WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol exposure influences

  1. Dynamic Exposure to Alcohol Advertising in a Sports Context Influences Implicit Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerhouni, Oulmann; Bègue, Laurent; Duke, Aaron A; Flaudias, Valentin

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies investigating the impact of advertising with ecological stimuli on alcohol-related cognition are scarce. This research investigated the cognitive processes involved in learning implicit attitudes toward alcohol after incidental exposure to alcohol advertisements presented in a dynamic context. We hypothesized that incidental exposure to a specific alcohol brand would lead to heightened positive implicit attitudes toward alcohol due to a mere exposure effect. In total, 108 participants were randomly exposed to dynamic sporting events excerpts with and without advertising for a specific brand of alcohol, after completing self-reported measures of alcohol-related expectancies, alcohol consumption, and attitudes toward sport. Participants then completed a lexical decision task and an affective priming task. We showed that participants were faster to detect brand name after being exposed to advertising during a sports game, and that implicit attitudes of participants toward the brand were more positive after they were exposed to advertising, even when alcohol usage patterns were controlled for. Incidental exposure to alcohol sponsorship in sport events impacts implicit attitudes toward the advertised brand and alcohol in general. The effect of incidental advertising on implicit attitudes is also likely to be due to a mere exposure effect. However, further studies should address this point specifically. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  3. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  4. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  5. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers’ alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Froidevaux, Nicole M.; Witkovic, Yong D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite speculation that peers’ alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers’ alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers’ alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students’ and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers’ alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26835604

  7. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  8. Driving simulator sickness: Impact on driving performance, influence of blood alcohol concentration, and effect of repeated simulator exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Myriad Influences of Alcohol Advertising on Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berey, Benjamin L; Loparco, Cassidy; Leeman, Robert F; Grube, Joel W

    2017-06-01

    This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying relationships between adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and increased drinking and points to prevention/intervention strategies that may reduce effects of alcohol advertising. Alcohol advertising influences current and future drinking. Further, evidence suggests adolescents may be targeted specifically. Alcohol advertisements may influence behavior by shifting alcohol expectancies, norms regarding alcohol use, and positive attitudes. Media literacy programs may be an effective intervention strategy. Adolescents are exposed to large quantities of alcohol advertisements, which violates guidelines set by the alcohol industry. However, media literacy programs may be a promising strategy for adolescents to increase critical thinking and create more realistic expectations regarding alcohol.

  10. Community-Level Exposure to the Rural Mining Industry: The Potential Influence on Early Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Christopher; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Packham, John; Ackerman, Gerald; Lensch, Taylor; Yang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. All models adjusted for sociodemographics, military family involvement, parental monitoring, and length of residence. Over one quarter of the sampled students lived in rural counties and approximately half of these counties met the USDA mining economic typology. After stratifying rural counties by mining and nonmining economic dependence, students in rural mining counties had significantly higher odds of all measures of alcohol use (AORs ranged from 1.83 to 3.99) and tobacco use (AORs ranged from 1.61 to 5.05) compared to students in urban counties. Only use of smokeless tobacco was higher among students in rural nonmining counties. Our findings demonstrate rural-urban disparities in adolescent substance use that are particularly pronounced among youth living in counties with economic dependence on mining. Future research on this subject should include a wider range of community-level factors that may have specific relevance in rural settings to inform the development of population-level interventions. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Perinatal alcohol exposure enhances nocistatin levels in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Gyenge, Melinda; Csaba, Gyorgy

    2007-06-01

    In earlier experiments perinatal hormonal imprinting by alcohol decreased the hormone content of immune cells for life. In the present study, both a single day (15% on the third postnatal day) and a long-term treatment schedule of alcohol exposure (3% for 21 days) of dams during lactation significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced endogenous levels of nocistatin in the blood plasma as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid of the offspring, measured in 3-month-old rats. Our data suggest that alcohol consumption during lactation can cause a life-long influence on nocistatin levels in the offspring and most likely modify nocistatin-related functions such as pain tolerance.

  12. Simple exposure to alcohol cues causally increases negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men.

  13. Driving under the influence of alcohol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol is a threat to road safety. In 2013, the estimated number of road deaths in the Netherlands due to alcohol was between 60 and 135. The legal limit for novice drivers in the Netherlands is a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.2 g/l and a BAC of 0.5 g/l for

  14. Socioeconomic determinants of exposure to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world.

  15. Alcohol, microbiome, life style influence alcohol and non-alcoholic organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; Zakhari, Samir; Malnick, Stephen; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Salaspuro, Mikko; Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Barasch, Andrei; Kirpich, Irina A; Thomes, Paul G; Schrum, Laura W; Donohue, Terrence M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Cruz, Marcus; Opris, Mihai

    2017-02-01

    . Dysregulation of metabolism, as a result of ethanol exposure, in the intestine leads to colon carcinogenesis. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota have been suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of the metabolic syndrome in the aging population, have been presented. The symposium addressed mechanisms and biomarkers of alcohol induced damage to different organs, as well as the role of the microbiome in this dialog. The microbiota regulates and acts as a key element in harmonizing immune responses at intestinal mucosal surfaces. It is known that microbiota is an inducer of proinflammatory T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in the intestine. The signals at the sites of inflammation mediate recruitment and differentiation in order to remove inflammatory inducers and promote tissue homeostasis restoration. The change in the intestinal microbiota also influences the change in obesity and regresses the liver steatosis. Evidence on the positive role of moderate alcohol consumption on heart and metabolic diseases as well on reducing steatosis have been looked up. Moreover nutrition as a therapeutic intervention in alcoholic liver disease has been discussed. In addition to the original data, we searched the literature (2008-2016) for the latest publication on the described subjects. In order to obtain the updated data we used the usual engines (Pub Med and Google Scholar). The intention of the eighth symposia was to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and genetic influences on alcohol use: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2018-05-07

    Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults. The participants were 2434 18-26-year-old twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants completed in-home interviews in which alcohol use was assessed. Alcohol outlet densities were extracted from state-level liquor license databases aggregated at the census tract level to derive the density of outlets. There was evidence that the estimates of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use varied as a function of the density of alcohol outlets in the community. For example, the heritability of the frequency of alcohol use for those residing in a neighborhood with ten or more outlets was 74% (95% confidence limits = 55-94%), compared with 16% (95% confidence limits = 0-34%) for those in a neighborhood with zero outlets. This moderating effect of alcohol outlet density was not explained by the state of residence, population density, or neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The results suggest that living in a neighborhood with many alcohol outlets may be especially high-risk for those individuals who are genetically predisposed to frequently drink.

  17. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  18. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; van Dalen, Wim

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-alcohol branded media exposure. Prospective observational study (11-12- and 14-17-month intervals), using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model. School-based sample in 181 state-funded schools in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland. A total of 9075 eligible respondents participated in the survey (mean age 14 years, 49.5% male. Adolescents reported their frequency of past-month drinking and binge drinking. Alcohol marketing exposure was measured by a latent variable with 13 items measuring exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising, alcohol sport sponsorship, music event/festival sponsorship, ownership alcohol-branded promotional items, reception of free samples and exposure to price offers. Confounders were age, gender, education, country, internet use, exposure to non-alcohol sponsored football championships and television programmes without alcohol commercials. The analyses showed one-directional long-term effects of alcohol marketing exposure on drinking (exposure T1 on drinking T2: β = 0.420 (0.058), P  0.05). Similar results were found in the binge drinking model (exposure T1 on binge T2: β = 0.409 (0.054), P  0.05). There appears to be a one-way effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' alcohol use over time, which cannot be explained by either previous drinking or exposure to non-alcohol-branded marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  1. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder; George L. Wehby; Sarah Lewis; Luisa Zuccolo

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and be...

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  3. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The party effect: Prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140

  5. Changes in the influence of alcohol-paired stimuli on alcohol seeking across extended training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Corbit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for two or eight weeks. Previous work has shown that eight, but not two weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose. Finally, the impact of the stimuli on ongoing instrumental responding was examined in a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT test. While a significant PIT effect was observed following two weeks of either alcohol or sucrose self-administration, the magnitude of this effect was greater following eight weeks of training. The specificity of the PIT effect appeared unchanged by extended training. While it is well established that evaluation of the outcome of responding contributes less to behavioral control following extended training and/or drug exposure, our data indicate that reward-predictive stimuli have a stronger contribution to responding after extended training. Together, these findings provide insight into the factors that control behavior after extended drug use which will be important for developing effective methods for controlling and ideally reducing these behaviors.

  6. Changes in the Influence of Alcohol-Paired Stimuli on Alcohol Seeking across Extended Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbit, Laura H.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose. Finally, the impact of the stimuli on ongoing instrumental responding was examined in a Pavlovian–instrumental transfer (PIT) test. While a significant PIT effect was observed following 2 weeks of either alcohol or sucrose self-administration, the magnitude of this effect was greater following 8 weeks of training. The specificity of the PIT effect appeared unchanged by extended training. While it is well established that evaluation of the outcome of responding contributes less to behavioral control following extended training and/or drug exposure, our data indicate that reward–predictive stimuli have a stronger contribution to responding after extended training. Together, these findings provide insight into the factors that control behavior after extended drug use, which will be important for developing effective methods for controlling and ideally reducing these behaviors. PMID:27777560

  7. Factors Associated with Younger Adolescents’ Exposure to Online Alcohol Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a two-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past two weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths’ risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% white, 27% black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for under-reporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. PMID:27819430

  8. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents’ alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; Dalen, Wim E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents’ drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for

  10. European longitudinal study on the relationship between adolescents' alcohol marketing exposure and alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, A. de; Tanghe, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Beccaria, F.; Bujalski, M.; Celata, C.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Slodownik, L.; Wothge, J.; Dalen, W. van

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for

  11. Playfulness and prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearton, Jordan Louise; Ramugondo, Elelwani; Cloete, Lizahn; Cordier, Reinie

    2014-08-01

    South Africa carries a high burden of alcohol abuse. The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are most pronounced in poor, rural communities. Earlier research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have poor social behaviour; however, to date, no research has investigated their playfulness. This study investigated the differences in playfulness of children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Grade one learners with a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) and a reference group without a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) were filmed engaging in free play at their schools. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure playfulness from recordings. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate interval level measure scores for each participant. The overall measure scores and individual Test of Playfulness social items were subjected to paired samples t-tests to calculate if significant differences existed between the groups. Children with prenatal alcohol exposure had a significantly lower mean overall playfulness score than the reference group (t = -2.51; d.f. = 28; P = 0.02). Children with prenatal alcohol exposure also scored significantly lower than the reference group on 5 of the 12 Test of Playfulness items related to social play. This research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure are more likely to experience poorer overall quality of play, with particular deficits in social play. Considering play is a child's primary occupation, this finding becomes pertinent for occupational therapy practice, particularly in post-apartheid South Africa, where high prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence rates are couched within persistent socio-economic inequalities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  13. Genetic Influences on the Development of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism has a substantial heritability yet the detection of specific genetic influences has largely proved elusive. The strongest findings are with genes encoding alcohol metabolizing enzymes. A few candidate genes such as GABRA2 have shown robust associations with alcoholism. Moreover, it has become apparent that variants in stress-related genes such as CRHR1, may only confer risk in individuals exposed to trauma, particularly in early life. Over the past decade there have been tremendous advances in large scale SNP genotyping technologies allowing for genome-wide associations studies (GWAS). As a result, it is now recognized that genetic risk for alcoholism is likely to be due to common variants in very many genes, each of small effect, although rare variants with large effects might also play a role. This has resulted in a paradigm shift away from gene centric studies towards analyses of gene interactions and gene networks within biologically relevant pathways. PMID:24091936

  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Theresa W.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensiv...

  15. Effects of alcohol advertising exposure on drinking among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Leslie B; Milici, Frances Fleming; Slater, Michael; Sun, Helen; Strizhakova, Yuliya

    2006-01-01

    To test whether alcohol advertising expenditures and the degree of exposure to alcohol advertisements affect alcohol consumption by youth. Longitudinal panel using telephone surveys. Households in 24 US media markets, April 1999 to February 2001. Individuals aged 15 to 26 years were randomly sampled within households and households within media markets. Markets were systematically selected from the top 75 media markets, representing 79% of the US population. The baseline refusal rate was 24%. Sample sizes per wave were 1872, 1173, 787, and 588. Data on alcohol advertising expenditures on television, radio, billboards, and newspapers were collected. Market alcohol advertising expenditures per capita and self-reported alcohol advertising exposure in the prior month. Self-reported number of alcoholic drinks consumed in the prior month. Youth who saw more alcohol advertisements on average drank more (each additional advertisement seen increased the number of drinks consumed by 1% [event rate ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.02]). Youth in markets with greater alcohol advertising expenditures drank more (each additional dollar spent per capita raised the number of drinks consumed by 3% [event rate ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05]). Examining only youth younger than the legal drinking age of 21 years, alcohol advertisement exposure and expenditures still related to drinking. Youth in markets with more alcohol advertisements showed increases in drinking levels into their late 20s, but drinking plateaued in the early 20s for youth in markets with fewer advertisements. Control variables included age, gender, ethnicity, high school or college enrollment, and alcohol sales. Alcohol advertising contributes to increased drinking among youth.

  16. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  17. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Damages Brain Signal Transduction Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    This report details our progress during the first year of a three-year proposal. The proposal's overall goal is to uncover biochemical mechanisms that underlie learning and memory deficits resulting from fetal alcohol exposure (FAE...

  18. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth....

  19. Moral maturity and delinquency after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Amy M; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2005-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with cognitive, behavioral and social deficits, including delinquency. Although delinquent populations and those with intellectual and behavioral deficits exhibit impaired moral judgment and reasoning, this area remains unexplored in alcohol-exposed individuals. Moral maturity and delinquency were evaluated in 27 participants with prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC group) and 29 nonexposed controls (CON group) matched on age (range: 10-18), gender, handedness, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Moral maturity was evaluated using the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form, and delinquency was evaluated with the Conduct Disorder (CD) Questionnaire. Additional measures included social desirability and inhibition. The ALC group performed at a lower level of moral maturity than the CON group. Whereas Verbal IQ primarily predicted this difference, a deficit on the moral value judgment having to do with relationships with others was specific to prenatal alcohol exposure. Furthermore, delinquency was higher in the ALC group, and specific sociomoral values were predictive of delinquent behavior. Finally, half of the children and adolescents with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but without fetal alcohol syndrome had probable CD. The results of this study indicate that interventions aimed at reducing delinquency in those with prenatal alcohol exposure are necessary, and targeting moral judgment for this purpose may be beneficial.

  20. Heavy drinking, impulsivity and attentional narrowing following alcohol cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Fields, Sherecce; Davis, William E; Gable, Philip A

    2015-08-01

    Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.

  1. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-05-01

    We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern , and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and behaviours. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure in utero and children's academic attainment, but there is a strong social gradient in maternal drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In stark contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child educational attainment. These results are very robust to an extensive set of model specifications. In addition, we show that that the effects are solely driven by the maternal genotype, with no impact of the child's genotype.

  2. Fetal alcohol exposure and development of the integument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhurst WD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available William D Longhurst,1 Jordan Ernst,2 Larry Burd3 1Center for Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA Background: The physiology of fetal alcohol exposure changes across gestation. Early in pregnancy placental, fetal, and amniotic fluid concentrations of alcohol exposure are equivalent. Beginning in mid-pregnancy, the maturing fetal epidermis adds keratins which decrease permeability resulting in development of a barrier between fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Barrier function development is essential for viability in late pregnancy and in the extra-uterine environment. In this paper we provide a selected review of the effects of barrier function on fetal alcohol exposure. Methods: We utilized a search of PubMed and Google for all years in all languages for MeSH on Demand terms: alcohol drinking, amnion, amniotic fluid, epidermis, ethanol, female, fetal development, fetus, humans, keratins, permeability, and pregnancy. We also reviewed the reference lists of relevant papers and hand-searched reference lists of textbooks for additional references. Results: By 30 gestational weeks, development of barrier function alters the pathophysiology of ethanol dispersion between the fetus and amniotic fluid. Firstly, increases in the effectiveness of barrier function decreases the rate of diffusion of alcohol from fetal circulation across fetal skin into the amniotic fluid. This reduces the volume of alcohol entering the amniotic fluid. Secondly, barrier function increases the duration of fetal exposure by decreasing the rate of alcohol diffusion from amniotic fluid back into fetal circulation. Ethanol is then transported into

  3. The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2017-01-01

    To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non

  4. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilin K. Erevik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms, social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later (p < 0.001, when no covariates were controlled for. Frequent disclosure of content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol predicted stable or slightly increased alcohol use at Time 2 (p < 0.01, even when all covariates (i.e., demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media use were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure

  5. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  6. Taste responses to monosodium glutamate after alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Elzbieta; Skrok-Wolska, Dominika; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Korkosz, Agnieszka; Habrat, Boguslaw; Woronowicz, Bohdan; Kukwa, Andrzej; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Scinska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic exposure to alcohol on taste responses to a prototypic umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG). The rated intensity and pleasantness of MSG taste (0.03-10.0%) was compared in chronic male alcoholics (n = 35) and control subjects (n = 25). In a separate experiment, the effects of acute exposure of the oral mucosa to ethanol rinse (0.5-4.0%) on MSG taste (0.3-3.0%) were studied in 10 social drinkers. The alcoholic and control group did not differ in terms of the rated intensity and pleasantness of MSG taste. Electrogustometric thresholds were significantly (P alcohol-dependent subjects. The difference remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking. Rinsing with ethanol did not alter either intensity or pleasantness of MSG taste in social drinkers. The present results suggest that: (i) neither acute nor chronic alcohol exposure modifies taste responses to MSG; (ii) alcohol dependence may be associated with deficit in threshold taste reactivity, as assessed by electrogustometry.

  7. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  8. Genetic influences on alcohol-related hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Piasecki, Thomas M; Nathanson, Lisa; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-12-01

    To quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to alcohol hangover. Biometric models were used to partition the variance in hangover phenotypes. A community-based sample of Australian twins. Members of the Australian Twin Registry, Cohort II who reported consuming alcohol in the past year when surveyed in 2004-07 (n = 4496). Telephone interviews assessed participants' frequency of drinking to intoxication and frequency of hangover the day after drinking. Analyses examined three phenotypes: hangover frequency, hangover susceptibility (i.e. residual variance in hangover frequency after accounting for intoxication frequency) and hangover resistance (a dichotomous variable defined as having been intoxicated at least once in the past year with no reported hangovers). Genetic factors accounted for 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 37-53%] and 40% (95% CI = 33-48%) of the variation in hangover frequency in men and women, respectively. Most of the genetic variation in hangover frequency overlapped with genetic contributions to intoxication frequency. Genetic influences accounted for 24% (95% CI = 14-35%) and 16% (95% CI = 8-25%) of the residual hangover susceptibility variance in men and women, respectively. Forty-three per cent (95% CI = 22-63%) of the variation in hangover resistance was explained by genetic influences, with no evidence for significant sex differences. There was no evidence for shared environmental influences for any of the hangover phenotypes. Individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use are genetically influenced. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Association Between Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Early Adolescents' Beliefs About Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Collins, Rebecca L; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the momentary association between exposure to alcohol advertising and middle-school students' beliefs about alcohol in real-world settings and to explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. Middle-school students (N = 588) carried handheld data collection devices for 14 days, recording their exposures to all forms of alcohol advertising during the assessment period. Students also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) on each day of the assessment period. After each exposure to advertising and at each control prompt, students reported their beliefs about alcohol. Mixed-effects regression models compared students' beliefs about alcohol between moments of exposure to alcohol advertising and control prompts. Students perceived the typical person their age who drinks alcohol (prototype perceptions) more favorably and perceived alcohol use as more normative at times of exposure to alcohol advertising than at times of nonexposure (i.e., at control prompts). Exposure to alcohol advertising was not associated with shifts in the perceived norms of black and Hispanic students, however, and the association between exposure and prototype perceptions was stronger among non-Hispanic students than among Hispanic students. Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with acute shifts in adolescents' perceptions of the typical person that drinks alcohol and the normativeness of drinking. These associations are both statistically and substantively meaningful. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms), social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often) disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later ( p social media use) were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure. Disclosing content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol was the only independent variable that could predict further alcohol use when other factors, like baseline alcohol use, were held constant. This finding suggests that disclosure of alcohol content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol might

  11. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  12. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  13. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Ross, Craig S; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2016-09-01

    Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  15. Television and music video exposure and risk of adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T N; Chen, H L; Killen, J D

    1998-11-01

    Alcohol use is frequently portrayed in television programming and advertising. Exposure to media portrayals of alcohol use may lead to increased drinking. To address this issue, we examined prospectively the associations between media exposure and alcohol use in adolescents. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Six public high schools in San Jose, California. Participants. Ninth-grade students (N = 1533; mean age = 14.6 years). Students reported hours of television, music video, and videotape viewing; computer and video game use; and lifetime and past 30 days' alcohol use at baseline and 18 months later. Associations between baseline media exposure and subsequent alcohol use were examined with multiple logistic regression. During the 18-month follow-up, 36.2% of baseline nondrinkers began drinking and 50.7% of baseline drinkers continued to drink. Onset of drinking was significantly associated with baseline hours of television viewing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-1.18), music video viewing (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1. 17-1.47), and videotape viewing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.99), controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and other media use. Computer and video game use was not significantly associated with the subsequent onset of drinking. Among baseline drinkers, there were no significant associations between baseline media use and maintenance of drinking. Increased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents. Attempts to prevent adolescent alcohol use should address the adverse influences of alcohol use in the media.

  16. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Ross, Craig S.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Method: Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13–20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth’s alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. Results: For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Conclusions: Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure–consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media. PMID:27588530

  17. Impulsive Choice, Alcohol Consumption, and Pre-Exposure to Delayed Rewards: II. Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Hinnenkamp, Jay E.; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In a prior study (Stein et al., 2013), we reported that rats pre-exposed to delayed rewards made fewer impulsive choices, but consumed more alcohol (12% wt/vol), than rats pre-exposed to immediate rewards. To understand the mechanisms that produced these findings, we again pre-exposed rats to either delayed (17.5 s; n = 32) or immediate (n = 30) rewards. In post-tests, delay-exposed rats made significantly fewer impulsive choices at both 15- and 30-s delays to a larger, later food reward than the immediacy-exposed comparison group. Behavior in an open-field test provided little evidence of differential stress exposure between groups. Further, consumption of either 12% alcohol or isocaloric sucrose in subsequent tests did not differ between groups. Because Stein et al. introduced alcohol concentration gradually (3–12%), we speculate that their group differences in 12% alcohol consumption were not determined by alcohol’s pharmacological effects, but by another variable (e.g., taste) that was preserved as an artifact from lower concentrations. We conclude that pre-exposure to delayed rewards generalizes beyond the pre-exposure delay; however, this same experimental variable does not robustly influence alcohol consumption. PMID:25418607

  18. Thiamin deficiency on fetal brain development with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Olena; Eskin, N A Michael; Suh, Miyoung

    2018-04-01

    Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when the dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction because thiamin is involved in the synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and its deficiency increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents. Thiamin deficiency also leads to neural membrane dysfunction, because thiamin is a structural component of mitochondrial and synaptosomal membranes. Similarly, in-utero exposure to alcohol leads to fetal brain dysfunction, resulting in negative effects such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Thiamin deficiency and prenatal exposure to alcohol could act synergistically to produce negative effects on fetal development; however, this area of research is currently under-studied. This minireview summarizes the evidence for the potential role of thiamin deficiency in fetal brain development, with or without prenatal exposure to alcohol. Such evidence may influence the development of new nutritional strategies for preventing or mitigating the symptoms of FASD.

  19. Driving under the influence of alcohol. [Formerly known as: Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol is a threat to road safety. In 2015, the estimated number of road deaths in the Netherlands due to alcohol was between 75 and 140. The legal limit for novice drivers in the Netherlands is a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.2 g/l and a BAC of 0.5 g/l for

  20. Alteration of gene expression by alcohol exposure at early neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Yunlong; Goodlett, Charles R; Liang, Tiebing; McClintick, Jeanette N; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Lang

    2011-02-21

    We have previously demonstrated that alcohol exposure at early neurulation induces growth retardation, neural tube abnormalities, and alteration of DNA methylation. To explore the global gene expression changes which may underline these developmental defects, microarray analyses were performed in a whole embryo mouse culture model that allows control over alcohol and embryonic variables. Alcohol caused teratogenesis in brain, heart, forelimb, and optic vesicle; a subset of the embryos also showed cranial neural tube defects. In microarray analysis (accession number GSM9545), adopting hypothesis-driven Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) informatics and intersection analysis of two independent experiments, we found that there was a collective reduction in expression of neural specification genes (neurogenin, Sox5, Bhlhe22), neural growth factor genes [Igf1, Efemp1, Klf10 (Tieg), and Edil3], and alteration of genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, histone variants, eye and heart development. There was also a reduction of retinol binding protein 1 (Rbp1), and de novo expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (Aldh1B1). Remarkably, four key hematopoiesis genes (glycophorin A, adducin 2, beta-2 microglobulin, and ceruloplasmin) were absent after alcohol treatment, and histone variant genes were reduced. The down-regulation of the neurospecification and the neurotrophic genes were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the gene expression profile demonstrated distinct subgroups which corresponded with two distinct alcohol-related neural tube phenotypes: an open (ALC-NTO) and a closed neural tube (ALC-NTC). Further, the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway and histone variants were specifically altered in ALC-NTO, and a greater number of neurotrophic/growth factor genes were down-regulated in the ALC-NTO than in the ALC-NTC embryos. This study revealed a set of genes vulnerable to alcohol exposure and genes that were associated with neural tube

  1. Interaction of the GCKR and A1CF loci with alcohol consumption to influence the risk of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Humaira; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2017-07-05

    Some gout-associated loci interact with dietary exposures to influence outcome. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate interactions between alcohol exposure and urate-associated loci in gout. A total of 2792 New Zealand European and Polynesian (Māori or Pacific) people with or without gout were genotyped for 29 urate-associated genetic variants and tested for a departure from multiplicative interaction with alcohol exposure in the risk of gout. Publicly available data from 6892 European subjects were used to test for a departure from multiplicative interaction between specific loci and alcohol exposure for the risk of hyperuricemia (HU). Multivariate adjusted logistic and linear regression was done, including an interaction term. Interaction of any alcohol exposure with GCKR (rs780094) and A1CF (rs10821905) influenced the risk of gout in Europeans (interaction term 0.28, P = 1.5 × 10 -4 ; interaction term 0.29, P = 1.4 × 10 -4 , respectively). At A1CF, alcohol exposure suppressed the gout risk conferred by the A-positive genotype. At GCKR, alcohol exposure eliminated the genetic effect on gout. In the Polynesian sample set, there was no experiment-wide evidence for interaction with alcohol in the risk of gout (all P > 8.6 × 10 -4 ). However, at GCKR, there was nominal evidence for an interaction in a direction consistent the European observation (interaction term 0.62, P = 0.05). There was no evidence for an interaction of A1CF or GCKR with alcohol exposure in determining HU. These data support the hypothesis that alcohol influences the risk of gout via glucose and apolipoprotein metabolism. In the absence of alcohol exposure, genetic variants in the GCKR and A1CF genes have a stronger role in gout.

  2. Influence of alcohol intake during lactation in the origin of alcohol addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bossolani Charlo Sanches

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the influence of alcohol intake during lactation in alcoholism onset. Methods: descriptive research with intentional convenient sample of 33 people addicted to alcohol and their mothers which assessed the correlation between the consumption of alcohol ingested using the instruments Cut down, Annoyde by criticims, Guilty and Eye-opener, and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down and Eye-opener. Results: addicts are men, young, single, with low level of education and income between one and five minimum wages. Among the patients who consider themselves alcoholics, 55.5% had mothers who considered themselves alcoholics and 60.0% of them had consumed alcohol during lactation, but this correlation was not significant. Conclusion: a positive correlation between alcohol consumption by mothers during breastfeeding and addiction of their children in adulthood was not found.

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Miscarriage, Stillbirth, Preterm Delivery, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Beth A.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposure...

  4. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  5. Cross-lagged associations between substance use-related media exposure and alcohol use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (Internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p = .02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p = .07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents' exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disclosure and Exposure of Alcohol on Social Media and Later Alcohol Use: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Erevik, Eilin K.; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S.; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-rela...

  7. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Partner's influences and other correlates of prenatal alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2) = 0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use.

  9. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; van den Putte, B.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational

  10. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Ogunsakin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OHD 3 ] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH 2 D 3 ] and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OHD 3 , active vitamin D (1, 25(OH 2 D 3 , cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05 when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system.

  11. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  12. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  13. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific

  14. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  16. Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; de Bruijn, Avalon; Angus, Kathryn; Gordon, Ross; Hastings, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on future adolescent alcohol use. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycLIT, from 1990 to September 2008, supplemented with searches of Google scholar, hand searches of key journals and reference lists of identified papers and key publications for more recent publications. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' exposure to commercial communications and media and alcohol drinking behaviour at baseline, and assessed alcohol drinking behaviour at follow-up. Participants were adolescents aged 18 years or younger or below the legal drinking age of the country of origin of the study, whichever was the higher. Thirteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 38,000 young people met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including estimates of the volume of media and advertising exposure, ownership of branded merchandise, recall and receptivity, and one study on expenditure on advertisements. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 96 months. One study reported outcomes at multiple time-points, 3, 5, and 8 years. Seven studies provided data on initiation of alcohol use amongst non-drinkers, three studies on maintenance and frequency of drinking amongst baseline drinkers, and seven studies on alcohol use of the total sample of non-drinkers and drinkers at baseline. Twelve of the thirteen studies concluded an impact of exposure on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking amongst existing drinkers, with a dose response relationship in all studies that reported such exposure and analysis. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for. The thirteenth study, which tested the impact of outdoor advertising placed near schools failed to detect an impact on alcohol use, but found an impact on

  17. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  20. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly.

  1. Effects of prenatal alcohol and cigarette exposure on offspring substance use in multiplex, alcohol-dependent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-12-01

    Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of

  2. The association between exposure to social media alcohol marketing and youth alcohol use behaviors in India and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Lam, Tina; Pettigrew, Simone; Tait, Robert J

    2018-06-13

    Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.

  3. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  4. Impact of alcohol checks and social norm on driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesmann, Uta; Martensen, Heike; Dupont, Emmanuelle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of alcohol checks and social norm on self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol above the legal limit (DUI). The analysis was based on the responses of 12,507 car drivers from 19 European countries to the SARTRE-4 survey (2010). The data were analysed by means of a multiple logistic regression-model on two levels: (1) individual and (2) national level. On the individual level the results revealed that driving under the influence (DUI) was positively associated with male gender, young age (17-34), personal experience with alcohol checks, the perceived likelihood of being checked for alcohol, perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends (social norm) and was negatively associated with higher age (55+). On a national level, the results showed a negative association with a lower legal alcohol limit (BAC 0.2g/l compared with BAC 0.5g/l) and the percentage of drivers checked for alcohol. DUI was positively associated with the percentage of respondents in the country that reported that their friends drink and drive (social norm). The comparison of the results obtained on national and individual levels shows a paradoxical effect of alcohol checks: Countries with more alcohol checks show lower DUI (negative association) but respondents who have been personally checked for alcohol show a higher chance of DUI (positive association). Possible explanations of this paradox are discussed. The effects of the social norm variable (perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends) are positively associated with DUI on both levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers: The Diagnostic Role of Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Bozzo, A; Di Corcia, D; Gerace, E; Vincenti, M

    2018-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc.) who frequently wash their hands with antiseptic sanitizer. Two types of hand disinfectants with 62% w/w of ethanol content were daily applied to the hands of a teetotaler for 20 times a day, for 4 consecutive weeks, thus simulating a typical workplace situation and a cumulative dermal exposure to ethanol of ~1,100 g. Different matrices (head, chest and beard hair, urine) were regularly sampled and analyzed using a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry validated method for EtG and a (HS)SPME-GC-MS validated technique for FAEEs. The data obtained showed that a significant dermal absorption and/or inhalation of ethanol occurred, and that the use of detergents produce urinary EtG concentrations both higher than the cut-offs normally used for clinical and forensic analyses (either 100 and 500 ng/mL, depending on the context). The concentrations of the ethanol metabolites in the keratin matrices were, respectively, below the cut-off of 7 pg/mg for EtG and below 0.5 ng/mg for FAAEs (0.35 ng/mg for ethyl palmitate). In conclusion, the regular use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can affect the concentration of urinary EtG and lead to positive analytical results, particularly when specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizer. On the

  6. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  7. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  8. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  9. The 2008-2009 recession and alcohol outcomes: differential exposure and vulnerability for Black and Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J; Liu, Huiguo; Schmidt, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether race/ethnicity was related to exposure to acute economic losses in the 2008-2009 recession, even accounting for individual-level and geographic variables, and whether it influenced associations between economic losses and drinking patterns and problems. Data were from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N = 5,382). Surveys assessed both severe losses (i.e., job and housing loss) and moderate losses (i.e., reduced hours/pay and trouble paying the rent/mortgage) attributed to the 2008-2009 recession. Alcohol outcomes included total annual volume, monthly drunkenness, drinking consequences, and alcohol dependence (based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Compared with Whites, Blacks reported significantly greater exposure to job loss and trouble paying the rent/mortgage, and Latinos reported greater exposure to all economic losses. However, only Black-White differences were robust in multivariate analyses. Interaction tests suggested that associations between exposure to economic loss and alcohol problems were stronger among Blacks than Whites. Given severe (vs. no) loss, Blacks had about 13 times the odds of both two or more drinking consequences and alcohol dependence, whereas the corresponding odds ratios for Whites were less than 3. Conversely, associations between economic loss and alcohol outcomes were weak and ambiguous among Latinos. Results suggest greater exposure to economic loss for both Blacks and Latinos (vs. Whites) and that the Black population may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of economic hardship on the development and/or maintenance of alcohol problems. Findings extend the economic literature and signal policy makers and service providers that Blacks and Latinos may be at special risk during economic downturns.

  10. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  11. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  12. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Alcohol Consumption, Peer Influence and Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influences of Acohol Consumption peer influence and secodnary school stuents attitudes towards schol in some selected secodnary shools in Katsit, Kafanchan, Kaduna State. The study adopted a correlational research design and the population of this study was 200 senior students from four (4) ...

  14. Fine motor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.

  15. Familial influence and childhood trauma in female alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Å.; Lundholm, C.; Göransson, M.; Copeland, W.; Heilig, M.; Pedersen, N. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the role of genetic and environmental factors in female alcoholism using a large population-based twin sample, taking into account possible differences between early and late onset disease subtype. Method Twins aged 20–47 years from the Swedish Twin Registry (n = 24 119) answered questions to establish lifetime alcohol use disorders. Subjects with alcoholism were classified for subtype. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the proportion of phenotypic variance due to genetic and environmental factors and test whether heritability in women differed from that in men. The association between childhood trauma and alcoholism was then examined in females, controlling for background familial factors. Results Lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.9% in women and 8.6% in men. Overall, heritability for alcohol dependence was 55%, and did not differ significantly between men and women, although women had a significantly greater heritability for late onset (type I). Childhood physical trauma and sexual abuse had a stronger association with early onset compared to late onset alcoholism [odds ratio (OR) 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53–3.88 and OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.38–3.79 respectively]. Co-twin analysis indicated that familial factors largely accounted for the influence of physical trauma whereas the association with childhood sexual abuse reflected both familial and specific effects. Conclusions Heritability of alcoholism in women is similar to that in men. Early onset alcoholism is strongly association with childhood trauma, which seems to be both a marker of familial background factors and a specific individual risk factor per se. PMID:21798111

  16. The effect of peer influence and selection processes on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains an important public health concern. One of the most salient and consistent predictors for drinking behaviour among young people is peer influence. A systematic review of longitudinal studies that examined the effect of peer influence on adolescent alcohol use between January 1997 and February 2011 is presented. Twenty-two studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All but one study confirmed affiliation with alcohol-using or deviant peers as prospective predictors for the development of adolescent alcohol use. Findings revealed that existing longitudinal studies that have used multivariate analytic techniques to segregate peer influence (whereby adolescents start drinking after exposure to alcohol-using friends) and peer selection (whereby adolescents that start drinking without alcohol-using friends subsequently seek out drinking peers) effects consistently report significant peer influence effects. However, studies are unable to elucidate the relative contribution and developmental sequence of peer influence and selection. Existing research is synthesised to model the developmental influence of peer processes on adolescent alcohol use. Future research directions are recommended to inform better designed investigations that can lead to more effective endeavours to address peer processes in prevention efforts.

  17. Influenced but unaware: social influence on alcohol drinking among social acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Rebecca; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abi; Robinson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Drinking partners may be influenced by each other's alcohol consumption. However, these effects have only been shown in artificially created social pairings and typically among same-sex young adults. Here, we test whether similarly strong influence effects occur among "real" pairs of social acquaintances (friends and partners) and whether people are aware of this influence on their alcohol consumption. Forty-six pairs of social acquaintances aged between 19 and 60 years old participated in a between-subjects experiment, in a semi-naturalistic bar laboratory setting. One member of each pair (the confederate) was randomly selected and asked to consume only alcoholic (alcohol condition) or soft drinks (nonalcohol condition), while the pair completed a game together in a bar setting. The other participant (naïve) was unaware of these drinking instructions. Postconsumption, we measured the extent to which naïve participants believed that their partner had influenced their own drinking behavior. A large effect of condition on alcohol consumption was observed, χ² (2) = 15.8, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.59, whereby the number of alcoholic drinks selected by naïve participants in the alcohol confederate condition was significantly greater than in the nonalcohol confederate condition. The majority of naïve participants (81%) also tended to be unaware that their partner had influenced their alcohol consumption. Social acquaintances are influenced by each other's alcohol consumption and may not be aware of this influence on their behavior. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzer, Siara K.; Cole, Jesse M.; Johnson, Julia M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Diaz, Marvin R.

    2017-01-01

    Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12) heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model modera...

  19. Exposure to alcohol advertising and adolescents' drinking beliefs: Role of message interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Shadel, William G; Becker, Kirsten M; Tolpadi, Anagha

    2017-09-01

    Recent research revealed momentary associations between exposure to alcohol advertising and positive beliefs about alcohol among adolescents (Martino et al., 2016). We reanalyzed those data to determine whether associations depend on adolescents' appraisal of ads. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 youth, ages 11-14, in the Los Angeles, CA, area, participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements as they occurred and completing brief assessments of their skepticism toward, liking of, and identification with any people in each ad, as well as their alcohol-related beliefs at the moment. Participants also completed measures of their alcohol- related beliefs at random moments of nonexposure throughout each day. Mixed-effects regression models compared beliefs about alcohol at moments of exposure to alcohol advertising that was appraised in a particular way (e.g., with liking, without liking) to beliefs at random moments. When youth encountered ads they appraised positively, their beliefs about alcohol were significantly more positive than when they were queried at random moments. Beliefs in the presence of ads that were not positively appraised were generally similar to beliefs at random moments. Youth are active participants in the advertising process. How they respond to and process alcohol advertising strongly moderates the association between exposure and alcohol-related beliefs. More effort is needed to identify attributes of alcohol advertisements, and of youth, that determine how youth process alcohol ads. This information can be used to either limit exposure to problematic ads or make youth more resilient to such exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Type of alcohol drink and exposure to violence: an emergency department study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavira, Cynthia; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lin, Johnny; del Pino, Homero E; Bazargan, Mohsen

    2011-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of exposure to violence across different types of alcohol consumed and the association between the type of alcohol consumed and exposure to violence. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a sample of 295 Emergency Department (ED) patients identified as having an alcohol problem. Outcome measure include exposure to violence, and the main study predictor was "type of alcoholic drink" including: malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, wine cooler, wine, fortified wine or hard liquor. Using logistic regression analysis, ED patients who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol increased their odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 8.5 compared to ED patients who drank other types of alcohol. Being female increased the odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 2.5 and using illicit drugs increased the odds by 3.8. Analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means revealed that ED patients who only drank MLB had a higher exposure to violence compared to non-MLB drinkers, and that female illicit drug users who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol had the highest exposure to violence. MLB was identified as a predictor of the amount of exposure to violence and in particular, that the use of malt liquor beer in combination with other types of alcohol increased the risk of being both threatened and physically attacked. Implications for ED and community interventions are suggested.

  1. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  2. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational valence about alcohol and subsequent persuasion outcomes. The study produced three main findings. First, an increase in the emotion fear induced a negative conversational valence about alcohol. Second, fear was most strongly induced by a disgusting message, whereas a humorous appeal induced the least fear. Third, a negative conversational valence elicited healthier binge drinking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors. Thus, health campaign planners and health researchers should pay special attention to the emotional characteristics of health messages and should focus on inducing a healthy conversational valence.

  3. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating a...

  4. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug includes...

  5. Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising in National Magazines in the United States, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Henehan, Elizabeth R; Jernigan, David H

    2017-01-01

    To update public health surveillance of alcohol advertising to underage populations by assessing alcohol industry compliance with their voluntary guidelines for US magazine advertisements from 2001 to 2011. Using advertising industry standard sources The Nielsen Company and MediaMark, we evaluated youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and relative advertising exposure of youths versus adults, in 168 national magazines. From 2001 to 2011, magazine alcohol advertising seen by youths declined by 62.9%, from 5.4 billion impressions (single person seeing a single advertisement) to 2.0 billion impressions. Most alcohol advertising (65.1% of ads) was for spirits (e.g., vodka, whiskey). Since 2008, alcohol companies achieved 100% compliance with their limited guidelines. However, youths were overexposed to magazine advertising relative to adults on average 73% of the time. Despite improving compliance with placement guidelines in national editions of the 168 measured magazines, most youth exposure to magazine alcohol advertising exceeded adult exposure, per capita. If alcohol companies adopted stricter guidelines based on public health risk assessments, youths would not be overexposed to alcohol advertising in magazines.

  6. Industry self-regulation of alcohol marketing: a systematic review of content and exposure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Adolescents' use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure: modifications by gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela; Liebig, Stefan; Feldmann, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate (a) the association between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in adolescence and (b) whether the associations are modified by gender and ethnicity. The subjects of the study were 5922 children and adolescents, aged from 11 to 17 years, enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the KiGGS study). Information on PAE is based on parental self-report questionnaires. Use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed through self-report questionnaires for adolescents. Low to moderate PAE was associated with an increased risk of drinking alcohol (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.18) and also of illicit drug use (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23, 2.14). The associations between PAE and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs differed according to gender and ethnicity. Gender-stratified analyses resulted in adverse effects of PAE on drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in females; however, in German males, the associations disappeared. Stronger associations between PAE and the outcome measures were found in non-Germans. Our findings indicate that low to moderate levels of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy are a risk factor for use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs by the offspring, with stronger associations in females and non-Germans.

  8. Visual attention to advertising under the influence of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Jeppesen, Heine

    An eye-tracking experiment is reported in which the effects of alcohol intoxication on visual attention were tested. Based on findings from the psychopharmacological literature, it was hypothesised that the salience of visual elements in complex advertisements would be amplified, whereas...... the processing of conceptual information would be impaired. The results indicate that the visual salience of logos (either brand and corporate) is selectively increased under the influence of alcohol whilst other pictorial elements (representations of products or human models) are unaffected. Processing...

  9. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.

  10. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  11. A review of social skills deficits in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and prenatal alcohol exposure: profiles, mechanisms, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kully-Martens, Katrina; Denys, Kennedy; Treit, Sarah; Tamana, Sukhpreet; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-04-01

    Individuals gestationally exposed to alcohol experience a multitude of sociobehavioral impairments, including deficits in adaptive behaviors such as social skills. The goal of this report is to critically review research on social skills deficits in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, including individuals with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Social deficits are found in alcohol-exposed children, adults, and adolescents with and without a clinical presentation. These deficits tend to persist across the lifespan and may even worsen with age. Social deficits in this population appear to be independent of facial dysmorphology and IQ and are worse than can be predicted based on atypical behaviors alone. Abnormalities in neurobiology, executive function, sensory processing, and communication likely interact with contextual influences to produce the range of social deficits observed in FASD. Future investigations should strive to reconcile the relationship between social skills deficits in FASD and variables such as gender, age, cognitive profile, and structural and functional brain impairments to enable better characterization of the deficits observed in this population, which will enhance diagnosis and improve remediation. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Caudate Asymmetry: A Neurobiological Marker of Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willford, Jennifer; Day, Richard; Aizenstein, Howard; Day, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This study identified structural changes in the caudate nucleus in offspring of mothers who drank moderate levels of alcohol during pregnancy. In addition, the effect of duration of alcohol use during pregnancy was assessed. Young adults were recruited from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Three groups were evaluated: prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) during all three trimesters (3T), PAE during the first trimester only (1T), and controls with no PAE (0T). Magnetic r...

  13. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  14. Alcohol, Methamphetamine, and Marijuana Exposure Have Distinct Effects on the Human Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R Colin; Wainwright, Helen; Molteno, Christopher D; Georgieff, Michael K; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Fleur; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. Little is known about effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on placental development. Placentas were collected from 103 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-six heavy drinkers and 37 nondrinkers were interviewed about their alcohol, cigarette smoking, and drug use at 3 antenatal visits. A senior pathologist, blinded to exposure status, performed comprehensive pathology examinations on each placenta using a standardized protocol. In multivariable regression models, effects of prenatal exposure were examined on placental size, structure, and presence of infections and meconium. Drinkers reported a binge pattern of heavy drinking, averaging 8.0 drinks/occasion across pregnancy on 1.4 d/wk. 79.6% smoked cigarettes; 22.3% used marijuana; and 17.5% used methamphetamine. Alcohol exposure was related to decreased placental weight and a smaller placenta-to-birthweight ratio. By contrast, methamphetamine was associated with larger placental weight and a larger placenta-to-birthweight ratio. Marijuana was also associated with larger placental weight. Alcohol exposure was associated with increased risk of placental hemorrhage. Prenatal alcohol, drug, and cigarette use were not associated with chorioamnionitis, villitis, deciduitis, or maternal vascular underperfusion. Alcohol and cigarette smoking were associated with a decreased risk of intrauterine passing of meconium, a sign of acute fetal stress and/or hypoxia; methamphetamine, with an increased risk. This is the first human study to show that alcohol, methamphetamine, and marijuana were associated with distinct patterns of pathology, suggesting different mechanisms mediating their effects on placental development. Given the growing

  15. The effects of acute alcohol exposure on the response properties of neurons in visual cortex area 17 of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Xia Jing; Li Guangxing; Zhou Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.

  16. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  17. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: A female twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765

  19. Adolescents' exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and their alcohol use: exploring associations during a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria; Azar, Denise; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-01

    To determine (i) whether Australian adolescents' exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and (ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours. Cross-sectional surveys conducted every 3 years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking. Five Australian major cities. Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12 644-16 004). Outcome measures were: drinking in the past month, past week and past-week risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day). The key predictor variable was past-month adolescent-directed alcohol advertising Targeted Rating Points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure). Control measures included student-level characteristics, government alcohol-control advertising TRPs, road safety (drink-driving) TRPs and time of survey. Average monthly adolescent alcohol TRPs increased between 1999 (mean = 2371) to 2005 (mean = 2679) (P advertising variables showed a significant association between past-month alcohol TRPs and past-month drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.15), past-week drinking (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06-1.14) and past-week risky drinking (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.22). Past-week risky drinking was associated inversely with road safety TRPs (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.98). While Australian adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising on television reduced between 1999 and 2011, higher levels of past-month television alcohol advertising were associated with an increased likelihood of adolescents' drinking. The reduction in television alcohol advertising in Australia in the late 2000s may have played a part in reducing adolescents' drinking prevalence. © 2017 Society

  20. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Elliott, Marc N; Rohr, Charlene; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Exposure of young people to alcohol advertising is a risk factor for underage drinking. This study assessed youth exposure to television alcohol advertising in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, from December 2010 to May 2011. A negative binomial regression model predicted number of alcohol advertisements from the proportion of the television viewership in each age group. This allowed comparison of alcohol advertisement incidence for each youth age category relative to an adult reference category. In the UK, those aged 10-15 years were significantly more exposed to alcohol advertisements per viewing hour than adults aged ≥ 25 years [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.06, 1.18; P advertisements than adults aged ≥ 25 years (IRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.85; P children (aged 4-9 years in the UK and Germany, 6-12 years in the Netherlands) were less exposed than adults. Adolescents in the UK and the Netherlands, but not Germany, had higher exposure to television alcohol advertising relative to adults than would be expected from their television viewing. Further work across a wider range of countries is needed to understand the relationship between national policies and youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally......Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester...... and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65-70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during...

  2. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  3. Comparative quantification of alcohol exposure as risk factor for global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Klotsche, Jens; Patra, Jayadeep

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol has been identified as one of the most important risk factors in the burden experienced as a result of disease. The objective of the present contribution is to establish a framework to comparatively quantify alcohol exposure as it is relevant for burden of disease. Different key indicators are combined to derive this quantification. First, adult per capita consumption, composed of recorded and unrecorded consumption, yields the best overall estimate of alcohol exposure for a country or region. Second, survey information is used to allocate the per capita consumption into sex and age groups. Third, an index for detrimental patterns of drinking is used to determine the additional impact on injury and cardiovascular burden. The methodology is applied to estimate global alcohol exposure for the year 2002. Finally, assumptions and potential problems of the approach are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-04-01

    Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  6. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School–Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570

  7. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School-Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  9. Hepatic Hazard Assessment of Silver Nanoparticle Exposure in Healthy and Chronically Alcohol Fed Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Roursgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    effects were aggravated in the alcohol pretreated mice in comparison to controls with regards to an organ specific inflammatory response, changes in blood biochemistry, acute phase response and hepatic pathology. In addition, alcoholic disease influenced the organ’s ability for recovery post-NP challenge...

  10. The Margin of Exposure of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in Alcoholic Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) regularly occurs in foods and in alcoholic beverages. However, the risk of HMF associated with alcohol consumption has not been systematically studied, so that this study will provide the first quantitative risk assessment of HMF for consumers of alcoholic beverages. Human dietary intake of HMF via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data combined with our own survey data (n=944) and literature data (n=147) about the HMF contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. For olfactory epithelium metaplasia in female mice, a benchmark dose (BMD) of 127 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/d and a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 79 mg/kg bw/d were calculated from National Toxicology Program oral long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to HMF from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 6.0E-3 mg/kg bw/d, which is approximately 8.5% of the total dietary exposure. In comparison of the human exposure with BMDL, the MOE was 13,167 for average alcohol consumption scenarios, which is a value that would be generally assumed as safe for threshold based compounds. The results show that the risk from HMF to the alcohol-consuming population is rather low and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is also low. Further toxicological research about HMF is required to further elucidate its mechanism.

  11. Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes

  12. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  13. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  14. Long-Term Influence of Duration and Frequency of Participation in Alcoholics Anonymous on Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the duration and frequency of a baseline episode of participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) among 473 individuals with alcohol use disorders on 1-year and 8-year outcomes and the effect of additional participation and delayed participation on outcomes. Compared with individuals who did not participate,…

  15. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Aim To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9–17. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Results Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Conclusion Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. PMID:27864186

  16. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  17. Epigenetic Targets for Reversing Immune Defects Caused by Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda J.; Zahs, Anita; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption alters factors that modify gene expression without changing the DNA code (i.e., epigenetic modulators) in many organ systems, including the immune system. Alcohol enhances the risk for developing several serious medical conditions related to immune system dysfunction, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), liver cancer, and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Binge and chronic drinking also render patients more susceptible to many infectious pathogens and advance the progression of HIV infection by weakening both innate and adaptive immunity. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in these processes. For example, alcohol-induced epigenetic variations alter the developmental pathways of several types of immune cells (e.g., granulocytes, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes) and through these and other mechanisms promote exaggerated inflammatory responses. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms may underlie alcohol’s ability to interfere with the barrier functions of the gut and respiratory systems, which also contribute to the heightened risk of infections. Better understanding of alcohol’s effects on these epigenetic processes may help researchers identify new targets for the development of novel medications to prevent or ameliorate alcohol’s detrimental effects on the immune system. PMID:24313169

  18. Cortical gyrification is abnormal in children with prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Hendrickson

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Abnormalities in cortical development were seen across the brain in children with PAE compared to controls. Cortical gyrification and IQ were strongly correlated, suggesting that examining mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts cortical formation may yield clinically relevant insights and potential directions for early intervention.

  19. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella pneumoniae Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V. Raju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.

  20. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time.

  1. Exposure to Alcohol Use in Motion Pictures and Teen Drinking in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Head circumference at birth and exposure to tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".

  3. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    .92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....

  4. Alcohol exposure decreases CREB binding protein expression and histone acetylation in the developing cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixiang Guo

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure affects 1 in 100 children making it the leading cause of mental retardation in the US. It has long been known that alcohol affects cerebellum development and function. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear.We demonstrate that CREB binding protein (CBP is widely expressed in granule and Purkinje neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex of naïve rats. We also show that exposure to ethanol during the 3(rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy reduces CBP levels. CBP is a histone acetyltransferase, a component of the epigenetic mechanism controlling neuronal gene expression. We further demonstrate that the acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 is reduced in the cerebellum of ethanol-treated rats.These findings indicate that ethanol exposure decreases the expression and function of CBP in the developing cerebellum. This effect of ethanol may be responsible for the motor coordination deficits that characterize fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in the influence of cultural values, alcohol resistance self-efficacy, and alcohol expectancies on risk for alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Regina A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; Zhou, Annie J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research has reported racial/ethnic differences in the early initiation of alcohol use, suggesting that cultural values that are central to specific racial/ethnic groups may be influencing these differences. This 1-year longitudinal study examines associations between two types of cultural values, parental respect (honor for one's parents) and familism (connectedness with family), both measured at baseline, and subsequent alcohol initiation in a sample of 6,054 (approximately 49% male, 57% Hispanic, 22% Asian, 18% non-Hispanic White, and 4% non-Hispanic Black) middle school students in Southern California. We tested whether the associations of cultural values with alcohol initiation could be explained by baseline measures of alcohol resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and alcohol expectancies. We also explored whether these pathways differed by race/ethnicity. In the full sample, adolescents with higher parental respect were less likely to initiate alcohol use, an association that was partially explained by higher RSE and fewer positive alcohol expectancies. Familism was not significantly related to alcohol initiation. Comparing racial/ethnic groups, higher parental respect was protective against alcohol initiation for Whites and Asians, but not Blacks or Hispanics. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between familism and alcohol initiation. Results suggest that cultural values are important factors in the decision to use alcohol and these values appear to operate in part, by influencing alcohol positive expectancies and RSE. Interventions that focus on maintaining strong cultural values and building strong bonds between adolescents and their families may help reduce the risk of alcohol initiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative?motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...

  8. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE): insights into FASD using mouse models of PAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Berardino; Weinberg, Joanne; Hicks, Geoffrey G

    2018-04-01

    The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and many others showing few or no overt signs of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models, variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration, and gestational timing of exposure to alcohol can all be controlled in a way that is not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse models of PAE and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioral phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes. Analysis of these data should provide a valuable tool for researchers wishing to choose the PAE model best suited to their research questions or to investigate established PAE models for FASD comorbidities. It should also allow recognition of patterns linking gestational timing, dosage, and duration of PAE, such as recognizing that binge alcohol exposure(s) during early gestation can lead to severe FASD outcomes. Identified patterns could be particularly insightful and lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying FASD.

  9. Cocaine influences alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Wilden, Jessica A; Deehan, Gerald A; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2014-10-01

    The results of several studies suggest that there may be common neurocircuits regulating drug-seeking behaviors. Common biological pathways regulating drug-seeking would explain the phenomenon that seeking for 1 drug can be enhanced by exposure to another drug of abuse. The objective of this study was to assess the time course effects of acute cocaine administration on ethanol (EtOH) seeking and relapse. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to self-administer 15% EtOH and water. EtOH-seeking was assessed through the use of the Pavlovian spontaneous recovery (PSR) model, while EtOH-relapse drinking was assessed through the use of the alcohol-deprivation effect. Cocaine (0, 1, or 10 mg/kg), injected immediately, 30 minutes, or 4 hours prior to the first PSR testing session, dose-dependently increased responding on the EtOH lever compared to extinction responses and responding by saline controls. Under relapse conditions, cocaine given immediately prior to the relapse session had no effect (1 mg/kg) or reduced responding (10 mg/kg). In contrast, cocaine given 4 hours prior to the relapse session markedly enhanced EtOH responding compared to saline. The enhanced expression of EtOH-seeking and EtOH-relapse behaviors may be a result of a priming effect of cocaine on neuronal circuits mediating these behaviors. The effect of cocaine on EtOH-relapse drinking is indicative of the complex interactions that can occur between drugs of abuse; production of conflicting behaviors (immediate), and priming of relapse/seeking (4-hour delay). Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Deployment and Alcohol Use in a Military Cohort: Use of Combined Methods to Account for Exposure-Related Covariates and Heterogeneous Response to Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, David S; Keyes, Katherine M; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2017-08-15

    Studies have shown that combat-area deployment is associated with increases in alcohol use; however, studying the influence of deployment on alcohol use faces 2 complications. First, the military considers a confluence of factors before determining whether to deploy a service member, creating a nonignorable exposure and unbalanced comparison groups that inevitably complicate inference about the role of deployment itself. Second, regression analysis assumes that a single effect estimate can approximate the population's change in postdeployment alcohol use, which ignores previous studies that have documented that respondents tend to exhibit heterogeneous postdeployment drinking behaviors. Therefore, we used propensity score matching to balance baseline covariates for the 2 comparison groups (deployed and nondeployed), followed by a variable-oriented difference-in-differences approach to account for the confounding and a person-oriented approach using a latent growth mixture model to account for the heterogeneous response to deployment in this prospective cohort study of the US Army National Guard (2009-2014). We observed a nonsignificant increase in estimated monthly drinks in the first year after deployment that regressed to predeployment drinking levels 2 years after deployment. We found a 4-class model that fit these data best, suggesting that common regression analyses likely conceal substantial interindividual heterogeneity in postdeployment alcohol-use behaviors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17. MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  12. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  13. Effects of cue-exposure treatment on neural cue reactivity in alcohol dependence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Loeber, Sabine; Kirsch, Martina; Bach, Patrick; Richter, Anne; Bühler, Mira; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hermann, Derik; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-06-01

    In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-associated cues elicit brain activation in mesocorticolimbic networks involved in relapse mechanisms. Cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of alcoholism; however, it has remained unexplored whether CET mediates its therapeutic effects via changes of activity in mesolimbic networks in response to alcohol cues. In this study, we assessed CET treatment effects on cue-induced responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a randomized controlled trial, abstinent alcohol-dependent patients were randomly assigned to a CET group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). All patients underwent an extended detoxification treatment comprising medically supervised detoxification, health education, and supportive therapy. The CET patients additionally received nine CET sessions over 3 weeks, exposing the patient to his/her preferred alcoholic beverage. Cue-induced fMRI activation to alcohol cues was measured at pretreatment and posttreatment. Compared with pretreatment, fMRI cue-reactivity reduction was greater in the CET relative to the control group, especially in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula, as well as limbic and frontal regions. Before treatment, increased cue-induced fMRI activation was found in limbic and reward-related brain regions and in visual areas. After treatment, the CET group showed less activation than the control group in the left ventral striatum. The study provides first evidence that an exposure-based psychotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of alcoholism impacts on brain areas relevant for addiction memory and attentional focus to alcohol-associated cues and affects mesocorticolimbic reward pathways suggested to be pathophysiologically involved in addiction. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or drugs. 1004.23 Section 1004.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.23 Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs. (a) Operating or... alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or any combination thereof, to a degree that renders the operator incapable...

  15. 36 CFR 4.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or drugs. 4.23 Section 4.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE...) Under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or any combination thereof, to a degree that... entitled to use alcohol or another drug. (c) Tests. (1) At the request or direction of an authorized person...

  16. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on

  17. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts CB1 regulation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Bajo, Michal; Soni, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    in BLA pyramidal neurons of rats exposed to 2–3 weeks intermittent ethanol. In the naïve rat BLA, the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased GABA release, and this effect was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. AM251 alone increased GABA release via a mechanism requiring postsynaptic calcium-dependent......1 influence on BLA GABAergic transmission that is dysregulated by chronic ethanol exposure and, thus, may contribute to the alcohol-dependent state....

  18. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unre...

  19. Peer, social media, and alcohol marketing influences on college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Angela A; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley

    2018-07-01

    To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well as moderation by gender and race. Drinking behavior was directly related to perceived norms and attitudes toward alcohol that develop, in part, from direct and indirect interactions with their online and offline peers, as well as engagement with alcohol-related content on social media. Gender and ethnicity moderated some effects. College student drinking is influenced by friends' alcohol-related content posted on social networking sites and by greater engagement with traditional and online alcohol marketing. College campus alcohol misuse interventions should include components to counter peer influences and alcohol marketing on social media.

  20. Exposure to Online Alcohol Marketing and Adolescents' Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in four European countries. A total of 9038 students with a mean age of 14.05 (SD 0.82) participated in a school-based survey in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional cross-country survey data were undertaken. Exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising and ownership of alcohol-branded items was estimated to be controlled for relevant confounders. Onset of drinking and binge drinking in the past 30 days were included in the study as outcome variables. Adjusted for relevant confounders, higher exposure to (online) alcohol marketing exposure was found to be related to the odds of starting to drink (p four countries. Active engagement with online alcohol marketing was found to interact more strongly with drinking outcomes than passive exposure to online alcohol marketing. Youngsters in the four European countries report frequent exposure to online alcohol marketing. The association between this exposure and adolescents' drinking was robust and seems consistent across national contexts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  3. Age-Specific Associations Between Violence Exposure and Past 30-Day Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-04-23

    Using data from a cohort study of students at risk for high school dropout, we examined associations between violence exposure and past 30-day alcohol and marijuana use. We used varying-coefficient regression with person-level fixed effects to estimate how those associations changed within-person across ages approximately 14-23. Generally, violence perpetration was most strongly associated with substance use, within-person. Substance use became increasingly associated with both observed violence and violence perpetration during early/middle adolescence; this increase continued longer into development (age 18+) for alcohol use. Across most of the age range studied here, violence victimization was minimally associated with within-person changes in substance use. Results indicate age-specific associations between violence exposure and alcohol and other drug use, which may be useful for informing prevention strategies. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  4. Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmel Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.

  5. Alcohol advertising at Boston subway stations: an assessment of exposure by race and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Elisabeth; Poirier, Katie; Wilkinson, Tiana; Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Siegel, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates.

  6. Exposure to the taste of alcohol elicits activation of the mesocorticolimbic neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; Claus, Eric; Audette, Amy R; Niculescu, Michelle; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody; Du, Yiping P; Hutchison, Kent E

    2008-05-01

    A growing number of imaging studies suggest that alcohol cues, mainly visual, elicit activation in mesocorticolimbic structures. Such findings are consistent with the growing recognition that these structures play an important role in the attribution of incentive salience and the pathophysiology of addiction. The present study investigated whether the presentation of alcohol taste cues can activate brain regions putatively involved in the acquisition and expression of incentive salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded BOLD activity while delivering alcoholic tastes to 37 heavy drinking but otherwise healthy volunteers. The results yielded a pattern of BOLD activity in mesocorticolimbic structures (ie prefrontal cortex, striatum, ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra) relative to an appetitive control. Further analyses suggested strong connectivity between these structures during cue-elicited urge and demonstrated significant positive correlations with a measure of alcohol use problems (ie the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Thus, repeated exposure to the taste alcohol in the scanner elicits activation in mesocorticolimbic structures, and this activation is related to measures of urge and severity of alcohol problems.

  7. Youth alcohol brand consumption and exposure to brand advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-07-01

    Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Underage males ages 18-20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18-20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18-20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth.

  8. Changes in the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine system during chronic controlled alcohol exposure in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Tudorascu, Dana L; Wooten, Dustin W; Lao, Patrick J; Barnhart, Todd E; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Resch, Leslie M; Larson, Julie A; Converse, Alexander K; Moore, Colleen F; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-05-01

    The precise nature of modifications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system in response to chronic ethanol exposure is poorly understood. The present work used PET imaging to assay α4β2* nAChR binding levels of eight rhesus monkeys before and during controlled chronic ethanol intake. [(18)F]Nifene PET scans were conducted prior to alcohol exposure, and then again after at least 8 months controlled ethanol exposure, including 6 months at 1.5 g/kg/day following a dose escalation period. Receptor binding levels were quantified with binding potentials (BPND) using the cerebellum as a reference region. Alcohol self-administration was assessed as average daily alcohol intake during a 2 month free drinking period immediately following controlled alcohol. Significant decreases in α4β2* nAChR binding were observed in both frontal and insular cortex in response to chronic ethanol exposure. During chronic alcohol exposure, BPND in the lateral geniculate region correlated positively with the amount of alcohol consumed during free drinking. The observed decreases in nAChR availability following chronic alcohol consumption suggest alterations to this receptor system in response to repeated alcohol administration, making this an important target for further study in alcohol abuse and alcohol and nicotine codependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  13. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-02-02

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.

  14. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Influence of alcohol on social anxiety: an investigation of attentional, physiological and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stephan; Cludius, Barbara; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. It remains unclear, however, if and how alcohol influences attentional processes and physical symptoms in social anxiety. In a balanced-placebo-design, high and normally socially anxious participants gave a speech while performing a task, which simultaneously measures internal and external attention. Only high anxious participants showed a preferential processing of external probes, which was eliminated by alcohol or the mere expectation of drinking alcohol. Furthermore, alcohol reduced facial blushing as well as self-reported social anxiety during public speaking. Decreases in anxiety were significantly associated with a reduction of the external focus in the high anxious group. Understanding alcohol as a substance influencing cognitive processes as well as physiological symptoms of anxiety further contributes to our understanding of alcohol use as a safety behavior in social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  17. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol advertising on Australian metropolitan free-to-air television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Lynda; Donovan, Robert J; Ouschan, Robyn

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the exposure of underage youth to alcohol television advertising on metropolitan free-to-air television in the five mainland capital city markets of Australia. Exposure levels (target audience rating points; TARPs) were obtained for all alcohol advertisements screened from November 2005 to October 2006 in each capital city market for: children 0-12 years; underage teens 13-17 years; young adults 18-24 years; and mature adults 25+ years. The 30 most exposed advertisements across age groups were then content-analysed for elements appealing to children and underage youth. In each of the five metropolitan markets, mature adults were most exposed to alcohol advertising. Children were exposed to one-third the level of mature adults and underage teens to approximately the same level as young adults. However, there was considerable variation in media weight between markets, such that underage teens in two markets had higher advertising TARPs than young adults in other markets. All 30 highest exposed advertisements contained at least one element known to appeal to children and underage youth, with 23 containing two or more such elements. Fifteen of the 30 advertisements featured an animal. The self-regulation system in Australia does not protect children and youth from exposure to alcohol advertising, much of which contains elements appealing to these groups.

  18. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol advertising on television in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew V; Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J

    2008-09-01

    This article reports the extent to which children (0-12 years) and teenagers below the legal drinking age in Australia (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising on free-to-air television in Sydney, Australia, during the period from March 2005 to February 2006. Exposure levels were obtained from weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs) data generated by OzTAM, the official Australian television audience monitoring system. (The TARPs figure for an advertisement is calculated based on the number of individuals from a target audience [e.g., 13- to 17-year-olds] exposed to the ad as a proportion of the total number of individuals within the target audience, multiplied by 100). Exposure levels were obtained for four age groups-up to 12 years, 13-17 years, 18-24 years, and 25 years and older-for 156 different ads for 50 brands. Adults 25 years and older were most exposed to alcohol advertising: approximately 660 TARPs per week. The level to which underage teenagers (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising was virtually identical to that of young adults (18-24 years): 426 TARPs per week vs 429 TARPs per week. Children (0-12 years) were exposed to approximately one in every three alcohol ads seen on average by mature adults (ages 25 years and older). This study found that Australian children and teenagers below the legal drinking age currently are exposed to unacceptably high levels of alcohol advertising on television. These findings suggest that alcohol marketers may be deliberately targeting underage adolescents. At the very least the findings highlight the need for action to be taken to reduce levels to which underage Australians are exposed to alcohol advertising on television.

  20. Amygdala Volume in Offspring from Multiplex for Alcohol Dependence Families: The Moderating Influence of Childhood Environment and 5-HTTLPR Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y; Wang, Shuhui; Carter, Howard; McDermott, Michael D; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2013-12-12

    The increased susceptibility for developing alcohol dependence seen in offspring from families with alcohol dependence may be related to structural and functional differences in brain circuits that influence emotional processing. Early childhood environment, genetic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the SLCA4 gene and allelic variation in the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene have each been reported to be related to volumetric differences in the temporal lobe especially the amygdala. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain amygdala volumes for 129 adolescent/young adult individuals who were either High-Risk (HR) offspring from families with multiple cases of alcohol dependence (N=71) or Low-Risk (LR) controls (N=58). Childhood family environment was measured prospectively using age-appropriate versions of the Family Environment Scale during a longitudinal follow-up study. The subjects were genotyped for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met and the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Two family environment scale scores (Cohesion and Conflict), genotypic variation, and their interaction were tested for their association with amygdala volumes. Personal and prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs were considered in statistical analyses in order to more accurately determine the effects of familial risk group differences. Amygdala volume was reduced in offspring from families with multiple alcohol dependent members in comparison to offspring from control families. High-Risk offspring who were carriers of the S variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had reduced amygdala volume in comparison to those with an LL genotype. Larger amygdala volume was associated with greater family cohesion but only in Low-Risk control offspring. Familial risk for alcohol dependence is an important predictor of amygdala volume even when removing cases with significant personal exposure and covarying for

  1. Deficits in response inhibition correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-02-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  3. The relationship between exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and brand-specific consumption among underage drinkers--United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; Albers, Alison B; DeJong, William; King, Charles; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2016-01-01

    Marketing is increasingly recognized as a potentially important contributor to youth drinking, yet few studies have examined the relationship between advertising exposure and alcohol consumption among underage youth at the brand level. To examine the relationship between brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising among underage youth and the consumption prevalence of each brand in a national sample of underage drinkers. We analyzed the relationship between population-level exposure of underage youth ages 12-20 to brand-specific alcohol advertising in national magazines and television programs and the 30-day consumption prevalence--by brand--among a national sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20. Underage youth exposure to alcohol advertising by brand for each month in 2011, measured in gross rating points (GRPs, a standard measure of advertising exposure), was obtained from GfK MRI (a media consumer research company) and Nielsen for all measured national issues of magazines and all national television programs, respectively. The 30-day consumption prevalence for each brand was obtained from a national survey of 1031 underage drinkers conducted between December 2011 and May 2012. Underage youth were more than five times more likely to consume brands that advertise on national television and 36% more likely to consume brands that advertise in national magazines. The consumption prevalence of a brand increased by 36% for each 1.5 standard deviation (50 GRPs) increase in television adstock among underage youth and by 23% for each 1.5 standard deviation (10 GRPs) increase in magazine adstock. These findings suggest that alcohol advertising influences an important aspect of drinking behavior--brand choice--among youth who consume alcohol.

  4. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to Alcohol Commercials in Movie Theaters Affects Actual Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult High Weekly Drinkers: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  6. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  7. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  8. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differentiating prenatal exposure to methamphetamine and alcohol versus alcohol and not methamphetamine using tensor-based brain morphometry and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R; Leow, Alex D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Smith, Lynne M; O'Connor, Mary J; Kan, Eric; Rosso, Carly; Houston, Suzanne; Dinov, Ivo D; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-03-17

    Here we investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) on local brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Because many who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined whether local brain volumes differed among 61 children (ages 5-15 years), 21 with prenatal MA exposure, 18 with concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but not MA exposure (ALC group), and 27 unexposed controls. Volume reductions were observed in both exposure groups relative to controls in striatal and thalamic regions bilaterally and in right prefrontal and left occipitoparietal cortices. Striatal volume reductions were more severe in the MAA group than in the ALC group, and, within the MAA group, a negative correlation between full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores and caudate volume was observed. Limbic structures, including the anterior and posterior cingulate, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral and lateral temporal lobes bilaterally, were increased in volume in both exposure groups. Furthermore, cingulate and right IFG volume increases were more pronounced in the MAA than ALC group. Discriminant function analyses using local volume measurements and FSIQ were used to predict group membership, yielding factor scores that correctly classified 72% of participants in jackknife analyses. These findings suggest that striatal and limbic structures, known to be sites of neurotoxicity in adult MA abusers, may be more vulnerable to prenatal MA exposure than alcohol exposure and that more severe striatal damage is associated with more severe cognitive deficit.

  10. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  11. Influence of alcoholism on morbidity after transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Schütten, B T; Tollund, L

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity after transurethral resection of the prostate gland was retrospectively investigated by comparing 73 alcoholics with 73 controls (daily alcohol consumption greater than or equal to 60 g vs. less than 25 g). The compared groups derived from 1,172 patients and were matched for diagnosis......, age, weight, smoking habits, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine diseases, anaesthesia and weight of resected tissue. The postoperative morbidity was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the controls (62% vs. 20%). Follow-up at 1, 3 and 12 months revealed significantly...... more complications among the alcoholics and also more frequent requirement of supplementary procedures than in the controls....

  12. Drinking status but not acute alcohol consumption influences delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting. ANOVA of discount scores indicated a main effect of reward type, where all participants had higher discount scores for alcohol versus money rewards. A main effect of drinking status was also observed, where heavier drinkers had higher discount scores compared with lighter drinkers. We did not observe a main effect of acute alcohol use on delay discounting or the hypothesized interactions between acute alcohol use and drinking status with reward type. Our data suggest that heavier drinkers discount the value of delayed rewards more steeply than lighter drinkers. Delay discounting may therefore be a promising marker of heavy alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  14. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Ladinig, O.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening

  15. Drunk bugs: Chronic vapour alcohol exposure induces marked changes in the gut microbiome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Veronica L; Jury, Nicholas J; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-14

    The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (pgut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (pgut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescents' exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Ten-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12-week period in 2013/14; on-line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos. Great Britain. A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years who completed an on-line survey. Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33-51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13-27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0-4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2-11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0-7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0-3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re-watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, P branding. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Youth Alcohol Brand Consumption and Exposure to Brand Advertising in Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. Method: We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Results: Underage males ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18–20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. Conclusions: These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth. PMID:24988260

  18. The Relationship between Exposure to Brand-Specific Alcohol Advertising and Brand-Specific Consumption among Underage Drinkers—United States, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S.; Albers, Alison B.; DeJong, William; King, Charles; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marketing is increasingly recognized as a potentially important contributor to youth drinking, yet few studies have examined the relationship between advertising exposure and alcohol consumption among underage youth at the brand level. Objectives To examine the relationship between brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising among underage youth and the consumption prevalence of each brand in a national sample of underage drinkers. Methods We analyzed the relationship between population-level exposure of underage youth ages 12-20 to brand-specific alcohol advertising in national magazines and television programs and the 30-day consumption prevalence—by brand—among a national sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20. Underage youth exposure to alcohol advertising by brand for each month in 2011, measured in gross rating points (GRPs), was obtained from GfK MRI and Nielsen for all measured national issues of magazines and all national television programs, respectively. The 30-day consumption prevalence for each brand was obtained from a national survey of 1,031 underage drinkers conducted between December 2011 and May 2012. Results Underage youth were more than five times more likely to consume brands that advertise on national television and 36% more likely to consume brands that advertise in national magazines. The consumption prevalence of a brand increased by 36% for each 1.5 standard deviation (50 GRPs) increase in television adstock among underage youth and by 23% for each 1.5 standard deviation (10 GRPs) increase in magazine adstock. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol advertising influences an important aspect of drinking behavior— brand choice—among youth who consume alcohol. PMID:26479468

  19. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication among adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examined the use of SNSs among friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 10th-grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed-effects models. The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNSs were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends' online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β = .11, p < .001) and alcohol use (β = .06, p < .05). Whereas adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by higher exposure to risky online pictures (β = -.10, p < .05). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and differential effects on risk behaviors. Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents' risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends' online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ankle fractures and alcoholism. The influence of alcoholism on morbidity after malleolar fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Pedersen, A; Jensen, M R

    1991-01-01

    diseases, age, weight, smoking habits, anaesthesia and duration of surgery. The alcohol abusers developed significantly more early complications, especially infections, after surgery. Follow-up at six, nine and 12 weeks after surgery also revealed a significantly higher morbidity among the alcoholics....

  2. Genetic Influences on Response to Alcohol and Response to Pharmacotherapies for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although very many individuals drink alcohol at safe levels, a significant proportion escalates their consumption with addiction as the end result. Alcoholism is a common, moderately heritable, psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by considerable morbidity and mortality. Variation in clinical presentation suggests inter-individual variation in mechanisms of vulnerability including genetic risk factors. The development of addiction is likely to involve numerous functional genetic variants of small effects. The first part of this review will focus on genetic factors underlying inter-individual variability in response to alcohol consumption, including variants in alcohol metabolizing genes that produce an aversive response (the flushing syndrome) and variants that predict the level of subjective and physiological response to alcohol. The second part of this review will report on genetic variants that identify subgroups of alcoholics who are more likely to respond to pharmacotherapy to reduce levels of drinking or maintain abstinence. Genetic analyses of the level of response to alcohol, particularly of the functional OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and 5′ and 3′ functional polymorphisms in SLC6A4, are beginning to provide insights into the etiology of alcoholism and also genotype-stratified subgroup responses to naltrexone and SSRIs / ondansetron respectively. Because of large inter-ethnic variation in allele frequencies, the relevance of these functional polymorphisms will vary between ethnic groups. However there are relatively few published studies in this field, particularly with large sample sizes in pharmacogenetic studies, therefore it is premature to draw any conclusions at this stage. PMID:24220019

  3. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…

  4. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control

  5. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes - Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism I in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjects

  6. Overlapping genetic and environmental influences among men's alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, J E; Prom-Wormley, E; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and problems are associated with interpersonal difficulties. We used a twin design to assess in men the degree to which genetic or environmental influences contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support. The sample included adult male-male twin pairs (697 monozygotic and 487 dizygotic) for whom there were interview-based data on: alcohol consumption (average monthly alcohol consumption in the past year); alcohol problems (lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms); romantic conflict and warmth; friend problems and support; and relative problems and support. Key findings were that genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and romantic conflict; genetic factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and romantic conflict; and common and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and friend problems. Recognizing and addressing the overlapping genetic and environmental influences that alcohol consumption and problems share with romantic quality and other indicators of social support may have implications for substance use prevention and intervention efforts.

  7. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.

  8. Couples at risk for transmission of alcoholism: protective influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L A; Wolin, S J; Reiss, D; Teitelbaum, M A

    1987-03-01

    A two-generation, sociocultural model of the transmission of alcoholism in families was operationalized and tested. Sixty-eight married children of alcoholic parents and their spouses were interviewed regarding dinner-time and holiday ritual practices in their families of origin, and heritage and ritual practices in the couples' current generation. Coders rated transcribed interviews along 14 theory-derived predictor variables, nine for the family of origin and five for the current nuclear family. Multiple regression analysis was applied in a two-step hierarchical method, with the dependent variable being transmission of alcoholism to the couple. The 14 predictor variables contributed significantly (p less than .01) to the couple's alcoholism outcome. A general theme of selective disengagement and reengagement for couples in families at risk for alcoholism recurrence is discussed.

  9. The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: a case study from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavaikko, M; Osterberg, E

    2000-12-01

    Finland's participation in the European Union has meant that Finnish markets have been opened to international competition and that the traditional alcohol policy decision-making that revolved around Alko, the state alcohol monopoly company, has become impossible. The influence of private commercial interests increased in the 1990s but not in a straightforward manner. They had their biggest influence in the mid-1990s when the 1994 Alcohol Act was drafted and accepted. After that the influence of commercial interests has declined, and nowadays the alcohol question is again discussed in terms of public health and safety and drinking among young people. Integration did not lead to the expected deregulation of alcohol control but to new forms of regulation, where EU authorities such as the Commission and the EU Court also play an important role. Alcohol policy-making is now more transparent, and free trade and competition without interference are much more stressed than previously. These are the new frames of public intervention in the alcohol question, both in the trade of alcoholic beverages and in the taking care of individuals harmed by the use of alcohol.

  10. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  11. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  12. Interpersonal Influence and Alcohol-Related Interventions in the College Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard W.; Seibold, David R.

    A study examined the interpersonal influence strategies reported by college students in two alcohol-related situations--a drunk driving intervention situation and a non-driving alcohol abuse situation. Subjects, 489 undergraduate students attending a large midwestern university, a large central midwestern university, or a mid-sized upper…

  13. Does changing social influence engender changes in alcohol intake? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Turgut, Liz

    2016-10-01

    Past research has suggested that social influences on drinking can be manipulated with subsequent reductions in alcohol intake. However, the experimental evidence for this and the best strategies to positively change these social influences have not been meta-analyzed. This research addressed these gaps. Randomized controlled trials testing social influence-based interventions on adults' drinking were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The behavior change techniques used in each study were coded and the effect sizes showing the impact of each intervention on (a) social influence and (b) alcohol intake were calculated. Metaregressions identified the association between these effect sizes, as well as the effect of specific behavior change techniques on social influences. Forty-one studies comprising 17,445 participants were included. Changes in social influences were significantly associated with changes in alcohol intake. However, even moderate-to-large changes in social influences corresponded with only a small change in drinking behavior and changing social influences did not reduce alcohol-related problems. Providing normative information about others' behavior and experiences was the most effective technique to change social influences. Social influences and normative beliefs can be changed in drinkers, particularly by providing normative information about how much others' drink. However, even generating large changes in these constructs are likely to engender only small changes in alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Marco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.

  15. Development and testing of the Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) instrument to measure youth alcohol norms and psychosocial influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce; Hildebrand, Janina; Zhao, Yun; Allsop, Steve; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter

    2018-05-14

    This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64.2%). The development of the YANS was guided by social cognitive theory and comprised a systematic multistage process including evaluation of content and face validity. A 2-week test-retest format was employed. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factor structure of the instrument. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. A five-factor structure with meaningful components and robust factorial loads was identified, and the five factors were labelled as 'individual attitudes and beliefs', 'peer and community identity', 'sibling influences', 'school and community connectedness' and 'injunctive norms', respectively. The instrument demonstrated stability across the test-retest procedure (ICC=0.68-0.88, Cohen's kappa coefficient=0.69) for most variables. The results support the reliability and factorial validity of this instrument. The YANS presents a promising tool, which enables comprehensive assessment of reciprocal individual, behavioural and environmental factors that influence alcohol-related norms among adolescents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  16. Strategies to reduce driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, W; Hingson, R

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update research on the prevention of alcohol-related traffic deaths since the 1988 Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving. Four primary areas of research are reviewed here: (a) general deterrence policies, (b) alcohol control policies, (c) mass communications campaigns, including advertising restrictions, and (d) community traffic safety programs. Modern efforts to combat drunk driving in the United States began with specific deterrence strategies to punish convicted drunk drivers, and then evolved to include general deterrence strategies that were targeted to the population as a whole. Efforts next expanded to include the alcohol side of the problem, with measures installed to decrease underage drinking and excessive alcohol consumption. In the next several years, greater efforts are needed on all these fronts. Also needed, however, are programs that integrate drunk driving prevention with other traffic safety initiatives.

  17. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Airagnes

    Full Text Available To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use.From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily, and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women, the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely. Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28 drinks per week in men(women, heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month, alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence, tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more. Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status.Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance.Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  18. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  19. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua

    2014-12-18

    Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 2005 and 2009 (n = 12,341) were included in this study. Independent variables included work stress (job satisfaction, perceived safety, and perceived safety of possessions), self-reported perceptions towards academics and influence from parents and peers. Frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness were measured for lifetime, last 30 days and 12 months. The moderating effects of academic aspiration, parental, and peer influence were assessed on the relationship between work stress and alcohol use. Any work stress was positively associated with alcohol use over the past 12 months (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23). Stratified analysis found that peer influence significantly moderated the relationship between work stress and alcohol use over the lifetime and past 12 months. Among adolescents with work stress, odds ratios of alcohol use over the lifetime was 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for those with low negative peer influence and 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) for those with high negative peer influence. Problematic drinking patterns were more apparent among high school students who experienced stress at work. Positive peer influence, however, may buffer the adverse effect of work stress on alcohol use.

  20. Motor response programming and movement time in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  2. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  3. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  4. Considerations the Media Influence of the Alcohol Drinking and Its Relation to the Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bozelli Ciarlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to alcohol consumption are frequent, especially among young people. Alcohol beverage advertisements influence its consumption and is one of the liable to modification factors. In this work, it was carried out a bibliographical review of works that investigated, from several points of view, the relationship between media and consumption. We have used Scielo database and Google Academic for scientific works, searching for the keywords media, alcohol consumption and advertising, as well as articles and books of reference in the area. The reading of the texts has allowed us to reflect on the influence of media in alcohol consumption, and we can also verify the high exposition of youth to alcohol advertisements, becoming relevant a discussion on the subject, particularly regarding protection policies, as well as self-regulamentation advertising rules in public health policies.

  5. The Health and Social Impacts of Easy Access to Alcohol and Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements Among Women of Childbearing Age in Urban and Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanuel, Hanna; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie

    2017-03-07

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of easy access to alcohol and exposure to alcohol advertisements on women's alcohol consumption, reproductive history, and health and social outcomes in an urban and rural site in South Africa. Trained fieldworkers conducted face-to-face interviews with 1,018 women of childbearing age in the Moot, Mamelodi, and Eesterus areas of the City of Tshwane (Gauteng province) and in the rural Cederberg, Bergrivier, and Swartland municipalities (Western Cape province), recruited through random sampling and stratified cluster random sampling, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted, stratified according to the urban and rural sites and controlled for four demographic factors. In Tshwane, complications in the last pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 7.84, 95% CI [1.77, 34.80]), interpartner binge drinking (OR = 6.50, 95% CI [3.85, 10.94]), and community drinking (OR = 7.92, 95% CI [4.59, 13.65]) were positively associated with alcohol accessibility. Interpartner violence (OR = 4.16, 95% CI [1.99, 8.70]) and community drinking (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [2.07, 5.53]) were positively associated with exposure to alcohol advertisements. In Western Cape, community drinking (OR = 10.26, 95% CI [4.02, 26.20]) was positively associated with alcohol accessibility, whereas ability to pay for health care (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.24, 0.96]) was inversely associated. Hazardous drinking on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.03, 4.95]) and CAGE (OR = 4.51, 95% CI [1.30, 15.61]), interpartner violence (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.04, 2.76]), and community drinking (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [2.07, 5.53]) were positively associated with exposure to alcohol advertisements. Easy access to alcohol and exposure to alcohol advertisements are positively associated with adverse health and social outcomes. Although further studies are needed, these findings lend support to emphasizing upstream policy

  6. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Potential youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet: A study of internet versions of popular television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Kurland, Rachel P; Castrini, Marisa; Morse, Catherine; de Groot, Alexander; Retamozo, Cynthia; Roberts, Sarah P; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H

    No previous paper has examined alcohol advertising on the internet versions of television programs popular among underage youth. To assess the volume of alcohol advertising on web sites of television networks which stream television programs popular among youth. Multiple viewers analyzed the product advertising appearing on 12 television programs that are available in full episode format on the internet. During a baseline period of one week, six coders analyzed all 12 programs. For the nine programs that contained alcohol advertising, three underage coders (ages 10, 13, and 18) analyzed the programs to quantify the extent of that advertising over a four-week period. Alcohol advertisements are highly prevalent on these programs, with nine of the 12 shows carrying alcohol ads, and six programs averaging at least one alcohol ad per episode. There was no difference in alcohol ad exposure for underage and legal age viewers. There is a substantial potential for youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet through internet-based versions of television programs. The Federal Trade Commission should require alcohol companies to report the underage youth and adult audiences for internet versions of television programs on which they advertise.

  9. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...

  10. Adolescent binge-pattern alcohol exposure alters genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Torcaso, Audrey; Pinceti, Elena; Kim, Chun K; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Pak, Toni R

    2017-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the previous 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring. Wistar rats were administered a repeated binge-ethanol exposure paradigm during early (postnatal day (PND) 37-44) and late (PND 67-74) adolescent development. Animals were mated 24 h after the last ethanol dose and subsequent offspring were produced. Analysis of male PND7 offspring revealed that offspring of alcohol-exposed parents exhibited differential DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus. The differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were distinct between offspring depending on which parent was exposed to ethanol. Moreover, novel DMCs were observed when both parents were exposed to ethanol and many DMCs from single parent ethanol exposure were not recapitulated with dual parent exposure. We also measured mRNA expression of several differentially methylated genes and some, but not all, showed correlative changes in expression. Importantly, methylation was not a direct predictor of expression levels, underscoring the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that adolescent binge ethanol exposure causes altered genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Matsushita, S; Yoshimizu, H; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    1999-11-01

    Studies have consistently demonstrated that inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by ALDH2*1/2*2, is closely associated with alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Recently, the contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) polymorphism to alcoholism, esophageal cancer, and the flushing response have also been described. To determine the effects of ALDH2 and ADH2 genotypes in genetically based cancer susceptibility, lymphocyte DNA samples from 668 Japanese alcoholic men more than 40 years of age (91 with and 577 without esophageal cancer) were genotyped and the results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). This study also tested 82 of the alcoholics with esophageal cancer to determine whether cancer susceptibility is associated with patients' responses to simple questions about current or former flushing after drinking a glass of beer. The frequencies of ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2 were significantly higher in alcoholics with, than in those without, esophageal cancer (0.473 vs. 0.289 and 0.560 vs. 0.099, respectively). After adjustment for drinking and smoking, the analysis showed significantly increased cancer risk for alcoholics with either ADH2*1/2*I (OR = 2.03) or ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 12.76). For those having ADH2*1/2*1 combined with ALDH2*1/2*2, the esophageal cancer risk was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 27.66). Responses to flushing questions showed that only 47.8% of the ALDH2*1/2*2 heterozygotes with ADH2*1/ 2*1, compared with 92.3% of those with ALDH2*1/2*2 and the ADH2*2 allele, reported current or former flushing. Genotyping showed that for alcoholics who reported ever flushing, the questionnaire was 71.4% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*2 and 87.9% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*1. Japanese alcoholics can be divided into cancer susceptibility groups on the basis of their combined ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes. The flushing questionnaire can predict high risk ALDH2*1/2*2 fairly accurately in persons with ADH2*2 allele, but a reliable

  12. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adve...

  13. Who is most affected by prenatal alcohol exposure: Boys or girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Botha, Isobel; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Burroughs, Zachary R; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Adnams, Colleen M; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-08-01

    To examine outcomes among boys and girls that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Boys and girls with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and randomly-selected controls were compared on a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits. Sex ratios indicated that heavy maternal binge drinking may have significantly diminished viability to birth and survival of boys postpartum more than girls by age seven. Case control comparisons of a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits at age seven indicate that both sexes were affected similarly for a majority of variables. However, alcohol-exposed girls had significantly more dysmorphology overall than boys and performed significantly worse on non-verbal IQ tests than males. A three-step sequential regression analysis, controlling for multiple covariates, further indicated that dysmorphology among girls was significantly more associated with five maternal drinking variables and three distal maternal risk factors. However, the overall model, which included five associated neurobehavioral measures at step three, was not significant (p=0.09, two-tailed test). A separate sequential logistic regression analysis of predictors of a FASD diagnosis, however, indicated significantly more negative outcomes overall for girls than boys (Nagelkerke R 2 =0.42 for boys and 0.54 for girls, z=-2.9, p=0.004). Boys and girls had mostly similar outcomes when prenatal alcohol exposure was linked to poor physical and neurocognitive development. Nevertheless, sex ratios implicate lower viability and survival of males by first grade, and girls have more dysmorphology and neurocognitive impairment than boys resulting in a higher probability of a FASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  15. Influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on full-term infant neurobehavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C E; Bandstra, E S; Anthony, J C; Ofir, A Y; Xue, L; Reyes, M L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure status through maternal interview and urine and meconium toxicology assays. Infants were assessed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) during the newborn period (0-6 postnatal days). Findings from multivariate profile analyses support a consistent, modest effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on neurobehavioral functioning in full-term neonates. All of the BNBAS cluster scores, with the exception of abnormal reflexes, were similarly affected, sharing a common slope (D=-0.14; 95% CI=-0.27, -0.003; P=.046) representing a -0.14 point difference between cocaine-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed infants after controlling for prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana (ATM); maternal age, education, employment, primigravida status, and prenatal care visits; and infant sex and postnatal age in days. Fetal growth was also related to neurobehavioral functioning and, in part, mediated the relationship between cocaine exposure and the BNBAS cluster scores. Cocaine exposure during each trimester similarly influenced infant neurobehavioral profiles, with cocaine-associated deficits most pronounced in infants with exposure in all three trimesters. Results from qualitative and quantitative urine and meconium bioassay indicators further substantiated these results. Findings, while significant, represent modest effect sizes in full-term infants.

  16. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siara K. Rouzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12 heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model moderate PAE (mPAE, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either room air or vaporized ethanol for 6 h on G12. Adolescent offspring were then tested on postnatal days (P 41–47 in one of the following four anxiety assays: novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH, elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB and open-field (OF. Our findings revealed significant increases in measures of anxiety-like behavior in male PAE offspring in the NIH, LDB and OF, with no differences observed in females on any test. Additionally, male offspring who demonstrated heightened anxiety-like behavior as adolescents demonstrated decreased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, as measured by a marble-burying test (MBT, while females continued to be unaffected in adulthood. These results suggest that mPAE leads to dynamic changes in anxiety-like behavior exclusively in male offspring.

  17. Early experience and sex interact to influence limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function after acute alcohol administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, C S; Newman, T K; Lindell, S; Becker, M L; Shannon, C; Champoux, M; Suomi, S J; Higley, J D

    2004-07-01

    Studies in rodents demonstrate sex differences in neuroendocrine stress axis activity after treatment with alcohol. In abstinent alcoholics, atypical depressives, and individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis activity is often blunted; among females in these patient populations, however, resistance to glucocorticoid feedback and increased pituitary reactivity is observed. Early parental loss is a major life stressor and is a risk factor for both affective disturbances and LHPA-axis abnormalities later in life. We wanted to determine whether sex and early life parental absence would interact to influence alcohol-induced alterations in LHPA-axis activity after exposure to ethanol in macaques. Animals were reared with their mothers in social groups (MR, n = 94) or without adults in peer-only groups (PR, n = 79). At 5 years of age, they received an intravenous infusion of alcohol (2-2.2 g/kg), and the effects of alcohol, sex, and rearing condition on ACTH and cortisol levels were analyzed by ANOVA. Peer-reared females had higher ACTH levels than did PR males, MR females, and MR males after alcohol infusion. Alcohol-induced cortisol levels were not affected by sex and rearing condition. These findings suggest that there are sex differences in glucocorticoid negative feedback, pituitary responsivity, or release of ACTH secretagogues among individuals exposed to early life stress and emphasize the importance of considering sex effects when studying LHPA-axis dysregulation in alcoholism and other stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  19. The influence of individualism and drinking identity on alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Yeung, Nelson; Quist, Michelle C

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the interactive association between individualism and drinking identity predicting alcohol use and problems. Seven hundred and ten undergraduates (Mean age =22.84, SD = 5.31, 83.1% female) completed study materials. We expected that drinking identity and individualism would positively correlate with drinking variables. We further expected that individualism would moderate the association between drinking identity and drinking such that the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol outcomes would be positively associated, particularly among those high in individualism. Our findings supported our hypotheses. These findings better explain the relationship between drinking identity, individualism, and alcohol use. Furthermore, this research encourages the consideration of individual factors and personality characteristics in order to develop culturally tailored materials to maximize intervention efficacy across cultures.

  20. The influence of individualism and drinking identity on alcohol problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W.; Yeung, Nelson; Quist, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the interactive association between individualism and drinking identity predicting alcohol use and problems. Seven hundred and ten undergraduates (Mean age =22.84, SD = 5.31, 83.1% female) completed study materials. We expected that drinking identity and individualism would positively correlate with drinking variables. We further expected that individualism would moderate the association between drinking identity and drinking such that the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol outcomes would be positively associated, particularly among those high in individualism. Our findings supported our hypotheses. These findings better explain the relationship between drinking identity, individualism, and alcohol use. Furthermore, this research encourages the consideration of individual factors and personality characteristics in order to develop culturally tailored materials to maximize intervention efficacy across cultures. PMID:25525420

  1. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  2. A moderate dose of alcohol does not influence experience of social ostracism in hazardous drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph OL Buckingham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4g/kg or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, Cyberball. In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i social inclusion and (ii social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users.

  3. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    FREYDIER, Chloé; BERTHELON, Catherine; BASTIEN-TONIAZZO, Mireille; GINEYT, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to two crashes factors, divided attention task and alcohol, and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Method: Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identif...

  4. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  5. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions.

  6. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol marketing on social media websites.

    OpenAIRE

    Winpenny, Eleanor Margaret; Marteau, Theresa; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. METHODS: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users...

  7. Is popular radio a source of exposure to alcohol references in mid to later life? A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haighton, C; Halligan, J; Scott, S

    2017-04-20

    There is concern around alcohol consumption in mid to later life yet little understanding about what influences this behaviour. No previous research has explored the extent to which adults in mid to later life may be exposed to alcohol references in the media. This project aimed to determine the frequency of alcohol references on radio stations with a high proportion of listeners in mid to later life. Content analysis of alcohol references on four popular UK music-based radio stations with a high proportion of listeners aged 55-64 years over three time points. Alcohol references occur frequently, but vary by time of year and type of radio station. When alcohol is mentioned its consumption is portrayed as the norm, without negative consequences. On three commercial stations, the majority of mentions came from advertising, whereas on BBC Radio 2 nearly all references were talk-based. All adverts for direct promotion of alcohol were by supermarkets. Alcohol was frequently associated with celebrations, socializing or something to consume for its own sake. Adults in the age group 55-64 may be exposed to references to alcohol that could serve to reinforce norms of consumption of alcohol and promote purchases of cheap alcohol. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  9. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  10. Influence of alcoholism on morbidity after transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Schütten, B T; Tollund, L

    1988-01-01

    , age, weight, smoking habits, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine diseases, anaesthesia and weight of resected tissue. The postoperative morbidity was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the controls (62% vs. 20%). Follow-up at 1, 3 and 12 months revealed significantly...

  11. Video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention improves postdischarge drinking outcomes among alcohol-dependent men: A prospective study at a government addiction treatment setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Murthy, Pratima; Leung, Kit Sang; Rentala, Sreevani; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2017-04-25

    Returning to alcohol use following inpatient treatment occurs due to various real life cues/triggers. It is a challenge to demonstrate to patients how to deal with these triggers during inpatient treatment. Aims of the current study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention (VE-CEI) in influencing treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence, (b) to identify postdischarge predictors of intervention failure (returning to ≥50% of baseline alcohol consumption quantity/day). The VE-CEI comprises live action videos in which human characters model various alcohol use cues and strategies to deal with them effectively. The VE-CEI was administered to an inpatient alcohol-dependent sample (n = 43) and compared with treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 42) at a government addiction treatment setting in India. Patients were followed up over 6 months postdischarge to evaluate effectiveness of the VE-CEI on specific drinking outcomes. Over 6-month follow-up, VE-CEI group (vs. TAU) reported significantly lesser alcohol consumption quantity, fewer drinking days, and lower intervention failure rates. Results of multivariate Cox regression showed that participants who did not receive VE-CEI had an elevated risk of intervention failure (hazards ratio: 11.14; 95% confidence interval [4.93, 25.15]), other intervention failure predictors being early-onset dependence and increased baseline drinking. Findings provide evidence from India for effectiveness of cue-exposure-based intervention delivered using video technology in improving postdischarge treatment outcomes.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  13. Influence of wraps over efectivity of logistic operations in distribution of non-alcoholic drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Toušek; Jaroslava Pechová

    2008-01-01

    The article is focused on optimization of logistic operations in food stuff industry with emphasis on non-alcoholic drinks form the point of view of the usage of common applied wrapping technologies potential. Especially the attention is paid to the influence of used packages over the level of logistic costs including the influence of used packages over the transport intensity of logistic operations.

  14. The influence of alcohols on the protoplasmic membrane and colloid models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saubert, G.G.P.

    1937-01-01

    Experiments with colloid systems attempted to achieve a better understanding of biological processes. The influence of alcohols on phosphatid coacervates was compared with their influence upon the protoplasmic membrane of living cells of the alga Chara ceratophylla. Some similarity could be

  15. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  17. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang (Division of Urology, Dept. of Surgery, National Yang-Ming Medical College and Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au).

  18. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au)

  19. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. - Highlights: • Compton spectrum quenching technique applied to find micellar phase boundaries. • Toluenic Triton X-100 and Ultima Gold AB investigated. • Ethyl alcohol affects phase boundaries in Triton X-100, not in Ultima Gold AB. • Phase boundary observations discussed in terms of relevant molecular interactions.

  20. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol marketing on social media websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Marteau, Theresa M; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15-24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation.

  1. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  2. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Alcohol and Anesthetic Drugs Is Augmented by Co-Exposure to Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Creeley

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs used in pediatric and obstetric medicine and several drugs, including alcohol, that are abused by pregnant women, trigger widespread neuroapoptosis in the developing brain of several animal species, including non-human primates. Caffeine (CAF is often administered to premature infants to stimulate respiration, and these infants are also exposed simultaneously to anesthetic drugs for procedural sedation and/or surgical procedures. Pregnant women who abuse alcohol or other apoptogenic drugs also may heavily consume CAF. We administered CAF to infant mice alone or in combination with alcohol, phencyclidine, diazepam, midazolam, ketamine, or isoflurane, which are drugs of abuse and/or drugs frequently used in pediatric medicine, and found that CAF weakly triggers neuroapoptosis by itself and markedly potentiates the neuroapoptogenic action of each of these other drugs. Exposure of infant mice to CAF + phencyclidine resulted in long-term impairment in behavioral domains relevant to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas exposure to CAF + diazepam resulted in long-term learning/memory impairment. At doses used in these experiments, these behavioral impairments either did not occur or were substantially less pronounced in mice exposed to CAF alone or to phencyclidine or diazepam alone. CAF currently enjoys the reputation of being highly beneficial and safe for use in neonatal medicine. Our data suggest the need to consider whether CAF may have harmful as well as beneficial effects on the developing brain, and the need for research aimed at understanding the full advantage of its beneficial effects while avoiding its potentially harmful effects.

  3. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches inc...

  4. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, C; Berthelon, C; Bastien-Toniazzo, M; Gineyt, G

    2014-06-01

    The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to divided attention task and alcohol and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L, and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identification. Driving performance, response time and accuracy on the additional task were measured. ANOVA showed a driving impairment and a decrease in additional task performance from a BAC of 0.5 g/L, particularly for novice drivers. Indeed, the latter adopt more risky behavior such as tailgating. In the divided attention task, driving impairment was found for all drivers and impairment on information processing accuracy was highlighted, notably in peripheral vision. The divided attention task used here provides a relevant method for identifying the effects of alcohol on cognitive functions and could be used in psychopharmacological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  6. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  8. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  9. Detection of fluorotelomer alcohols in indoor environments and their relevance for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Kizlauskas, Markus; Müller, Josef

    2013-07-01

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) are important precursors of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA). These neutral and volatile compounds are frequently found in indoor air and may contribute to the overall human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS). In this study air samples of ten workplace environments and a car interior were analysed. In addition, extracts and emissions from selected outdoor textiles were analysed in order to establish their potential contribution to the indoor levels of the above-mentioned compounds. Concentrations of FTOHs measured in air ranged from 0.15 to 46.8, 0.25 to 286, and 0.11 to 57.5ng/m(3) for 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTOHs, respectively. The highest concentrations in air were identified in shops selling outdoor clothing, indicating outdoor textiles to be a relevant source of FTOH in indoor workplace environments. Total amounts of FTOH in materials of outdoor textiles accounted for selling outdoor textiles contains the highest levels of FTOH. Exposure of humans to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) through absorption of FTOH and subsequent degradation is discussed on the basis of indoor air levels. Calculation of indoor air-related exposure using the median of the measured air levels revealed that exposure is on the same order of magnitude as the recently reported dietary intakes for a background-exposed population. On the basis of the 95th percentile, indoor air exposure to PFOA was estimated to exceed dietary exposure. However, indoor air-related intakes of FTOH are far below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of PFOA, indicating that there is no risk to health, even when assuming an unrealistic complete degradation of FTOH into PFOA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, psipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure modulates weight gain and eliminates fractalkine expression in e14.5 mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Karliner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and often leads to long-lasting developmental symptoms, including increased microglial migration and increased release of the chemokine, fractalkine, both of which play a role in embryonic brain development. However, the effects of low-dose alcohol exposure on microglia and fractalkine embryonically are not well documented. This study addresses this gap by using the voluntary drinking paradigm, Drinking in the Dark (DiD, to expose mice to acute doses of alcohol from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5 to E14.5. Maternal mice and embryo analyses revealed increased embryo weights and a trend of increased gestational weight gain in alcohol-exposed mice compared to water-exposed mice. After quantifying soluble fractalkine concentrations through Western Blots, results indicated decreased fractalkine in alcohol-exposed mice compared to water-exposed. Overall, our data suggest that exposure to low doses of alcohol inhibits fractalkine release, which may affect microglial function.

  12. Gender Difference in Offspring's Alcohol Use Disorder by 21 Years: A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam T; Clavarino, Alexandra; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake M

    2018-04-16

    There is little known about the extent to which maternal alcohol consumption influences offspring's alcohol use disorder. This study aims to examine whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict gender difference in adolescent alcohol use disorder at child age 21 years. Data are from a prospective cohort, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes. The study involves 2531 mother-child pairs for whom data are available at the 21-year follow-up survey. Maternal alcohol consumption trajectories were determined by group-based trajectory modelling. Offspring's lifetime ever alcohol use disorder was assessed using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Over 14 years of follow-up after the birth of a child, three distinct alcohol consumption trajectories were identified (abstainer, low-stable. and moderate-escalating drinker). A maternal trajectory of moderate-escalating alcohol consumption independently predicted offspring's lifetime ever alcohol use disorder at 21 years after adjustment for a range of potential confounders. "Cross-gender influence" is observed in the study. A maternal life course pattern of alcohol consumption may have an independent effect on offspring alcohol consumption, with male offspring being more vulnerable to the effects of maternal alcohol use than are female offspring. Programs intended to address alcohol consumption by adolescents and young adults need to focus on the behaviors of both parents but acknowledging that maternal patterns of alcohol consumption may be particularly important for male offspring.

  13. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Carreño, Víctor; Espelt, Albert; Villalbí, Joan R; Pearce, Jamie; Franco, Manuel

    Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex and Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Influence Pavlovian Conditioned Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madayag, Aric C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Reissner, Kathryn J; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Robinson, Donita L

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to AIE (5 g/kg, intragastric) or water intermittently 2 days on and 2 days off from postnatal day (P) 25 to 54. Around P70, animals began 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), where they learned that a cue predicted noncontingent reward delivery. Lever pressing indicated interaction with the cue, or sign-tracking, and receptacle entries indicated approach to the reward delivery location, or goal-tracking. To test for effects of AIE on nucleus accumbens (NAcc) excitatory signaling, we isolated membrane subfractions and measured protein levels of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 after animals completed behavior as a measure of glutamate homeostasis. Females exhibited elevated sign-tracking compared to males with significantly more lever presses, faster latency to first lever press, and greater probability to lever press in a trial. AIE significantly increased lever pressing while blunting goal-tracking, as indicated by fewer cue-evoked receptacle entries, slower latency to receptacle entry, and lower probability to enter the receptacle in a trial. No significant sex-by-exposure interactions were observed in sign- or goal-tracking metrics. Moreover, we found no significant effects of sex or exposure on membrane GLT-1 expression in the NAcc. Females exhibited enhanced sign-tracking compared to males, while AIE decreased goal-tracking compared to control exposure. Our findings support the

  15. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  16. Prenatal Coke: What's Behind the Smoke?: Prenatal Cocaine/Alcohol Exposure and School-Age Outcomes: The SCHOO-BE Experiencea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Covington, Chandice; Templin, Tom; Ager, Joel; Martier, Sue; Compton, Scott; Sokol, Robert

    1998-06-01

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgment of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected Perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be composed

  17. Modulation of the effects of alcohol on driving-related psychomotor skills by chronic exposure to cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Terry, P

    2002-03-01

    Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.

  18. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  19. Influence of UV and Gamma radiations on the induced birefringence of stretched poly(vinyl) alcohol foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechifor, Cristina-Delia; Zelinschi, Carmen Beatrice; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our paper is to evidence the influence of Gamma and UV radiations on the induced birefringence of poly(vinyl alcohol) stretched foils. Thin foils of PVA were prepared and dried without modifying their surfaces. The polymeric foils were irradiated from 15 min to 6 h using UV and Gamma radiations. The induced by stretching under heating birefringence of PVA films was measured at λ = 589.3 nm with a Babinet Compensator. Physico-chemical processes (photo stabilization, photo degradation, oxidation) induced by irradiation of polymer matrix influence both the stretching degree and the anisotropy of etired foils. An increase of birefringence versus the stretching ratio of the PVA foils was evidenced for all studied samples. The dependence of the birefringence on the exposure time, stretching ratio and nature of radiation was also confirmed.

  20. The patient under the influence of alcohol – Discriminated victim or aggressor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burak

    2016-09-01

    Results: The occurrence of unequal treatment by medical staff of patients under the influence of alcohol was observed in the performed studies. There is a correlation between medical staff workplace and the prevalence of discrimination against this group of patients. It most frequently takes place in EDs. In the respondents’ opinion, care and treatment of patients under the influence of alcohol is aggravated by their vulgar behaviour. From viewpoint of the medical staff, the existence of a special care institution for intoxicated persons is justified.

  1. Factors Influencing whether Nurses Talk to Somatic Patients about their Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellum Rikke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – Many Danes drink so much that it is detrimental to their health. As they are at risk of suffering diseases which can lead to hospitalisation on somatic wards, hospitals are ideal arenas for identifying individuals whose alcohol consumption is excessive. However, literature points out that this identification rarely takes place in hospitals, and literature further suggests that the staff experience barriers to talking about alcohol use with their patients. The primary aim of this study is to identify potential factors that influence whether or not nurses talk to patients about their alcohol consumption on somatic wards. Secondarily, we wish to examine whether a screening project may affect the nurses’ readiness to talk about alcohol use with their patients.

  2. Comparing diagnostic classification of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure with the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder guidelines: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Breen, Rebecca E Hudson; Netelenbos, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Second, classification of ND-PAE was compared with FAS and pFAS only, a criterion for which includes facial features highly predictive of prenatal alcohol exposure and effects. Eighty-two patients underwent multidisciplinary clinical evaluations using the Canadian FASD diagnostic guidelines between 2011 and 2015. Two clinicians independently reviewed patient files for evidence of diagnostic criteria for ND-PAE when applying an impairment cut-off level of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean, or clinically significant impairment in the absence of standardized norm-referenced measures. Good interrater reliability was established between clinicians (κ = 0.79). Classifications of ND-PAE and Canadian FASD diagnoses, including alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, were moderately correlated (Cramer V [82] = 0.44, p 0.05). Although there is considerable overlap between both sets of criteria, ND-PAE was less likely to identify patients with FASD. Although the neurobehavioral domains assessed by ND-PAE are supported in research, its diagnostic structure restricts the identification of FASD at the impairment threshold of 2 or more standard deviations. A disconnect remains with regard to impairment thresholds between FASD, which relies on neurodevelopmental data, and ND-PAE, which relies on clinical judgment.

  3. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990–2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second‐reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Results Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self‐regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non‐regulatory initiatives. Conclusions The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. PMID:26173765

  4. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second-reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self-regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of

  5. Reverse osmosis influence over the content of metals and organic acids in low alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  7. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.

  8. The Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in College Students: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  9. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  10. A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535

  11. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  12. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Visual System of Monkeys Measured at Different Stages of Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrar, Vanessa; Elkrief, Laurent; Bouskila, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have...... suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Methods: ERGs were recorded...... in monkeys aged 3- to 12-years old, at multiple flash intensities under scotopic and photopic conditions, and functions were fit to the amplitudes of the a- and b-waves. Results: We found that both age and alcohol exposure affected ERGs. In photopic ERGs, amplitudes increased with age, and were higher...

  13. Exposure to online alcohol marketing and adolescents' drinking : A cross-sectional study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in

  14. Exposure to online alcohol marketing and adolescents' drinking: A cross-sectional study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, A. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Bujalski, M.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Wohtge, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in

  15. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  16. Early cannabinoid exposure influences neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in male mice: I. Prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalterio, S; Steger, R; Mayfield, D; Bartke, A

    1984-01-01

    Maternal exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent in marihuana, or to the non-psychoactive cannabinol (CBN) or cannabidiol (CBD) alters endocrine functions and concentrations of brain biogenic amines in their male offspring. Prenatal CBN exposure on day 18 of gestation resulted in decreased plasma FSH levels, testicular testosterone (T) concentrations, and seminal vesicles weights, but increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) post-castration in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to THC significantly enhanced the responsiveness of the testes to intratesticular LH injection in vivo and tended to increase human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated T production by decapsulated testes in vitro. In the CBN-exposed mice, hCG-stimulated T production was enhanced, while CBD exposure had no effect. Prenatal THC exposure altered the negative feedback effects of exogenous gonadal steroids in castrated adults, with lower plasma T and FSH levels after 20 micrograms T than in castrated controls. In contrast, CBD-exposed mice had higher levels of LH in plasma post-castration. In CBN-exposed adults, two weeks post-castration the concentration of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in hypothalamus and remaining brain were reduced, while levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, were elevated compared to that in castrated OIL-controls. Prenatal CBD-exposure also reduced NE and elevated 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but did not affect DA levels post-castration. Concentrations of brain biogenic amines were not influenced by prenatal THC exposure in the present study. A single prenatal exposure to psychoactive or non-psychoactive components of marihuana results in long term alterations in the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Changes in the concentrations of brain biogenic amines may be related to these effects of prenatal cannabinoids on endocrine function in adult male mice.

  17. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of alcohol:oil molar ratio on the canola oil transesterification reaction in solvent-free medium using free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Burkholderia cepacia was studied. The experiments conducted in batch reactor for 72 h at 37°C in cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three ...

  18. The Influence of Social Norms on College Student Alcohol and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Clemens, Elysia

    2008-01-01

    The Alcohol and Other Drug survey (adapted from D. Thombs, 1999) was administered to 235 undergraduates at a southeastern university to assess the influence that gender-specific normative perceptions have on 2 substance abuse patterns. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that gender-specific normative beliefs accounted for variance in alcohol…

  19. The influence of stretching on tensile strength and solubility of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, D.; Bleijenberg, A.C.A.M.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.M.; Barentsen, W.M.

    1971-01-01

    The strength of wet-spun poly(vinyl alcohol) (pva) fibres is given as function of bath-stretching, wet-stretching and hot-stretching. In the two equations derived for strength of wet-stretching and hot-stretching the complex influence of the bath-stretching and hot-stretching is demonstrated. The

  20. The Level of Alexithymia in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Does Not Influence Outcomes after Inpatient Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  1. The level of alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  2. The Protective Influence of Spiritual-Religious Lifestyle Profiles on Tobacco Use, Alcohol Use, and Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Andereck, Kathleen; Montoya, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The costs associated with the use of addictive substances and practices underscore the need for research on protective factors that inhibit use. In this study, the protective influences of various spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and gambling frequency and expenditures are examined. Among the predominantly…

  3. Cross-National Study on Factors That Influence Parents' Knowledge about Their Children's Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Hermida, Jose-Ramon; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that parents underestimate their children's substance use. The aim of the present work was to analyze parental estimation of their children's use of alcohol in five countries from northern, central, and southern Europe, and to explore the variables that influenced this perceptual bias. The sample comprised 1,181…

  4. The level of Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  5. Influence of long-term intake of alcohol on computed tomography. Chronic alcoholics and habitual drinkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Hirosuke; Kato, Iwao; Watanabe, Eiiti [Watanabe Hospital, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1983-08-01

    CT findings of the head in 120 chronic alcoholics aged 30 to 69 yrs. were compared with those of 93 controls matched in age. The patient group showed a definitely higher incidence of dilatation of the brain surface and the ventricular system. The dilatation in the patients had no preferred site, both the brain surface and ventricular system being affected in most cases. In the patients no constant relation was noted between CT findings and the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, intellectual impairement, hepatic dysfunction or malnutrition. CT abnormality was not always reflected on EEG in the patients. The reversibility of abnormal CT could not be confirmed. CT findings of habitual drinkers (35 subjects in their 50s) living with no social or familial trouble were compared with those of non-drinkers (35 subjects in the same generation). The incidence of dilatation of various regions and the frequency of such cases in the habitual drinkers were definitely higher than those of the non-drinkers.

  6. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Burke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus to (1 investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2 determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years. Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation.

  8. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  9. The influence of indirect collective trauma on first responders' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homish, Gregory G; Frazer, Bonita S; Carey, Mary G

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested increased risk for negative outcomes such as increased alcohol use among first responders who are involved with the response to a community disaster; however it is not clear how indirect exposure to a critical incident impacts first responders. This work examined the impact of secondary or indirect trauma on changes in alcohol use among urban firefighters who were not directly involved in the response to a large scale community-level disaster. Firefighters enrolled in larger trial of health outcomes whose interview period coincided with the crash of a commercial airplane were the basis for the current report. Aggregate level data on changes in alcohol consumption for these firefighters were examined pre- and post-incident. There was a significant increase in alcohol use following the critical incident. This increase did not occur immediately; it was observed within several days and peaked about 8 days post-incident. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the increased alcohol consumption persisted for several months, finally returning to pre-incident levels by 8 months post-incident. Indirect trauma effects, likely operationalized in part through the "brotherhood" of the firefighters, clearly placed firefighters at risk for negative outcomes following a disaster. Intervention/prevention efforts aimed at distress reduction among first responders should not solely focus on responders with direct involvement in a disaster.

  10. The Potential Impact of a “No-Buy” List on Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Cable Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.; Brewer, Robert D.; Jernigan, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. Method: Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005–2012. A “no-buy” list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a “guardbanded” (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). Results: Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2–20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low rated ads accounted for 7%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising. PMID:26751350

  11. The Potential Impact of a "No-Buy" List on Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Brewer, Robert D; Jernigan, David H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005-2012. A "no-buy" list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a "guardbanded" (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2-20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low-rated ads accounted for 7%. These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising.

  12. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. The influence of resource strategy on childhood phthalate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled....... This corresponds to the recycling of 6.3% of DEHP, 20.3% of DBP, and 5.1% of BBP in the percentage of total manufactured amount of these phthalates. To examine the potential influence of the phthalate exposure through recycling, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed.......767 µg/kg bw/day for Denmark and Korea, respectively. Still, of the total childhood phthalate exposure, 58.5% of DBP and 77.5% of BBP exposure in Denmark and 31.6% of DBP and 65.2% of BBP in Korea remains to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework is proposed for a circular economy based...

  14. Support mechanisms for renewables: How risk exposure influences investment incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Kitzing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed-in premium scheme. The effect of differences in risk exposure from the support schemes is significant and cannot be neglected in policy making, especially when deciding between support instruments or when determining adequate support levels.

  15. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  16. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  17. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Exposure to the Lebanon War of 2006 and effects on alcohol use disorders: The moderating role of childhood maltreatment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greenstein, Eliana; McLaughlin, Kate; Wall, Melanie; Aharonovich, Efrat; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Civilian populations now comprise the majority of casualties in modern warfare, but effects of war exposure on alcohol disorders in the general population are largely unexplored. Accumulating literature indicates that adverse experiences early in life sensitize individuals to increased alcohol problems after adult stressful experiences. However, child and adult stressful experiences can be correlated, limiting interpretation. We examine risk for alcohol disorders among Israelis after the 2006 Lebanon War, a fateful event outside the control of civilian individuals and uncorrelated with childhood experiences. Further, we test whether those with a history of maltreatment are at greater risk for an alcohol use disorder after war exposure compared to those without such a history. Methods Adult household residents selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a psychiatric structured interview; the analyzed sample included 1306 respondents. War measures included self-reported days in an exposed region. Results Among those with a history of maltreatment, those in a war-exposed region for 30+ days had 5.3 times the odds of subsequent alcohol disorders compared to those exposed 0 days (95%C.I. 1.01–27.76), controlled for relevant confounders; the odds ratio for those without this history was 0.5 (95%C.I. 0.25–1.01); test for interaction: X2 = 5.28, df = 1, P = 0.02. Conclusions Experiencing a fateful stressor outside the control of study participants, civilian exposure to the 2006 Lebanon War, is associated with a heightened the risk of alcohol disorders among those with early adverse childhood experiences. Results suggest that early life experiences may sensitize individuals to adverse health responses later in life. PMID:24262650

  19. Exposure to the Lebanon War of 2006 and effects on alcohol use disorders: the moderating role of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greenstein, Eliana; McLaughlin, Kate; Wall, Melanie; Aharonovich, Efrat; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Civilian populations now comprise the majority of casualties in modern warfare, but effects of war exposure on alcohol disorders in the general population are largely unexplored. Accumulating literature indicates that adverse experiences early in life sensitize individuals to increased alcohol problems after adult stressful experiences. However, child and adult stressful experiences can be correlated, limiting interpretation. We examine risk for alcohol disorders among Israelis after the 2006 Lebanon War, a fateful event outside the control of civilian individuals and uncorrelated with childhood experiences. Further, we test whether those with a history of maltreatment are at greater risk for an alcohol use disorder after war exposure compared to those without such a history. Adult household residents selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a psychiatric structured interview; the analyzed sample included 1306 respondents. War measures included self-reported days in an exposed region. Among those with a history of maltreatment, those in a war-exposed region for 30+ days had 5.3 times the odds of subsequent alcohol disorders compared to those exposed 0 days (95%C.I. 1.01-27.76), controlled for relevant confounders; the odds ratio for those without this history was 0.5 (95%C.I. 0.25-1.01); test for interaction: X(2)=5.28, df=1, P=0.02. Experiencing a fateful stressor outside the control of study participants, civilian exposure to the 2006 Lebanon War, is associated with a heightened the risk of alcohol disorders among those with early adverse childhood experiences. Results suggest that early life experiences may sensitize individuals to adverse health responses later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  1. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed......We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...

  2. Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2018-06-01

    To compare the immediate effects on drinkers of television advertisements focusing upon short- versus long-term harms with and without low-risk drinking guidelines. Between-participants on-line experiment, with random assignment to view: (a) alcohol product advertisements (ALC control); (b) advertisements unrelated to alcohol (NON-ALC control); (c) advertisements featuring short-term harms (STH) of alcohol; (d) advertisements featuring STH plus a STH guideline (STH+G); (e) advertisements featuring long-term harms (LTH); or (f) advertisements featuring LTH plus a LTH guideline (LTH+G). Australia, 2016. A total of 3718 drinkers aged 18-64 years (48.5% male). Post-exposure likelihood that participants provided a correct estimate of drinking levels associated with short- and long-term harms; post-exposure intentions to avoid alcohol or reduce consumption. After exposure to STH+G or LTH+G advertisements, participants were more likely to estimate correctly rather than overestimate drinking levels associated with harm, compared with those exposed to STH (P < 0.001) and LTH advertisements without guidelines, respectively (P = 0.019) and ALC control (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P = 0.011). Drinkers exposed to STH conditions were more likely to intend to reduce next-week alcohol consumption than those exposed to ALC control (both P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH, P = 0.001; STH+G, P < 0.001); a similar pattern was observed for intentions to avoid alcohol. Drinkers exposed to LTH conditions were also more likely than drinkers exposed to ALC or NON-ALC controls to intend to avoid and reduce alcohol in the next week. Additionally, drinkers exposed to LTH+G were more likely to intend to reduce drinking than those exposed to LTH advertisements without guidelines (P = 0.022). Response patterns for low- and high-risk drinkers by condition were similar. Alcohol harm television

  3. Inattentional blindness is influenced by exposure time not motion speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Inattentional blindness is a striking phenomenon in which a salient object within the visual field goes unnoticed because it is unexpected, and attention is focused elsewhere. Several attributes of the unexpected object, such as size and animacy, have been shown to influence the probability of inattentional blindness. At present it is unclear whether or how the speed of a moving unexpected object influences inattentional blindness. We demonstrated that inattentional blindness rates are considerably lower if the unexpected object moves more slowly, suggesting that it is the mere exposure time of the object rather than a higher saliency potentially induced by higher speed that determines the likelihood of its detection. Alternative explanations could be ruled out: The effect is not based on a pop-out effect arising from different motion speeds in relation to the primary-task stimuli (Experiment 2), nor is it based on a higher saliency of slow-moving unexpected objects (Experiment 3).

  4. Alcohol's Collateral Damage: Childhood Exposure to Problem Drinkers and Subsequent Adult Mortality Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard G; Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2016-12-07

    The importance of childhood circumstances, broadly defined, for shaping adult health and longevity is well-established. But the significance of one of the most prevalent childhood adversities-exposure to problem drinkers-has been understudied from a sociological perspective and remains poorly understood. We address this gap by drawing on cumulative inequality theory, using data from the 1988-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, and estimating Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between exposure to problem drinkers in childhood and adult mortality risk. Childhood exposure to problem drinkers is common (nearly 1 in 5 individuals were exposed) and elevates adult overall and cause-specific mortality risk. Compared to individuals who had not lived with a problem drinker during childhood, those who had done so suffered 17 percent higher risk of death (prisk. Favorable socioeconomic status in adulthood does not ameliorate the consequences of childhood exposure to problem drinkers. The primary intervening mechanisms are risky behaviors, including adult drinking and smoking. The findings-which reveal that the influence of problem drinking is far-reaching and long-term-should inform policies to improve childhood circumstances, reduce detrimental effects of problem drinking, and increase life expectancy.

  5. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction.

  6. Longitudinal influence of alcohol and marijuana use on academic performance in college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal of these substances on academic performance is currently scant.Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption. A linear mixed-model (LMM was employed using this grouping factor to predict grade point average (GPA, adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and clinical factors.Three data-driven clusters emerged: 1 No/low users of both, 2 medium-high alcohol/no-low marijuana, and 3 medium-high users of both substances. Individual cluster derivations between consecutive semesters remained stable. No significant interaction between clusters and semester (time was noted. Post-hoc analysis suggest that at the outset, compared to sober peers, students using moderate to high levels of alcohol and low marijuana demonstrate lower GPAs, but this difference becomes non-significant over time. In contrast, students consuming both substances at moderate-to-high levels score significantly lower at both the outset and across the 2-year investigation period. Our follow-up analysis also indicate that when students curtailed their substance use over time they had significantly higher academic GPA compared to those who remained stable in their substance use patterns over the two year period.Overall, our study validates and extends the current literature by providing important implications of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement in college.

  7. Longitudinal influence of alcohol and marijuana use on academic performance in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V; Pittman, Brian; Rosen, Rivkah R; Aslanzadeh, Farah; Tennen, Howard; Leen, Samantha; Hawkins, Keith; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca M; Austad, Carol S; Dager, Alecia; Fallahi, Carolyn; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal) of these substances on academic performance is currently scant. Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption. A linear mixed-model (LMM) was employed using this grouping factor to predict grade point average (GPA), adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and clinical factors. Three data-driven clusters emerged: 1) No/low users of both, 2) medium-high alcohol/no-low marijuana, and 3) medium-high users of both substances. Individual cluster derivations between consecutive semesters remained stable. No significant interaction between clusters and semester (time) was noted. Post-hoc analysis suggest that at the outset, compared to sober peers, students using moderate to high levels of alcohol and low marijuana demonstrate lower GPAs, but this difference becomes non-significant over time. In contrast, students consuming both substances at moderate-to-high levels score significantly lower at both the outset and across the 2-year investigation period. Our follow-up analysis also indicate that when students curtailed their substance use over time they had significantly higher academic GPA compared to those who remained stable in their substance use patterns over the two year period. Overall, our study validates and extends the current literature by providing important implications of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement in college.

  8. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  10. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Baltz, Emily T; Gremel, Christina M

    2018-01-15

    Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.

  11. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel coatings with tunable surface exposure of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David; Villain, Arthur; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient bone anchoring is a major limitation of artificial substitutes for connective osteoarticular tissues. The use of coatings containing osseoconductive ceramic particles is one of the actively explored strategies to improve osseointegration and strengthen the bone-implant interface for general tissue engineering. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyapatite (HA) particles can be coated robustly on specific assemblies of PVA hydrogel fibers for the potential anchoring of ligament replacements. A simple dip-coating method is described to produce composite coatings made of microscopic hydroxyapatite (HA) particles dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The materials are compatible with the requirements for implant Good Manufacturing Practices. They are applied to coat bundles of PVA hydrogel fibers used for the development of ligament implants. By means of optical and electronic microscopy, we show that the coating thickness and surface state can be adjusted by varying the composition of the dipping solution. Quantitative analysis based on backscattered electron microscopy show that the exposure of HA at the coating surface can be tuned from 0 to over 55% by decreasing the weight ratio of PVA over HA from 0.4 to 0.1. Abrasion experiments simulating bone-implant contact illustrate how the coating cohesion and wear resistance increase by increasing the content of PVA relative to HA. Using pullout experiments, we find that these coatings adhere well to the fiber bundles and detach by propagation of a crack inside the coating. These results provide a guide to select coated implants for anchoring artificial ligaments.

  12. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  13. Does industry self-regulation protect young people from exposure to alcohol marketing? A review of compliance and complaint studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is considered to be potentially harmful to adolescents. In addition to statutory regulation, industry self-regulation is a common way to protect adolescents from alcohol marketing exposures. This paper critically reviews research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the alcohol industry's compliance procedures to manage complaints when alcohol marketing is considered to have violated a self-regulatory code. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: PubMed, SCOPUS, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations, government research centers and national industry advertising associations were also included. The search process yielded three peer-reviewed papers, seven non-peer reviewed reports published by academic institutes and non-profit organizations and 20 industry reports. The evidence indicates that the complaint process lacks standardization across countries, industry adjudicators may be trained inadequately or biased and few complaints are upheld against advertisements pre-determined to contain violations of a self-regulatory code. The current alcohol industry marketing complaint process used in a wide variety of countries may be ineffective at removing potentially harmful content from the market-place. The process of determining the validity of complaints employed by most industry groups appears to suffer from serious conflict of interest and procedural weaknesses that could compromise objective adjudication of even well-documented complaints. In our opinion the current system of self-regulation needs major modifications if it is to serve public health objectives, and more systematic evaluations of the complaint process are needed. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The association between alcohol exposure and self-reported health status: the effect of separating former and current drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    Full Text Available To investigate the direction and degree of potential bias introducedto analyses of drinking and health status which exclude former drinkers from exposure groups.Pooled analysis of 14 waves (1997-2010 of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS.General population-based study.404,462 participants, from 14 waves of the NHIS, who had knownself-reported health status and alcohol consumption status.Self-reported health status was used as the indicatorof health. Two approaches were used to classify alcohol consumption: (i separation of former drinkers and current drinkers, and (ii combined former and current drinkers. The prevalence of fair/poor health by alcohol use, gender and age with 95% confidence intervals was estimated. The difference in prevalence of fair/poor health status for lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, current drinkers and drinkers (former drinkers and current drinkers combined were compared using Poisson regression with robust estimations of variance.Excluding former drinkers from drinker groups exaggerates the difference in health status between abstainers and drinkers, especially for males.In cohort study analyses, former drinkers should be assigned to a drinking category based on their previous alcohol consumption patterns and not treated as a discrete exposure group.

  15. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Biolcati; Giacomo Mancini; Elena Trombini

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergra...

  16. Influences on participant reporting in the World Health Organisation drugs exposure pregnancy registry; a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth N; Gomes, Melba; Yevoo, Lucy; Egesah, Omar; Clerk, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Mbonye, Anthony; Were, Edwin; Mehta, Ushma; Atuyambe, Lynn M

    2014-10-31

    The World Health Organisation has designed a pregnancy registry to investigate the effect of maternal drug use on pregnancy outcomes in resource-limited settings. In this sentinel surveillance system, detailed health and drug use data are prospectively collected from the first antenatal clinic visit until delivery. Over and above other clinical records, the registry relies on accurate participant reports about the drugs they use. Qualitative methods were incorporated into a pilot registry study during 2010 and 2011 to examine barriers to women reporting these drugs and other exposures at antenatal clinics, and how they might be overcome. Twenty-seven focus group discussions were conducted in Ghana, Kenya and Uganda with a total of 208 women either enrolled in the registry or from its source communities. A question guide was designed to uncover the types of exposure data under- or inaccurately reported at antenatal clinics, the underlying reasons, and how women prefer to be asked questions. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Women said it was important for them to report everything they had used during pregnancy. However, they expressed reservations about revealing their consumption of traditional, over-the-counter medicines and alcohol to antenatal staff because of anticipated negative reactions. Some enrolled participants' improved relationship with registry staff facilitated information sharing and the registry tools helped overcome problems with recall and naming of medicines. Decisions about where women sought care, which influenced medicines used and antenatal clinic attendance, were influenced by pressure within and outside of the formal healthcare system to conform to conflicting behaviours. Conversations also reflected women's responsibilities for producing a healthy baby. Women in this study commonly take traditional medicines in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent over-the-counter medicines and alcohol. The World Health Organisation pregnancy registry

  17. The influence of alcohol consumption on sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities. The WIRUS screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Randi Wågø; Haveraaen, Lise; Sagvaag, Hildegunn; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global health issue and may influence activity performance in a variety of domains, including the occupational and domestic spheres. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of annual drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥6 units at one occasion) on activity impairments both at work (sickness presenteeism) and outside the workplace. Employees (n = 3278), recruited from 14 Norwegian private and public companies, responded to a questionnaire containing questions from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Workplace Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI). Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that binge drinking was associated with both sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities, even after controlling for gender, age, educational level, living status and employment sector. Annual drinking frequency was associated with impaired daily activities, but not sickness presenteeism. Binge drinking seems to have a stronger influence on activity performance both at work and outside the workplace than drinking frequency. Interventions targeting alcohol consumption should benefit from focusing on binge drinking behavior.

  18. The influence of alcohol consumption on sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities. The WIRUS screening study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Wågø Aas

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global health issue and may influence activity performance in a variety of domains, including the occupational and domestic spheres. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of annual drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥6 units at one occasion on activity impairments both at work (sickness presenteeism and outside the workplace.Employees (n = 3278, recruited from 14 Norwegian private and public companies, responded to a questionnaire containing questions from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and the Workplace Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI.Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that binge drinking was associated with both sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities, even after controlling for gender, age, educational level, living status and employment sector. Annual drinking frequency was associated with impaired daily activities, but not sickness presenteeism.Binge drinking seems to have a stronger influence on activity performance both at work and outside the workplace than drinking frequency. Interventions targeting alcohol consumption should benefit from focusing on binge drinking behavior.

  19. Genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors have diverging developmental trajectories: a prospective study among male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-11-01

    Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these 2 components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and cotwin sex effects modify these genetic influences. We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n = 1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual's genetic risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual's genetic risk of externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence, while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the cotwin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14- and

  20. State Alcohol Advertising Laws: Current Status and Model Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The concern about alcohol marketing and underage drinking has been heightened by recent findings in the scientific research community. Studies have established that alcohol advertising exposure influences a young person's beliefs about alcohol and his/her intention to drink. They also suggest that advertising may have a direct impact on youth…

  1. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  2. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro C. C. Løhaugen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1 provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2 provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3 initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions.

  3. Survival and Injury Outcome After TBI: Influence of Pre- and Post-Exposure to Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    10-1-0757 TITLE: Survival and Injury Outcome After TBI: Influence of Pre- and Post- Exposure to Caffeine PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Lusardi, Ph.D. Survival and Injury Outcome After TBI: Influence of Pre- and Post- Exposure to Caffeine 33 Legacy Emanual Hospital & Health Center...Phase 1: Study the prophylactic effects of caffeine exposure prior to FPI

  4. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  6. [The influence of occupational lead exposure on transmural repolarization dispersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Chlebda, Ewa; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2005-02-01

    The parts of QT interval: time from Q wave to the peak of T wave (QTp) representing the de- and repolarization of subepicardial layer and the time from the peak of T wave to its end (QTp-e) building the transmural dispersion of repolarization enable more exact assessment of repolarization period of the heart muscle. Occupational exposure to lead influences the electrophysiologic properties of the heart. The aim of our study was to assess the QTp and QTp-e interval in workers occupationally exposed to lead. The study was carried out in 22 copper smelters aged 41.8 +/- 8.7 years, occupationally exposed to lead. The control group consisted of 14 healthy men. In all studied subjects blood lead concentration (Pb) and the concentration of free protoporphyrins in erytrocytes were assessed. 24-hour ECG holter monitoring was done to study rhythm disturbances and the duration in lead CM5 of QT interval, QTp interval, RR interval preceding the assessed QT interval (pRR) during sleep, rest during the awake state and moderate daily activity. The QTp-e interval is the difference between the duration of QT and QTp interval. The duration of QTp and QTp-e in occupationally exposed workers and healthy persons did not differ significantly. These parameters were significantly lower in both groups during moderately physical activity comparing to the values during sleep. The QTp-e/ QTp ratio in occupationally exposed workers during night hours was significantly lower than during daily activity what was not the case in control persons. Occupational exposure to lead do not change significantly the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Occupational exposure to lead diminishes the QTp-e/QTp ratio during the night.

  7. Bone response to fluoride exposure is influenced by genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A N Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Genetic factors influence the effects of fluoride (F on amelogenesis and bone homeostasis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. A label-free proteomics approach was employed to identify and evaluate changes in bone protein expression in two mouse strains having different susceptibilities to develop dental fluorosis and to alter bone quality. In vivo bone formation and histomorphometry after F intake were also evaluated and related to the proteome. Resistant 129P3/J and susceptible A/J mice were assigned to three groups given low-F food and water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppmF for 8 weeks. Plasma was evaluated for alkaline phosphatase activity. Femurs, tibiae and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated using micro-CT analysis and mineral apposition rate (MAR was measured in cortical bone. For quantitative proteomic analysis, bone proteins were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS, followed by label-free semi-quantitative differential expression analysis. Alterations in several bone proteins were found among the F treatment groups within each mouse strain and between the strains for each F treatment group (ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.5; p<0.05. Although F treatment had no significant effects on BMD or bone histomorphometry in either strain, MAR was higher in the 50 ppmF 129P3/J mice than in the 50 ppmF A/J mice treated with 50 ppmF showing that F increased bone formation in a strain-specific manner. Also, F exposure was associated with dose-specific and strain-specific alterations in expression of proteins involved in osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, our findings confirm a genetic influence in bone response to F exposure and point to several proteins that may act as targets for the differential F responses in this tissue.

  8. Decision-making in people who relapsed to driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Muzaffer; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Keskinkilic, Cahit; Tabo, Abdulkadir; Manes, Facundo F

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol use has been previously associated with neurocognitive impairments, especially in decision-making cognition. However, some studies have shown little to no decision-making deficits in relation to different characteristics of people with drinking problems. Relapsing to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is an important issue with legal and psychosocial aspects. We evaluated decision-making performance in second-time DUI offenders by using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Thirty-four male second-time DUI offenders who had been selected for an official psychoeducational rehabilitation program and 31 healthy controls that were matched for age, education, and alcohol use were included. Along with psychiatric assessment, we applied conventional neuropsychological testing comprising cognitive set-shifting, response inhibition, attention, and visuospatial abilities. Also, we used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to assess personality patterns. A computerized version of IGT was used. No significant differences were found between the groups in regard to sociodemographics and conventional neuropsychological testing. DUI participants had significantly higher scores only in "self-transcendence" subdomain of TCI. On the fifth block of the IGT, DUI participants had significantly lower net scores than controls (U = 380.0, p decision-making deficits in DUI participants, which goes undetected on conventional neuropsychological testing and which is not correlated with TCI subdomains related with impulsivity patterns. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  10. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-08-01

    Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21-45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤0.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤0.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=0.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proximal and distal social influence on alcohol consumption and marijuana use among middle school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses the independent and combined effects of (1) perceived peer norms, (2) best friend use, and (3) being in the presence of others who use on middle school adolescents' consumption of marijuana and alcohol, and how the effects of these sources of social influence evolve over time as youth progress through middle school. The analytic sample consisted of 11,667 adolescents (50% female; >65% Hispanic) in 6th, 7th or 8th grade from 16 middle schools across three school districts in Southern California. Participants were assessed at 5 time points from 2008 to 2011. All sources of social influence were predictive of alcohol and marijuana consumption. As youth grew older, spending time with other adolescents who drink increased adolescents' likelihood of drinking alcohol, whereas perceived norms became less influential. Furthermore, as adolescents spent more time around other youths who drink, the predictive value of perceived norms on alcohol consumption decreased. Similarly, as youth grew older, the influence of best friend's use and spending time with other adolescents who use marijuana remain stable, whereas perceived norms became less influential. Findings suggest that perceived peer norms may be more influential in early adolescence; whereas proximal social determinants (e.g., being in the presence of other peers who consume) become more influential as youth enter middle adolescence. Prevention programs should continue to address misperception of norms with younger adolescents to decrease the chances of initiation, but also utilize strategies such as refusal skills and alternate coping mechanisms for older adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Awareness of alcohol advertisements and perceived influence on alcohol consumption: a qualitative study of Nigerian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Dumbili, EW; Williams, C

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing alcohol marketing activities of the transnational alcohol industries in Nigeria, little research has focused on their effects on Nigerian youths. This study explores students’ awareness of electronic and outdoor alcohol advertisement on campus and around students’ off-campus residential and leisure sites, and the extent to which they perceive it to affect their drinking. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 y...

  13. Violent behavior and driving under the influence of alcohol: prevalence and association with impulsivity among individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark A; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated or under the influence (DUI; for the purposes of this paper, we use the following terms synonymously: driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, and drunk driving) and engaging in interpersonal violence are two injury-related problems of high public health importance that have both been linked to alcohol consumption. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of DUI and violence in a sample of individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Patient characteristics associated with DUI and violence involvement, with a particular focus on impulsivity, were examined. Three hundred and sixty-four patients consecutively admitted to four alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland participated in this study. Questions concerning history of interpersonal violence as well as those about DUI were derived from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Impulsivity level was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the stop-signal task. Among all participants in the study, 148 (40.1%) had been arrested in the past for DUI, and 196 (55%) reported involvement in a fight under the influence of alcohol (FUI). The DUI group had a significantly earlier onset of alcohol problems, a longer period of heavy alcohol use, and fewer women in comparison to participants without a DUI history. FUI patients were significantly younger, with a younger average age of onset of drinking problems, longer period of heavy drinking, and lower percentage of women than the non-FUI group. Both of the self-reported measures of impulsivity indicated a higher level of impulsivity among participants from the FUI group than those from the non-FUI group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel coatings with tunable surface exposure of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David; Villain, Arthur; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient bone anchoring is a major limitation of artificial substitutes for connective osteoarticular tissues. The use of coatings containing osseoconductive ceramic particles is one of the actively explored strategies to improve osseointegration and strengthen the bone-implant interface for general tissue engineering. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyapatite (HA) particles can be coated robustly on specific assemblies of PVA hydrogel fibers for the potential anchoring of ligament replacements. A simple dip-coating method is described to produce composite coatings made of microscopic hydroxyapatite (HA) particles dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The materials are compatible with the requirements for implant Good Manufacturing Practices. They are applied to coat bundles of PVA hydrogel fibers used for the development of ligament implants. By means of optical and electronic microscopy, we show that the coating thickness and surface state can be adjusted by varying the composition of the dipping solution. Quantitative analysis based on backscattered electron microscopy show that the exposure of HA at the coating surface can be tuned from 0 to over 55% by decreasing the weight ratio of PVA over HA from 0.4 to 0.1. Abrasion experiments simulating bone-implant contact illustrate how the coating cohesion and wear resistance increase by increasing the content of PVA relative to HA. Using pullout experiments, we find that these coatings adhere well to the fiber bundles and detach by propagation of a crack inside the coating. These results provide a guide to select coated implants for anchoring artificial ligaments. PMID:25482413

  15. Fetal alcohol exposure reduces responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal chemosensory neurons to ethanol and its flavor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Tang, Joyce; Morales Allende, Ana Paula; Bryant, Bruce P; Youngentob, Lisa; Youngentob, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) leads to increased intake of ethanol in adolescent rats and humans. We asked whether these behavioral changes may be mediated in part by changes in responsiveness of the peripheral taste and oral trigeminal systems. We exposed the experimental rats to ethanol in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet; we exposed the control rats to an isocaloric and isonutritive liquid diet. To assess taste responsiveness, we recorded responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves to lingual stimulation with ethanol, quinine, sucrose, and NaCl. To assess trigeminal responsiveness, we measured changes in calcium levels of isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during stimulation with ethanol, capsaicin, mustard oil, and KCl. Compared with adolescent control rats, the adolescent experimental rats exhibited diminished CT nerve responses to ethanol, quinine, and sucrose and GL nerve responses to quinine and sucrose. The reductions in taste responsiveness persisted into adulthood for quinine but not for any of the other stimuli. Adolescent experimental rats also exhibited reduced TG neuron responses to ethanol, capsaicin, and mustard oil. The lack of change in responsiveness of the taste nerves to NaCl and the TG neurons to KCl indicates that FAE altered only a subset of the response pathways within each chemosensory system. We propose that FAE reprograms development of the peripheral taste and trigeminal systems in ways that reduce their responsiveness to ethanol and surrogates for its pleasant (i.e., sweet) and unpleasant (i.e., bitterness, oral burning) flavor attributes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pregnant mothers are advised to avoid alcohol. This is because even small amounts of alcohol can alter fetal brain development and increase the risk of adolescent alcohol abuse. We asked how fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) produces the latter effect in adolescent rats by measuring responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal

  16. Influence of air exposure on CsI photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuguang, E-mail: ygxie@mail.ihep.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Aiwu; Liu, Yingbiao [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Hongbang [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guangxi University, Naning 530004 (China); Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Fang, Jian; Yu, Boxiang [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Ge, Yongshuai [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue, Qiwen [Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Sun, Xilei; Sun, Lijun; Xue, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yigang; Zheng, Yangheng [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue, Junguang [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS and University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-10-11

    We investigate the influence of air exposure on the quantum efficiency (QE) and surface morphology of CsI photocathodes (PCs), at relative humidities (RH) higher than 80% down to nearly 3% (both at room temperature) and a 60 Degree-Sign C baking condition. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis, it is clearly seen that RH >60% speeds up water film formation and CsI dissolution on the surface of the photocathode at the minute scale, while both grain size and QE change slowly at RH <30% at the hour scale. In the baking environment, the peak QE decreases less than 1.5% (absolute) within one week, and a stainless steel substrate and electron beam evaporation technique tend to effectively weaken the influence of air. With an Au-coated FR-4 substrate, the QE degradation is found to strongly depend on wavelength in the range of 120-210 nm. According to spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), an excess of cesium was observed and the chemical reaction between water and CsI when exposed to humid air is proved. It is found that carbon, and not H{sub 2}O or O{sub 2}, is the main pollutant in the baking condition.

  17. A randomized controlled study of exposure therapy as aftercare for alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    on exposing individuals to alcohol cues in order to reduce cravings as well as the likelihood of relapse. The aims of the study are: 1) to investigate whether CET aftercare delivered via a smartphone or in group sessions increases the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment in groups of alcohol dependent...... psychological treatment whenever and wherever the patient finds it convenient....

  18. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  19. Exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug advertisements and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher S; Pechmann, Cornelia

    2011-05-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug campaign in 210 US media markets and adolescent marijuana and alcohol use from 2006 to 2008. We analyzed monthly advertising exposure (targeted rating points) data from the Office of National Drug Control Policy and drug use data from the Monitoring the Future study. We estimated multivariate logistic regression models of marijuana use for students in grades 8, 10, and 12, with controls for individual, family, and media market characteristics and year and regional fixed effects. For eighth-grade adolescent girls, greater exposure to antidrug advertisements was associated with lower rates of past-month marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52, 0.87) and lower rates of lifetime marijuana use (AOR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.93), but not alcohol use (AOR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.84, 1.19). Associations were not significant for adolescent boys or for students in grades 10 and 12. Antidrug advertising may be an effective way to dissuade eighth-grade adolescent girls from initiating marijuana use.

  20. Driving under the influence of alcohol: frequency, reasons, perceived risk and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Francisco; Pastor, Juan C; Montoro, Luis; Esteban, Cristina

    2015-03-12

    The aim of this study was to gain information useful to improve traffic safety, concerning the following aspects for DUI (Driving Under the Influence): frequency, reasons, perceived risk, drivers' knowledge of the related penalties, perceived likelihood of being punished, drivers' perception of the harshness of punitive measures and drivers' perception of the probability of behavioral change after punishment for DUI. A sample of 1100 Spanish drivers, 678 men and 422 women aged from 14 to 65 years old, took part in a telephone survey using a questionnaire to gather sociodemographic and psychosocial information about drivers, as well as information on enforcement, clustered in five related categories: "Knowledge and perception of traffic norms"; "Opinions on sanctions"; "Opinions on policing"; "Opinions on laws" (in general and on traffic); and "Assessment of the effectiveness of various punitive measures". Results showed around 60% of respondents believe that driving under the influence of alcohol is maximum risk behavior. Nevertheless, 90.2% of the sample said they never or almost never drove under the influence of alcohol. In this case, the main reasons were to avoid accidents (28.3%) as opposed to avoiding sanctions (10.4%). On the contrary, the remaining 9.7% acknowledged they had driven after consuming alcohol. It is noted that the main reasons for doing so were "not having another way to return home" (24.5%) and alcohol consumption being associated with meals (17.3%). Another important finding is that the risk perception of traffic accident as a result of DUI is influenced by variables such as sex and age. With regard to the type of sanctions, 90% think that DUI is punishable by a fine, 96.4% that it may result in temporary or permanent suspension of driving license, and 70% that it can be punished with imprisonment. Knowing how alcohol consumption impairs safe driving and skills, being aware of the associated risks, knowing the traffic regulations concerning

  1. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood following prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Oladiran I; Spocter, Muhammad A; Patzke, Nina; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2018-04-01

    We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the process of adult neurogenesis in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (PND 56). Pregnant mice, and their in utero litters, were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentrations averaging 184 mg/dL (CA group). Two control groups, sucrose (CAc) and non-treated (NTc) control groups were also examined. The brains of pups at PND 56 from each experimental group were sectioned in a sagittal plane, and stained for Nissl substance with cresyl violet, and immunostained for Ki-67 which labels proliferative cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature neurons. Morphologically, the neurogenic pattern was identical in all three groups studied. Populations of Ki-67 immunopositive cells in the dentate gyrus were not statistically significantly different between the experimental groups and there were no differences between the sexes. Thus, the PAE in this study does not appear to have a strong effect on the proliferative process in the adult hippocampus. In contrast, the numbers of immature neurons, labeled with DCX, was statistically significantly lower in the prenatal alcohol exposed mice compared with the two control groups. Alcohol significantly lowered the number of DCX hippocampal cells in the male mice, but not in the female mice. This indicates that the PAE appears to lower the rate of conversion of proliferative cells to immature neurons and this effect of alcohol is sexually dimorphic. This lowered number of immature neurons in the hippocampus appears to mirror hippocampal dysfunctions observed in FASD children.

  2. Influence of absorbed moisture on desizing of poly(vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics during atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shujing; Liu Xiulan; Sun Jie; Gao Zhiqiang; Yao Lan; Qiu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of moisture absorption of cotton fabrics on the effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) on desizing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cotton fabrics with three different moisture regains (MR), namely 1.8%, 7.3%, and 28.4% corresponding to 10%, 65%, and 98% of relative humidity respectively, are treated for 16 s, 32 s, 48 s, and 64 s. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the plasma treated PVA has higher oxygen concentration than the control. Mass loss results show that the fabric with the highest MR has the largest mass loss after 64 s plasma exposure. Solubility measurement reveals that the sample with the lowest MR has the highest desizing efficacy and the percent desizing ratio reaches 96% after 64 s exposure plus a 20 min hot wash, which is shown as clean as the unsized sample through scanning electron microscopy analysis. The yarn tensile strength test results show that APPJ has no negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  3. 17β-Estradiol is required for the sexually dimorphic effects of repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure on the HPA axis during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during adolescence has long-term sexually dimorphic effects on anxiety behavior and mood disorders. We have previously shown that repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure increased the expression of two critical central regulators of stress and anxiety, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in adolescent male rats. By contrast, there was no effect of alcohol on these same genes in adolescent females. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol (E(2, the predominant sex steroid hormone in females, prevents alcohol-induced changes in CRH and AVP gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. To test this hypothesis, postnatal day (PND 26 females were ovariectomized and given E(2 replacement or cholesterol as a control. Next, they were given an alcohol exposure paradigm of 1 saline alone, 2 acute (single dose or 3 a repeated binge-pattern. Our results showed that acute and repeated binge-pattern alcohol treatment increased plasma ACTH and CORT levels in both E(2- and Ch-treated groups, however habituation to repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure was evident only in E(2-treated animals. Further, repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure significantly decreased CRH and AVP mRNA in Ch-, but not E(2-treated animals, which was consistent with our previous observations in gonad intact females. We further tested the effects of E(2 and alcohol treatment on the activity of the wild type CRH promoter in a PVN-derived neuronal cell line. Alcohol increased CRH promoter activity in these cells and concomitant treatment with E(2 completely abolished the effect. Together our data suggest that E(2 regulates the reactivity of the HPA axis to a repeated stressor through modulation of the habituation response and further serves to maintain normal steady state mRNA levels of CRH and AVP in the PVN in response to a repeated alcohol stressor.

  4. Alcohol peer influence of participating in organized school activities: a network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2013-10-01

    This study compares the network influences on adolescent substance use from peers who coparticipated in school-sponsored organized activities (affiliation-based peer influence) with the influence both from their "nominated" friends (i.e., the adolescent named the alter as a friend), and only "reciprocated" friends (i.e., both adolescents mutually named each other as friends). The study also attempts to parse affiliation-based peer influence into the influence of both activity members who are also friends and those who are not, to address the potential confounding of these sources of peer influence. The study data consisted of a nationally representative sample of 12,551 adolescents in Grades 7-12 within 106 schools from the Add Health data. Ordinal logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effects of affiliation-based and friends influence on alcohol use and drinking frequency. Peer influence via organized activities (sports or clubs) with drinkers and the influence of friends who drink had significant effects on adolescent drinking. Peer influence through club activities with drinkers had a stronger effect on any drinking behavior than through sports activities with drinkers. After decomposing peer influence through activities by friendship status, influence through sport activities had a significant effect on drinking only when coparticipant drinkers were also reciprocated friends (but not nominated friends), whereas influence through club activities had a significant effect on drinking, regardless of friendship reciprocation. The design and implementation of school based substance use prevention and treatment programs should consider the contextual effects of school-sponsored activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  6. Ethanol Exposure History and Alcoholic Reward Differentially Alter Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens to a Reward-Predictive Cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Amanda M; Shnitko, Tatiana A; Sullivan, Kaitlin M; Vemuru, Sudheer R; Gomez-A, Alexander; Esaki, Julie Y; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Robinson, Donita L

    2018-06-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) that predict reward delivery acquire the ability to induce phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This dopamine release may facilitate conditioned approach behavior, which often manifests as approach to the site of reward delivery (called "goal-tracking") or to the CS itself (called "sign-tracking"). Previous research has linked sign-tracking in particular to impulsivity and drug self-administration, and addictive drugs may promote the expression of sign-tracking. Ethanol (EtOH) acutely promotes phasic release of dopamine in the accumbens, but it is unknown whether an alcoholic reward alters dopamine release to a CS. We hypothesized that Pavlovian conditioning with an alcoholic reward would increase dopamine release triggered by the CS and subsequent sign-tracking behavior. Moreover, we predicted that chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) exposure would promote sign-tracking while acute administration of naltrexone (NTX) would reduce it. Rats received 14 doses of EtOH (3 to 5 g/kg, intragastric) or water followed by 6 days of Pavlovian conditioning training. Rewards were a chocolate solution with or without 10% (w/v) alcohol. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic dopamine release in the NAc core in response to the CS and the rewards. We also determined the effect of NTX (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on conditioned approach. Both CIE and alcoholic reward, individually but not together, associated with greater dopamine to the CS than control conditions. However, this increase in dopamine release was not linked to greater sign-tracking, as both CIE and alcoholic reward shifted conditioned approach from sign-tracking behavior to goal-tracking behavior. However, they both also increased sensitivity to NTX, which reduced goal-tracking behavior. While a history of EtOH exposure or alcoholic reward enhanced dopamine release to a CS, they did not promote sign-tracking under the current conditions. These findings are

  7. Adolescent alcohol exposure alters lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1) expression and histone methylation in the amygdala during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Zhang, Huaibo; Sakharkar, Amul J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol exposure in adolescence is an important risk factor for the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Epigenetic processes are implicated in the persistence of adolescent alcohol exposure-related changes, specifically in the amygdala. We investigated the role of histone methylation mechanisms in the persistent effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure in adulthood. Adolescent rats were exposed to 2 g/kg ethanol (2 days on/off) or intermittent n-saline (AIS) during postnatal days (PND) 28-41 and used for behavioral and epigenetic studies. We found that AIE exposure caused a long-lasting decrease in mRNA and protein levels of lysine demethylase 1(Lsd1) and mRNA levels of Lsd1 + 8a (a neuron-specific splice variant) in specific amygdaloid structures compared with AIS-exposed rats when measured at adulthood. Interestingly, AIE increased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) in adulthood without producing any change in H3K4me2 protein levels. Acute ethanol challenge (2 g/kg) in adulthood attenuated anxiety-like behaviors and the decrease in Lsd1 + 8a mRNA levels in the amygdala induced by AIE. AIE caused an increase in H3K9me2 occupancy at the brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV promoter in the amygdala that returned to baseline after acute ethanol challenge in adulthood. These results indicate that AIE specifically modulates epizymes involved in H3K9 dimethylation in the amygdala in adulthood, which are possibly responsible for AIE-induced chromatin remodeling and adult psychopathology such as anxiety. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  9. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  10. Complex interactions between the subject factors of biological sex and prior histories of binge-drinking and unpredictable stress influence behavioral sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Sema G; Guzelian, Eugenie; Palmer, Mason A; Martin, Douglas L; Kim, Jennifer; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-10

    Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking. In Experiment 1, female mice were insensitive to the UCMS-induced increase in ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake under continuous alcohol-access. Experiment 2 revealed interactions between ethanol dose and sex (females>males), binge-drinking history (water>ethanol), and UCMS history (UCMS>controls), with no additive effect of a sequential prior history of both binge drinking and UCMS observed. We also observed an interaction between UCMS history and sex for righting recovery. UCMS history potentiated subsequent binge-drinking in water controls of both sexes and in male binge-drinking mice. Conversely, a prior binge-drinking history increased subsequent ethanol intake in females only, irrespective of prior UCMS history. In Experiment 3, a concurrent history of binge-drinking and UCMS did not alter ethanol intake, nor did it influence the ethanol dose-locomotor response function, but it did augment alcohol-induced sedation and reduced subsequent alcohol intake over that produced by binge-drinking alone. Thus, the subject factors of biological sex, prior stressor history and prior binge-drinking history interact in complex ways in mice to impact sensitivity to alcohol's motor-stimulating, -incoordinating and intoxicating effects, as well as to influence subsequent heavy drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D; Pexman, Penny M

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations ("Is the word easily imageable?"; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions ("Does the item sound like a real English word?"; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.

  12. The Influence of Print Exposure on the Body-Object Interaction Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eHansen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (Is the word easily imageable?; Experiment 1 or phonological lexical decisions (Does the item sound like a real English word?; Experiment 2. The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger facilitatory BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that a facilitatory BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands.

  13. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  14. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  15. Friends as a Bridge to Parental Influence: Implications for Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the possibility that friendship networks connect adolescents to influence from a broader group of adults beyond their own families. In doing so, we combine two rich traditions of research on adult influence on children and adolescents. Family research has suggested a number of ways in which effective parenting can reduce deviant behavior among adolescents. In addition, research on neighborhoods has advanced the idea that adults outside of the immediate family can exert social control that may reduce deviance. We employ longitudinal social network analysis to examine data drawn from the PROSPER Peers Project, a longitudinal study of adolescents following over 12,000 students in 27 non-metropolitan communities as they moved from 6th through 9th grade. We find evidence that the behavior of friends’ parents is linked, both directly and indirectly, to adolescent alcohol use. Findings suggest that much of the influence from friends’ parents is mediated through peer behavior, but that parental knowledge reported by friends continues to be associated with alcohol use even when controlling for competing mechanisms. Furthermore, adolescents tend to choose friends who report similar levels of parenting as themselves. Our results provide support for the position that friendships in adolescence connect youth to a broader network of adults and illustrate how adults outside of the family contribute to the social control of adolescents. PMID:24812438

  16. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  18. [Preliminary Study on Cognitive Determinants Influencing Argentine Youngsters towards Intensive Alcohol Consumption or Binge Drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Kolt, Gregory S; Webber, Andrew; Hunter, John A

    2010-11-01

     High-profile sportspeople are posited as role models for others. We examine whether university sportspeople and non-sportspeople's perceptions of high-profile sportspeople's (sports stars) and friends perceived drinking behaviours are related to their own drinking behaviours. Further, we examine the importance of drinking with competitors after sports events.  A convenience sample of 1028 participants (58% females, n=652 sportspeople) from two Australian universities were approached at sporting and university venues. Participants completed a survey booklet containing demographic questions, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, alcohol measure), perceived drinking of high-profile sportspeople and friends (social norms), and for sportspeople only, items assessing the importance of drinking with competitors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess relationships.  Both sporting and non-sporting participants perceived high-profile sportspeople to drink less than themselves and their friends. Small significant bivariate relationships were found between high-profile sportspeople's perceived drinking and self-reported drinking for sportspeople (r=0.20, P competitors after sports and games accounted for an additional 6.1% of the unique variance in AUDIT-scores (P<0.0005).  Sports stars are touted as negative role models when it comes to drinking. Contrary to expectations high-profile sportspeople were not perceived to be heavy drinkers and their perceived drinking was not predictive of others drinking. Friends' and normative drinking practices were predictors of drinking.[O'Brien KS, Kolt GS, Webber A, Hunter JA. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M; Glass, Leila; Infante, M Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. La influencia de la historia familiar de consumo de alcohol en hombres y mujeres The influence of family history on alcohol intake in males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Natera-Rey

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el riesgo para el uso excesivo de etanol en personas con historia familiar positiva de consumo de alcohol (HF+. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos corresponden a una muestra de población general (n= 8 890 y fueron recopilados a partir de una encuesta nacional de adicciones en población urbana de México, realizada en 1988. Se determinaron medidas epidemiológicas de frecuencia y asociación considerando los antecedentes de HF+ como factor de exposición. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia actual del consumo consuetudinario de alcohol fue de 13.7% para los hombres y 0.6% para las mujeres, las cifras para el síndrome de dependencia fueron 9.9% para hombres y 0.6% para las mujeres. Los hombres con HF+ tienen dos veces más probabilidad de desarrollar el síndrome de dependencia que aquellos con HF-. La razón de momios en el grupo de mujeres fue de 1.27. CONCLUSIONES: Se observaron patrones diferenciales por sexo en la transmisión de problemas de consumo. El consumo de los padres representa un factor de riesgo importante para el desarrollo del síndrome de dependencia de los hijos. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlOBJETIVE: To assess the risk for alcohol abuse among individuals with a positive family history of alcohol abuse (FH+. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population was a sample (n=8 890 drawn from a 1988 national survey on addictions in Mexico City's urban population. Data analysis consisted of frequency and association measures, using family history of alcohol abuse as the exposure factor. RESULTS: Prevalence of heavy drinking was 13.7% for males and 0.6% for females. Alcohol dependence syndrome was found in 9.9% of males and 0.6% of females. Men with HF+ were twice more likely to develop dependence syndrome than HF- males. The odds ratio for women was 1.27. CONCLUSIONS: Differential patterns by gender were found for familial transmission of alcohol abuse

  2. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH - ) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH - and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH + ) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼ 1.5-fold greater in ADH - vs. ADH + deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH - deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  3. "If She is Drunk, I Don't Want Her to Take it": Partner Beliefs and Influence on Use of Alcohol and Antiretroviral Therapy in South African Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A; McKenna, Stacey A; Leddy, Anna; Johnson, Mallory O; Ngubane, Thulani; Darbes, Lynae A; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol consumption and beliefs about mixing alcohol and ART are associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we examined how romantic partners influence alcohol and ART use. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 HIV-positive individuals and their primary partners (48 individuals) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Almost 17% of participants spontaneously expressed beliefs that alcohol and ART should not be mixed. Participants who held these beliefs influenced their partners' behaviors by either discouraging the mixing of alcohol and ART, which sometimes resulted in missed pills when drinking, or by helping partners manage their medications when drinking. Other participants encouraged partners to take ART no matter what. Messages on alcohol and ART may need to be refined for ART patients who cannot abstain from alcohol. Primary partners should be included in these education efforts and their influence could be leveraged to help reduce alcohol consumption and maintain adherence.

  4. Review: Environmental influences on alcohol use: Informing research on the joint effects of genes and the environment in diverse U.S. populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Cummings, Cory R; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-08-01

    This review aimed to inform the current state of alcohol research on the joint effects of genes and the environment conducted in U.S. racial/ethnic minority populations, focusing on African Americans, Latinos/Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians. A key-word and author-based search was conducted and supplemented with direct contact to researchers in this area to ensure a comprehensive inclusion of published, peer-reviewed studies. These studies were considered in terms of the racial/ethnic population groups, phenotypes, genetic variants, and environmental influences covered. Research findings from alcohol epidemiologic studies were highlighted to introduce some potential environmental variables for future studies of gene and environment (G-E) relationships. Twenty-six (N = 26) studies were reviewed. They predominantly involved African American and Asian samples and had a very limited focus on Latinos/Hispanics and American Indians. There was a wide range of alcohol-related phenotypes examined, and studies almost exclusively used a candidate gene approach. Environmental influences focused on the most proximate social network relationships with family and peers. There was far less examination of community- and societal-level environmental influences on drinking. Epidemiologic studies informing the selection of potential environmental factors at these higher order levels suggest inclusion of indicators of drinking norms, alcohol availability, socioeconomic disadvantage, and unfair treatment. The review of current literature identified a critical gap in the study of environments: There is the need to study exposures at community and societal levels. These initial studies provide an important foundation for evolving the dialogue and generating other investigations of G-E relationships in diverse racial/ethnic groups. (Am J Addict 2017;26:446-460). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  6. Physicians working under the influence of alcohol: An analysis of past disciplinary proceedings and their outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Damian Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The intoxicated person may cause harm to others, often requiring expert evaluation for the determination of guilt. The primary aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of mistakes that led 17 doctors accused of working under the influence of alcohol to face malpractice. We also wanted to clarify what were the legal, professional, and financial consequences - depending on specific patient outcomes. We based analysis on the review and meta-analysis of the past forensic evaluation reports of institution-run forensics programs. Furthermore, we apply thematic analysis using combination of grounded theory and Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. During the 2010-2016 timeframe, the regional forensic service opinionated on 17 physicians (3F, 14M) subjected to disciplinary action due to providing treatment under the influence of alcohol. In total, there were 157 patients potentially affected by malpractice - out of those, four were harmed; only one qualified for compensation. In the remaining 153 patients - only 11 persons reported having had awareness about the doctors' intoxication and apparent inability to perform the job, yet they agreed to receive care. Overall, in over 90% of patients, the physician did not harm anyone to a degree threatening patient's life. The supporting staff did not report experiencing distress either. The results of a blood test for the presence of alcohol were available for only four cases. Therefore, it was impossible to analyze the correlation between intoxication level and performance in providing care. All in all, in our analysis - less than 10% of 157 patients' care were compromised by provider's intoxication, either due to a mistake in diagnosis, medical procedure, or lacking communication skills. For physicians, working under the influence of alcohol is an uncommon phenomenon, but when it occurs - patients are at risk for receiving poor treatment. Presented analysis indicates that patients - just as much as supporting staff

  7. The influence of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on haloperidol treatment in patients with alcohol addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zastrozhin MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin,1,2 Elena Anatolievna Grishina,1 Kristina Anatolievna Ryzhikova,1 Valery Valerievich Smirnov,3 Ludmila Mikhailovna Savchenko,1 Evgeny Alekseevich Bryun,1,2 Dmitry Alekseevich Sychev1 1Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 2Moscow Research and Practical Centre on Addictions, Moscow Department of Healthcare, 3National Research Center Institute of Immunology, Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia Background: Isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, the activity of which varies widely, are involved in metabolism of haloperidol and may influence its profile of efficacy and safety.Objective: The primary aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between CYP3A5 gene polymorphism, activity of the CYP3A isoenzyme, and the risk of development of adverse drug reactions by haloperidol in patients with alcohol abuse.Methods: Sixty-six male alcohol-addicted patients participated in the study. The safety of haloperidol was evaluated by Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU and Simpson–Angus Scale for extrapyramidal symptoms (SAS. The activity of CYP3A was evaluated by determining the concentrations of an endogenous substrate of this isoenzyme (cortisol and its urinary metabolite (6-beta-hydroxycortisol, 6-B-HC. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction with allele-specific hybridization.Results: The frequency of A-allele occurrence in Russian population was very poor (2.27%. CYP3A5*3 polymorphism had no influence on safety profile indicators of haloperidol (UKU scale: p=0.55, SAS scale: p=0.64. In addition, there was no statistical significant difference between the values of indexes of the metabolic ratio (6-B-HC/cortisol in groups with different genotypes of CYP3A5*3: GG 5.00 (3.36; 6.39 vs AG 5.26 (2.10; 6.78 (p=0.902.Conclusion: The frequency of A-allele occurrence of CYP3A5*3 in Russian

  8. Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Lutjens, Robert; van der Stap, Lena D; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Intermittent models of alcohol exposure that mimic human patterns of alcohol consumption produce profound physiological and biochemical changes and induce rapid increases in alcohol self-administration. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes during chronic intermittent alcohol exposure in three brain regions that receive mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and that are believed to be involved in alcohol's reinforcing actions: the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. An independent replication of the experiment was used for RT-PCR validation of the microarray results. The protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha, Pkia), a member of the endogenous PKI family implicated in reducing nuclear PKA activity, was found to be increased in all three regions tested. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of the expression of several PKA-regulated transcripts in one or more of the brain regions studied, including the activity and neurotransmitter-regulated early gene (Ania) - 1, -3, -7, -8, the transcription factors Egr1 and NGFI-B (Nr4a1) and the neuropeptide NPY. Reduced expression of PKA-regulated genes in mesocorticolimbic projection areas may have motivational significance in the rapid increase in alcohol self-administration induced by intermittent alcohol exposure.

  9. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  10. Hepatic toxicity assessment of cationic liposome exposure in healthy and chronic alcohol fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Roursgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    or chronically alcohol fed mice. Additionally, the in vitro material-induced adverse effects (cytotoxicity, inflammation or albumin secretion) were all also minimal. The data from this study demonstrated that the intravenous injection of cationic liposomes does not cause hepatic toxicity. This investigation......, the question of potential toxicological effects needs to be addressed. In the present investigation, a cationic liposome with prospective for medical applications was constructed and thoroughly assessed for any material-induced hepatic adverse effects in vivo − in healthy and alcoholic hepatic disease models...... is important as it investigates the toxicity of a nano-sized material in a model of alcoholic hepatic disease in vitro and in vivo. This is an area of research in the field of nanotoxicology that is currently almost entirely overlooked....

  11. Activity and selectivity of manganese oxides in alcohols Conversion as influenced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doheim, M.M.; Ahmed, A.S.; El-Shobaky, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Manganese oxide samples obtained from thermal decomposition of manganese carbonate at 400 and 600 deg C were subjected to different doses of g-irradiation within the range 0.2 to 1.6 MGy. The surface and catalytic properties of the above samples were studied using nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at -196 deg C and catalytic conversion of ethanol and isopropanol at 300-400 deg C using micropulse technique. The results obtained revealed that manganese oxides obtained at 400 deg C consisted of a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and MnO 2 while the samples calcined at 600 deg C composed entirely of Mn 2 O 3 . Gamma-irradiation resulted in a decrease in the particle size of manganese oxide phases with subsequent increase in their specific surface areas. Gamma-irradiation with 0.2 and 0.8 MGy effected a measurable progressive decrease in the catalytic activity in dehydration and dehydrogenation of both alcohols. However, the treated catalyst retained their initial activity upon exposure to a dose of 1.6 MGy. Also, g-irradiation increased the selectivities of the investigated solids towards dehydrogenation of both alcohols. The catalyst samples precalcined at 600 deg C exhibited higher catalytic activities than those precalcined at 400 deg C. (author)

  12. Alcohol use and related problems among college students and their noncollege peers: the competing roles of personality and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2011-07-01

    Although alcohol use and related problems are highly prevalent in emerging adulthood overall, college students drink somewhat more than do their peers who do not attend college. The personal or social influences underlying this difference, however, are not yet well understood. The present study examined whether personality traits (i.e., self-regulation and sensation seeking) and peer influence (i.e., descriptive drinking norms) contributed to student status differences. At approximately age 22, 4-year college students (n = 331) and noncollege emerging adults (n = 502) completed web-based surveys, including measures of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, personality, and social norms. College students drank only slightly more heavily. This small difference, however, reflected personality suppression. College students were lower in trait-based risk for drinking, and accounting for traits revealed a stronger positive association between attending college and drinking more heavily. Although noncollege emerging adults reported greater descriptive drinking norms for social group members, norms appeared to more strongly influence alcohol use among college students. Finally, despite drinking less, noncollege individuals experienced more alcohol-related problems. The association between attending college and drinking heavily may be larger than previously estimated, and it may be masked by biased selection into college as a function of both self-regulation and sensation seeking. Differing patterns of alcohol use, its predictors, and its consequences emerged for the college and noncollege samples, suggesting that differing intervention strategies may best meet the needs of each population.

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  14. A re-examination of the mere exposure effect: The influence of repeated exposure on recognition, familiarity, and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S; Vevea, Jack L; Citkowicz, Martyna; Lauber, Elissa A

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the veracity of models of the mere exposure effect and to understand the processes that moderate the effect, we conducted a meta-analysis of the influence of repeated exposure on liking, familiarity, recognition, among other evaluations. We estimated parameters from 268 curve estimates drawn from 81 articles and revealed that the mere exposure effect was characterized by a positive slope and negative quadratic effect consistent with an inverted-U shaped curve. In fact, such curves were associated with (a) all visual, but not auditory stimuli; (b) exposure durations shorter than 10 s and longer than 1 min; (c) both homogeneous and heterogeneous presentation types; and (d) ratings that were taken after all stimuli were presented. We conclude that existing models for the mere exposure effect do not adequately account for the findings, and we provide a framework to help guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Influence of exposure time on toxicity-An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Des W; Yu, Qiming J; Verma, Vibha

    2016-04-29

    Data on toxicity of chemicals is usually reported as the LD50, or LC50, with the exposure time from experimental testing in the laboratory reported. But the exposure time is not considered to be a quantifiable variable which can be used to evaluate its importance in expressed toxicity, often described in general terms such as acute, chronic and so on. For the last hundred years Habers Rule has been successfully used to extrapolate from reported exposure times to other exposure times which may be needed for setting standards, health risk assessments and other applications. But it has limitations particularly in environmental applications where exposure levels are low and exposure times are relatively long. The Reduced Life Expectancy (RLE) model overcomes these problems and can be utilised under all exposure conditions. It can be expressed as ln(LT50)=-a (LC50)(ν)+b where the constants ν, a and b can be evaluated by fitting the model to experimental data on the LC50, and corresponding LT50, together with the Normal Life Expectancy (NLE) of the organism being considered as a data point when the LC50 is zero. The constant, ν, at a value of unity gives a linear relationship and where νmodel for fish, invertebrates and mammals involving 115 data sets and with a wide range of organic and inorganic toxicants the RLE model gave correlation coefficients of >0.8 with 107 sets of data. The RLE model can be used to extrapolate from a limited data set on exposure times and corresponding LT50 values to any exposure time and corresponding LT50 value. The discrepancy between Haber's Rule and RLE model increases as the exposure time increases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  17. Altered performance in a rat gambling task after acute and repeated alcohol exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Hesseling, Peter; Baars, Annemarie M; Lozeman-van T Klooster, José G; Mijnsbergen, Rob; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: A bidirectional relationship between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and deficits in impulse control and decision making has been suggested. However, the mechanisms by which neurocognitive impairments predispose to, or result from AUD remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this

  18. The role of prenatal alcohol exposure in abruptio placentae | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the association between preconception and prenatal alcohol use and abruptio placentae. Methods. A case-control study of women with the clinical diagnosis of abruptio placentae, 65 cases and 66 controls, at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. Women in whom a ...

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure, CYP17 gene polymorphisms and fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Topping, Joanne; Reyad, Manal; Tang, Aiwei; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of maternal CYP17 gene polymorphisms and prenatal alcohol consumption with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study in singleton livebirths was conducted at the Liverpool Women's Hospital between 2004 and 2005. Cases (n=90)

  20. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gershokovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment. Outpatient treatment of AWS has been shown to be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of AWS but patients should be carefully monitored.

  1. The relationship between population-level exposure to alcohol advertising on television and brand-specific consumption among underage youth in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Padon, Alisa A; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Jernigan, David H

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13-20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of caregiver-reported outcomes in identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Lowe, Jean; Garrison, Laura M; Cano, Sandra; Leyva, Yuridia; Qeadan, Fares; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-16

    BackgroundEarlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants.MethodsThis manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP).ResultsMean maternal age at enrollment was 28.18±5.75, and 64.52% were Hispanic/Latina. Across three TLFB calendars, absolute alcohol per day in the PAE group was 0.44±0.72, corresponding to low-moderate alcohol consumption. While no association was observed between PAE and BSID-III (P's>0.05), PAE was associated with higher scores on the PSI difficult child scale (=13.9; P=0.015), total stress (=13.9; P=0.010), and IBQ negative affect (=8.60; P=0.008) measures after adjustment for covariates.ConclusionsCaregiver-reported assessments may provide a currently unrecognized opportunity to identify behavioral deficits, point to early interventions, and should be included in clinical assessments of infants at-risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 16 May 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2018.26.

  3. Changes in the Relative Balance of Approach and Avoidance Inclinations to Use Alcohol Following Cue Exposure Vary in Low and High Risk Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross C. Hollett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1 to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2 if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test. In two experiments (N = 60; N = 79, low and high risk social drinkers were exposed to alcohol cues, and pre- and post- approach and avoidance inclinations measured. An ad libitum alcohol consumption paradigm and a non-alcohol exposure condition were also included in Study 2. Cue-elicited craving was characterized by a predominant approach inclination only in the high risk drinkers. Conversely, approach inclinations were adaptively balanced by equally strong avoidance inclinations when cue-elicited craving was induced in low risk drinkers. For these low risk drinkers with the balanced craving profile, neither approach or avoidance inclinations predicted subsequent alcohol consumption levels during the taste test. Conversely, for high risk drinkers, where the approach inclination predominated, each inclination synergistically predicted subsequent drinking levels during the taste test. In conclusion, results support the importance of assessing both approach and avoidance inclinations, and their relative balance following alcohol cue exposure. Specifically, this more comprehensive assessment reveals changes in craving profiles that are not apparent from examining changes in approach inclinations alone, and it is this shift in the net balance that distinguishes high from low risk drinkers.

  4. Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health, the Importance of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured Abstract Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Due to the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review, we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  5. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.

  6. Prevalence of and potential influencing factors for alcohol dependence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Anderson, Peter; Barry, Joe; Dimitrov, Plamen; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Feijão, Fernanda; Frick, Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Gmel, Gerrit; Kraus, Ludwig; Marmet, Simon; Raninen, Jonas; Rehm, Maximilien X; Scafato, Emanuele; Shield, Kevin D; Trapencieris, Marcis; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and alcohol dependence (AD) in particular, are prevalent and associated with a large burden of disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of AD in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for the year 2010, and to investigate potential influencing factors. The 1-year prevalence of AD in the EU was estimated at 3.4% among people 18-64 years of age in Europe (women 1.7%, men 5.2%), resulting in close to 11 million affected people. Taking into account all people of all ages, AD, abuse and harmful use resulted in an estimate of 23 million affected people. Prevalence of AD varied widely between European countries, and was significantly impacted by drinking cultures and social norms. Correlations with level of drinking and other drinking variables and with major known outcomes of heavy drinking, such as liver cirrhosis or injury, were moderate. These results suggest a need to rethink the definition of AUDs.

  7. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use.

  8. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Villalbí, Joan R; Espelt, Albert; Franco, Manuel

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Do emotions related to alcohol consumption differ by alcohol type? An international cross-sectional survey of emotions associated with alcohol consumption and influence on drink choice in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kathryn; Bellis, Mark A; Davies, Alisha R; Hughes, Karen; Winstock, Adam

    2017-11-20

    To examine the emotions associated with drinking different types of alcohol, explore whether these emotions differ by sociodemographics and alcohol dependency and whether the emotions associated with different drink types influence people's choice of drinks in different settings. International cross-sectional opportunistic survey (Global Drug Survey) using an online anonymous questionnaire in 11 languages promoted through newspapers, magazines and social media from November 2015 to January 2016. Individuals aged 18-34 years who reported consumption of beer, spirits, red and white wine in the previous 12 months and were resident in countries with more than 200 respondents (n=21 countries; 29 836 respondents). Positive and negative emotions associated with consumption of different alcoholic beverages (energised, relaxed, sexy, confident, tired, aggressive, ill, restless and tearful) over the past 12 months in different settings. Alcoholic beverages vary in the types of emotions individuals report they elicit, with spirits more frequently eliciting emotional changes of all types. Overall 29.8% of respondents reported feeling aggressive when drinking spirits, compared with only 7.1% when drinking red wine (pfeeling all emotions when drinking alcohol, apart from feelings of aggression. Respondents' level of alcohol dependency was strongly associated with feeling all emotions, with the likelihood of aggression being significantly higher in possible dependent versus low risk drinkers (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% CI 5.79 to 7.09; pfeeling the majority of positive and negative emotions also remained highest among dependent drinkers irrespective of setting. Understanding emotions associated with alcohol consumption is imperative to addressing alcohol misuse, providing insight into what emotions influence drink choice between different groups in the population. The differences identified between sociodemographic groups and influences on drink choice within different settings will

  10. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties against many conditions. There is a potential teratogenic risk, however, for pregnant women receiving Dex treatment. It has been claimed that Dex exposure during pregnancy could affect osteogenesis in the developing embryo, which still remains highly controversial. In this study, we employed chick embryos to investigate the effects of Dex exposure on skeletal development using combined in vivo and in vitro approach. First, we demonstrated that Dex (10 −8 –10 −6 μmol/egg) exposure resulted in a shortening of the developing long bones of chick embryos, and it accelerated the deposition of calcium salts. Secondly, histological analysis of chick embryo phalanxes exhibited Dex exposure inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes, increased apoptosis of chondrocytes and osteocytes, and led to atypical arranged hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of genes related to skeletogenesis was also analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of ALP, Col1a2 and Col2a1 was decreased in the Dex treated phalanxes. A detectable increase was observed in Runx-2 and Mmp-13 expression. We next examined how Dex affected the different stages of skeletogenesis in vitro. Utilizing limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures, we determined that Dex exposure exerted no effect on apoptosis but impaired chondrogenic cell proliferation. Interestingly, low dose of Dex moderately prompted nodule formation as revealed by alcian blue staining, but higher doses of Dex significantly inhibited similar chondrogenic differentiation. Dex exposure did not induce apoptosis when the chondrogenic precursors were still at the mesenchymal stage, however, cell viability was suppressed when the mesenchyme differentiated into chondrocytes. Alizarin red staining revealed that the capacity to form mineralized bone nodules was correspondingly enhanced as Dex concentrations increased. The mRNA level of Sox-9 was slightly increased

  11. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Dexamethasone (Dex) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties against many conditions. There is a potential teratogenic risk, however, for pregnant women receiving Dex treatment. It has been claimed that Dex exposure during pregnancy could affect osteogenesis in the developing embryo, which still remains highly controversial. In this study, we employed chick embryos to investigate the effects of Dex exposure on skeletal development using combined in vivo and in vitro approach. First, we demonstrated that Dex (10{sup −8}–10{sup −6} μmol/egg) exposure resulted in a shortening of the developing long bones of chick embryos, and it accelerated the deposition of calcium salts. Secondly, histological analysis of chick embryo phalanxes exhibited Dex exposure inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes, increased apoptosis of chondrocytes and osteocytes, and led to atypical arranged hypertrophic chondrocytes. The expression of genes related to skeletogenesis was also analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of ALP, Col1a2 and Col2a1 was decreased in the Dex treated phalanxes. A detectable increase was observed in Runx-2 and Mmp-13 expression. We next examined how Dex affected the different stages of skeletogenesis in vitro. Utilizing limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures, we determined that Dex exposure exerted no effect on apoptosis but impaired chondrogenic cell proliferation. Interestingly, low dose of Dex moderately prompted nodule formation as revealed by alcian blue staining, but higher doses of Dex significantly inhibited similar chondrogenic differentiation. Dex exposure did not induce apoptosis when the chondrogenic precursors were still at the mesenchymal stage, however, cell viability was suppressed when the mesenchyme differentiated into chondrocytes. Alizarin red staining revealed that the capacity to form mineralized bone nodules was correspondingly enhanced as Dex concentrations increased. The mRNA level of Sox-9 was slightly

  12. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445

  13. Influence of thermal hydrolysis and inorganic medium on the alcohol yield from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, Z; Backman, B

    1961-01-01

    The thermal hydrolysis of Helianthus tuberosus tubers was performed in a steamer within 30 minutes (the most suitable pressure was 2 atmosphere.). The addition of 225 to 280g (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (48 to 60 g N)/100 kg of tubers accelerated the fermentation process of the resulting mash with reference to controls by 5 to 10% on the second day and by 3 to 8% on the third day. (Schizosaccharomyces pombe or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were used; the temperature was 34/sup 0/, yield of alcohol, 200 l/100 kg of tubers). Addition of 22 to 110 g. P/sub 2/O/sub 5/(as K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) did not influence the yield of ethanol.

  14. Influence of repeated permanent coloring and bleaching on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair from alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Dom, Geert; Cappelle, Delphine; Maudens, Kristof E; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of alcohol, is used as a sensitive marker in hair to detect the retrospective consumption of alcohol. The proximal 0-3 cm hair segment is often used for analysis, providing information on alcohol consumption over the past 3 months. Using more distal segments would allow the detection of alcohol consumption over longer time periods, thereby addressing the chronicity of the consumption. In view of this, permanent coloring and bleaching were shown in vitro to alter EtG concentrations in hair, but no in vivo studies are available to prove or disprove this. To investigate the influence of repeated bleaching and permanent coloring on EtG concentrations in vivo and to assess the stability of EtG concentrations in distal compared to proximal hair segments. Hair samples from alcohol-dependent patients with uncolored/unbleached (N=4), permanent coloration (N=5) and bleached hair (N=5) were analyzed in two to six 3 cm long segments for EtG concentrations, and alcohol consumption and hair cosmetic treatments were assessed. We observed that hair bleaching and permanent coloring reduces EtG concentrations by 82±11% and 65±24%, respectively, with correlations between the number of cosmetic treatments and the decrease in EtG concentrations. EtG remained stable in untreated hair samples up to 18 cm. EtG is a sensitive marker to assess chronic alcohol consumption up to 18 months in alcohol-dependent patients with no cosmetic hair treatments. However, in alcohol-dependent patients who color or bleach their hair, care should be taken when interpreting EtG measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...... at ethanol concentrations between 150 and 500 mM. Mean ADH activity was higher in antral specimens than in those from the gastric corpus of the same subjects. ADH activity decreased with increasing age in males, while the values in females aged 41-60 years were higher than those in women aged 20-40 or 61...... is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle...

  16. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is Not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersma, Steven J; Beatty, Jessica R; Rosano, Thomas G; Strickler, Ronald C; Graham, Amy E; Sokol, Robert J

    2016-01-02

    Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ. This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women. Two separate samples of five nurses-one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use-provided urine samples before and 4-8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples. No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and-in the pregnant sample-heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift. Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.

  18. The Relationship Between Population-Level Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption Among Underage Youth in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. Methods: We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. Results: Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. Conclusions: At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands. PMID:25754127

  19. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  20. Adolescent Weight Preoccupation: Influencing Factors and Entertainment Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, John; Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how boys' and girls' weight preoccupation varied by grade level, parent-child relationships, self-classified weight, entertainment media exposure levels, and gender. Seventh-grade girls (n = 190) and boys (n = 132) and 10th-grade girls (n = 99) and boys (n = 67) participated. Girls were more likely to report weight…

  1. Maternal hair analysis for the detection of illicit drugs, medicines, and alcohol exposure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendoiro, Elena; González-Colmenero, Eva; Concheiro-Guisán, Ana; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Concheiro, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Drug of abuse consumption throughout pregnancy is a serious public health problem and an important economic cost to the health system. The aim of this work was to compare maternal interview and hair analysis to determine drug consumption throughout pregnancy and to study relations among maternal interview, hair results, and neonatal outcomes. Two hundred nine mothers agreed to participate. After delivery, they were interviewed and a hair sample collected. Hair samples were segmented in trimesters and analyzed for 35 drugs [opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), ketamine, methadone, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and hypnotics; limits of quantification 5-100 pg/mg] and for ethyl glucuronide (limit of quantification 10 pg/mg) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with χ test and t test. In the interview, 4.3% mothers declared using illicit drugs during pregnancy (cocaine 1.4%, THC 2.9%, and opiates 1%), 3.3% medicines (methadone 1.9%, benzodiazepines 1.9%, and antidepressants 0.5%), 21.5% tobacco, and 13.7% alcohol. Hair analysis showed 15.4% prevalence in illicit drugs (cocaine 12.4%, THC 3.8%, opiates 1%, and ketamine 1%), 22.5% in medicines (methadone 3.3%, benzodiazepines 11%, antidepressants 9.1%, zopiclone 1%, and fentanyl 1.4%), and 3.9% in alcohol. Neonatal abstinence syndrome was developed in 8.1% newborns, all of them from mothers with high methadone-positive hair results (>926.2 pg/mg). Statistically significant lower newborn weight and length were found in neonates from declared smokers compared with nonsmokers (P drug use during pregnancy, except for alcohol. In this preliminary study, no statistically significant differences were found between exposed and nonexposed newborns to drugs, except for tobacco consumption.

  2. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. METHODS: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  3. The parameters of X-ray equipment that influence in patient exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main components of the X-rays equipment and the secondary device for radiodiagnosis examination are showed. The influence of all radiographs parameters in human exposure as tension and current are also analysed. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Influence of X-ray exposure on morphologic composition of blood of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhtaev, T.M.; Badalov, S.

    1983-01-01

    Present article is devoted influence of X-ray exposure on morphologic composition of blood of sheep. Thus, pathogenetic mechanisms of formation of acute radiation sickness of laboratory animals are studied. The experiments are described.

  5. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  6. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  7. Applying a Developmental Framework to the Self-Regulatory Difficulties of Young Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Natasha; Petrenko, Christie L M

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be associated with significant difficulties in self-regulatory abilities. As such, interventions have been developed that focus on improving varying aspects of self-regulation for this population. The application of a multilevel theoretical framework that describes the development of self-regulation during early childhood could further advance the field. First, this framework could assist in elucidating mechanisms in the trajectories of early adjustment problems in this population and, second, informing the development of more precise assessment and interventions for those affected by PAE. The aims of the current review were to provide an overview of the self-regulatory framework proposed by Calkins and colleagues (e.g., Calkins, 2007; Calkins and Fox, 2002); examine the self-regulatory difficulties that are commonly experienced during infancy (i.e., 0 to 2 years) and early childhood (i.e., 3 to 8 years) in children with PAE in the context of the developmental framework; and describe how the framework can inform the development of future assessment and intervention provision for young children with PAE. The application of a developmental framework, such as proposed by Calkins and colleagues, allows for a systematic and theoretically driven approach to assessment and intervention programs for young children with PAE. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: how mere exposure influences level of construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether frequency of exposure influences level of construal. Using subliminal presentation, participants were exposed to neutral, unknown letters 0, 5, 15, or 40 times, and a typical mere exposure effect was found on evaluation. However, we hypothesized and showed in

  9. Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-21

    Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment. Children (n = 108, 7 to 9 years) were participants in a population-prevalence study of FASD in Western Australia. Fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, which provided a Fine Motor Composite score, and evaluated Fine Manual Control (Fine Motor Precision; Fine Motor Integration) and Manual Coordination (Manual Dexterity; Upper-Limb Coordination). Descriptive statistics were reported for the overall cohort; and comparisons made between children with and without PAE and/or FASD. The prevalence of severe (≤ 2nd percentile) and moderate (≤16th percentile) impairments was determined. Overall, Fine Motor Composite scores were 'average' (M = 48.6 ± 7.4), as were Manual Coordination (M = 55.7 ± 7.9) and Fine Manual Control scores (M = 42.5 ± 6.2). Children with FASD had significantly lower Fine Motor Composite (M = 45.2 ± 7.7 p = 0.046) and Manual Coordination scores (M = 51.8 ± 7.3, p = 0.027) than children without PAE (Fine Motor Composite M = 49.8 ± 7.2; Manual Coordination M = 57.0 ± 7.7). Few children had severe impairment, but rates of moderate impairment were very high. Different types of fine motor skills should be evaluated in children with PAE or FASD. The high prevalence of fine motor impairment in our

  10. Impact of Perceived Risk and Friend Influence on Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L; Rosen, Brittany L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Barry, Adam E; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-12-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data ( N = 937), examining associations between lifetime alcohol and marijuana use with intrapersonal (i.e., risk perceptions) and interpersonal (e.g., peer approval and behavior) factors. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses contend students reporting lifetime alcohol use-compared to students who had never used alcohol or marijuana-perceived lower alcohol risk ( p academic performance decreased the risk of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use ( p = .043). Findings are beneficial to school nurses with students experiencing effects associated with substance use.

  11. Singaporean college students overpour drinks similar to Western populations: influence of peer presence in a simulated alcohol-pouring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Shannon L; Pang, Joyce S; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Matthews, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    College drinking is a global health concern. However, most studies originate from countries with high alcohol consumption. In the United States, college students overpour a standard alcoholic drink, yet it is unclear if this remains true in countries with low alcohol consumption. Additionally, in college, peer influence is the greatest predictor of drinking behavior, yet it is unknown if social norms affect how students pour drinks. This study examined how male college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, define standard drinks, and if the presence of an unfamiliar peer affects how students pour during a simulated alcohol-pouring task. Male undergraduate students (n = 105) underwent baseline assessments of impulsivity, self-monitoring, religiosity, and drinking characteristics. Participants poured fluid into empty cups of different sizes to equal a standard serving of beer or shot of liquor. There were 2 groups based on gender of experimenter. Within each group, participants were randomly assigned to Alone or Dyad condition. In the Alone condition, students were instructed to pour only for themselves. In the Dyad condition, students were instructed to pour for themselves and the experimenter. The volumes poured by the students were compared with standards used in Singapore and the United States. Collapsed across container size, students overpoured shots by 50% and beer by 100% when compared to the standard drink definition in Singapore. When using a more liberal definition, students overpoured beer by 25%, but did not overpour shots. In the presence of an unfamiliar peer, overpouring decreased by 10% for beer. The current data show that college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, overestimate standard alcoholic drinks similar to their Western counterparts and use social norms to determine how much to pour for a drink when confronted with an unfamiliar peer. Efforts toward creating internationally recognized standard drink

  12. Impact of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning advertisements on alcohol consumption, affect, and implicit cognition in heavy-drinking young adults: A laboratory-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P; Moss, Antony C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates. There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements. Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has

  13. IMPACT OF ALCOHOL ON HUMAN VITAL SEMINAL PARAMETER WHICH INFLUENCE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol has wide impact (affect on male reproductive function like impotence, loss of sexual interest, gynecomastia and on male infertility. Alcohol can adversely affect the leydig cells which secretes the male hormone testosterone, Several studied have been conducted to evaluate the effect of alcohol in men and results shows reduced testosterone levels in the blood. Alcohol has dual effect on the hypothalamic pituitary – gonadal axis and blocking the release of LH - releasing hormone. 110 subjects were inc luded in the present study amongst whom 25 were non - alcoholic, 53 with low alcoholic and 32 with high alcoholic intake. Our study shows that ethanol exhibits alteration in their spermatozoa concentration, abnormal motility and morphology.

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  15. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  16. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  17. Tracking Adolescents With Global Positioning System-Enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2015-08-01

    Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents' activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 years carried global positioning system (GPS)-enabled smartphones for 1 week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting global positioning system points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained nine times more alcohol outlets than that of residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low-socioeconomic status exposure was related to marijuana use. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term serotonin neuron deficits in female rats: modulatory role of ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowska, Joanna H; Song, Hyun Jung; Bodnar, Tamara; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on male rodents found that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) decreases the number of serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in the brainstem. However, data on the effects of PAE in females are lacking. In light of known sex differences in responsiveness of the 5-HT system and known effects of estrogen (E2 ) and progesterone (P4 ) in the brain, we hypothesized that sex steroids will modulate the adverse effects of PAE on 5-HT neurons in adult females. Adult females from 3 prenatal groups (Prenatal alcohol-exposed [PAE], Pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed Controls [C]) were ovariectomized (OVX), with or without hormone replacement, or underwent Sham OVX. 5-HT-ir cells were examined in key brainstem areas. Our data support the hypothesis that PAE has long-term effects on the 5-HT system of females and that ovarian steroids have a modulatory role in these effects. Intact (Sham OVX) PAE females had marginally lower numbers of 5-HT-ir neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the brainstem compared with PF and C females. This marginal difference became significant following removal of hormones by OVX. Replacement with E2 restored the number of 5-HT-ir neurons in PAE females to control levels, while P4 reversed the effects of E2 . Importantly, despite these differential responses of the 5-HT system to ovarian steroids, there were no differences in E2 and P4 levels among prenatal treatment groups. These data demonstrate long-term, adverse effects of PAE on the 5-HT system of females, as well as differential sensitivity of PAE compared with control females to the modulatory effects of ovarian steroids on 5-HT neurons. Our findings have important implications for understanding sex differences in 5-HT dysfunction in depression/anxiety disorders and the higher rates of these mental health problems in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. The burden of prenatal exposure to alcohol: revised measurement of cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stade, Brenda; Ali, Alaa; Bennett, Dainel; Campbell, Douglas; Johnston, Mary; Lens, Cynthia; Tran, Sofia; Koren, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    In Canada the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. FASD is the leading cause of developmental and cognitive disabilities in Canada. Only one study has examined the cost of FASD in Canada. In that study we did not include prospective data for infants under the age of one year, costs for adults beyond 21 years or costs for individuals living in institutions. To calculate a revised estimate of direct and indirect costs associated with FASD at the patient level. Cross-sectional study design was used. Two-hundred and fifty (250) participants completed the study tool. Participants included caregivers of children, youth and adults, with FASD, from day of birth to 53 years, living in urban and rural communities throughout Canada participated. Participants completed the Health Services Utilization Inventory (HSUI). Key cost components were elicited: direct costs: medical, education, social services, out-of-pocket costs; and indirect costs: productivity losses. Total average costs per individual with FASD were calculated by summing the costs for each in each cost component, and dividing by the sample size. Costs were extrapolated to one year. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant determinants of costs and to calculate the adjusted annual costs associated with FASD. Total adjusted annual costs associated with FASD at the individual level was $21,642 (95% CI, $19,842; $24,041), compared to $14,342 (95% CI, $12,986; $15,698) in the first study. Severity of the individual's condition, age, and relationship of the individual to the caregiver (biological, adoptive, foster) were significant determinants of costs (p Cost of FASD annually to Canada of those from day of birth to 53 years old, was $5.3 billion (95% CI, $4.12 billion; $6.4 billion). Study results demonstrated the cost burden of FASD in Canada was profound. Inclusion of infants aged 0 to 1 years, adults beyond the age of 21 years

  20. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  1. The Influence of the Content of Furfuryl Alcohol Monomer on the Process of Moulding Sand's Thermal Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobosz St. M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the influence of furfuryl alcohol content in resin binders on properties of moulding sand at elevated temperature. Reducing the share of this component - due to the requirements of the European Union regarding its toxicity - may cause a decrease in temperature of moulding sands’ destruction and, consequently, the thermal deformation of moulds and the creation of many casting defects. The study examined the impact of the furfuryl alcohol content of the thermal destruction processes and on the strength of the moulding sand at an ambient temperature and the tendency to thermal deformation.

  2. Reading Skill and Exposure to Orthography Influence Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Brentari, Diane

    2016-03-01

    Orthographic experience during the acquisition of novel words may influence production processing in proficient readers. Previous work indicates interactivity among lexical, phonological, and articulatory processing; we hypothesized that experience with orthography can also influence phonological processing. Phonetic accuracy and articulatory stability were measured as adult, proficient readers repeated and read aloud nonwords, presented in auditory or written modalities and with variations in orthographic neighborhood density. Accuracy increased when participants had read the nonwords earlier in the session, but not when they had only heard them. Articulatory stability increased with practice, regardless of whether nonwords were read or heard. Word attack skills, but not reading comprehension, predicted articulatory stability. Findings indicate that kinematic and phonetic accuracy analyses provide insight into how orthography influences implicit language processing.

  3. Localized reductions in resting-state functional connectivity in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia; Taylor, Paul A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Gohel, Suril; Biswal, Bharat B; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2017-10-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain. This study is the first to examine resting-state functional connectivity within these RSNs in FASD. Rs-fMRI scans were performed on 38 children with FASD (19 with either full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 19 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE)), and 19 controls, mean age 11.3 ± 0.9 years, from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort. Nine resting-state networks were generated by ICA. Voxelwise group comparison between a combined FAS/PFAS group and controls revealed localized dose-dependent functional connectivity reductions in five regions in separate networks: anterior default mode, salience, ventral and dorsal attention, and R executive control. The former three also showed lower connectivity in the HE group. Gray matter connectivity deficits in four of the five networks appear to be related to deficits in white matter tracts that provide intra-RSN connections. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5217-5233, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of materials choice on occupational radiation exposure in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Firth, J.D.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In fission reactor plant, the radiation doses associated with inspection and maintenance of the primary cooling circuit account for a substantial fraction of the collective occupational radiation exposure (ORE). Similarly, it is anticipated that much of the ORE occurring during normal operation of ITER will arise from active deposits in the cooling loop. Using a number of calculation steps ranging from neutron activation analysis, mobilisation and transport modelling and Monte Carlo simulation, estimates for the gamma photon flux and radiation dose fields around a typical 'hot-leg' cooling pipe have been made taking SS316, OPTSTAB, MANET-II and F-82H steels as alternative candidate loop materials. (orig.)

  5. Influence of alcohol abuse on development and course of vibration disease among miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, V.G.; Balan, G.M.

    1987-12-01

    Examines effect of alcohol use on the development of vibration disease among tunnellers, facemen and machine drill operators, miners exposed to dangerous amounts of vibration. Men were investigated using clinical-psychiatric and experimental psychological methods (memory tests, comprehension and scales of anxiety). Results of investigation demonstrated extent alcohol use affects time period during which vibration disease develops: occasional users developed disease in 12 years, moderate and heavy users in 9 1/2 years and chronic alcoholics in 7 1/2 years. With heavy use of alcohol, severity of vibration disease increased. Progressive tendency of disease continued among alcoholics even though contact with vibration ceased. In addition to vibration disease, frequency of psychopathological syndromes increased with alcohol use (occasional, moderate, heavy and chronic alcoholism). Increase in asthenic affective and psycho-organic syndromes paralleled degree of alcohol use from occasional to chronic alcoholism. With increased use, anxieties increase, ability to recall on memory tests declines, facility in switching from one task to another decreases. Results of study make clear need for better methods of preventing and treating drunkeness and alcoholism among miners in occupations subject to hazardous amounts of vibration. 10 refs.

  6. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  7. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  8. The influence of personal networks on the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Amador; Cajal, Berta; Juan, Montse; Mendes, Fernando; Kokkevi, Anna; Blay, Nicole; Palmer, Alfonso; Duch, Maria Angels

    2010-01-01

    Party networks of young people are very important for socialization, but can also influence their involvement in risk behaviours or they can be protective. The influence of nightlife network of friends in using alcohol/ drugs is investigated through a survey. We explore the individual-centred networks (7.360 friends) of 1.363 recreational nightlife users in 9 European cities in 2006, through 22 friend characteristics. Statistical analysis utilised factorial analysis with varimax rotation and analysis of variance. The 69% of the sample had been drunk during the last month and more than half of them had used illicit drugs. Most of the respondents use to have a stable group of friends with whom to go out. Networks main characteristics were being more or less deviant and/or prosocial. Having not network or a less prosocial network is related to be low consumers. Having a non deviant, but prosocial network is related to being a person who gets drunk without using illegal drugs. Users of illegal drugs have a deviant and prosocial network. Finally ex users have less deviant networks, but at the same time a helper and prosocial network. Males drug use patterns appear to be less affected by the characteristics of their networks. Some preventive consequences coming from these results are already known as the importance of having less deviant friends. But some other issues are less known: to enhance certain prosocial skills may have counter preventive effects among recreational users and to influence the network for preventative purposes may be more effective among females.

  9. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of radiation exposure on our society and epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1997-01-01

    A brief epidemiological review of risk assessment of radia