.B.; St. Cyr, S.A.; Jablonski, S A; Hunt, P S; Klintsova, A.Y.; Stanton, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, voluntary exercise and environmental complexity increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial learning and long-term potentiation deficits in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol. The present experiment extended these findings to neonatal alcohol exposure and to delay, trace, and contextual fear conditioning. Rats were administered either 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation or received sham-intubations (SI) between Postnatal Day (PD) 4 and 9 followed by either ...

  14. A model for lesbian, bisexual and queer-related influences on alcohol consumption and implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Ruth; Pennay, Amy; Hughes, Tonda; Brown, Rhonda; Leonard, William; Lubman, Dan I

    2016-04-01

    Research consistently reports higher rates of problematic drinking among lesbian, bisexual and queer women than among heterosexual women, but relatively little research has identified underlying factors. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to qualitatively explore the sociocultural influences on alcohol consumption among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Australia. An ethnographic study including in-depth interviews and 10 sessions of participant observation was conducted with 25 Australian lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Analysis of transcripts and fieldnotes focused on lesbian, bisexual and queer-related influences on alcohol consumption. Three lesbian, bisexual and queer-related factors were identified that influenced alcohol use: (1) coping, (2) connection and (3) intersections with lesbian, bisexual and queer identity. Most participants reported consuming alcohol to cope with discrimination or to connect with like-minded others. Alcohol use had positive influences for some women through facilitating social connection and wellbeing. Women with a high lesbian, bisexual and queer identity salience were more likely to seek lesbian, bisexual and queer community connection involving alcohol, to publicly identify as lesbian, bisexual and queer and to experience discrimination. National policies need to address underlying causes of discrimination against lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Alcohol policies and clinical interventions should acknowledge the impact of discrimination on higher alcohol consumption amongst lesbian, bisexual and queer women compared with heterosexual women, and should utilise health promotion messages regarding safe drinking that facilitate lesbian, bisexual and queer social connection. PMID:26466746

  15. Adolescent alcohol use and the theory of planned behaviour : an examination of social influence

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents intention to drink alcohol with peers was measured using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on a sample consisting of 617 10th graders in Oslo, Norway. The aim was to investigate the influence of social factors from a theoretical and an applied perspective. In particular, different ways of operationalising subjective norms were investigated, as were the presumed effect of descriptive norms and group identity as additional variables in the TPB. Considerin...

  16. Early environmental influences contribute to covariation between internalizing symptoms and alcohol intoxication frequency across adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms during adolescence varies across studies, and the causes underlying this association remain unclear. The current study examines the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and intoxication frequency in a sample of Swedish twins assessed longitudinally from ages 13–14 to 19–20. The objectives of the study were to assess the stability of genetic and environmental influences on each trait across adolescence; to invest...

  17. Expression of Glutamatergic Genes in Healthy Humans across 16 Brain Regions; Altered Expression in the Hippocampus after Chronic Exposure to Alcohol or Cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Rosser, Alexandra A.; Zhou, Zhifeng; Mash, Deborah C; Yuan, Qiaoping; Goldman, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed global patterns of expression in genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamatergic genes) in healthy human adult brain before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus.

  18. The Influence of Being under the Influence: Alcohol Effects on Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Teasdale, Brent; Burchfield, Keri B.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between intoxication, chronic alcohol use, and violent behavior using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The authors introduce a method for disentangling spuriousness from the causal effects of situational variables. Their results suggest that drinkers are much more likely to commit…

  19. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  20. Driving under the influence of alcohol in Cali, Colombia: prevalence and consumption patterns, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Herrera-López, Martha L; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Medina-Murillo, Jhon J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Naranjo-Lujan, Salome; Izquierdo, Edda P; Vanlaar, Ward; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2016-06-01

    This study's goal was to establish the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and alcohol consumption patterns among drivers in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. A cross-sectional study based on a roadside survey using a stratified and multi-stage sampling design was developed. Thirty-two sites were chosen randomly for the selection of drivers who were then tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and asked to participate in the survey. The prevalence of DUI was 0.88% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.26%-1.49%) with a lower prevalence when BAC was increasing. In addition, a higher prevalence was found during non-typical checkpoint hours (1.28, 95% CI -0.001%-0.03%). The overall prevalence is considered high, given the low alcohol consumption and vehicles per capita. Prevention measures are needed to reduce DUI during non-typical checkpoints and ongoing studies are required to monitor the trends and enable the assessment of interventions. PMID:25563805

  1. Awareness of alcohol advertisements and perceived influence on alcohol consumption: a qualitative study of Nigerian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Dumbili, EW; Williams, C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing alcohol marketing activities of the transnational alcohol industries in Nigeria, little research has focused on their effects on Nigerian youths. This study explores students’ awareness of electronic and outdoor alcohol advertisement on campus and around students’ off-campus residential and leisure sites, and the extent to which they perceive it to affect their drinking. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 y...

  2. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, Pcolostrum collection time (Pcolostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries. PMID:26387688

  3. Behavioral deficits induced by third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure in male C57BL/6J mice are not associated with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis but are still rescued with voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G F; Bucko, P J; Miller, D S; DeAngelis, R S; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce permanent alterations in brain structure and profound behavioral deficits. Mouse models can help discover mechanisms and identify potentially useful interventions. This study examined long-term influences of either a single or repeated alcohol exposure during the third-trimester equivalent on survival of new neurons in the hippocampus, behavioral performance on the Passive avoidance and Rotarod tasks, and the potential role of exercise as a therapeutic intervention. C57BL/6J male mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol split into two s.c. injections, two hours apart, on postnatal day (PD)7 (Experiment 1) or on PD5, 7 and 9 (Experiment 2). All mice were weaned on PD21 and received either a running wheel or remained sedentary from PD35-PD80/81. From PD36-45, mice received i.p. injections of 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Behavioral testing occurred between PD72-79. Number of surviving BrdU+ cells and immature neurons (doublecortin; DCX+) was measured at PD80-81. Alcohol did not affect number of BrdU+ or DCX+ cells in either experiment. Running significantly increased number of BrdU+ and DCX+ cells in both treatment groups. Alcohol-induced deficits on Rotarod performance and acquisition of the Passive avoidance task (Day 1) were evident only in Experiment 2 and running rescued these deficits. These data suggest neonatal alcohol exposure does not result in long-term impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model. Three doses of ethanol were necessary to induce behavioral deficits. Finally, the mechanisms by which exercise ameliorated the neonatal alcohol induced behavioral deficits remain unknown. PMID:27491590

  4. Influence of absorbed moisture on desizing of poly(vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics during atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the influence of moisture absorption of cotton fabrics on the effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) on desizing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cotton fabrics with three different moisture regains (MR), namely 1.8%, 7.3%, and 28.4% corresponding to 10%, 65%, and 98% of relative humidity respectively, are treated for 16 s, 32 s, 48 s, and 64 s. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the plasma treated PVA has higher oxygen concentration than the control. Mass loss results show that the fabric with the highest MR has the largest mass loss after 64 s plasma exposure. Solubility measurement reveals that the sample with the lowest MR has the highest desizing efficacy and the percent desizing ratio reaches 96% after 64 s exposure plus a 20 min hot wash, which is shown as clean as the unsized sample through scanning electron microscopy analysis. The yarn tensile strength test results show that APPJ has no negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  5. Influence of absorbed moisture on desizing of poly(vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics during atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shujing; Liu Xiulan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Jie [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education (China); Gao Zhiqiang; Yao Lan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper studies the influence of moisture absorption of cotton fabrics on the effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) on desizing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cotton fabrics with three different moisture regains (MR), namely 1.8%, 7.3%, and 28.4% corresponding to 10%, 65%, and 98% of relative humidity respectively, are treated for 16 s, 32 s, 48 s, and 64 s. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the plasma treated PVA has higher oxygen concentration than the control. Mass loss results show that the fabric with the highest MR has the largest mass loss after 64 s plasma exposure. Solubility measurement reveals that the sample with the lowest MR has the highest desizing efficacy and the percent desizing ratio reaches 96% after 64 s exposure plus a 20 min hot wash, which is shown as clean as the unsized sample through scanning electron microscopy analysis. The yarn tensile strength test results show that APPJ has no negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  6. Factors influencing dust exposure: finishing activities in drywall construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine E; Jones, Rachael M; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-05-01

    Sanding drywall joint compound is a dusty construction activity. We studied potential factors influencing exposure to respirable and total dust for sanders and bystanders in the area of drywall joint compound finishing in 17 test events within a room-scale isolation chamber. We found the air change rate to be negatively correlated with dust C(twa) both in the sander's personal breathing zone and surrounding area. We could not conclude that sanding tool type systematically influences dust C(twa), but the use of 80-grit abrasive was associated with the highest dust C(twa). We found respirable dusts were uniformly dispersed 1-8.2 m from sanding activities at a fixed location. As anticipated, both respirable and total dust C(twa) in the sander's personal breathing zone are higher than in the surrounding area. The respirable fraction of the total dust mass C(twa) was greater in the surrounding area than in the sander's personal breathing zone. Respirable dust concentrations measured in real time increased over the duration of sanding, exhibiting a temporal trend that is similar to that predicted by the well-mixed box model with contaminant removal by mechanical ventilation only, and continuous emission. Dust concentrations returned to pre-activity (background) levels 2-4 hr after cessation of the sanding activity. PMID:21491324

  7. Alcohol lowers the vasoconstriction threshold in humans without affecting core cooling rate during mild cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C E; Bristow, G K; Elias, D A; Giesbrecht, G G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated blood alcohol levels are often seen in hypothermia and hyperthermia related deaths, leading to the belief that alcohol renders humans poikilothermic. We examined the core temperature (Tco) thresholds for sweating, vasoconstriction and shivering as well as core cooling rates of seven subjects immersed in 28 degrees C water. On two separate days, subjects exercised on an underwater cycle ergometer to elevate Tco above the sweating threshold. They then rested and cooled until they shivered vigorously. Subjects drank orange juice (7 ml.kg-1) prior to immersion during the control trial and 1 ml.kg-1 absolute ethanol, added to orange juice in a 1:6 ratio, during the alcohol trial. Mean blood alcohol concentration (breath analysis) was 0.097 +/- 0.010 g% at the start of cooling and 0.077 +/- 0.008 g% at the end of the cooling period. Alcohol lowered the vasoconstriction threshold by 0.32 +/- 0.2 degrees C and elevated finger tip blood flow, but had no effect on thresholds for sweating and shivering or core cooling rate. Considering these minor effects it is unlikely that moderate alcohol consumption predisposes individuals to hypothermia or hyperthermia via impaired thermoregulation, but rather likely due to behavioral factors. PMID:8897037

  8. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH-) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH- and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH+) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼ 1.5-fold greater in ADH- vs. ADH+ deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH- deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  9. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure in the rat results in region-specific deficits in brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S E; Miller, J A; West, J R

    1999-01-01

    Children of women who abuse alcohol during pregnancy may be affected by varying degrees of neurological abnormality, even if they are not diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The extent of the behavioral deficits of the affected offspring may be a function of several factors, such as the differential vulnerability of the various regions of the brain-to-alcohol insult. In this study, groups of timed-pregnant rats were exposed to different doses of alcohol (EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, EtOH 6.5 g/kg/day) or control conditions (maltose dextrin solution or no treatment) from embryonic day 1 (E1: sperm positive) to E20. On E33 (usually postnatal day 10), all pups were perfused. Their brains were removed, dissected into forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem, and weighed. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were measured on 4 different days of gestation, but the peak BACs across gestation for the three alcohol-treated groups averaged 142, 294, and 413 mg/dl for the EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, and EtOH 6.5 g/kg groups, respectively. Analysis of the body weight data indicated that pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group had a greater somatic growth deficit than pups from all other groups. Although the whole brain, forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem weights of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group were significantly smaller than those in the control groups, within-treatment group analyses indicated that the cerebella of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group were more severely affected than were their forebrains or brainstems. The analyses of the brain region to body weight ratios revealed again that the cerebellum-to-body-weight ratio of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group was more severely affected than the forebrain or brainstem to body weight ratios. Collectively, these data lend support to the view that gross regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during the first two trimesters equivalent, and suggest that the cerebellum is vulnerable to injury from exposure to high BACs

  10. La influencia de la historia familiar de consumo de alcohol en hombres y mujeres The influence of family history on alcohol intake in males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Natera-Rey

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el riesgo para el uso excesivo de etanol en personas con historia familiar positiva de consumo de alcohol (HF+. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos corresponden a una muestra de población general (n= 8 890 y fueron recopilados a partir de una encuesta nacional de adicciones en población urbana de México, realizada en 1988. Se determinaron medidas epidemiológicas de frecuencia y asociación considerando los antecedentes de HF+ como factor de exposición. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia actual del consumo consuetudinario de alcohol fue de 13.7% para los hombres y 0.6% para las mujeres, las cifras para el síndrome de dependencia fueron 9.9% para hombres y 0.6% para las mujeres. Los hombres con HF+ tienen dos veces más probabilidad de desarrollar el síndrome de dependencia que aquellos con HF-. La razón de momios en el grupo de mujeres fue de 1.27. CONCLUSIONES: Se observaron patrones diferenciales por sexo en la transmisión de problemas de consumo. El consumo de los padres representa un factor de riesgo importante para el desarrollo del síndrome de dependencia de los hijos. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlOBJETIVE: To assess the risk for alcohol abuse among individuals with a positive family history of alcohol abuse (FH+. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population was a sample (n=8 890 drawn from a 1988 national survey on addictions in Mexico City's urban population. Data analysis consisted of frequency and association measures, using family history of alcohol abuse as the exposure factor. RESULTS: Prevalence of heavy drinking was 13.7% for males and 0.6% for females. Alcohol dependence syndrome was found in 9.9% of males and 0.6% of females. Men with HF+ were twice more likely to develop dependence syndrome than HF- males. The odds ratio for women was 1.27. CONCLUSIONS: Differential patterns by gender were found for familial transmission of alcohol abuse

  11. A randomized controlled study of exposure therapy as aftercare for alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard;

    2016-01-01

    exposing individuals to alcohol cues in order to reduce cravings as well as the likelihood of relapse. The aims of the study are: 1) to investigate whether CET aftercare delivered via a smartphone or in group sessions increases the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment in groups of alcohol dependent...... individuals; 2) to investigate whether CET as a smartphone application is as or more effective than CET group therapy, and 3) to investigate whether CET as a smartphone application is more cost-effective than CET group aftercare and Aftercare as Usual. Design and methods The study will be implemented as an...

  12. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  13. In vivo hypoxia and a fungal alcohol dehydrogenase influence the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Grahl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, our knowledge of how pathogenic fungi grow in mammalian host environments is limited. Using a chemotherapeutic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA and (1H-NMR metabolomics, we detected ethanol in the lungs of mice infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This result suggests that A. fumigatus is exposed to oxygen depleted microenvironments during infection. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a chemical hypoxia detection agent, pimonidazole hydrochloride, in three immunologically distinct murine models of IPA (chemotherapeutic, X-CGD, and corticosteroid. In all three IPA murine models, hypoxia was observed during the course of infection. We next tested the hypothesis that production of ethanol in vivo by the fungus is involved in hypoxia adaptation and fungal pathogenesis. Ethanol deficient A. fumigatus strains showed no growth defects in hypoxia and were able to cause wild type levels of mortality in all 3 murine models. However, lung immunohistopathology and flow cytometry analyses revealed an increase in the inflammatory response in mice infected with an alcohol dehydrogenase null mutant strain that corresponded with a reduction in fungal burden. Consequently, in this study we present the first in vivo observations that hypoxic microenvironments occur during a pulmonary invasive fungal infection and observe that a fungal alcohol dehydrogenase influences fungal pathogenesis in the lung. Thus, environmental conditions encountered by invading pathogenic fungi may result in substantial fungal metabolism changes that influence subsequent host immune responses.

  14. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  15. Activity and selectivity of manganese oxides in alcohols Conversion as influenced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese oxide samples obtained from thermal decomposition of manganese carbonate at 400 and 600 deg C were subjected to different doses of g-irradiation within the range 0.2 to 1.6 MGy. The surface and catalytic properties of the above samples were studied using nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at -196 deg C and catalytic conversion of ethanol and isopropanol at 300-400 deg C using micropulse technique. The results obtained revealed that manganese oxides obtained at 400 deg C consisted of a mixture of Mn2O3 and MnO2 while the samples calcined at 600 deg C composed entirely of Mn2O3. Gamma-irradiation resulted in a decrease in the particle size of manganese oxide phases with subsequent increase in their specific surface areas. Gamma-irradiation with 0.2 and 0.8 MGy effected a measurable progressive decrease in the catalytic activity in dehydration and dehydrogenation of both alcohols. However, the treated catalyst retained their initial activity upon exposure to a dose of 1.6 MGy. Also, g-irradiation increased the selectivities of the investigated solids towards dehydrogenation of both alcohols. The catalyst samples precalcined at 600 deg C exhibited higher catalytic activities than those precalcined at 400 deg C. (author)

  16. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Moya-Albiol; Williams, Ryan K.; Marisol Lila; Alba Catalá-Miñana; Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetra...

  17. The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dana eHansen; Paul D Siakaluk; Penny M Pexman

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (Is the word easily imageable?; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions (Does the item sound like a real English word?; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger facilitatory BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high prin...

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters synaptic activity of adult hippocampal dentate granule cells under conditions of enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Kenta; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Allan, Andrea M; Ge, Shaoyu; Gu, Yan; Cunningham, Lee Anna

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is characterized by a wide range of cognitive and behavioral deficits that may be linked to impaired hippocampal function and adult neurogenesis. Preclinical studies in mouse models of FASD indicate that PAE markedly attenuates enrichment-mediated increases in the number of adult-generated hippocampal dentate granule cells (aDGCs), but whether synaptic activity is also affected has not been studied. Here, we utilized retroviral birth-dating coupled with whole cell patch electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of PAE on enrichment-mediated changes in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity as a function of DGC age. We found that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) had no effect on baseline synaptic activity of 4- or 8-week-old aDGCs from control mice, but significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in 8-week-old aDGCs from PAE mice. In contrast, exposure to EE significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in older pre-existing DGCs situated in the outer dentate granule cell layer (i.e., those generated during embryonic development; dDGCs) in control mice, an effect that was blunted in PAE mice. These findings indicate distinct electrophysiological responses of hippocampal DGCs to behavioral challenge based on cellular ontogenetic age, and suggest that PAE disrupts EE-mediated changes in overall hippocampal network activity. These findings may have implications for future therapeutic targeting of hippocampal dentate circuitry in clinical FASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27009742

  19. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6–17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and an executive function (EF battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity.

  20. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ventricular myocyte contractile function in the offspring of rats: influence of maternal Mg2+ supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, L E; Norby, F L; Hintz, K K; Colligan, P B; Epstein, P N; Ren, J

    2001-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is often associated with cardiac hypertrophy and impaired ventricular function in a manner similar to postnatal chronic alcohol ingestion. Chronic alcoholism has been shown to lead to hypomagnesemia, and dietary Mg2+ supplementation was shown to ameliorate ethanol- induced cardiovascular dysfunction such as hypertension. However, the role of gestational Mg2+ supplementation on FAS-related cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the influence of gestational dietary Mg2+ supplementation on prenatal ethanol exposure-induced cardiac contractile response at the ventricular myocyte level. Timed-pregnancy female rats were fed from gestation day 2 with liquid diets containing 0.13 g/L Mg2+ supplemented with ethanol (36%) or additional Mg2+ (0.52 g/L), or both. The pups were maintained on standard rat chow through adulthood, and ventricular myocytes were isolated and stimulated to contract at 0.5 Hz. Mechanical properties were evaluated using an IonOptix soft-edge system, and intracellular Ca2+ transients were measured as changes in fura-2 fluorescence intensity (Delta FFI). Offspring from all groups displayed similar growth curves. Myocytes from the ethanol group exhibited reduced cell length, enhanced peak shortening (PS), and shortened time to 90% relengthening (TR90) associated with a normal Delta FFI and time to PS (TPS). Mg2+ reverted the prenatal ethanol-induced alteration in PS and maximal velocity of relengthening. However, it shortened TPS and TR90, and altered the Delta FFI, as well as Ca2+ decay rate by itself. Additionally, myocytes from the ethanol group exhibited impaired responsiveness to increased extracellular Ca2+ or stimulating frequency, which were restored by gestational Mg2+ supplementation. These data suggest that although gestational Mg2+ supplementation may be beneficial to certain cardiac contractile dysfunctions in offspring of alcoholic mothers, caution must be taken, as Mg2

  1. Nothing good ever happens after midnight: observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nights among young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Twisk, Divera

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other countries, also in the Netherlands young male drivers (ages between 18 and 24 years) are overrepresented in crashes during weekend nights, thereby fatally injuring one or more of their passengers. This overrepresentation may be due to two contributing factors: (a) a higher exposure-to-risk because of dangerous trip condition, and (b) a higher tendency to take risks. Studies on these factors, mostly carried out in jurisdictions where youngsters are licensed at an earlier age than in Europe, suggest a strong -often negative- influence from peer-aged passengers. Given that in adolescence susceptibility to peer pressure reduces with age, these findings may not be applicable to late licensing countries, such as in Europe. In the Netherlands -a late licensing country- youngsters are licensed after the age of 18 years, followed by a 5 year probation period with a legal alcohol limit of 0.2g/L. Further, designated driver schemes are in place since 2001, alcohol limits are enforced by random breath testing schemes, and no passenger and night time restrictions are in force. Against this background, we examined the incidence of dangerous trip conditions and risk taking among young male drivers and compared those with a reference group with a low passenger fatality rate. To that end, data on trip conditions and risk behavior were obtained from a data base on 18,608 randomly selected drivers during weekend nights in 2010, between 22:00 and 06:00. This data base held information for each randomly selected on breath alcohol concentration (BAC), license status, driver characteristics (age and gender), number of passengers, time of night, and level of urbanization. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed the overrepresentation of young male drivers in traffic, carrying more frequently passengers than the reference group, especially after midnight. Urbanization level was not a modifying factor, but 'time of night' was, with riskier conditions after midnight in

  2. Implications of genomic signatures in the differential vulnerability to fetal alcohol exposure in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C. Lossie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption inflicts a multitude of phenotypic consequences that range from undetectable changes to severe dysmorphology. Using tightly controlled murine studies that deliver precise amounts of alcohol at discrete developmental stages, our group and other labs demonstrated in prior studies that the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 inbred mouse strains display differential susceptibility to the teratogenic effects of alcohol. Since the phenotypic diversity extends beyond the amount, dosage and timing of alcohol exposure, it is likely that an individual’s genetic background contributes to the phenotypic spectrum. To identify the genomic signatures associated with these observed differences in alcohol-induced dysmorphology, we conducted a microarray-based transcriptome study that also interrogated the genomic signatures between these two lines based on genetic background and alcohol exposure. This approach is called a gene x environment (GxE analysis; one example of a GxE interaction would be a gene whose expression level increases in C57BL/6 animals, but decreases in DBA/2 embryos, following alcohol exposure. We identified 35 candidate genes exhibiting GxE interactions. To identify cis-acting factors that mediated these interactions, we interrogated the proximal promoters of these 35 candidates and found 241 single nucleotide variants (SNVs in 16 promoters. Further investigation indicated that 186 SNVs (15 promoters are predicted to alter transcription factor binding. In addition, 62 SNVs created, removed or altered the placement of a CpG dinucleotide in 13 of the proximal promoters; 53 of which overlapped putative transcription factor binding sites. These 53 SNVs are our top candidates for future studies aimed at examining the effects of alcohol on epigenetic gene regulation.

  3. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol. PMID:26675839

  4. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  5. A systems genetic analysis of alcohol drinking by mice, rats and men: influence of brain GABAergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Laura M; Bennett, Beth; Hoffman, Paula L; Barcomb, Kelsey; Ishii, Takao; Kechris, Katerina; Tabakoff, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Genetic influences on the predisposition to complex behavioral or physiological traits can reflect genetic polymorphisms that lead to altered gene product function, and/or variations in gene expression levels. We have explored quantitative variations in an animal's alcohol consumption, using a genetical genomic/phenomic approach. In our studies, gene expression is correlated with amount of alcohol consumed, and genomic regions that regulate the alcohol consumption behavior and the quantitative levels of gene expression (behavioral and expression quantitative trait loci [QTL]) are determined and used as a filter to identify candidate genes predisposing the behavior. We determined QTLs for alcohol consumption using the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mice. We then identified genes that were: 1) differentially expressed between five high and five low alcohol-consuming lines or strains of mice; and 2) were physically located in, or had an expression QTL (eQTL) within the alcohol consumption QTLs. Comparison of mRNA and protein levels in brains of high and low alcohol consuming mice led us to a bioinformatic examination of potential regulation by microRNAs of an identified candidate transcript, Gnb1 (G protein beta subunit 1). We combined our current analysis with our earlier work identifying candidate genes for the alcohol consumption trait in mice, rats and humans. Our overall analysis leads us to postulate that the activity of the GABAergic system, and in particular GABA release and GABA receptor trafficking and signaling, which involves G protein function, contributes significantly to genetic variation in the predisposition to varying levels of alcohol consumption. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. PMID:21185315

  6. Influence of Cononsolvency on the Aggregation of Tertiary Butyl Alcohol in Methanol-Water Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kenji; Pattenaude, Shannon R; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-07-27

    The term cononsolvency has been used to describe a situation in which a polymer is less soluble (and so is more likely to collapse and aggregate) in a mixture of two cosolvents than it is in either one of the pure solvents. Thus, cononsolvency is closely related to the suppression of protein denaturation by stabilizing osmolytes. Here, we show that cononsolvency behavior can also influence the aggregation of tertiary butyl alcohol in mixtures of water and methanol, as demonstrated using both Raman multivariate curve resolution spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results imply that cononsolvency results from the cosolvent-mediated enhancement of the attractive (solvophobic) mean force between nonpolar groups, driven by preferential solvation of the aggregates, in keeping with Wyman-Tanford theory. PMID:27363494

  7. The chick embryo as a model for the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol on craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecker, Clemens

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a syndrome characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations including craniofacial dysmorphologies and neurological defects. The characterisation of the mechanisms by which ethanol exerts its teratogenic effects is difficult due to the pleiotropic nature of its actions. Different experimental model systems have been employed to investigate the aetiology of FASD. Here, I will review studies using these different model organisms that have helped to elucidate how ethanol causes the craniofacial abnormalities characteristic of FASD. In these studies, ethanol was found to impair the prechordal plate-an important embryonic signalling centre-during gastrulation and to negatively affect the induction, migration and survival of the neural crest, a cell population that generates the cartilage and most of the bones of the skull. At the cellular level, ethanol appears to inhibit Sonic hedgehog signalling, alter levels of retionoic acid activity, trigger a Ca(2+)-CamKII-dependent pathway that antagonises WNT signalling, affect cytoskeletal dynamics and increase oxidative stress. Embryos of the domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus have played a central role in developing a working model for the effects of ethanol on craniofacial development because they are easily accessible and because key steps in craniofacial development are particularly well established in the avian embryo. I will finish this review by highlighting some potential future avenues of fetal alcohol research. PMID:26777098

  8. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Dexamethasone (Dex) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties against many conditions. There is a potential teratogenic risk, however, for pregnant women receiving Dex treatment. It has been claimed that Dex exposure during pregnancy could affect osteogenesis in the developing embryo, which still remains highly controversial. In this study, we employed chick embryos to investigate the effects of Dex exposure on skeletal development using combined in vivo and in vitro approach. First, we demonstrated that Dex (10{sup −8}–10{sup −6} μmol/egg) exposure resulted in a shortening of the developing long bones of chick embryos, and it accelerated the deposition of calcium salts. Secondly, histological analysis of chick embryo phalanxes exhibited Dex exposure inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes, increased apoptosis of chondrocytes and osteocytes, and led to atypical arranged hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of genes related to skeletogenesis was also analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of ALP, Col1a2 and Col2a1 was decreased in the Dex treated phalanxes. A detectable increase was observed in Runx-2 and Mmp-13 expression. We next examined how Dex affected the different stages of skeletogenesis in vitro. Utilizing limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures, we determined that Dex exposure exerted no effect on apoptosis but impaired chondrogenic cell proliferation. Interestingly, low dose of Dex moderately prompted nodule formation as revealed by alcian blue staining, but higher doses of Dex significantly inhibited similar chondrogenic differentiation. Dex exposure did not induce apoptosis when the chondrogenic precursors were still at the mesenchymal stage, however, cell viability was suppressed when the mesenchyme differentiated into chondrocytes. Alizarin red staining revealed that the capacity to form mineralized bone nodules was correspondingly enhanced as Dex concentrations increased. The mRNA level of Sox-9 was slightly

  9. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexamethasone (Dex) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties against many conditions. There is a potential teratogenic risk, however, for pregnant women receiving Dex treatment. It has been claimed that Dex exposure during pregnancy could affect osteogenesis in the developing embryo, which still remains highly controversial. In this study, we employed chick embryos to investigate the effects of Dex exposure on skeletal development using combined in vivo and in vitro approach. First, we demonstrated that Dex (10−8–10−6 μmol/egg) exposure resulted in a shortening of the developing long bones of chick embryos, and it accelerated the deposition of calcium salts. Secondly, histological analysis of chick embryo phalanxes exhibited Dex exposure inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes, increased apoptosis of chondrocytes and osteocytes, and led to atypical arranged hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of genes related to skeletogenesis was also analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of ALP, Col1a2 and Col2a1 was decreased in the Dex treated phalanxes. A detectable increase was observed in Runx-2 and Mmp-13 expression. We next examined how Dex affected the different stages of skeletogenesis in vitro. Utilizing limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures, we determined that Dex exposure exerted no effect on apoptosis but impaired chondrogenic cell proliferation. Interestingly, low dose of Dex moderately prompted nodule formation as revealed by alcian blue staining, but higher doses of Dex significantly inhibited similar chondrogenic differentiation. Dex exposure did not induce apoptosis when the chondrogenic precursors were still at the mesenchymal stage, however, cell viability was suppressed when the mesenchyme differentiated into chondrocytes. Alizarin red staining revealed that the capacity to form mineralized bone nodules was correspondingly enhanced as Dex concentrations increased. The mRNA level of Sox-9 was slightly increased in

  10. Positive Alcohol Expectancies Mediate the Influence of the Behavioral Activation System on Alcohol Use: A Prospective Path Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Gray’s (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray’s theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whet...

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  14. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  15. Behavioural change in relation to alcohol exposure in early pregnancy and impact on perinatal outcomes - a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Deirdre J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been limited research addressing whether behavioural change in relation to alcohol exposure in pregnancy results in better perinatal outcomes. Methods A cohort study of 6725 women who booked for antenatal care and delivered in a large urban teaching hospital in 2010–2011. A detailed history of alcohol consumption pre-pregnancy and during early pregnancy was recorded at the first antenatal visit with follow-up of the mother and infant until discharge following birth. Adverse perinatal outcomes were compared for ‘non-drinkers’, ‘ex-drinkers’ and ‘current drinkers’. Results Of the 6017 (90% women who reported alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy 3325 (55% engaged in binge drinking and 266 (4.4% consumed more than 14 units on average per week. At the time of booking 5649 (94% women were ex-drinkers and of the 368 women who continued to drink 338 (92% had a low intake (0–5 units per week, 30 (8% an excess intake (6-20+ units per week and 93 (25% reported at least one episode of binge drinking. Factors associated with continuing to drink in early pregnancy included older maternal age (30–39 years, (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 1.8, Irish nationality (OR 3.1; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.3 and smoking (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.9 to 3.5. Ex-drinkers had similar perinatal outcomes to non-drinkers. Compared to non-drinkers current drinking was associated with an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR (13% versus 19%, crude OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2, adjusted OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.8. The greatest risk of IUGR was among women who continued to both drink and smoke, (9% versus 32%, crude OR 4.8; 95% CI 3.3 to 7.0, adjusted OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.1 to 6.7. Conclusions Public Health campaigns need to emphasise the potential health gains of abstaining from both alcohol and smoking in pregnancy.

  16. A moderate dose of alcohol does not influence experience of social ostracism in hazardous drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph OL Buckingham; Abigail eMoss; Krisztina eGyure; Neil eRalph; Chandni eHindocha; Will eLawn; H Valerie eCurran; Freeman, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions i...

  17. A Moderate Dose of Alcohol Does Not Influence Experience of Social Ostracism in Hazardous Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    J. Buckingham; Moss, A; Gyure, K.; Ralph, N.; Hindocha, C.; Lawn, W.; Curran, H V; Freeman, T P

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions i...

  18. YOUNG DRIVERS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Topolšek, Darja; Andrijana MOĆIĆ; Knez, Matjaž; Sternad, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    We have to consider the fact that alcohol is a legal drug. The spread of alcohol consumption reflects also in the road traffic safety; nevertheless, alcohol is a significant factor in traffic accidence occurrence, especially in those with serious consequences. In the last few years traffic crashes with fatalities are just following one another and are mostly caused by drivers who consumed alcohol. Adolescents between ages 15 and 24 are one of the most endangered groups of people in traffi...

  19. Effects of stress, acute alcohol treatment, or both on pre-pulse inhibition in high- and low-alcohol preferring mice

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Matthew S.; Chester, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating frequently used to assess information processing in both humans and rodents. Both alcohol and stress exposure can modulate PPI, making it possible to assess how stress and alcohol interact to influence information processing. Humans with an increased genetic risk for alcoholism are more reactive to stressful situations compared to those without a family history, and alcohol may have stress-dampening ...

  20. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  1. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  2. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population. PMID:23124415

  3. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood samples from "driving under the influence" cases as indicator for prolonged excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Hernández Redondo, Ana; Martin Fabritius, Marie; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is considered as specific biomarker of alcohol consumption. Due to accumulation after repeated drinking, PEth is suitable to monitor long-term drinking behavior. To examine the applicability of PEth in "driving under the influence of alcohol" cases, 142 blood samples with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranging from 0.0-3.12‰ were analyzed for the presence of PEth homologues 16:0/18:1 (889 ± 878 ng/mL; range analysis, PEth thresholds were evaluated to differentiate moderate and excessive alcohol consumption with acceptable sensitivity and specificity in accordance with the 1.6‰ BAC limit. With a threshold of 700 ng/mL for PEth 16:0/18:1, prolonged excessive alcohol consumption was detected in 65.9% of drunk drivers with a BAC ≥ 1.6‰ and in 31.6% of the samples with a BAC habits in 88.7% of blood samples. These results show the possibility to detect prolonged excessive alcohol consumption, even if the BAC is below the legal threshold of 1.6‰ for driving aptitude assessment. As a consequence, concentrations of PEth 16:0/18:1 ≥ 700 ng/mL and of PEth 16:0/18:2 ≥ 300 ng/mL may be considered as indicators for the necessity of driving aptitude assessment in addition to BAC. PMID:26671597

  4. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense) herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo; Mira Alberto; Soldin Offie P; Sobrino-Najul Elías J; Angulo Mario G; Ortega García Juan A; Claudio Luz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neu...

  5. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    SonyaKrishnaSobrian; R.RobertHolson

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PC...

  6. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  7. The influence of alcohol and aging on radio communication during flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, D; Leirer, V; Yesavage, J

    1990-01-01

    This study finds that alcohol and pilot age impair radio communication during simulated flight. Young (mean age 25 years) and older (mean age 42 years) pilots flew in a light aircraft simulator during alcohol and placebo conditions. In the alcohol condition, pilots drank alcohol and flew after reaching 0.04% BAC, after reaching 0.10% BAC, and then 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h after they stopped drinking at 0.10% BAC. They flew at the same times in the placebo condition. Alcohol and age impaired communication-based and overall flying performance during and immediately after drinking. Most important, alcohol and age cumulatively impaired performance, since older pilots were more impaired by alcohol. Notably, performance was as impaired 2 h after reaching 0.10% BAC as it was at 0.10% BAC. Moreover, overall performance was impaired for 8 h after reaching 0.10% BAC. PMID:2302121

  8. IMPACT OF ALCOHOL ON HUMAN VITAL SEMINAL PARAMETER WHICH INFLUENCE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol has wide impact (affect on male reproductive function like impotence, loss of sexual interest, gynecomastia and on male infertility. Alcohol can adversely affect the leydig cells which secretes the male hormone testosterone, Several studied have been conducted to evaluate the effect of alcohol in men and results shows reduced testosterone levels in the blood. Alcohol has dual effect on the hypothalamic pituitary – gonadal axis and blocking the release of LH - releasing hormone. 110 subjects were inc luded in the present study amongst whom 25 were non - alcoholic, 53 with low alcoholic and 32 with high alcoholic intake. Our study shows that ethanol exhibits alteration in their spermatozoa concentration, abnormal motility and morphology.

  9. Radiation-induced breast cancer: Influence of age at exposure, latency period, age, and genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced breast cancer: Influence of age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and genetic predisposition. The amount of undesirable effects of screening with mammography was estimated from mortality studies after radiation exposure. Newer incidence studies demonstrate, however, an underestimation of the health detriment by mortality studies, in particular with increasing age at exposure, which amounts about five- to sixfold after an exposure in an age of 45-50y. The multidimensional analysis of the discrete values of incidence after radiation exposure respecting age at exposure, time since exposure and attained age instead of calculating a steady function simply depending from age at exposure results in an increasing relative and absolute risk of cancer incidence (and mortality) with growing age after an exposure at an age above 40y. Some genes seems to be correlated with an predisposition of breast cancer. In women carrying BRCA-1 the radiosensitivity for induction of breast cancer may exceed the risk in the normal population by about two orders of magnitude. The resulting doubling dose amounts in the order of the natural and medical radiation exposure. At least in part the genetic predisposition is associated with an early onset of the cancer after an additional radiation exposure. This kind of health detriment was not considered in the former discussion of radiation hazards. (orig.)

  10. Influence of Pedestrian Trajectories on School Children Exposure to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pedestrian trajectories are considered to study the influence of PM10 concentrations on children exposure, in a high-traffic street canyon. Two types of exposure were calculated: daily exposure for each wind condition and cumulative annual exposure considering all wind conditions. FLUENT was used to simulate the flow, turbulence, and PM10 dispersion in the street canyon. Our results indicate that exposure is influenced by the chosen walking trajectory and wind direction. When considering daily exposure, the highest value is achieved for the trajectory on the south side of the street, under westerly wind conditions, 13% higher than the baseline that assumes no traffic. The results indicate that a particular trajectory can be better for one specific wind direction but can represent the worst for a different wind direction. A difference of 3% to 13% higher exposure was achieved by choosing the best and worst trajectories. When computing cumulative annual exposure, trajectory on the north side of the street shows better results, 8.4% higher than the baseline value. Northerly and westerly winds result in the lowest and the highest exposure value for every studied trajectory. Careful selection of the best pedestrian paths can help reduce the exposure in busy street canyons.

  11. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria E.; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Ade, Catherine M.; Ortego, Jonathan C.; Stark, Jeremy; Deininger, Prescott L.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs) as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) and single strand annealing (SSA), which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the “error prone” non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair. PMID:26966913

  12. Cardiovascular and metabolic influences of fetal smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Hanneke; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies showed associations of low birth weight with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The associations seem to be consistent and stronger among subjects with a postnatal catch up growth. It has been suggested that developmental changes in response to adverse fetal exposures might lead to changes in the fetal anatomy and physiology. These adaptations may be beneficial for short term, but may lead to common diseases in adulthood. Maternal smoking during ...

  13. Acetaldehyde reinforcement and motor reactivity in newborns with or without a prenatal history of alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    March, Samanta M.; Culleré, Marcela E.; Abate, Paula; Hernández, José I.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have shown that early ontogeny seems to be a period of enhanced affinity to ethanol. Interestingly, the catalase system that transforms ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde (ACD) in the brain, is more active in the perinatal rat compared to adults. ACD has been found to share EtOH's behavioral effects. The general purpose of the present study was to assess ACD motivational and motor effects in newborn rats as a function of prenatal exposure to EtOH. Experiment 1 evaluated if ACD (0....

  14. Acetaldehyde reinforcement and motor reactivity in newborns with or without a prenatal history of alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Mabel March; Spear, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have shown that early ontogeny seems to be a period of enhanced affinity to ethanol. Interestingly, the catalase system, that transforms ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde (ACD) in the brain, is more active in the perinatal rat compared to adults. ACD has been found to share EtOH’s behavioral effects. The general purpose of the present study was to assess ACD motivational and motor effects in newborn rats as a function of prenatal exposure to EtOH. Experiment 1 evaluated if ACD (0...

  15. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  16. The Influence of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on Birth Outcomes in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Savage

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how secondhand smoke (SHS exposure influences neonatal birth weight in Jordan, a country with high smoking prevalence. The findings revealed that as the average number of SHS exposure hours per week increased in the second trimester, the neonatal birth weight decreased while holding all covariates constant. Women who reported a higher average number of SHS exposure hours per week from work in the second trimester, home in the third trimester, and outside in the third trimester were at greater risk for having a low birth weight neonate than women who reported a lower average number of SHS exposure hours.

  17. Hepatic microtubule acetylation and stability induced by chronic alcohol exposure impair nuclear translocation of STAT3 and STAT5B, but not Smad2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Dean J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2012-12-15

    Although alcoholic liver disease is clinically well described, the molecular basis for alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity is not well understood. Previously, we found that alcohol exposure led to increased microtubule acetylation and stability in polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells and in livers from ethanol-fed rats. Because microtubules are known to regulate transcription factor nuclear translocation and dynamic microtubules are required for translocation of at least a subset of these factors, we examined whether alcohol-induced microtubule acetylation and stability impair nuclear translocation. We examined nuclear delivery of factors representing the two mechanisms by which microtubules regulate translocation. To represent factors that undergo directed delivery, we examined growth hormone-induced STAT5B translocation and IL-6-induced STAT3 translocation. To represent factors that are sequestered in the cytoplasm by microtubule attachment until ligand activation, we examined transforming growth factor-β-induced Smad2/3 translocation. We found that ethanol exposure selectively impaired translocation of the STATs, but not Smad2/3. STAT5B delivery was decreased to a similar extent by addition of taxol (a microtubule-stabilizing drug) or trichostatin A (a deacetylase inhibitor), agents that promote microtubule acetylation in the absence of alcohol. Thus the alcohol-induced impairment of STAT nuclear translocation can be explained by increased microtubule acetylation and stability. Only ethanol treatment impaired STAT5B activation, indicating that microtubules are not important for its activation by Jak2. Furthermore, nuclear exit was not changed in treated cells, indicating that this process is also independent of microtubule acetylation and stability. Together, these results raise the exciting possibility that deacetylase agonists may be effective therapeutics for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23064763

  18. Influence of materials choice on occupational radiation exposure in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, C. B. A.; Firth, J. D.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1998-10-01

    In fission reactor plant,the radiation doses associated with inspection and maintenance of the primary cooling circuit account for a substantial fraction of the collective occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Similarly, it is anticipated that much of the ORE occurring during normal operation of ITER will arise from active deposits in the cooling loop. Using a number of calculation steps ranging from neutron activation analysis, mobilisation and transport modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, estimates for the gamma photon flux and radiation dose fields around a typical `hot-leg' cooling pipe have been made taking SS316,OPTSTAB, MANET-II and F-82H steels as alternative candidate loop materials.

  19. Influence of dietary vitamin E on susceptibility to ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.; Victor, J.; Stoddard, M.A.

    1985-03-01

    It is widely reported that vitamin E intake may markedly reduce the occurrence of ozone-induced respiratory tract damage. Considerably less data are available concerning whether vitamin E nutritional status may affect the occurrence of ozone-induced systemic alterations such as the blood cell changes. The present study is designed to extend this previous research by evaluating the extent to which vitamin E supplementation in humans over a four week period would affect the in vitro erythrocyte susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) which is formed in whole blood following ozone exposure.

  20. Intrauterine exposure to alcohol and tobacco use and childhood IQ: findings from a parental-offspring comparison within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alati, Rosa; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Sayal, Kapil; MAY, Margaret; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that moderate maternal alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy is associated with intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in childhood through intrauterine mechanisms. We conducted parental-offspring comparisons between the associations of tobacco and alcohol consumption with child's IQ in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Analyses were conducted on 4332 participants with complete data on maternal and paternal use of alcohol and tobacco at 18 wk gestation, child's IQ and a range of confounders. IQ was measured at child age 8 with the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals in IQ scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations. In fully adjusted models, there was no strong statistical evidence that maternal alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy were associated with childhood IQ with any greater magnitude than paternal alcohol and tobacco consumption (also assessed during their partners' pregnancy). Our findings suggest that the relationship between maternal moderate alcohol and tobacco use in early pregnancy and childhood IQ may not be explained by intrauterine mechanisms. PMID:18670372

  1. Alcohol-related Cues Promote Automatic Racial Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Elena V; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott; Friedman, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase the expression of race bias by impairing control-related processes. The current study tested whether simple exposure to alcohol-related images can also increase bias, but via a different mechanism. Participants viewed magazine ads for either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to completing Payne's (2001) Weapons Identification Task (WIT). As predicted, participants primed with alcohol ads exhibited greater race bias in the WIT than participants primed with neutral beverages. Process dissociation analyses indicated that these effects were due to automatic (relative to controlled) processes having a larger influence on behavior among alcohol-primed relative to neutral-primed participants. Structural equation modeling further showed that the alcohol-priming effect was mediated by increases in the influence of automatic associations on behavior. These data suggest an additional pathway by which alcohol can potentially harm inter-racial interactions, even when no beverage is consumed. PMID:22798699

  2. Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on admissions and duration of hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Rasmussen, Søren; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol.......80-8.26) in women were observed among smokers of >20 g/day compared to never-smokers. For any admission (excl. smoking-related causes), corresponding ORs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.15-1.51) and 1.80 (95% CI 1.58-2.06), respectively. In men, a U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and risk of admission was...... found, both regarding any admission and admissions due to alcohol-related diseases. Alcohol was associated with alcohol-related admissions in women but not with duration of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was associated with increased risk of hospital admission and duration of hospitalization. A U...

  3. Voluntary exercise influences behavioral development in rats exposed to alcohol during the neonatal brain growth spurt

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jennifer D.; Sather, Tamie Miura; Whinery, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally may suffer from severe brain damage, expressed as a variety of behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and learning deficits. There is a critical need to identify effective treatments for fetal alcohol effects. Physical exercise enhances cognitive ability and increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. Thus, the present study examined whether physical exercise might reduce the severity of alcohol-induce...

  4. Influence of radiation exposure on our society and epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief epidemiological review of risk assessment of radiation was discussed with respect to two periods; before and after the establishment of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Selected topics were the studies of atomic bomb survivors and people living in the contaminated areas due to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. An ethical view to ensure that potential social benefits of epidemiology are maximized was emphasized as well as a scientific view. On the other hand it should be recognized that there are the limitations of epidemiological studies on the basis of the observations on man in which the animal-experimental setting generally cannot be controlled over. Informing people about the professional confidence and caution of radiation exposure is needed to resolve social concern associated with low dose, low dose rate of radiation. Also there are guidelines for the investigation of clusters of adverse health events. In the future an appropriate strategy for decontamination might be expected to unusual radiation exposure as a consequence of a nuclear power plant accident. Justification for the implementations can be determined only through the assessment of the effects both on the environment and health of humans after the accident. (author)

  5. How Different Molecular Architectures Influence the Dynamics of H-Bonded Structures in Glass-Forming Monohydroxy Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikarek, M; Pawlus, S; Tripathy, Satya N; Szulc, A; Paluch, M

    2016-06-30

    Primary alcohols have been an active area of research since the beginning of the 20th century. The main problem in studying monohydroxy alcohols is the molecular origin of the slower Debye relaxation, whereas the faster process, recognized as structural relaxation, remains much less investigated. This is because in many primary alcohols the structural process is strongly overlapped by the dominating Debye relaxation. Additionally, there is still no answer for many fundamental questions concerning the origin of the molecular characteristic properties of these materials. One of them is the role of molecular architecture in the formation of hydrogen-bonded structures and its potential connection to the relaxation dynamics of Debye and structural relaxation processes. In this article, we present the results of ambient and high-pressure dielectric studies of monohydroxy alcohols with similar chemical structures but different carbon chain lengths (2-ethyl-1-butanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) and positions of the OH- group (2-methyl-2-hexanol and 2-methyl-3-hexanol). New data are compared with previously collected results for 5-methyl-2-hexanol. We note that differences in molecular architecture have a significant influence on the formation of hydrogen-bonded structures, which is reflected in the behavior of the Debye and structural relaxation processes. Intriguingly, studying the relaxation dynamics in monohydroxy alcohols at high pressures of up to p = 1700 MPa delivers a fundamental bridge to understand the potential connection between molecular conformation and its response to the characteristic properties of these materials. PMID:27254726

  6. Influence of reaction conditions and type of alcohol on biodiesel yields and process economics of supercritical transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification in supercritical methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol investigated. • Effect of alcohol, reaction temperature, pressure and time on yields analyzed. • Temperature has the highest impact on yield, followed by time and pressure. • Direct material and energy costs for each of the production alternatives estimated. • Lowest costs are achieved at highest yields even at very low oil prices. - Abstract: Experiments with transesterification of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol) were carried out in a batch reactor at various reaction temperatures (250–350 °C), working pressure (8–12 MPa), reaction time, and constant 42:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio. Influence of different alcohols and reaction conditions on biodiesel yield was investigated using linear multiple regression models. Temperature had the highest impact on yields, followed by reaction time and pressure. With increased molecular weight of alcohols, relative importance of temperature for explanation of yields decreased and relative importance of time and pressure increased. Economic assessment has revealed that transesterification in supercritical methanol has the lowest direct material and energy costs. Yield has crucial impact on process economics. Direct costs decrease with increase in biodiesel yields. Even at very low prices of oil feedstock the lowest cost is achieved at the highest yield

  7. INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPES AND THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL AGENT ON LIQUEUR WINE QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dergunov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The studies revealed that the application of spirits as a strength agent of 91.0 - 96.6% in special wines contained more vitamin-like substances than wine, alcoholized with double-distilled water with 75% alcohol concentration. The highest marks for tasting wines were given to the options made with the use of rectified grain origin alcohol as an agent of alcohol. Application of double-distilled water wine leads to accumulation of unnecessarily high undesirable groups of compounds such as meth...

  8. Influence of the recall period on a beverage-specific weekly drinking measure for alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.

    2011-01-01

    -reported weekly alcohol intake. Subjects/Methods: The data is derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005, which is based on a region-stratified random sample of 21¿832 Danish citizens aged =16 years (response rate: 67%). The data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Results: A beverage...... alcohol intake on each day. Moreover, the analyses indicated that interviews on Sundays should be avoided if the purpose is to assess alcohol intake for the previous day (Saturdays). Conclusions: It seems problematic to recall alcohol intake even when the recall period is as short as 1 week. Weekly...

  9. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  10. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring. PMID:25940002

  11. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or

  12. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  13. Punishment sensitivity and tension reduction: Exploring the potential influence of genetics on South Korean alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Mahoney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2 is a genetically mutated enzyme that affects the liver’s ability to break down acetaldehyde, resulting in immediate negative physical effects following alcohol consumption. This usually leads to reduced lifetime alcohol dependence rates among those with ALDH2*2. Paradoxically, while around 30% of South Koreans have ALDH2*2, they still maintain both high levels of alcohol consumption and dependence. Therefore, how the negative reactions to alcohol experienced by those with ALDH2*2 interact with the expected effects of alcohol and sensitivity to punishment is of interest. Four hundred and sixty South Korean university students were tested for the ALDH2 gene type and completed alcohol expectancy and sensitivity to reward/punishment measures. The results indicated that there are different predictors of alcohol consumption depending on gene type, with ALDH2*2 heavy drinkers exhibiting lower levels of SP and higher levels of tension reduction expectancy. These findings suggest that ALDH2*2 plays a central role in differences in motivation for alcohol consumption among South Koreans.

  14. Genetic determinants of both ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism influence alcohol hypersensitivity and drinking behaviour among Scandinavians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2010-01-01

    Although hypersensitivity reactions following intake of alcoholic drinks are common in Caucasians, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance are not known. In contrast, in Asians, alcohol-induced asthma and flushing have been shown to be because of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...

  15. Coping with Stressful Events: Influence of Parental Alcoholism and Race in a Community Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Griffin, Margaret L.; Fassler, Irene; Clay, Cassandra; Ellis, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the role of race and differences in coping among 290 white women and black women with and without alcoholic parents, addressing two questions: (1) Does coping vary by parental alcoholism or race? and (2) How is coping in adulthood affected by childhood stressors and resources and by adulthood resources? Standardized…

  16. Does amount or type of alcohol influence the risk of prostate cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2002-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, and it is unknown whether alcohol is associated with the development of prostate cancer.......Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, and it is unknown whether alcohol is associated with the development of prostate cancer....

  17. Women's Social Behavior when Meeting New Men: The Influence of Alcohol and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption (Testa & Parks, 1996) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; Messman-Moore & Long, 2003) have been associated with adult sexual victimization. We examined the social behavior of 42 women under two alcohol conditions (high dose and low dose) in a bar laboratory. Women were videotaped interacting with a man they had just met.…

  18. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette;

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  19. The Influence of Parental Warmth and Control on Latino Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongro-Wilson, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Latino adolescent alcohol use is related to substance use, later life addiction, and other negative outcomes. The lack of knowledge on parenting and the parent-youth relationship in Latino families in the context of acculturation and its affects on alcohol use prompted this study. Secondary data analysis using the Add Health data set indicates…

  20. Influencing Adolescent Social Perceptions of Alcohol Use to Facilitate Change through a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T.; Monreal, Teresa K.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the effectiveness of a voluntary high school-based alcohol intervention by investigating one proposed mechanism of change in adolescent alcohol involvement: perception of peer use. High school students reporting lifetime drinking (N = 2055) completed fall and spring surveys that assessed demographic information,…

  1. Academic Achievement as a Moderator of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, K. Paige; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests a link between academic performance and alcohol use during adolescence, but the degree to which this association reflects actual protective effects continues to be debated. We investigated the role of genetic factors in the association between academic achievement and adolescent alcohol use and whether achievement might…

  2. INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPES AND THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL AGENT ON LIQUEUR WINE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergunov A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies revealed that the application of spirits as a strength agent of 91.0 - 96.6% in special wines contained more vitamin-like substances than wine, alcoholized with double-distilled water with 75% alcohol concentration. The highest marks for tasting wines were given to the options made with the use of rectified grain origin alcohol as an agent of alcohol. Application of double-distilled water wine leads to accumulation of unnecessarily high undesirable groups of compounds such as methanol and fusel oil, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. Organoleptic parameters were the best for selection of wines from Anapa ZOSViV - Dionysus and Krasnostop EPA, as well as - Cabernet Sauvignon. We can conclude that for the production of high-quality red dessert wines we need, along with the classic varieties, wider use of new autochthonous varieties using alcohol agents of rectified grain origin

  3. Study on the development of high yielding alcohol resistant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the Influence of Magnetic field on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inoculum for the production of Alcohol and Vinegar from apple juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Haque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural vinegar is one of the fermented products which has some potentiality with respect to a nutraceutical standpoint. The present study is an optimization of the fermentation conditions for apple juice vinegar production from aple juice wine, this biochemical process being aided by Acetobacter aceti.We have studied on the development of high yielding alcohol resistant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of alcohol. Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomassdirected processes. It results from elevated apple juice containing sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high initial sugar concentrations From the results it is clear that strain T2. which has been exposed to 15% alcohol for 18 hrs is the high yielding strain, as it gives 16% alcohol after distillation. We also find that as the exposure is increased, that is, with increasing exposure to 20% alcohol for 5 hrs, 18 hrs, and 20 hrs, the production of alcohol decreases. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells strain T2. which has been exposed to 15% alcohol for 18 hrs were exposed to a homogenous static magnetic field of 125 mT for periods of 24, 48 or 72 hours and then used as inoculum for the alcoholic fermentation. The exposure to the magnetic field improved the fermentation process kinetics. Biomass and ethanol yields of fermentations inoculated with treated inoculum were higher than those in the control fermentation, which

  4. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  5. Risk, control and self-identity: Young drunk drivers’ experiences with driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Fynbo Lars

    2014-01-01

    AIM - This article explores how young Danish drunk (and drug) drivers relate to the risk of driving under the influence (DUI). DESIGN - The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers who in 2010 participated in mandatory alcohol and traffic safety courses. The analysis follows Stephen Lyng’s concept of “edgework”, focusing on volitional risk taking and its effect on the acting individual’s self-identity. RESULTS - Drawing on the interviewees’ accounts of being ar...

  6. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers’ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Jane E. K.; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influe...

  7. The contribution of childhood parental rejection and early androgen exposure to impairments in socio-cognitive skills in intimate partner violence perpetrators with high alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  8. TOTAL NUMBER: A BRIEF REVIEW OF ITS IMPORTANCE AND ITS USE IN ASSESSING CEREBELLAR DAMAGE IN THE RAT FOLLOWING EARLY POSTNATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MA Napper

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the total number of structural components that make up the various neural networks within the central nervous system is fundamental to our understanding of its normal function and of dysfunction that may accompany injury and disease. This paper briefly reviews the methodology currently used to estimate number and discusses the importance of unbiased estimates of total number in determining changes in brain structure that may underlie dysfunction. An example from the olfactory bulb is used to demonstrate the potential invalidity of using estimates of total number of objects per single section. Exposure to alcohol during the early postnatal period results in motor dysfunction in adult rats. This paper presents data on the extent and magnitude of cell loss within the cerebellar network of the rat following alcohol exposure during postnatal days 4 to 9. High transient blood alcohol concentrations result in a Purkinje cell of 27% across the entire cerebellum but with regional variabiltiy, vermal lobule X has a 43% Purkinje cell deficit. This alcohol regimen also results in a neuronal loss of 28% and 25% within the deep cerebellar nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus respectively. Consistency of overall neuronal loss across diverse neuronal populations within the cerebellar network is discussed in the context of the maintenance of cerebellar connectivity.

  9. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moya-Albiol

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  10. Influence of Exposure to Sexually-Violent Rap Lyrics on Acceptance of Violence towards Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffries, Rosell L.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of Exposure to Sexually-Violent Rap Music on Acceptance of Violence Towards Women Rosell L. Jeffries (ABSTRACT) This study examined the mediating effect of hostility towards women on the relationship between exposure to misogynistic rap music and acceptance of violence towards women. Additionally, the impact of male hostility towards women on the relationship between consuming rap music and acceptance of rape myths and general attitudes towards violence w...

  11. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rüütel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  12. Differences in Attitudes About HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Use Among Stimulant Versus Alcohol Using Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Mitty, Jennifer A; Biello, Katie B; Closson, Elizabeth F; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol and stimulant use are independently associated with increased HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed differences in acceptability and perceived barriers to uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among stimulant and alcohol-using MSM in Boston. From September 2012-2013, a quantitative assessment was conducted with 254 MSM respondents who reported recent condomless sex in the context of concurrent stimulant (crack/cocaine and crystal methamphetamine; n = 132) or alcohol use (n = 122). Thirteen (5.1  %) reported previous PrEP use. In multivariable models, stimulant users were more likely to be concerned that substance use would affect PrEP adherence (aRR = 2.79, 95  % CI 1.63-4.77), and were less concerned about HIV stigma as a barrier to PrEP uptake (aRR = 0.52, 95  % CI 0.30-0.90) compared to alcohol users. Barriers to PrEP uptake and adherence differ by type of substance used. Different strategies may be required for PrEP implementation among MSM who use stimulants and alcohol. PMID:26462669

  13. Influence of cadmium exposure on selected hematological parameters in freshwater teleost, Notemigonus crysoleucas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, W.H.; Baer, K.N.; Stackhouse, R.A.; Watson, C.F.

    1987-02-01

    The use of hematological parameters for assessing the acute toxicity of heavy metals to mammals has shown considerable promise. These parameters include the measurement of blood glucose, hematocrit, and a variety of enzymes. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the use of selected hematological parameters in aquatic organisms. Exposure of Notemigonus crysoleucas to cadmium resulted in a 96-hr /sup LC/50 value of 3.15 mg Cd/liter. The influence of cadmium on selected hematological parameters was examined following 96 hr of exposure to 0, 1.35, and 2.40 mg Cd/liter. Cadmium exposure produced significant alterations in the levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alanine aminotransaminase. Hematocrit was not altered by exposure to cadmium. These results indicate that glucose and transaminases may be useful as diagnostic tests for cadmium exposure in aquatic organisms.

  14. A Factor Analysis of Global GABAergic Gene Expression in Human Brain Identifies Specificity in Response to Chronic Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Baghal, Basel; Yuan, Qiaoping; Goldman, David

    2013-01-01

    Although expression patterns of GABAergic genes in rodent brain have largely been elucidated, no comprehensive studies have been performed in human brain. The purpose of this study was to identify global patterns of GABAergic gene expression in healthy adults, including trans and cis effects in the GABAA gene clusters, before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus. RNA-Seq data from ‘BrainSpan’ was obtained across 16 brain regions...

  15. The Effects of Exercise on Adolescent Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Rat Model of Binge Alcohol Exposure During the Brain Growth Spurt

    OpenAIRE

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Greenough, William T.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during the brain growth spurt results in impaired cognition and learning in adulthood. This impairment is accompanied by permanent structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Exercise improves performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks and increases adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus. The present study examined the effects of wheel running during adolescence on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis after postnatal b...

  16. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers

  17. Early Adolescent, Multi-ethnic, Urban Youth’s Exposure To Patterns Of Alcohol-related Neighborhood Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2009-01-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of al...

  18. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context. PMID:27595811

  19. Driving under the influence of alcohol. A 5-year overview in Piedmont, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporati, Marta; Salvo, Raffaella A; Pirro, Valentina; Salomone, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption represents a major health issue worldwide and a crucial factor in road accidences. This study provides information on the prevalence of alcohol in blood testing performed on 2752 subjects involved in vehicle accidents, which occurred in Piedmont (northern Italy) between 2008 and 2013. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was determined by an ISO 17025 accredited GC/MS procedure. Fifty-one % of positive samples showed BAC concentrations above 1.5 g/L, with a legal cut-off fixed at 0.5 g/L (and 0 g/L for specified categories such as novice and professional drivers). BAC values proved statistically different regarding the day of sampling (week or weekend days), age and gender, with a prevalence of positive results that reflects different drinking habits of a multifaceted population of alcohol consumers. PMID:26165667

  20. The influence of guides on alcohol consumption among young tourists at a nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Jæger, Mads Meier; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how participation in party activities with guides affects alcohol consumption among young tourists at an international nightlife resort. Methods: Prospective survey of 112 Danish tourists in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, who were asked about their drinking......: Participating in party activities with guides increases drinking among young tourists who are already drinking large amounts of alcohol during their vacation. Further studies are needed to measure, describe and change the role played by guides at nightlife resorts....

  1. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism: influence on prostate cancer risk and interactions

    OpenAIRE

    KristanJAronson; HeatherLimburg; ChristyWoolcott; LeanneLBedard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control stu...

  2. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  3. Alcohol, Tannins, and Mannoprotein and their Interactions Influence the Sensory Properties of Selected Commercial Merlot Wines: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diako, Charles; McMahon, Kenneth; Mattinson, Scott; Evans, Marc; Ross, Carolyn

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel. One wine from each group was evaluated using the electronic tongue (e-tongue). Sensory evaluation results showed complex effects among tannins, alcohol, and mannoproteins on the perception of most aromas, flavors, tastes, and mouthfeel attributes (P 0.930) were reported between the e-tongue and sensory perception of sweet, sour, bitter, burning, astringent, and metallic. This study showed that interactions among wine matrix components influence the resulting sensory perceptions. The strong correlation between the e-tongue and trained panel evaluations indicated the e-tongue can complement sensory evaluations to improve wine quality assessment. PMID:27442722

  4. Determinants of Alcohol Use, Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Health Problems Among Men in Low Income Communities of Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.K.; Schensul, Jean J.; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18–29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcoh...

  5. A prospective cohort study of alcohol exposure in early and late pregnancy within an urban population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2014-02-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption in pregnancy have looked at one time point only, often relying on recall. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether alcohol consumption changes in early and late pregnancy and whether this affects perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study, conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at a teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Of the 907 women with a singleton pregnancy who booked for antenatal care and delivered at the hospital, 185 (20%) abstained from alcohol in the first trimester but drank in the third trimester, 105 (12%) consumed alcohol in the first and third trimesters, and the remaining 617 (68%) consumed no alcohol in pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to drink in pregnancy included older maternal age (30-39 years), Irish nationality, private healthcare, smoking, and a history of illicit drug use. Compared to pre-pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy was markedly reduced, with the majority of drinkers consuming ≤ 5 units per week (92% in first trimester, 72-75% in third trimester). Perhaps because of this, perinatal outcomes were similar for non-drinkers, women who abstained from alcohol in the first trimester, and women who drank in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. Most women moderate their alcohol consumption in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and have perinatal outcomes similar to those who abstain.

  6. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the e...

  7. How Perceived Exposure to Environmental Harm Influences Environmental Behavior in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaodong; Peterson, M. Nils; Hull, Vanessa; Lu, Chuntian; Hong, Dayong; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental degradation in China makes understanding how perceived exposure to environmental harm influences environmental attitudes and participation in pro-environmental behaviors among the Chinese people crucial. We used a nation-wide survey dataset in urban China to test two hypotheses: experiencing environmental harm directly affects environmental behavior; environmental attitudes mediate the relationship between experiencing environmental harm and environmental behavior. We foun...

  8. GST M1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Society for Epidemiologic Research Meeting, June 15-18, 2004, Salt Lake City, Utah.Presenter: Sherry G. SelevanGSTM1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J Rubes, SG Selevan*, R. Sram, DPEvenson, SD Perreault. VRI, ...

  9. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE HISTORY ON VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN MEDAKA: A CASE OF "ESTROGEN MEMORY"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influence of Exposure History on Vitellogenin Induction in Medaka: a Case of "Estrogen Memory"? (Abstract). Mar. Environ. Res. 50(1-5):196. In this study, we exposed female medaka to aqueous solutions of o,p'-DDT until tissues residues reached approximately 100 g/g. Male...

  10. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  11. Expression of glutamatergic genes in healthy humans across 16 brain regions; altered expression in the hippocampus after chronic exposure to alcohol or cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, M-A; Rosser, A A; Zhou, Z; Mash, D C; Yuan, Q; Goldman, D

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed global patterns of expression in genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamatergic genes) in healthy human adult brain before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus. RNA-Seq data from 'BrainSpan' was obtained across 16 brain regions from nine control adults. We also generated RNA-Seq data from postmortem hippocampus from eight alcoholics, eight cocaine addicts and eight controls. Expression analyses were undertaken of 28 genes encoding glutamate ionotropic (AMPA, kainate, NMDA) and metabotropic receptor subunits, together with glutamate transporters. The expression of each gene was fairly consistent across the brain with the exception of the cerebellum, the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus and the striatum. GRIN1, encoding the essential NMDA subunit, had the highest expression across all brain regions. Six factors accounted for 84% of the variance in global gene expression. GRIN2B (encoding GluN2B), was up-regulated in both alcoholics and cocaine addicts (FDR corrected P = 0.008). Alcoholics showed up-regulation of three genes relative to controls and cocaine addicts: GRIA4 (encoding GluA4), GRIK3 (GluR7) and GRM4 (mGluR4). Expression of both GRM3 (mGluR3) and GRIN2D (GluN2D) was up-regulated in alcoholics and down-regulated in cocaine addicts relative to controls. Glutamatergic genes are moderately to highly expressed throughout the brain. Six factors explain nearly all the variance in global gene expression. At least in the hippocampus, chronic alcohol use largely up-regulates glutamatergic genes. The NMDA GluN2B receptor subunit might be implicated in a common pathway to addiction, possibly in conjunction with the GABAB1 receptor subunit. PMID:25262781

  12. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  13. Accounting for time-dependent covariates whose levels are influenced by exposure status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N S; Dublin, S

    1998-07-01

    When measuring the association between an exposure and disease, one must decide whether to account for confounding or modifying variables whose levels are altered by the presence of the exposure. For example, to assess the impact of cessation of unopposed estrogen therapy on the occurrence of endometrial cancer, a researcher needs to consider the duration of the estrogen therapy, a strong risk factor for endometrial cancer, as a potential confounder or effect modifier. Duration of estrogen therapy, however, is itself influenced by the decision to stop the therapy (the "exposure" of interest). In such a case, two distinct approaches may be taken, depending upon the question being considered. One may wish to assess the degree to which the exposure predicts disease incidence, over and above the additional variable, at some later point in time. In this case, it is appropriate to consider the value of the other variable (for example, duration) at that later time. On the other hand, one may also wish to measure the rate of disease beginning at the time of cessation of the exposure, relative to the corresponding rate in persons with continuing exposure Here, the most appropriate analysis considers the level of the confounding variable (for example, duration) measured only until the time of exposure of interest occurs (for example, cessation of unopposed estrogen therapy). Examples are given to illustrate that the specific question being addressed dictates the handling of covariates of this type. PMID:9647909

  14. mRNA Transcript abundance during plant growth and the influence of Li(+) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M C; Kuhne, W W; Halverson, N V; Chang, C-S; Kitamura, E; Hawthorn, L; Martinez, N E; Stafford, C; Milliken, C E; Caldwell, E F; Stieve-Caldwell, E

    2014-12-01

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li(+) concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li(+) focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li(+) exposure in Arabidopsis with Li(+) uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li(+)-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li(+) resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li(+) exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li(+) exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li(+)-sensitive genes and a gene-based "response plan" for acute and chronic Li(+) exposure are delineated. PMID:25443852

  15. A exposição pré-natal ao álcool como fator de risco para comportamentos disfuncionais: o papel do pediatra Prenatal alcohol exposure as a risk factor for dysfunctional behaviors: the role of the pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2008-08-01

    behavior. We limited our search to studies on humans. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The data presented in this review suggested that youths with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder are at risk of disruptive social behavior, among other neurobehavioral abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is still impossible to completely separate brain teratogenesis secondary to alcohol exposure from environmental postnatal influences as the definite cause for these outcomes, the pediatrician should be encouraged to early diagnose children affected by fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. This provides proper management and care and avoids long-term consequences on their behavior, besides ensuring better and productive school and social adaptation.

  16. Effect of television advertising of alcohol on alcohol consumption and intentions to drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, J; Vardanega, A T; Callan, V J

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol consumption of 120 male and female college students was measured as they viewed a 90-min videotape of popular prime-time television programmes. Independent measures were the sex of the student, their drinker classification (light or moderate-heavy) and the number of alcohol advertisements (0, 6, 12) shown during the screening of the television programmes. Dependent measures were the number of drinks consumed, and the intentions of students to drive a motor vehicle after viewing the videotaped programmes. As predicted, males consumed more alcohol than females, and moderate-heavy drinkers consumed more than light drinkers. Male and female students who viewed six alcohol advertisements consumed more alcohol than students shown no alcohol advertisements or 12 alcohol advertisements. Analysis of intentions to drive after viewing the programmes revealed that the number of drinks consumed was not a significant covariate of driving intentions. Rather light drinkers of both sexes were less likely to intend to drive than moderate-heavy drinkers. Males exposed to alcohol advertisements were less likely to intend to drive than males who did not view alcohol advertisements. Different levels of exposure to alcohol advertisements did not influence the driving intentions of college females. PMID:16840063

  17. Social Modeling Influences and Alcohol Consumption during the First Semester of College: A Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Laura L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine both the alcohol consumption pattern of freshmen students during their first semester and the degree to which social modeling of peer behavior impacts consumption. A total of 534 students, residing on campus, were prospectively examined at four 30-day intervals. Data were evaluated on the basis of age, gender, and the effects…

  18. The Role of Interpersonal Influence as a College Alcohol Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Victoria Orrego; Campbell, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of a social skills prevention program that includes proactive intervention message strategies that students can use when they encounter dangerous alcohol-related situations in social settings is argued to be a valuable tool in reducing current problems associated with high risk drinking. The purpose of this study was to identify…

  19. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. PMID:25733499

  20. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  1. CREB-BDNF Pathway Influences Alcohol Cue-Elicited Hyperactivation in Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayu; Hutchison, Kent E.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Claus, Eric; Turner, Jessica A.; Sui, Jing; Liu, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is suggested to have polygenic risk factors and also exhibits neurological complications, strongly encouraging a translational study to explore the associations between aggregates of genetic variants and brain function alterations related to alcohol use. In this study, we used a semiblind multivariate approach, parallel independent component analysis with multiple references (pICA-MR) to investigate relationships of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with alcohol cue elicited brain activations in 326 healthy drinkers. The genetic component derived from the CREB-BDNF pathway reference was significantly associated (r = −0.36, p = 2.98×10−11) with an imaging component reflecting hyperactivation in precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and posterior cingulate for drinkers with more severe AD scores. The highlighted brain regions participate in many cognitive processes and have been robustly implicated in craving-related studies. The genetic factor highlighted the CREB and BDNF references, as well as other genes including GRM5, GRM7, GRID1, GRIN2A, PRKCA and PRKCB. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that the genetic component was enriched in synaptic plasticity, GABA and protein kinase A signaling. In summary, our findings suggest genetic variations in various neural plasticity and signaling pathways partially explain the variance of precuneus reactivity to alcohol cue which appears to be associated with AD severity. PMID:25939814

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mi; Neff, James Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both…

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  4. The association of ADH and ALDH gene variants with alcohol drinking habits and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Fenger, Mogens; Friedrich, Nele;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in ethanol metabolism may have an influence on both alcohol drinking habits and the susceptibility to health effects of alcohol drinking. Such influences are likely to bias exposure-disease associations in epidemiologic studies of health effects of alcohol drinking. In...... a Caucasian population, we examined the association of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genetic variants with alcohol drinking habits, biomarkers of alcohol exposure, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,216 Danish men...... and women aged 15-77 years participating in a health examination in 1998. The health examination included a self-administered questionnaire (alcohol drinking habits), a physical examination (blood pressure), and various blood tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume...

  5. Influence of sampling on the determination of warfarin and warfarin alcohols in oral fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Lomonaco

    Full Text Available The determination of warfarin, RS/SR- and RR/SS-warfarin alcohols in oral fluid may offer additional information to the INR assay. This study aimed to establish an optimized sampling technique providing the best correlation between the oral fluid and the unbound plasma concentrations of these compounds.Samples of non-stimulated and stimulated oral fluid, and blood were collected from 14 patients undergoing warfarin therapy. After acidification, analytes were extracted with a dichloromethane/hexane mixture and determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Plasma samples were also ultrafiltered for the determination of the unbound fraction. The chromatographic separation was carried out in isocratic conditions with a phosphate buffer/methanol mobile phase on a C-18 reversed-phase column. The absence of interfering compounds was verified by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF.Stimulation generally increased the oral fluid pH to values close to blood pH in about 6 minutes. The concentration of warfarin and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols in oral fluid followed the same trend, whereas the concentration of RR/SS-warfarin alcohols was not affected. Six minute stimulation with chewing gum followed by collection with a polyester swab was the best sampling procedure, with a good repeatability (RSD < 10% and relatively low inter-subject variability (RSD  = 30% of the oral fluid to plasma ratio. This procedure provided strong correlations between the measured oral fluid and unbound plasma concentration of warfarin (r  =  0.92, p < 0.001 and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols (r  =  0.84, p < 0.001, as well as between stimulated oral fluid and total plasma concentration of warfarin (r  =  0.78, p < 0.001 and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols (r  =  0.81, p < 0.001.The very good correlation between oral fluid and unbound plasma concentration of warfarin and RS/SR-warfarin alcohols suggests that oral fluid analysis could provide clinically useful information for the monitoring of

  6. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Rüütel; Merike Sisask; Airi Värnik; Peeter Värnik; Vladimir Carli; Camilla Wasserman; Hoven, Christina W.; Marco Sarchiapone; Alan Apter; Judit Balazs; Julio Bobes; Romuald Brunner; Paul Corcoran; Doina Cosman; Christian Haring

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study ...

  7. Perceptual processing strategy and exposure influence the perception of odor mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Le Berre, Elodie; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Beno, Noëlle; Coureaud, Gérard; Etievant, Patrick; Prescott, John

    2008-01-01

    In flavor perception, both experience with the components of odor/taste mixtures and the cognitive strategy used to examine the interactions between the components influence the overall mixture perception. However, the effect of these factors on odor mixtures perception has never been studied. The present study aimed at evaluating whether 1) previous exposure to the odorants included in a mixture or 2) the synthetic or analytic strategy engaged during odorants mixture evaluation determines od...

  8. Combined toxicities of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolite tert-butyl alcohol on earthworms via different exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Youngdae; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are among the major soil contaminants that threaten the health of soil ecosystems. Many MTBE-contaminated sites accumulate TBA, because TBA is the intermediate of MTBE biodegradation. To access the risk of MTBE and TBA in soil, we investigated the combined toxicities of MTBE and TBA using two earthworm species, Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei, as well as the toxic effects via different exposure routes. The combined toxicity showed weak antagonistic effects (LC50mix values were slightly greater than 1.0), and sensitivity toward same pollutants differed in the two earthworm species. Moreover, the toxicity of MTBE and TBA was also affected by the exposure route; both filter paper and artificial soil tests showed that dermal-only exposure to MTBE had an even greater toxic effect than combined dermal and oral exposure. Thus, we suggest that diverse environmental factors including organic materials, the physicochemical properties of the contact media, and the exposure routes of the organism, should be taken into consideration when assessing the effects of pollutants on organisms in diverse environmental systems. PMID:25706436

  9. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a...... cohort study among 1250 postmenopausal breast cancer patients identified among 29 875 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were made at enrollment. Information on survival, socioeconomic position, and comorbidity was...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  10. Is the relationship between type of alcohol and mortality influenced by socio-economic status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of socio-economic status on the relationship between type of alcohol and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A prospective population study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 14,223 men and women participated in the first examination...... of The Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978. The participants were followed up until 18th of September 2001 during which 7208 persons died. The effect of beer, wine and spirits on mortality was stratified according to levels of education, income and cohabitation, and the association was examined...... after controlling for intake of the other types of alcohol, and for sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and time of death from all causes. RESULTS: Consumers of wine were better educated and wealthier compared with beer and spirits drinkers. The association...

  11. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: Interactions between child temperament and parenting in adolescent alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    RIOUX, CHARLIE; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Richard E Tremblay; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted...

  12. Influence of the Flushing Response in the Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Hae Sun; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Jin Gyu; Yoon, Seok Jun; Ahn, Jae Bum

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and alcohol consumption according to facial flushing after drinking among Korean men. Methods The subjects were 1,817 Korean men (non-drinker group, 283 men; drinking-related facial flushing group, 662 men; non-flushing group, 872 men) >30 years who had undergone comprehensive health examinations at the health promotion center of a Chungnam National University Hospital between 2007 and 200...

  13. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    O.I. Kostin; T.I. Dzhandarova; Т.В. Kostina

    2009-01-01

    The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradr...

  14. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Risk for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carmiol, Nasdia; Peralta, Juan M; Almasy, Laura; Contreras, Javier; Pacheco, Adriana; Escamilla, Michael A.; Knowles, Emma E; Raventós, Henriette; Glahn, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a high rate of comorbidity, more than 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder also receive a diagnosis of AUD in their lifetimes. Although both disorders are heritable, it is unclear if the same genetic factors mediate risk for bipolar disorder and AUD. We examined 733 Costa Rican individuals from 61 bipolar pedigrees. Based on a best-estimate process, 32% of the sample met criteria for bipolar disorder, 17% had a lifetime AUD diagnosis, 3...

  15. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  16. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  17. An investigation into the proteins responsible for the translational inhibition seen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae following fusel alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Jemma

    2013-01-01

    Fusel alcohols signal nitrogen scarcity to elicit a range of responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These alcohols activate pseudohyphal growth and cause rapid inhibition of translation initiation. Previous work from our lab has highlighted that the translation initiation factor eIF2B is a target for this regulation. eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor required for recycling eIF2•GDP to eIF2•GTP. The GTP bound form of eIF2 can interact with the Methionyl initiator tRNA ...

  18. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  19. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  20. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Russell A.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  1. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  2. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  3. Influence of fuels, weather and the built environment on the exposure of property to wildfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Penman

    Full Text Available Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment--either fuel reduction (prescribed fire or fuel removal (fuel breaks. Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates.

  4. Influence of fuels, weather and the built environment on the exposure of property to wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Trent D.; Collins, Luke S.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Bradstock, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment – either fuel reduction (prescribed fire) or fuel removal (fuel breaks). Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates.

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders -a population-based prospective study of 80 552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake >/=5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism. METHODS: Participants were 80 552 children and their mothers enro...

  6. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain...

  7. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob L. Orquin; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and ...

  8. Influences of social stress in the rewarding effects of mdma and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    García Pardo, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    La adicción a las drogas es un importante problema en nuestra sociedad con graves consecuencias jurídicas, médicas y sociales para los consumidores. Se trata de un trastorno caracterizado por la pérdida de control sobre el uso de la droga, su búsqueda compulsiva y la aparición de un estado emocional negativo en ausencia de la misma. El alcohol es la droga legal más consumida tanto por adultos como por adolescentes. Por otra parte, entre las sustancias ilegales, los datos epidemiológicos apunt...

  9. Influence of Calcium Ion on Ethanol Tolerance of Saccharomyces bayanus and Alcoholic Fermentation by Yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, Regina C.; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Viegas, Cristina A.; Novais, Júlio M.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of Ca2+ (as CaCl2) in optimal concentrations (0.75 to 2.0 mM) to a fermentation medium with a trace contaminating concentration of Ca2+ (0.025 mM) led to the rapid production of higher concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Kluyveromyces marxianus. The positive effect of calcium supplementation (0.75 mM) on alcoholic fermentation by S. bayanus was explained by the increase in its ethanol tolerance. The ethanol inhibition of growth and fe...

  10. Influence of charge exchange in acidic aqueous and alcoholic titania dispersions on viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jarl B; Dahlsten, Per

    2015-12-01

    Charging effects resulting from adsorption of acid, acid anions, and protons on titania (anatase) surfaces in anhydrous or mixed alcohol-water dispersions is summarized. The suddenly enhanced conductivity as compared to titania-free solutions has previously been modeled and explained as surface-induced electrolytic dissociation (SIED) of weak acids. This model and recently published results identifying concurrent surface-induced liquid (solvent) dissociation (SILD) are evaluated with experimentally determined conductivity and pH of solutions, zeta-potential of particles, and viscosity of dispersions. Titania (0-25wt%)-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and propanol) dispersions mixed with (0-100wt%) water were acidified with oxalic, phosphoric, and sulfuric acids. It was found that the experimental results could in many cases be condensed to master curves representing extensive experimental results. These curves reveal that major properties of the systems appear within three concentration regions were different mechanisms (SILD, surface-induced liquid dissociation; SIAD, surface-induced acid dissociation) and charge rearrangement were found to be simultaneously active. In particular, zeta-potential - pH and viscosity - pH curves are in acidified non-polar solvents mirror images to those dependencies observed in aqueous dispersions to which hydroxyl is added. The results suggest that multiple dispersion and adsorption equilibria should be considered in order to characterize the presented exceptionally extensive and complex experimental results. PMID:26520241

  11. Influence of neurobehavioral incentive valence and magnitude on alcohol drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E; Zhu, Xun; Corbly, Christine R; DeSantis, Stacia; Lee, Dustin C; Baik, Grace; Kiser, Seth; Jiang, Yang; Lynam, Donald R; Kelly, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The monetary incentive delay (MID) task is a widely used probe for isolating neural circuitry in the human brain associated with incentive motivation. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 82 young adults, characterized along dimensions of impulsive sensation seeking, completed a MID task. fMRI and behavioral incentive functions were decomposed into incentive valence and magnitude parameters, which were used as predictors in linear regression to determine whether mesolimbic response is associated with problem drinking and recent alcohol use. Alcohol use was best explained by higher fMRI response to anticipation of losses and feedback on high gains in the thalamus. In contrast, problem drinking was best explained by reduced sensitivity to large incentive values in mesolimbic regions in the anticipation phase and increased sensitivity to small incentive values in the dorsal caudate nucleus in the feedback phase. Altered fMRI responses to monetary incentives in mesolimbic circuitry, particularly those alterations associated with problem drinking, may serve as potential early indicators of substance abuse trajectories. PMID:25261001

  12. Factors influencing young people's use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Jones, Sandra C; Stafford, Julia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A growing evidence base demonstrates the negative health outcomes associated with the consumption of energy drinks (ED) and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED), especially among young people. Work to date has focused on the physiological effects of ED and AMED use and the motivations associated with consumption, typically among college students. The present study adopted an exploratory, qualitative approach with a community sample of 18-21 year olds to identify relevant barriers, motivators, and facilitators to AMED use and to explicate the decision-making processes involved. The sensitisation method was used to collect data from a cohort of 60 young adult drinkers over a period of six months via individual interviews, focus groups, and introspections. The findings indicate that there may be a general understanding of the negative consequences of AMED use, and that these consequences can constitute barriers that serve to discourage frequent consumption among young people. This outcome suggests the potential application of positive deviance and social norms approaches in interventions designed to reduce AMED use among this population segment. The results are promising in the identification of a large number of concerns among young adults relating to AMED use. These concerns can constitute the focus of future communications with this target group. The results are likely to have relevance to other countries, such as the US and the UK, that share similar alcohol cultures and where energy drinks have achieved comparable market penetration rates. PMID:26449126

  13. Parenting under the influence: the effects of opioids, alcohol and cocaine on mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Brigham, Gregory S

    2014-05-01

    Nearly 20% of adults receiving treatment for a substance use disorder live with their minor children (Stanger et al., 1999) and women in drug use treatment are twice as likely as men to have children in their household (Wechsberg et al., 1998). Parental drug use impacts the family through reduced family resources such as money and food, and researchers consistently note parenting deficits among substance users (Solis, Shadur, Burns, & Hussong, 2012). Little is known about differences in parenting and mother-child interaction among mothers with different drugs of choice or among mothers of older children, between 8 and 16 years. This study reports the findings from a sample of treatment seeking opioid, alcohol and cocaine using mothers and their 8-16-year-old child. Findings from a mother-child observational task and self-reported parenting measure indicated less undermining autonomy and higher mother maternal acceptance among opioid compared to alcohol addicted mothers. African American mothers were observed to have fewer negative interactional behaviors than Whites and both African American mothers and children self-reported higher firm control and maternal acceptance. Overall, mothers appeared to struggle with effective discipline with older versus younger children. Findings offer useful information to clinicians seeking to effectively tailor their interventions to women and children who present with different drugs of abuse, race/culture and developmental stage of child. PMID:24589871

  14. Breakfasts that release glucose at different speeds interact with previous alcohol intake to influence cognition and mood before and after lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Nabb, Samantha

    2004-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and the glycemic load (GL) of a meal interact to influence both mood and memory. The authors compared the effects of eating a high GL lunch on mood and memory after consumption of a breakfast high in either rapidly (RAG) or slowly (SAG) available glucose. When less than 4.5 g of alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the eating of a high RAG meal was associated with better memory later in the morning. In contrast, after more than 4.5 g of alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the SAG meal resulted in better memory. After lunch, if more than 4.5 g alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the RAG breakfast, but neither the SAG meal nor fasting, resulted in a more confused feeling. PMID:15506876

  15. Does chronic occupational exposure to volatile anesthetic agents influence the rate of neutrophil apoptosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goto, Y

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine whether the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in health care workers is influenced by exposure to volatile anesthetic agents. METHODS: Percentage neutrophil apoptosis (Annexin-V FITC assay) was measured in health care workers (n = 20) and unexposed volunteers (n = 10). For the health care workers, time weighted personal exposure monitoring to N2O, sevoflurane and isoflurane was carried out. RESULTS: The sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations to which health care workers were exposed were less than recommended levels in all 20 cases. Percent apoptosis was less at 24 (but not at one and 12) hr culture in health care workers [50.5 (9.7)%; P = 0.008] than in unexposed volunteers [57.3 (5.1)%]. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis at 24 hr culture was demonstrated in health care workers chronically exposed to volatile anesthetic agents. Exposure was well below recommended levels in the both scavenged and unscavenged work areas in which the study was carried out. Further study is required to assess the effect of greater degrees of chronic exposure to volatile anesthetic agents on neutrophil apoptosis.

  16. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  17. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  18. Risk, control and self-identity: Young drunk drivers' experiences with driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2014-01-01

    the first category view a DUI arrest as a loss of control and a reminder of the risk of DUI. Those in the second present DUI as a reaction to what they perceive as untenable social demands. Those in the third see loss of control - such as causing a traffic accident - as the ultimate way of claiming...... control over their lives. CONCLUSION - The study shows that young drunk drivers have different associations with DUI-related risks. The more constrained they feel in relation to society, the more likely it is that they will divorce negative experiences related to DUI such as being arrested or causing a......This article explores how young Danish drunk (and drug) drivers relate to the risk of driving under the influence (DUI). DESIGN - The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers who in 2010 participated in mandatory alcohol and traffic safety courses. The analysis...

  19. Influence of nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance of different wine yeast species during alcoholic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Monteiro Lomba Viana, Tiago; Ardö, Ylva;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of twenty different single (i.e. 19 amino acids and ammonium sulphate) and two multiple nitrogen sources (N-sources) on growth and fermentation (i.e. glucose consumption and ethanol production) performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of four wine-related non......-Saccharomyces yeast species (Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Torulaspora delbrueckii) was investigated during alcoholic fermentation. Briefly, the N-sources with beneficial effects on all performance parameters (or for the majority of them) for each yeast species were...... L. thermotolerans, H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima, single amino acids affected growth and fermentation performance to the same extent as the mixtures. Moreover, we found groups of N-sources with similar effects on the growth and/or fermentation performance of two or more yeast species. Finally, the...

  20. Melanin-concentrating hormone expression in the rat hypothalamus is not affected in an experiment of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chometton, Sandrine; Franchi-Bernard, Gabrielle; Houdayer, Christophe; Mariot, Amandine; Poncet, Fabrice; Fellmann, Dominique; Risold, Pierre-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a "fetal alcoholic syndrome" (FAS) in the progeny. This syndrome is characterized by important brain defects often associated to a decreased expression of the morphogenic protein sonic hedgehog (Shh). The goal of this study was to verify if a FAS could modify the differentiation of hypothalamic neurons producing MCH. Indeed, the expression of this peptide and neurons producing it are dependent of a Shh controlled genetic cascade in the embryo. To address this question, female rats received a 15% ethanol solution to drink during pregnancy and lactation. Higher abortion rate and smaller pups at birth confirmed that descendants were affected by this experimental condition. MCH expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in embryos taken at E11 and E13, or in pups and young adults born from control and alcoholic mothers. MCH expression level, number of MCH neurons or ratio of MCH sub-populations were not modified by our experimental conditions. However, Shh expression was significantly lover at E11 and we also observed that hindbrain serotonergic neurons were affected as reported in the literature. These findings as well as other data from the literature suggest that protective mechanisms are involved to maintain peptide expressions and differentiation of some specific neuron populations in the ventral diencephalon in surviving embryos exposed to ethanol during pregnancy. PMID:25093909

  1. Influence of prenatal arsenic exposure and newborn sex on global methylation of cord blood DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Richard Pilsner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. DESIGN: Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs, maternal blood As (mbAs and cord blood As (cbAs. Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. RESULTS: In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1 and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively. Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58 but negative among female newborns (N = 43; tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07. Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm

  2. Pulse radiolysis of malachite green leucocyanide in alcoholic solvents, the influence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solutions of malachite green leucocyanide (MGCN) in methanol, n-propanol and 2-propanol were investigated using pulse radiolysis. In the presence of oxygen, MG+-carbonium ions were radiolytically formed in two different time steps. The yield of MG+ in the slower process was dependent on oxygen concentration and was proportional to the yield of intermediate MG radicals. The yield of MG was about ten times higher in 2-propanol than in methanol and n-propanol solutions. The reactants responsible for MG oxidation to MG+ were RO2, hydroxyalkylperoxyl radicals derived from alcohols. The rate constant for MG reaction with RO2 were estimated as (6.5±1) x 108M-1s-1. The molar extinction coefficient of MG was calculated. (author)

  3. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.

  4. Friends as a Bridge to Parental Influence: Implications for Adolescent Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates the possibility that friendship networks connect adolescents to influence from a broader group of adults beyond their own families. In doing so, we combine two rich traditions of research on adult influence on children and adolescents. Family research has suggested a number of ways in which effective parenting can reduce deviant behavior among adolescents. In addition, research on neighborhoods has advanced the idea that adults outside of the immediate family ca...

  5. Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  6. The Moderating Role of Parental Monitoring on the Influence of Peer Pro-Drug Norms on Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason T.; Ayón, Cecilia; Blanchard, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data drawn from a study of 980 adolescents living in Tijuana, Mexico, in February 2009 to examine whether parental monitoring had a moderating impact on the influence of peer pro-drug norms on lifetime and past-30-day alcohol and cigarette use among a group of adolescents living along the United States-Mexico border. The…

  7. The combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Østergaard; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Schnohr, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on the risk of subsequent fatal ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort study of 11 914 Danes aged 20 years or older and without pre...

  8. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  9. Do competence skills moderate the impact of social influences to drink and perceived social benefits of drinking on alcohol use among inner-city adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Bang, Heejung; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2007-03-01

    Only a few studies have found competence skills to be a protective factor against adolescent alcohol use; others did not find a direct effect on alcohol. A possible reason for this is that competence skills may moderate the effects of risk factors for alcohol use and that aspect has not been examined often or in a longitudinal design. This study tested whether several competence skills served either as direct protective factors against alcohol use or moderators of the impact of social risk factors on alcohol use. Participants (N = 1318) completed questionnaires that included measures of decision-making skills, refusal skill techniques, resisting media influences, friends' drinking and perceived social benefits of drinking, as well as current drinking amount and future drinking at baseline, one-year follow-up and two-year follow-up. Data analyses were conducted using multi-level mixed effects generalized linear models with random intercept. All the competence skills and the risk factors predicted current and future drinking. Several significant interactions were found between (1) perceived social benefits of drinking and decision-making skills, (2) perceived social benefits of drinking and refusal skill techniques and (3) friends' drinking and refusal skill techniques. Competence skills served as protective factors, as well as moderators. One possible reason that competence enhancement approaches to alcohol prevention are effective may be due to the inclusion of the competence skills component. PMID:17106653

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  11. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: Interactions between child temperament and parenting in adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Charlie; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2016-02-01

    Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis-stress model (i.e., impulsive children are more "vulnerable" to adverse PP than those with an easy temperament); and the differential susceptibility model (i.e., impulsive children are also more likely to benefit from good PP). Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP. This supports the suggestion that the conception of certain temperament characteristics, or in this case impulsivity, as a "vulnerability" for adolescent AU, may need revision because it misrepresents the malleability it may imply. PMID:26030853

  12. The influence of long-term intake of alcohol on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings of the head in 120 chronic alcoholics aged 30 to 69 yrs. were compared with those of 93 controls matched in age. The patient group showed a definitely higher incidence of dilatation the brain surface and the ventricular system. The dilatation in the patients had no preferred site, both the brain surface and ventricular system being affected in most cases. In the patients no constant relation was noted between CT findings and the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, intellectual impairement, hepatic dysfunction or malnutrition. CT abnormality was not always reflected on EEG in the patients. The reversibility of abnormal CT could not be confirmed. CT findings of habitual drinkers (35 subjects in their 50s) living with no social or familial trouble were compared with those of non-drinkers (35 subjects in the same generation). The incidence of dilatation of various regions and the frequency of such cases in the habitual drinkers were definitely higher than those of the non-drinkers. (Chiba, N.)

  13. Influence of polyvinyl alcohol amount on producing in situ photo-crosslinked thioamide functionalized nanofiber membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytuncu Bihter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol/maleic anhydride/acryloyl thioamide monomer (PVA/MA/ATM photo-cured nanofiber membranes and pure PVA nanofiber membranes were produced by electrospinning technique. In situ UV radiation was applied during the electrospinning in order to provide polymerization during the jet flight and promote crosslinking of ATM and MA with PVA. The cross-linking was examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The morphology and thermal behavior of electrospun nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively. The surface area of nanofiber membranes was measured by Brunauer-Emmert-Teller (BET analysis. Furthermore, water durability test was examined. Water durability test demonstrated that in situ photo-cured PVA/MA/ATM nanofiber membrane had the least average mass loss. The surface areas of PVA/MA/ATM nanofiber membranes were 160-280 m2/g. The surface area and diameter of PVA/MA/ATM nanofibers decreased as the PVA content increased. The diameter of nanofibers was obtained less than 100 nm. The results showed that the water-insoluble nanofiber membranes with better chemical and thermal resistance were obtained. These nanofiber membranes may be a promising candidate for the usage of water treatment.

  14. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E.; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = −0.18, P < 0.001), that SS influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) and indirectly through ESB and RE (b = 0.15, P < 0.001), and that ESB influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P < 0.001) and indirectly through RE (b = 0.28, P < 0.001). These findings indicate that the link between PM and SS to TAU among Chinese adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China. PMID:26986098

  15. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents.From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable.Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = -0.18, P < 0.001), that SS influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) and indirectly through ESB and RE (b = 0.15, P < 0.001), and that ESB influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P < 0.001) and indirectly through RE (b = 0.28, P < 0.001).These findings indicate that the link between PM and SS to TAU among Chinese adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China. PMID:26986098

  16. Parental and Peer Influences on Alcohol Use during the Transition out of College

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Stephen J.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Parental and peer drinking and attitudes have been identified as predictors of drinking during adolescence and the transition to college, but little is known about these influences during the transition out of college. The current study assessed the influence of parents and peers on drinking behavior in a large sample of college drinkers (N=1,665), using a cross-lagged panel SEM model across three time-points: final year of college and annually for the following two years. Multigroup models w...

  17. Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing

  18. Driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol in Salzburg and Upper Austria during the years 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas; Keller, Andrea; Tutsch-Bauer, Edith; Monticelli, Fabio

    2009-04-01

    Until 2002 in Austria a blood sample could not be drawn due to regulations stipulated by the Austrian constitution. During the years 2003-2007 alcohol, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs were analyzed in 1167 blood samples from cases of suspected and drugged drivers. In accordance with the findings of the EU-project Rosita, a wide variety of illicit drugs and medications could be found in blood samples of the drivers where cannabis (50%), opiates (20%), amphetamines (18%), cocaine (15%) and benzodiazepines (20%) were those with the highest prevalence. To enable police and medical officers to identify drivers under the influence of cannabis, a newly developed urinary road-site-test system, Check 24 (Protzek GmbH, Germany), with two different cut-off values for THCCOOH-glucuronide was used. So far, it was not possible to draw any conclusions from a cannabinoid positive urine sample to the actual influence of a driver due to the previous consumption of cannabis. Using this test a better differentiation between recent and temporal earlier consumption was possible. In addition to using the Check 24 system the technology of pupillography (AMTech GmbH, Germany) was applied in cases of drugged driving. For the first time the authors were able to predict the presence of at least one central nervous active substance in the blood of a drugged driver. PMID:19282219

  19. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  20. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  1. Social influences on young adults' alcohol consumption: norms, modeling, pressure, socializing, and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostveen, T; Knibbe, R; de Vries, H

    1996-01-01

    This study aims to assess which types of social influence are correlated with young people's (15-24 years) heavy drinking (six or more glasses) in public drinking places during the weekend. Drinking in public drinking places can be defined as a "timeout" situation. Therefore we assumed that situational factors (e.g., importance of socializing and direct pressures on drinking) would contribute more to the explained variance than variables indicating cognitive social influences (e.g., social norms and modeling). Stepwise regression analyses showed that in total 25% of the variance was explained by social norms of family and peers (15%), importance of socializing in drinking situations (7%), modeling (2%) and group size (1%). The results show that both a cognitive factor and a situational factor appear to be most strongly correlated with young people's frequency of heavy drinking in public drinking places. Within the category of situational influences those variables indicating direct social pressures were only weakly related or not significant. Studies focusing on measuring the impact of social influences may profit from including the concept of the importance of socializing and conformity as an additional factor. PMID:8730520

  2. The effect of exposure to alcohol-associated cues on the psychological craving and physiological changes after discontinuation of alcohol drinking in alcohol dependence patients%酒环境线索暴露对酒依赖者停止饮酒后心理渴求及生理活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学义; 张云淑; 姚绍敏; 金圭星; 罗金菊; 刘小玉; 陆林

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨酒环境暴露对酒依赖者心理渴求及生理活动的影响.方法 选择停止饮酒40 d的64例酒依赖患者和32名正常受试者(正常对照组)为研究对象,将患者分为试验组(暴露于酒环境)和患者对照组(暴露于牛奶环境),每组各32例,分别暴露于相关环境线索,于暴露前、暴露后的第1天、第1周和第4周测试三组的心理渴求以及心率、血压、血氢化可的松水平的变化.结果 (1)患者试验组和患者对照组的血浆氢化可的松水平于暴露前[分别为(77±40)μg/L和(75±40)μg/L]、暴露后第1天[分别为(123±56)μg/L和(77±40)μg/L]均高于正常对照组[(47±26)μg/L和(47±31)μg/L;P<0.05].(2)患者试验组暴露于酒环境后,第1天的心理渴求程度及心率、收缩压、舒张压及血氢化可的松水平均较暴露前增高(P<0.05),而第1周和第4周与暴露前比较的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 酒环境暴露后酒依赖者的心理渴求及心率、血压、血氢化可的松水平增高,减少酒环境线索的暴露是降低复饮的重要因素.%Objective To explore the effects of exposure to alcohol-related environment on the psychologial craving and physiological activities in alcohol dependent patients.Methods The 64 alcohol dependence patients with 40-day discontinuation of alcohol drinking were divided into patient experiment group (exposed to alcohol-related environment)and patient control group(exposed to milk),and 32 healthy adults were involved as normal controls.After exposure to the alcol-related clue,the craving index.heart rate,blood pressure(BP)and serum hydrocortisone level were tested. Results The serum hydrocortisone level in the-Patient experiment group and the patient control group[(77±40)μg/L and,(75±40)μg/L respectively] were higher than that in healthy controls[(47±26)μg/L and(47±31)μg/L respectively]before and on the 1st day after exposure[(123±56)μg/L and(77±40)μg/L;P<0.05].0n

  3. Sex differences in the effects of ethanol pre-exposure during adolescence on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Berthold, Claire; Koss, Wendy A.; Juraska, Janice M.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use, which typically begins during adolescence and differs between males and females, is influenced by both the rewarding and aversive properties of the drug. One way adolescent alcohol use may modulate later consumption is by reducing alcohol s aversive properties. Here, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to determine if pre-exposure to alcohol (ethanol) during adolescence would attenuate ethanol-induced CTA assessed in adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. Male and f...

  4. Early adolescent alcohol use in context: how neighborhoods, parents, and peers impact youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W

    2014-05-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  5. Chronic Generalized Harassment During College: Influences on Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2015-10-01

    The experience of chronic generalized harassment from others can have a deleterious impact on individuals over time. Specifically, coping resources may be taxed, resulting in the use of avoidant coping strategies such as substance use. However, little is known about the experience of chronic generalized harassment (e.g., verbal hostility, manipulation by others, exclusion from important events) and its impact on substance use in collegiate populations. In the current study, we examined the latent growth of generalized harassment across the transition from high school to college, whether this growth was heterogeneous, and the relationships between latent generalized harassment classifications and substance use. Incoming freshmen students (N = 2890; 58% female; 53% white) at eight colleges in Illinois completed a web survey at five points: fall 2011 (baseline), spring 2012 (T1), fall 2012 (T2), fall 2013 (T3) and fall 2014 (T4). Students were required to be at least 18 years old at baseline, and were compensated with online gift certificates. Two-part latent class growth analysis was implemented in order to examine heterogeneous growth over time. The results supported a two-class solution (infrequent and chronic classes) for generalized harassment. Growth in harassment was characterized by a decrease from baseline through college entry, with a recovery in rates by T3. Members of the chronically harassed class had greater mean generalized harassment over time, and were less likely to report zero instances of harassment experiences. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic class predicted future binge drinking, drinking to intoxication, problems due to alcohol use, and cigarette use, but not marijuana use. Future interventions should focus on providing college students with resources to help cope with distress stemming from persistent generalized harassment from peers, faculty, and other individuals in higher-education settings. PMID:26081935

  6. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  7. Influence of electrochemically activated water on fermentation activity of alcoholic yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Паньків, Наталія Олегівна; Паляниця, Любов Ярославівна; Косів, Руслана Богданівна; Березовська, Наталія Іванівна

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of researches are devoted to various methods of activation of water and aqueous solutions. Activated water has other specific properties. Under the influence of this water the fermentation activity increases and accumulation of biomass organisms improves, metabolism enhances, extraction properties improve and its antibacterial and antioxidant properties become apparent.One of the methods of water treatment, which belongs to the physical, is an electrochemical activation. It is ...

  8. Making the transition from high school to college: the role of alcohol-related social influence factors in students' drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Wood, Mark D; Davidoff, Orion J; McLacken, Julie; Campbell, James F

    2002-03-01

    Using a sample of entering college freshmen (N = 311), the purposes of this study were to examine 1). whether perceived norms for college student alcohol use and problems differed by gender and level of intended Greek involvement (Greek intent); 2). associations between perceived norms, Greek intent, and alcohol use and problems; and 3). whether relations between perceived norms, Greek intent, and alcohol use and problems were moderated by gender. Results revealed no differences in levels of perceived norms for alcohol use and problems as a function of gender or intention to affiliate with a Greek letter organization. Perceived norms demonstrated consistent, significant associations with both alcohol use and problems, while Greek intent demonstrated significant associations only with alcohol problems. Examination of gender effects in associations between perceived norms, Greek intent, and alcohol use and problems revealed a number of differences in these relations. Specifically, Greek intent was significantly associated with measures of alcohol use and problems for men, but not for women. Likewise, the association between perceived norms and alcohol use and problems were significant for men, but not for women. Finally, although perceived norms were a significant predictor of heavy drinking for both men and women, the association was much stronger among male students. These findings suggest that alcohol prevention interventions may benefit from specifically targeting perceived norms among incoming students who are at highest risk (i.e., male pledges). PMID:12444360

  9. Differential Brain Response to Alcohol Cue Distractors across Stages of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, Susanna L.; Jorgensen, Kasper W.; Yetter, Elizabeth J.; Daurignac, Elsa C.; Watson, Todd D.; Shanbhag, Harshad; Krystal, John H.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Altered attention to alcohol-related cues is implicated in the craving and relapse cycle characteristic of alcohol dependence (ALC). Prior cue reactivity studies typically invoke explicit attention to alcohol cues, so the neural response underlying incidental cue exposure remains unclear. Here, we embed infrequent, task-irrelevant alcohol and non-alcohol cues in an attention-demanding task, enabling evaluation of brain responses to distracting alcohol cues. Alcohol dependent individuals, acro...

  10. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  11. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta Jadwiga;

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The...... present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood.......Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The...

  12. Maternal Music Exposure during Pregnancy Influences Neonatal Behaviour: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of antenatal music exposure to primigravida healthy mothers on the behaviour of their term appropriate-for-date newborns assessed using Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS. Methods. This was a single-centre, randomized, open-label controlled trial. Primigravida mothers aged 19–29 years, free of chronic medical diseases or significant deafness, with singleton pregnancy, with a gestation of 20 weeks or less, were randomized to listen to a pre-recorded music cassette for approximately 1 hour/day in addition to standard antenatal care (intervention arm or standard care only (control arm. Perinatal factors with adverse effect on neonatal behaviour were deemed as protocol violations. Outcome measure included scores on 7 clusters of BNBAS. Primary analysis was per protocol. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01278329. Results. One hundred and twenty-six newborns in the music group and 134 in the control group were subjected to BNBAS assessment. The infants of mothers exposed to music during pregnancy performed significantly better on 5 of the 7 BNBAS clusters. The maximal beneficial effect was seen with respect to orientation (ES 1.13, 95% CI 0.82–1.44, <0.0001 and habituation (ES 1.05, 95% CI 0.53–1.57, =0.0001. Conclusion. Prenatal music exposure to mother significantly and favourably influences neonatal behaviour.

  13. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Ely

    Full Text Available We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica, cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, and black brant (Branta bernicla, were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006-2010 (n = 14,323. Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1-3% and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40-60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds <45 days of age showed little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  15. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten;

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantificatio...... development during the past 30 years caused an increase in flood exposure that is comparable to what is expected in the RCP4.5 (+2°C) climate scenario....

  16. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  17. Influence of alcohol additives in the preparation of electrodeposited Pt-Ru catalysts on oxidized graphite cloths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by potential pulse electrodeposition from solutions containing EtOH or EG at pH 2 and 5. → The catalyst particle size, loading and dispersion were influenced by solution pH and alcohol addition. → The deposits prepared at pH 2 exhibited large irregular agglomerates while those prepared at pH 5 presented smaller globular particles. → Pt-Ru system prepared using EG at pH 5 exhibited the best performance for CH3OH oxidation. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by multiple cycles of potentiostatic pulses from aqueous diluted chloroplatinic acid and ruthenium chloride solutions in the presence of ethanol or ethylene glycol at pH 2 and 5. SEM images showed that the metallic deposit prepared at pH 2 consisted of large irregular agglomerates, whereas smaller globular particles were obtained at pH 5. In addition, the average particle size was considerably decreased in the presence of the stabilizers. The supported Pt-Ru alloys were tested as catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode was obtained with ethylene glycol as additive at pH 5.

  18. Risk, control and self-identity: Young drunk drivers’ experiences with driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fynbo Lars

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This article explores how young Danish drunk (and drug drivers relate to the risk of driving under the influence (DUI. DESIGN - The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers who in 2010 participated in mandatory alcohol and traffic safety courses. The analysis follows Stephen Lyng’s concept of “edgework”, focusing on volitional risk taking and its effect on the acting individual’s self-identity. RESULTS - Drawing on the interviewees’ accounts of being arrested for drunk driving, the analysis discusses three different categories of young drunk drivers. Those in the first category view a DUI arrest as a loss of control and a reminder of the risk of DUI. Those in the second present DUI as a reaction to what they perceive as untenable social demands. Those in the third see loss of control - such as causing a traffic accident - as the ultimate way of claiming control over their lives. CONCLUSION - The study shows that young drunk drivers have different associations with DUI-related risks. The more constrained they feel in relation to society, the more likely it is that they will divorce negative experiences related to DUI such as being arrested or causing a traffic accident.

  19. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlang, Banrida [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Song, Ming [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cameron Falkner, K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Al-Eryani, Laila [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E. [Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Christopher States, J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cave, Matthew C., E-mail: matt.cave@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); The Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  20. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  1. Study of the Influence of the Orientation of a 50-Hz Magnetic Field on Fetal Exposure Using Polynomial Chaos Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure modelling is a complex topic, because in a realistic exposure scenario, several parameters (e.g., the source, the orientation of incident fields, the morphology of subjects vary and influence the dose. Deterministic dosimetry, so far used to analyze human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF, is highly time consuming if the previously-mentioned variations are considered. Stochastic dosimetry is an alternative method to build analytical approximations of exposure at a lower computational cost. In this study, it was used to assess the influence of magnetic flux density (B orientation on fetal exposure at 50 Hz by polynomial chaos (PC. A PC expansion of induced electric field (E in each fetal tissue at different gestational ages (GA was built as a function of B orientation. Maximum E in each fetal tissue and at each GA was estimated for different exposure configurations and compared with the limits of the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP Guidelines 2010. PC theory resulted in an efficient tool to build accurate approximations of E in each fetal tissue. B orientation strongly influenced E, with a variability across tissues from 10% to 43% with respect to the mean value. However, varying B orientation, maximum E in each fetal tissue was below the limits of ICNIRP 2010 at all GAs.

  2. Study of the Influence of the Orientation of a 50-Hz Magnetic Field on Fetal Exposure Using Polynomial Chaos Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure modelling is a complex topic, because in a realistic exposure scenario, several parameters (e.g., the source, the orientation of incident fields, the morphology of subjects) vary and influence the dose. Deterministic dosimetry, so far used to analyze human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), is highly time consuming if the previously-mentioned variations are considered. Stochastic dosimetry is an alternative method to build analytical approximations of exposure at a lower computational cost. In this study, it was used to assess the influence of magnetic flux density (B) orientation on fetal exposure at 50 Hz by polynomial chaos (PC). A PC expansion of induced electric field (E) in each fetal tissue at different gestational ages (GA) was built as a function of B orientation. Maximum E in each fetal tissue and at each GA was estimated for different exposure configurations and compared with the limits of the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines 2010. PC theory resulted in an efficient tool to build accurate approximations of E in each fetal tissue. B orientation strongly influenced E, with a variability across tissues from 10% to 43% with respect to the mean value. However, varying B orientation, maximum E in each fetal tissue was below the limits of ICNIRP 2010 at all GAs. PMID:26024363

  3. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  4. Influence of nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance of different wine yeast species during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Viana, Tiago; Ardö, Ylva; Arneborg, Nils

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the influence of twenty different single (i.e. 19 amino acids and ammonium sulphate) and two multiple nitrogen sources (N-sources) on growth and fermentation (i.e. glucose consumption and ethanol production) performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of four wine-related non-Saccharomyces yeast species (Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Torulaspora delbrueckii) was investigated during alcoholic fermentation. Briefly, the N-sources with beneficial effects on all performance parameters (or for the majority of them) for each yeast species were alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, isoleucine, ammonium sulphate, serine, valine and mixtures of 19 amino acids and of 19 amino acids plus ammonium sulphate (for S. cerevisiae), serine (for L. thermotolerans), alanine (for H. uvarum), alanine and asparagine (for M. pulcherrima), arginine, asparagine, glutamine, isoleucine and mixture of 19 amino acids (for T. delbrueckii). Furthermore, our results showed a clear positive effect of complex mixtures of N-sources on S. cerevisiae and on T. delbrueckii (although to a lesser extent) as to all performance parameters studied, whereas for L. thermotolerans, H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima, single amino acids affected growth and fermentation performance to the same extent as the mixtures. Moreover, we found groups of N-sources with similar effects on the growth and/or fermentation performance of two or more yeast species. Finally, the influences of N-sources observed for T. delbrueckii and H. uvarum resembled those of S. cerevisiae the most and the least, respectively. Overall, this work contributes to an improved understanding of how different N-sources affect growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production of wine-related yeast species under oxygen-limited conditions, which, in turn, may be used to, e.g. optimize growth and fermentation performance of the given yeast upon N-source supplementation during

  5. Prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes of peri-conceptional alcohol exposure--retrospective cohort study in an urban obstetric population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullally, Aoife

    2011-04-01

    Evidence-based advice on alcohol consumption is required for pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes associated with peri-conceptional alcohol consumption.

  6. The influence of geographic location on population exposure to emissions from power plants throughout China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Levy, J.I.; Evans, J.S.; Hammitt, J.K. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2006-04-15

    This analysis seeks to evaluate the influence of emission source location on population exposure in China to fine particles and sulfur dioxide. We use the concept of intake fraction, defined as the fraction of material or its precursor released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We select 29 power-plant sites throughout China and estimate annual average intake fractions at each site, using identical source characteristics to isolate the influence of geographic location. In addition, we develop regression models to interpret the intake fraction values and allow for extrapolation to other sites. To model the concentration increase due to emissions from selected power plants, we used a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. Primary fine particles have the highest average intake fraction (1 x 10{sup -5}), followed by sulfur dioxide (5 x 10{sup -6}), sulfate from sulfur dioxide (4 x 10{sup -6}), and nitrate from nitrogen oxides (4 x 10{sup -6}). In the regression analysis, the independent variables are meteorological proxies (such as climate region and precipitation) and population at various distances from the source. We find that population terms can explain a substantial percentage of variability in the intake fraction for all pollutants, with a significant modifying influence of meteorological regime. Near-source population is more important for primary coarse particles while population at medium to long distance is more important for primary fine particles and secondary particles. A significant portion of intake fraction (especially for secondary particles and primary fine particles) occurs beyond 500 km of the source, emphasizing the need for detailed long-range dispersion modeling.

  7. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  8. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  9. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure alters brain and systemic responses to reach sodium and water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, A; Abate, P; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L; Molina, J C

    2015-12-17

    The aim of the present work is to analyze how prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure to a moderate dose (2.0 g/kg; group Pre-EtOH) during gestational days (GD) 17-20 affects hydroelectrolyte regulatory responses. This type of exposure has been observed to increase ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal day 30-32). In this study we analyzed basal brain neural activity and basal-induced sodium appetite (SA) and renal response stimulated by sodium depletion (SD) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption as a function of vehicle or ethanol during late pregnancy. In adolescent offspring, SD was induced by furosemide and a low-sodium diet treatment (FURO+LSD). Other animals were analyzed in terms of immunohistochemical detection of Fra-like (Fra-LI-ir) protein and serotonin (5HT) and/or vasopressin (AVP). The Pre-EtOH group exhibited heightened voluntary ethanol intake and a reduction in sodium and water intake induced by SD relative to controls. Basal Na and K concentrations in urine were also reduced in Pre-EtOH animals while the induced renal response after FURO treatment was similar across prenatal treatments. However, the correlation between urine volume and water intake induced by FURO significantly varied across these treatments. At the brain level of analysis, the number of basal Fra-LI-ir was significantly increased in AVP magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in 5HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in Pre-EtOH pups. In the experimental group, we also observed a significant increase in Fra-LI along the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the central extended amygdala nuclei. In summary, moderate Pre-EtOH exposure produces long-lasting changes in brain organization, affecting basal activity of central extended amygdala nuclei, AVP neurons and the inhibitory areas of SA such as the NTS and the 5HT-DRN. These changes possibly modulate the above described variations in basal-induced drinking behaviors and renal

  10. The Influence of Personality Disorder Indication, Social Support, and Grief on Alcohol and Cocaine Use among HIV-Positive Adults Coping with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Connell, Christian M.; Tate, David C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol ...

  11. La influencia de la historia familiar de consumo de alcohol en hombres y mujeres The influence of family history on alcohol intake in males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermina Natera-Rey; Guilherme Borges; Ma. Elena Medina-Mora Icaza; Luis Solís-Rojas; Marcela Tiburcio-Sainz

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar el riesgo para el uso excesivo de etanol en personas con historia familiar positiva de consumo de alcohol (HF+). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos corresponden a una muestra de población general (n= 8 890) y fueron recopilados a partir de una encuesta nacional de adicciones en población urbana de México, realizada en 1988. Se determinaron medidas epidemiológicas de frecuencia y asociación considerando los antecedentes de HF+ como factor de exposición. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia ...

  12. Perceptual processing strategy and exposure influence the perception of odor mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Elodie; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Béno, Noëlle; Coureaud, Gérard; Etiévant, Patrick; Prescott, John

    2008-02-01

    In flavor perception, both experience with the components of odor/taste mixtures and the cognitive strategy used to examine the interactions between the components influence the overall mixture perception. However, the effect of these factors on odor mixtures perception has never been studied. The present study aimed at evaluating whether 1) previous exposure to the odorants included in a mixture or 2) the synthetic or analytic strategy engaged during odorants mixture evaluation determines odor representation. Blending mixtures, in which subjects perceived a unique quality distinct from those of components, were chosen in order to induce a priori synthetic perception. In the first part, we checked whether the chosen mixtures presented blending properties for our subjects. In the second part, 3 groups of participants were either exposed to the odorants contributing to blending mixtures with a "pineapple" or a "red cordial" odor or nonexposed. In a following task, half of each group was assigned to a synthetic or an analytical task. The synthetic task consisted of rating how typical (i.e., representative) of the target odor name (pineapple or red cordial) were the mixtures and each of their components. The analytical task consisted of evaluating these stimuli on several scales labeled with the target odor name and odor descriptors of the components. Previous exposure to mixture components was found to decrease mixture typicality but only for the pineapple blending mixture. Likewise, subjects engaged in an analytical task rated both blending mixtures as less typical than did subjects engaged in a synthetic task. This study supports a conclusion that odor mixtures can be perceived either analytically or synthetically according to the cognitive strategy engaged. PMID:18071197

  13. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  14. Influence of ADH1B polymorphism on alcohol use and its subjective effects in a Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Stewart, Trent; Castelluccio, Peter; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Ting-Kai

    2002-10-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Genetic polymorphism at the ADH1B locus (old nomenclature ADH2) results in isozymes with quite different catalytic properties. The frequency of the ADH1B*2 allele varies among ethnic groups. ADH1B*2 is most often observed in Asian populations, and has been shown to be protective against alcoholism. The Jewish population has a higher frequency of the ADH1B*2 allele and lower rates of alcohol-related problems as compared to other Caucasian populations. Thus, it would be of interest to determine whether the ADH1B*2 allele is associated with alcohol consumption and its subjective effects in this group. Four groups of Jewish subjects (male and female college-age samples, and male and female general samples) were recruited from the same region of the United States. All subjects completed a questionnaire to delineate alcohol consumption and its subjective consequences. Genotype at the ADH1B locus was determined for each participant. ADH1B*2 allele frequencies were similar for the Jewish college-age and general population samples. Men in both the college-age and general population in the ADH1B*2 group reported more unpleasant reactions following alcohol consumption than men in the ADH1B*1 group. Men in the general population in the ADH1B*2 group drank alcohol less frequently than men who were homozygous ADH1B*1; there was a similar trend among the women. The ADH1B polymorphism is associated with unpleasant reactions after alcohol consumption, and frequency of alcohol consumption in these Jewish samples. PMID:12244546

  15. Influence of Exposure to Sexually Explicit Films on the Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2015-01-01

    Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs. PMID:26099156

  16. GST M1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MEN TO SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    GSTM1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MEN TO SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes1, SG Selevan2, R. Sram3, DPEvenson4, SD Perreault5. 1VRI, Brno, CR; 2US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC; 3IEM AS CR, Prague, CR; 4SDSU, Brookings, SD; 5US EPA...

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  18. Effects of alcohol and other drugs on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, N K

    1997-01-01

    Children are affected by alcohol and other drug use along three primary paths: in utero through the mother's use, environmentally through both family and community influences, and through their own use. Children who are prenatally exposed are put at risk both through physiological insults and through caregiving deficits in their immediate family. The number of cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in the western world has been estimated at 0.33 cases per 1,000 live births; 200 babies are born with FAS per year in California. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimates that 7.62 million babies (18.6%) were exposed to alcohol during gestation. Current prevalence estimates show about 28.6 million children of alcoholics in the United States, while in California it is estimated that about 17.6% of children lived with a parent who used illegal substances during the past year. Although all the prenatal effects of alcohol are not known, it is clear that there is no safe amount of alcohol to be consumed during pregnancy. There is little consensus, however, on long-term effects from in utero exposure alone because of the influence of adverse environmental factors; prenatal exposure is usually not the final influence, but is reinforced by years of neglect, deprivation, negative behavioral models, and other adverse conditions. And although society places most emphasis upon the negative effects of illicit substances, use of alcohol is strongly associated with crime and family violence. The consequences of use of alcohol and tobacco are more costly to society in terms of health care, accidents, days of work lost, and other social costs. PMID:9110264

  19. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E) ) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs ) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E) and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7. PMID:24489741

  20. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs using the experimental values such as densities (ρ and ultrasonic sound velocities (u that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  1. 影响黄酒中高级醇含量的工艺因素探讨%Technical factors influencing content of higher alcohols in rice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔小勇; 冷云伟; 孙然; 叶翔; 杨琳

    2011-01-01

    The content of higher alcohols is an important physical and chemical indicator of rice wine. The factors influencing the content of higher alcohols in rice wine were raw materials, additives, yeast species, fermentation technology, downstream processing and so on. To control the content of higher alcohols in rice wine, it is critical to breeding yeast species producing higher alcohols at low level and being stable in property. It was demonstrated that inoculating yeast with high activity of lactate dehydrogenase was an effective way.%高级醇含量是成品黄酒中的重要理化指标,影响黄酒中高级醇含量的因素有:酿酒原辅料、酵母菌种、发酵工艺及后续的处理工艺等.如何选育高级醇生成量相对较低的菌种并保持菌种质量的相对稳定是控制黄酒中高级醇含量的关键因素,通过研究发现,选育乳酸脱氢酶活力很高的酵母可减少高级醇的生成.

  2. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups. PMID:23311876

  3. Alcohol Increases Liver Progenitor Populations and Induces Disease Phenotypes in Human IPSC-Derived Mature Stage Hepatic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lipeng; Deshmukh, Abhijeet; Prasad, Neha; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has long been a global problem affecting human health, and has been found to influence both fetal and adult liver functions. However, how alcohol affects human liver development and liver progenitor cells remains largely unknown. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a model to examine the effects of alcohol, on multi-stage hepatic cells including hepatic progenitors, early and mature hepatocyte-like cells derived from human iPSCs. While alcohol has little effect on endoderm development from iPSCs, it reduces formation of hepatic progenitor cells during early hepatic specification. The proliferative activities of early and mature hepatocyte-like cells are significantly decreased after alcohol exposure. Importantly, at a mature stage of hepatocyte-like cells, alcohol treatment increases two liver progenitor subsets, causes oxidative mitochondrial injury and results in liver disease phenotypes (i.e., steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma associated markers) in a dose dependent manner. Some of the phenotypes were significantly improved by antioxidant treatment. This report suggests that fetal alcohol exposure may impair generation of hepatic progenitors at early stage of hepatic specification and decrease proliferation of fetal hepatocytes; meanwhile alcohol injury in post-natal or mature stage human liver may contribute to disease phenotypes. This human iPSC model of alcohol-induced liver injury can be highly valuable for investigating alcoholic injury in the fetus as well as understanding the pathogenesis and ultimately developing effective treatment for alcoholic liver disease in adults. PMID:27570479

  4. Influence of exposure of pregnant rats to tritiated water (HTO) on swimming function and brain weight of their litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the effects of HTO exposure on the development of central nervous system in rats, the influence of exposure of pregnant rat to HTO on the swimming ability of their litters was studies. Experiment was completed in 21 rats and their 237 litters. It was found that exposure of rats to HTO at activity of 0.185 MBq/ml of body water (5 μCi/ml) or 0.740 MBq/ml (20 μCi/ml), begining on the 8th day of gestation, may retard the development of swimming ability in young litters (up to 18 day of life). These findings indicate that exposure to HTO at lower doses (0.20-1.85 Gy) may resut in a retardation of the function of the development of central nervous system in rats

  5. An analysis of influence of input parameters on the external exposure during dismantling of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents an essential phase of facility's lifecycle. The main goal of this process is to achieve partial or complete release from radiation control. This can be successfully done only when all activities are planned and optimized according to the ALARA principle. The presence of radioactivity (whether induced activity or contamination) makes the process of dismantling of large components more difficult, because beside their large dimensions and masses, also the level of activity (several orders higher than natural background) has to be taken into account. The subject of analysis is steam generator used in NPPs with VVER 440 type reactor after about 30 years of standard operation. The results of calculation show the big influence of studied input parameters on the external exposure. After comparison of scenarios it is obvious that the decontamination with decontamination factor of 100 causes about 50-times greater decrease of the dose load than the decay time of 5 years (related to the Scenario 0). The more detailed description of model of steam generator, tasks, scenarios and results analysis will be given in the full paper. (authors)

  6. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ronald G.; ALONZO, DANA; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems double...

  7. The influence of molasses addition on the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation of whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Stanzer; Slobodan Grba; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas; Jasna Mrvčić

    2004-01-01

    Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by yeast Kluyveromyces marxianusZIM 75 in various media based on whey and molasses were monitored. The fermentations were performed under static and semiaerobic conditions at 34°C. Deproteinized whey and molasses were mixed in various proportions to give final sugar mass concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% in medium. The experiments conducted showed that medium with 10 % of sugar (sucrose:lactose=1:1) is optimal for alcoholic fermentations in static and semiae...

  8. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Bortolin Lodi; Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva Marchini; Ana Maria do Espírito Santo; Sigmar de Mello Rode; Leonardo Marchini; Rosilene Fernandes da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided...

  9. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Stephen

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health.

  10. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Perera, A Treshi-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face) to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health) between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health. PMID:24466014

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  12. Influence of Uranium and Polivinyl Alcohol Concentration in the Feed of Sol Gel Process on the Gel Spherical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gel particles have been made at various uranium and polyvinyl alcohol concentration in the sol gel process. The variables of uranium concentration were 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1; 1.3; 1.5; 1.7; 1.9 and 2.1 M The variables of polyvinyl alcohol concentration were 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; 1.2; 1.5; 1.8; 2.1 and 2.4 M After drying the sol gel process products were heated at 300, 500 and 750°C during 4 hours. The gel particles were characterized using an optic microscope to know the shape and condition morphology of gel. From experimental result using uranium concentration of 0.3 until 2.1 M and polyvinyl alcohol of 1.8 until 2.4 M spherical and gel was formed elastic, after heating at 750°C it was unbreakable. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.3 to 0.5 M, the gel product was soft and broken after being dried. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.6 to 0.8 M, the dried gel product was not perfect. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.9 to 1.7 M, the gel product of gelation process was spherical and it was broken after being heated up to 300°C. (author)

  13. The influence of geographic location on population exposure to emissions from power plants throughout China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Zhou; Levy, J.I. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Evans, J.S.; Hammitt, J.K. [Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This analysis seeks to evaluate the influence of emission source location on population exposure in China to fine particles and sulfur dioxide. We use the concept of intake fraction, defined as the fraction of material or its precursor released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We select 29 power-plant sites throughout China and estimate annual average intake fractions at each site, using identical source characteristics to isolate the influence of geographic location. In addition, we develop regression models to interpret the intake fraction values and allow for extrapolation to other sites. To model the concentration increase due to emissions from selected power plants, we used a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. Primary fine particles have the highest average intake fraction (1 x 10{sup -5}), followed by sulfur dioxide (5 x 10{sup -6}), sulfate from sulfur dioxide (4 x 10{sup -6}), and nitrate from nitrogen oxides (4 x 10{sup -6}). For all pollutants, the intake fractions span approximately an order of magnitude across sites. In the regression analysis, the independent variables are meteorological proxies (such as climate region and precipitation) and population at various distances from the source. We find that population terms can explain a substantial percentage of variability in the intake fraction for all pollutants (R{sup 2} between 0.86 and 0.95 across pollutants), with a significant modifying influence of meteorological regime. Near-source population is more important for primary coarse particles while population at medium to long distance is more important for primary fine particles and secondary particles. A significant portion of intake fraction (especially for secondary particles and primary fine particles) occurs beyond 500 km of the source, emphasizing the need for detailed long-range dispersion modeling. These findings demonstrate that intake fractions for power plants in China can be

  14. Does physical exposure throughout working life influence chair-rise performance in midlife?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to study associations between physical exposures throughout working life and physical function measured as chair-rise performance in midlife. METHODS: The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and measures of physical function. Individual...... job histories were assigned exposures from a job exposure matrix. Exposures were standardised to ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in 1 year), stand-years (standing/walking for 6 h each day in 1 year) and kneel-years (kneeling for 1 h each day in 1 year). The associations between exposure-years and......-linear associations and confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance. The associations between exposure and outcome were non-linear....

  15. The influence of roadside vegetation barriers on airborne nanoparticles and pedestrians exposure under varying wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbous, Abdullah N.; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-06-01

    Roadside vegetation barriers are used in many urban areas to restrict air and noise pollution from reaching roadside pedestrians, but their effectiveness in limiting the movement of nanoparticles is not yet known. This study investigates the influence of a roadside vegetation barrier on particle number distribution (PND) and concentration (PNC) and associated exposure under different wind directions. Size-resolved particles in the 5-560 nm size range were measured along a busy roadside in Guildford (Surrey, UK) using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). A custom-built solenoid switching system, together with the DMS50, was used to make sequential measurements at the front (L2), middle (L3) and back (L4) of the vegetation barrier; L1 was in parallel to L2 at a vegetation-free location. Measured data were divided into the three predominant wind directions: cross-road (NW-SW), cross-footpath (NE-SE) and along-road (NW-NE). The consistency in the shape of PNDs and the corresponding geometric mean diameters at the three sites (L2, L3, L4) indicate an identical removal effect of vegetation barrier for all sizes of particles. Comparison of the PNCs at two parallel locations (with and without the vegetation barrier) showed ˜11% higher PNCs (1.99 ± 1.77 × 105 cm-3) at L2 than those at L1 during cross-road winds, showing the impeding effect of the vegetation barrier. Such differences were insignificant during the remaining wind directions. Cross-road winds indicate the effect of vegetation barrier; the PNCs were decreased by 14 and 37% at L3 and L4, respectively, compared with L2. During cross-footpath winds, particles were carried away by the wind from the sampling location. Significant decrease in PNCs were consequently seen at L3 (1.80 ± 1.01 × 104 cm-3) and L4 (1.49 ± 0.91 × 104 cm-3) compared with L2 (6.26 ± 3.31 × 104 cm-3). The PNCs at these locations showed modest differences during the cross-footpath and along-road winds. Respiratory

  16. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C±1.3°C and -8.3±0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ±0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14±0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than PBC

  17. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  18. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO3, MMAIII or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1+/+ and Ogg1−/− genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1+/+ and Ogg1−/− cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1−/− cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1−/− cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency—exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell

  19. Neural mechanisms of pain and alcohol dependence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Neugebauer, Volker; Koob, George; Edwards, Scott; Levine, Jon D.; Ferrari, Luiz; Egli, Mark; Regunathan, Soundar

    2013-01-01

    An association between chronic pain conditions and alcohol dependence has been revealed in numerous studies with episodes of alcohol abuse antedating chronic pain in some people and alcohol dependence emerging after the onset of chronic pain in others. Alcohol dependence and chronic pain share common neural circuits giving rise to the possibility that chronic pain states could significantly affect alcohol use patterns and that alcohol dependence could influence pain sensitivity. The reward an...

  20. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  1. Effect and mechanism of waterborne prolonged Zn exposure influencing hepatic lipid metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Zhi; Hogstrand, Christer; Chen, Feng; Shi, Xi; Chen, Qi-Liang; Song, Yu-Feng; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect and mechanism of waterborne Zn exposure influencing hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta. S. hasta were exposed to four waterborne Zn concentrations (Zn 0.005 [control], 0.18, 0.36 and 0.55 mg l(-1) , respectively) for 60 days. Sampling occurred at days 20, 40 and 60, respectively. Zn exposure increased Zn content, declined hepatic lipid content and reduced viscerosomatic and hepatosomatic indices and lipogenic enzyme activities, including 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). At days 20 and 60, Zn exposure decreased hepatic mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)α, ACCβ, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)a, HSLb, sterol-regulator element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)α and PPARγ. However, the mRNA levels of CPT 1 and adipose triglyceride lipase increased following Zn exposure. On day 40, Zn exposure reduced hepatic mRNA expression of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS, ACCα, ACCβ, HSLa, HSLb, SREBP-1 and PPARγ but increased mRNA expression of CPT 1, adipose triglyceride lipase and PPARα. General speaking, Zn exposure reduced hepatic lipid content by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating lipolysis. For the first time, the present study provided evidence that chronic Zn exposure differentially influenced mRNA expression and activities of genes and enzymes involved in lipogenic and lipolytic metabolism in a duration-dependent manner, and provided new insight into the relationship between metal elements and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26602879

  2. Exposure to media violence and bullying at school: mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Myungja

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed a model of mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends in the relationship between exposure to media violence and bullying at school. Data came from 560 Korean junior high school students who were living with their parents. Analysis indicated that, as hypothesized, exposure to media-portrayed violence was directly associated with bullying at school. Anger and contact with delinquent friends mediated this relationship. In addition, two alternative models were estimated, neither supported by the data, further sustaining the validity of the hypothesized model. Implications and directions for research are discussed. PMID:15587236

  3. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  4. Single-walled carbon nanotubes toxicity to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca: influence of sediment and exposure duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messika Revel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials are present in various industrial applications and therefore their release into the environment including freshwater ecosystem is expected to increase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of several parameters on the toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT to the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. The effect of period of exposure, sediment presence and possible impurities released during SWCNT preparation on survival and/or growth of such organism was evaluated. We measured a reduction of survival at concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 mg/L after 96-h exposure, while no mortality was observed with the same concentrations and in the presence of artificial sediment after 14 days of exposure. It is possible that SWCNT are adsorbed on the organic matter from the artificial sediment leading to a decrease of SWCNT bioavailability. The survival and growth toxicity tests revealed a stronger effect at 28 days compared to the 14 days of exposure, and full mortality of organisms at 1000 mg/L for both exposure times. The presence of SWCNT in the gut of survived organisms was observed. The present study demonstrates that the interaction with sediment should be considered when carbon nanotubes toxicity through water exposure is investigated.

  5. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure. PMID:27115733

  6. Supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol and desizing wastewater:Influence of NaOH on the organic decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhang; Shuzhong Wang; Yang Guo; Donghai Xu; Yanmeng Gong; Xingying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a refractory compound widely used in industry.Here we report supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol solution and desizing wastewater with and without sodium hydroxide addition.However,it is difficult to implement complete degradation of organics even though polyvinyl alcohol can readily crack under supercritical water treatment.Sodium hydroxide had a significant catalytic effect during the supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol.It appears that the OH-ion participated in the C-C bond cleavage of polyvinyl alcohol molecules,the CO2-capture reaction and the neutralization of intermediate organic acids,promoting the overall reactions moving in the forward direction.Acetaldehyde was a typical intermediate product during reaction.For supercritical water oxidation of desizing wastewater,a high destruction rate (98.25%) based on total organic carbon was achieved.In addition,cases where initial wastewater was alkaline were favorable for supercritical water oxidation treatment,but salt precipitation and blockage issues arising during the process need to be taken into account seriously.

  7. Supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol and desizing wastewater: influence of NaOH on the organic decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Xu, Donghai; Gong, Yanmeng; Tang, Xingying

    2013-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a refractory compound widely used in industry. Here we report supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol solution and desizing wastewater with and without sodium hydroxide addition. However, it is difficult to implement complete degradation of organics even though polyvinyl alcohol can readily crack under supercritical water treatment. Sodium hydroxide had a significant catalytic effect during the supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol. It appears that the OH- ion participated in the C-C bond cleavage of polyvinyl alcohol molecules, the CO2-capture reaction and the neutralization of intermediate organic acids, promoting the overall reactions moving in the forward direction. Acetaldehyde was a typical intermediate product during reaction. For supercritical water oxidation of desizing wastewater, a high destruction rate (98.25%) based on total organic carbon was achieved. In addition, cases where initial wastewater was alkaline were favorable for supercritical water oxidation treatment, but salt precipitation and blockage issues arising during the process need to be taken into account seriously. PMID:24520696

  8. Influence of dose and age of radiation exposure on attributable risk in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed to clarify influence of the dose and age of radiation exposure on attributable risk, relative cumulative hazard and expression pattern of the lethal diseases. The attributable risk, relative cumulative hazard and excess cumulative hazard were estimated with the age-specific mortalities. Experimental data using female B6C3F1 mice were made subject of analysis. In this experiment mice were irradiated at day 14, 17 or 18 prenatal age or day 0, 7, 35, 105, 240 or 365 postnatal age with doses ranging from 0.95 to 5.7 Gy of 137Cs γ-rays and were allowed to live out their entire life spans under a specific pathogen free condition. Among mice irradiated at day 0 postnatal period the attributable risk and relative cumulative hazard were 38 % and 1.61, respectively; whereas, shortening of the mean life span was 7 %. Shape of dose-response relationship for the attributable risk was downward concave and that for the relative cumulative hazard was upward concave. The relative cumulative hazards in mice irradiated during neonatal or juvenile period were apparently higher than that irradiated during adulthood. Latent period for expression of radiation-induced lethal diseases in mice irradiated during the prenatal or early postnatal period was longer than that in mice exposed during adult period. Susceptibility of mice in the late fetal period to induction of late-occurring lethal diseases was lower than neonatal mice and was almost similar to young adult mice. The relative cumulative hazard did not increase with statistically significant difference when mice were irradiated at day 14 prenatal age with 0.95 Gy. (author)

  9. Characteristics of Queensland physicians and the influence of rural exposure on practice location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, C E; MacKenzie, A; Loos, C; Waller, M; Gabbett, M; Mills, R; Eley, D

    2016-08-01

    The Queensland branch of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) commissioned this study to update their workforce profile and examine rural practice. The present investigation aimed to describe characteristics of Queensland physicians and determine the influence of childhood and training locations on current rural practice. A cross-sectional online survey, conducted 4 July-4 November 2013, was administered to Fellows of The RACP, Queensland. Descriptive statistics report characteristics and logistic regression analyses identify associations and interactions. The outcome measure was current practice location using the Australian Standard Geographic Classification - Remoteness Area. Data were obtained for 633 physicians. Their average age was 49.5 years, a third was female and a quarter was in rural practice. Rural practice was associated with a rural childhood (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.89 (1.10, 3.27) P = 0.02) and any time spent as an intern (OR 4.07 (2.12, 7.82) P training were most likely to be in rural practice. However, those who had a metropolitan childhood and a rural internship were approximately five times more likely to be working in rural practice than physicians with no rural exposure (OR 5.33 (1.61, 17.60) P training on rural practice. A prospective study would determine if recent changes to the Basic Physician Training Pathway and the Basic Paediatric Training Network (more rural training than previous pathways) increases the rate of rural practice. PMID:27554000

  10. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ13C) or trophic position (δ15N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ13C, δ15N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, RPCB-153) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest RPCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high RPCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in enzyme systems

  11. Correlation between heart rate variability and pupillary reflex in healthy adult subjects under the influence of alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ma; Rumeng Ma; Xiwen Liu; Zhihong Wen; Xiaojing Li; Tao Wang; Wenqiang Han; Wendong Hu; Zuoming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the association between pupil area variation, heart rate variability, and fatigue, caused by alcohol consumption. Sixteen healthy young male volunteers were enrolled in this study for a series of structured physical examinations. Individual drinking volume was strictly assessed in accordance with the normalized experimental design. The motions of the subjects' pupils, as well as electrocardiograms were recorded by a computerized recording system, both before and after drinking alcohol. After alcohol intake, the pupil diameter, and both low frequency and standard deviation of all heartbeat interval indices of heart rate variability showed significant variations compared with the baseline. In addition, time- and frequency-domain indices of heart rate variability were negatively associated with pupil area. Thus the current study suggests that fatigue status may be determined by significant changes in pupil area and heart rate variability.

  12. The influence of resource strategies on childhood phthalate exposure--the role of REACH in a zero waste society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how resource strategies, which intend to reduce waste and increase recycling, influence on human exposure to hazardous chemicals from material recycling. In order to examine the flows of hazardous chemicals in recycled material, a mass flow analysis of plastics and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled. This corresponds to the finding that approximately 4% of DEHP and BBP and 18% of DBP annual demands in Europe as raw material re-enter the product cycle with recycled plastics and paper. To examine the potential contribution of the phthalate exposure through recycled plastics and paper, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed in recycled paper and plastics has been performed for 2-year-old children in Denmark. The result verifies that an increase in recycled paperboard and PET bottles in food packaging material causes a significant increase in childhood exposure to DBP corresponding to an additional exposure of 0.116-0.355 μg/kg bw/day; up to 18% of the total DBP exposure in Danish 2-year-olds. While most of the DEHP exposure can be explained, more than 50% of DBP and 70% of BBP exposure sources still remain to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework for a circular economy based on sustainable and clean resource flows is proposed in order to increase material recycling without increasing adverse health effects. PMID:25212603

  13. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele. PMID:15726639

  14. Dosimetric Methods for and Influence of Exposure Parameters on the Establishment of Reference Doses for Examinations using Fluoroscopy (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the past 10 years special fluoroscopy guided examinations have increasingly been performed. New techniques such as interventional radiology are requiring long periods of fluoroscopy causing high doses to patients. Different factors affect patient exposure in fluoroscopy compared to radiography. Both examination practice and technical parameters influence dose. The consequences are demands for new reference dose values. One single reference value cannot give enough information, therefore at least five values have to be established and measured during examinations to decide the reasons for high exposures. New methods for assessing or measuring all values in relation to the reference values are discussed. Using published data, a proposal is made for reference values for frequently performed examinations that lead to high exposures for the patients. (author)

  15. Reconsidering the Neighborhood Effect: Does Exposure to Residential Unemployment Influence Voters' Perceptions of the National Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Martin; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    The state of the national economy often directs voting. But how do citizens form perceptions of a complex and abstract macroeconomy? This study examines whether exposure to unemployment in citizens’ immediate residential surroundings shapes their perceptions of the national economy. Using novel d...... related to local media exposure....

  16. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Madsen, H.; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantification of the flood risk relative to changes in imperviousness and climate change. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense, but is easily applicable for the majority of cities within Eur...

  17. Influence of drug release properties of conventional solid dosage forms on the systemic exposure of highly soluble drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lawrence X.; Ellison, Christopher D.; Conner, Dale P.; Lesko, Larry J.; Hussain, Ajaz S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to theoretically investigate the influence of drug release properties, characterized by the disintegration of a solid dosage form and dissolution of drug particles, on the systemic exposure of highly soluble drugs in immediate release products. An absorption model was developed by considering disintegration of a solid dosage form, dissolution of drug particles, gastrointestinal transit flow, and intestinal absorption processes. The absorption model was linked to a conv...

  18. Influence of sex and stress exposure across the lifespan on endophenotypes of depression: focus on behavior, glucocorticoids, and hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gobinath, Aarthi R.; Mahmoud, Rand; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences exist in vulnerability, symptoms, and treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss both preclinical and clinical research that investigates how sex influences depression endophenotypes at the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neural levels across the lifespan. Chronic exposure to stress is a risk factor for depression and we discuss how stress during the prenatal, postnatal, and adolescent periods differentially affects males and females depending on ...

  19. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  20. Do Parents and Best Friends Influence the Normative Increase in Adolescents' Alcohol Use at Home and Outside the Home?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Burk, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study explored the possible impact of parental supervision of adolescents' alcohol use and drinking with parents on concurrent and prospective associations between adolescents' drinking at home and drinking outside the home. The impact of drinking with their best friend, paren

  1. Influence of irradiance and exposure time on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of a conventional and silorane composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of different combinations of irradiance and exposure time for a given radiant exposure on the degree of conversion (DC and on the mechanical properties of two resin composites: Filtek Z250 and Filtek P90 LS (3M ESPE. Materials and Methods: The following curing protocols were used: Standard irradiance: 400 mW/cm2 for 60 s; Medium irradiance: 700 mW/cm2 for 34 s and High irradiance: 950 mW/cm2 for 26 s. The DC was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Each specimen was submitted to five indentations to evaluate the Knoop microhardness (KHN. The flexural strength (FS was obtained from the three-point bending test. Cylindrical specimens were prepared for the Diametral tensile strength (DTS test. Statistical analysis: Data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test (α = 0.05. Results: DC and DTS were not influenced by the different curing protocols. For P90, the medium irradiance showed higher values of KHN than the standard irradiance. For Z250, the high irradiance showed higher values of FS than the standard irradiance. Conclusion: The influence of the different combinations of irradiance and exposure time depends on the resin composite as well as the specifically evaluated mechanical property.

  2. Influence of oral rinsing on the exposure of salivary glands during radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    salivary gland function was detected (p<0.03). However, in all groups there was no difference in salivary gland function between the intervention and control group. The analysis of WB scintigrams also showed no significant reduction in residual activity in the gastrointestinal tract in the intervention group compared to the control group (p-value = 0.47). Conclusion: this study showed that repeated rinsing of the mouth with water had no significant influence on the radiation exposure of patients receiving radioiodine therapy and did not significantly protect their SG's. (authors)

  3. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  4. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)]. E-mail: katrine.borga@npolar.no; Wolkers, Hans [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Skaare, Janneche U. [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Hop, Haakon [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2005-04-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source ({delta}{sup 13}C) or trophic position ({delta}{sup 15}N), but by a combination of dietary parameters ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R{sub PCB-153}) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R{sub PCB-153} values of persistent congeners). Based on high R{sub PCB-153} values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to {sigma}PCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6{beta}-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant

  5. An analysis of factors that influence personal exposure to toluene and xylene in residents of Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linos Athena

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal exposure to pollutants is influenced by various outdoor and indoor sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of Athens citizens to toluene and xylene, excluding exposure from active smoking. Methods Passive air samplers were used to monitor volunteers, their homes and various urban sites for one year, resulting in 2400 measurements of toluene and xylene levels. Since both indoor and outdoor pollution contribute significantly to human exposure, volunteers were chosen from occupational groups who spend a lot of time in the streets (traffic policemen, bus drivers and postmen, and from groups who spend more time indoors (teachers and students. Data on individual and house characteristics were obtained using a questionnaire completed at the beginning of the study; a time-location-activity diary was also completed daily by the volunteers in each of the six monitoring campaigns. Results Average personal toluene exposure varied over the six monitoring campaigns from 53 to 80 μg/m3. Urban and indoor concentrations ranged from 47 – 84 μg/m3 and 30 – 51 μg/m3, respectively. Average personal xylene exposure varied between 56 and 85 μg/m3 while urban and indoor concentrations ranged from 53 – 88 μg/m3 and 27 – 48 μg/m3, respectively. Urban pollution, indoor residential concentrations and personal exposures exhibited the same pattern of variation during the measurement periods. This variation among monitoring campaigns might largely be explained by differences in climate parameters, namely wind speed, humidity and amount of sunlight. Conclusion In Athens, Greece, the time spent outdoors in the city center during work or leisure makes a major contribution to exposure to toluene and xylene among non-smoking citizens. Indoor pollution and means of transportation contribute significantly to individual exposure levels. Other indoor residential characteristics such as recent painting and mode of heating

  6. Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B; King, L; Baur, L; Rayner, M; Lobstein, T; Monteiro, C; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time. PMID:24074211

  7. INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES, OBESITY, AND EXPOSURE TO 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) EXPOSURE ON THE EXPRESSION OF HEPATIC CYP1A2 IN A MURIN MODEL OF TYPE II DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influence of type II diabetes, obesity and exposure 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on the expression of hepatic CYPIA2 in a murine model of type II diabetes. SJ Godin', VM Richardson2, JJ Diliberto2, LS Birnbaum', MJ DeVito2; 'Curriculum In Toxicology, UNC-CH...

  8. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  9. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  10. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  11. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Funt, Samuel; Virkkunen, Matti; Albaugh, Bernard; Goldman, David

    2007-02-01

    According to Cloninger's model, type I alcoholics are thought to be innately vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In contrast, type II alcoholics are thought to have increased likelihood of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and reduced anxiety. However, allostatic activations of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria may be a common thread in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Our aim was to find commonalities and differences in temperament of alcoholics with and without ASPD in three diverse populations. By sib-sib comparisons, we also evaluated the extent to which the temperament traits were moderated by familial factors including inheritance. We compared harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD) in alcoholics with ASPD, alcoholics without ASPD, and controls. Correlations for each temperament dimension were evaluated in pairs of siblings concordant and discordant for AUD. Participants were derived from three independent populations: Finnish Caucasians (N=453, men=100%, including a sample of alcoholic criminals), a Plains American Indian community sample (N=378; men=42%), and a subset of the familial and predominantly Caucasian Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample (N=967, men=47%). In all the three populations, both alcoholics with and without ASPD were higher in HA than controls. The increase of HA among alcoholics as compared to controls ranged from 54% to 12%. In two populations (COGA and Finns), NS was highest in alcoholics with ASPD, intermediate in alcoholics without ASPD, and lowest in controls. HA levels were correlated in sib-pairs concordant (either affected or unaffected) for AUD but not in discordant pairs. In conclusions, despite cultural diversity and different modes of ascertainment we found a consistent pattern of elevated HA in all groups of alcoholics, including alcoholics with ASPD. Even in alcoholics with long-term exposure to the anxiogenic effects of repeated cycles of alcohol withdrawal

  12. The influence of potential exposure to radiation protection system of accelerator installation TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential exposure of individuals at big nuclear machines like Accelerator Installation Tesla (AIT) generates direct requirements to reliability of radiation protection system. Starting from technical characteristics of AlT and international recommendation concerning potential exposure and the probability of death has been calculated. The reference risk has been specified. Comparing then we calculated the probability of the failure of the protective system. The reliability of the system has to be better (author)

  13. Influence of farming exposure on the development of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Adam D.; Poole, Jill A.; Romberger, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon age and type of farming exposures, a wide range of studies demonstrate either protective or deleterious effects of the farming environment on asthma. In this review, we highlight key studies supporting the concept that farming exposure protects children from asthma and atopy based on studies performed largely in European pediatric cohorts. Various types of farming in certain regions appear to have a greater effect on asthma protection, as does the consumption of unpasteurized milk....

  14. Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyck Roland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study of 11,982 households located in the province′s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42% households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information. The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p′ 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45. Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI′s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI′s 2.44, 3.98] if mother, obesity (OR 2.66; CI′s 1.86, 3.78, as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI′s 1.15, 2.91. Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and

  15. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID (PFNA) IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are the probable precursors of a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) detected globally in both mammalian and environmental samples. Recently, 8-2 FTOH has been classified as a xenoestrogen and its derivatives, perfluoro...

  16. The influence of molasses addition on the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation of whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Stanzer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by yeast Kluyveromyces marxianusZIM 75 in various media based on whey and molasses were monitored. The fermentations were performed under static and semiaerobic conditions at 34°C. Deproteinized whey and molasses were mixed in various proportions to give final sugar mass concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% in medium. The experiments conducted showed that medium with 10 % of sugar (sucrose:lactose=1:1 is optimal for alcoholic fermentations in static and semiaerobic conditions. The best ethanol yield after 24 hours of fermentation was 4.05 % (V/V in static conditions and 4.9 % (V/V in semiaerobic conditions. The biomass yield was 7.78 g d.m./L in semiaerobic conditions and 3.19 g d.m./L in static conditions.

  17. Influences of alcoholic solvents on spray pyrolysis deposition of TiO2 blocking layer films for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influences of alcoholic solvents for titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TPA) precursor solutions on the spray pyrolysis deposited TiO2 films and the photovoltaic performance of the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) using these TiO2 films as the blocking layers were investigated. Smooth TiO2 films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition of a TPA solution in isopropanol (IPA) at a relatively low temperature of 260 °C. On the other hand, when ethanol was used as solvent, the TiO2 films fabricated at the same temperature showed much rougher surfaces with many pinholes. Our results showed that ethanol reacts with TPA to form titanium diethoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TEA), which requires a higher thermal decomposition temperature than that of TPA. SDSCs with TiO2 blocking layer films fabricated using a TPA solution in IPA showed higher power conversion efficiencies with smaller variations. - Graphical abstract: Alcoholic solvents used for the TiO2 precursor play a critical role in determining the surface morphology of blocking layers and thus the photovoltaic performance of the SDSCs. Highlights: ► Solvent influences morphology of spray pyrolysis deposited TiO2 blocking layer. ► Ethanol reacts with TPA, resulting poor quality of blocking layer. ► Isopropanol is better than ethanol for obtaining smooth blocking layer. ► SDSC with blocking layer made with isopropanol showed better performance.

  18. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washing...

  19. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Monakhova Yulia B; Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has b...

  20. Prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes of peri-conceptional alcohol exposure - retrospective cohort study in an urban obstetric population in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullally, Aoife

    2011-04-11

    Abstract Background Evidence-based advice on alcohol consumption is required for pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes associated with peri-conceptional alcohol consumption. Methods A cohort study of 61,241 women who booked for antenatal care and delivered in a large urban maternity hospital between 2000 and 2007. Self-reported alcohol consumption at the booking visit was categorised as low (0-5 units per week), moderate (6-20 units per week) and high (>20 units per week). Results Of the 81% of women who reported alcohol consumption during the peri-conceptional period, 71% reported low intake, 9.9% moderate intake and 0.2% high intake. Factors associated with moderate alcohol consumption included being in employment OR 4.47 (95% CI 4.17 to 4.80), Irish nationality OR 16.5 (95% CI 14.9 to 18.3), private health care OR 5.83 (95% CI 5.38 to 6.31) and smoking OR 1.86 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.01). Factors associated with high consumption included maternal age less than 25 years OR 2.70 (95% CI 1.86 to 3.91) and illicit drug use OR 6.46 (95% CI 3.32 to 12.60). High consumption was associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks gestation) even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, adjusted OR 3.15 (95% CI 1.26-7.88). Only three cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome were recorded (0.05 per 1000 total births), one each in the low, moderate and high consumption groups. Conclusions Public Health campaigns need to emphasise the importance of peri-conceptional health and pre-pregnancy planning. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is likely to be under-reported despite the high prevalence of alcohol consumption in this population.