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Sample records for alcohol effects

  1. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  2. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Follow Get Updates Donations Share ...

  3. Alcohol?s Effects on the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Piano, Mariann R.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use has complex effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Low-to-moderate alcohol use ...

  4. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  5. Effects of alcohol on motorcycle riding skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol is known to disrupt the effect of neurotransmitters and impair various psychomotor skills. Indeed, alcohol intoxication is a significant risk factor for fatal traffic crashes, especially when riding a motorcycle. At present, there is sparse r...

  6. Stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Reuben A; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol produces both stimulant and sedating effects in humans. These two seemingly opposite effects are central to the understanding of much of the literature on alcohol use and misuse. In this chapter we review studies that describe and attempt to measure various aspects of alcohol's subjective, autonomic, motor, cognitive and behavioral effects from the perspective of stimulation and sedation. Although subjective sedative and stimulatory effects can be measured, it is not entirely clear if all motor, cognitive and behavioral effects can be unambiguously assigned to either one or the other category. Increased heart rate and aggression seem strongly associated with stimulation, but motor slowing and cognitive impairment can also show a similar time course to stimulation, making their relation to sedation problematic. There is good agreement that alcohol's ability to induce striatal dopamine release is the mechanism underlying alcohol's stimulatory effects; however, the change in brain function underlying sedation is less well understood. In general, stimulatory effects are thought to be more rewarding than sedative effects, but this may not be true for anxiolytic effects which seem more closely related to sedation than stimulation. The two major theories of how response to alcohol predicts risk for alcoholism both postulate that individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorders have a reduced sedative response to alcohol compared to individuals not at high risk. In addition one theory proposes that alcoholism risk is also associated with a larger stimulatory response to alcohol.

  7. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  8. Effect of Non-Alcoholic Compounds of Alcoholic Drinks on the Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Feick, Peter; Gerloff, Andreas; Singer, Manfred V.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the role of alcohol (ethanol) in the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis has been intensively investigated. However, ethanol is generally consumed in form of alcoholic beverages which contain numerous non-alcoholic compounds. At least on gastric acid secretion it has been convincingly demonstrated that alcohol and alcoholic beverages have markedly different effects. In the present article, we provide an overview about the effect of different non-alcoholic cons...

  9. Cellular and Mitochondrial Effects of Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Manzo-Avalos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is correlated with a wide spectrum of medical, psychological, behavioral, and social problems. Acute alcohol abuse causes damage to and functional impairment of several organs affecting protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mitochondria participate with the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetate and the generation of increased amounts of NADH. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during fetal development induces a wide spectrum of adverse effects in offspring, such as neurologic abnormalities and pre- and post-natal growth retardation. Antioxidant effects have been described due to that alcoholic beverages contain different compounds, such as polyphenols as well as resveratrol. This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers.

  10. Effects of Alcohol on Human Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2018-02-01

    There is little debate that alcohol is a contributing cause of aggressive behavior. The extreme complexity of this relation, however, has been the focus of extensive theory and research. And, likely due to this complexity, evidence-based programs to prevent or reduce alcohol-facilitated aggression are quite limited. We integrate I 3 Theory and Alcohol Myopia Theory to provide a framework that (1) organizes the myriad instigatory and inhibitory factors that moderate the effect of alcohol on aggression, and (2) highlights the mechanisms by which alcohol facilitates aggression among at-risk individuals. This integrative framework provides the basis for understanding the appropriate targets for prevention and intervention efforts and may serve as a catalyst for future research that seeks to inform intervention development.

  11. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  14. Effect of Alcohol to Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization there are almost two billion people worldwide who consume alcohol on a regular basis. It’s a common abuse and almost 80 million are diagnozed with “alcohol abuse disorders” (WHO 2002, 2004. Excessive alcohol consumption is related to more than 60 different medical conditions, as suicide, homicide and different forms of accidents. Some conditions are acute, while other conditions such as liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, haemorrhagic stroke and various forms of cancer, are chronic consequences. Non-carious destructions of teeth like dental erosion are also associated with frequent alcohol consumption, because of precipitation of salivary proline-rich proteins caused by polyphenols present in most alcoholic drinks. The high concentration of organic and inorganic acids and the habit of keeping the alcoholic drink in the mouth can cause chronic inflammations of the soft tissues in the mouth and can increase the negative side effects from metals of crowns, bridges, orthodontic devises and various restorations. A literature review has been made due to the authors clinical observations and experiences.

  15. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  16. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children's decision making about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Johnson, K K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the immediate and delayed effects of media literacy training on third-grade children's perceptions of alcohol advertising, alcohol norms, expectancies for drinking, and behaviors toward alcohol. A Solomon four-group style experiment (N = 225) with two levels of the treatment factor assessed the effectiveness of in-school media literacy training for alcohol. The experiment compared a treatment that included the viewing of a videotape about television advertising along with the viewing of video clips of alcohol ads and discussion pertaining to alcohol advertising specifically versus one that included the viewing of the same general purpose media literacy videotape along with video clips of non-alcohol advertising and then discussion of advertising in general. The treatment had both immediate and delayed effects. Immediate effects included the children's increased understanding of persuasive intent, viewing of characters as less similar to people they knew in real life and less desirable, decreased desire to be like the characters, decreased expectation of positive consequences from drinking alcohol, and decreased likelihood to choose an alcohol-related product. Indirect effects also were found on their perceptions of television's realism and their views of social norms related to alcohol. Delayed effects were examined and confirmed on expectancies and behavior. The treatment was more effective when alcohol-specific, and it also was more effective among girls than boys.

  18. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-03-01

    This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. A two (sex) × two (movie: alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) between-subject design was used. Participants watched a contemporary movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. A total of 122 same-sex, young adult dyads (ages 18-29 years) participated in the experiment. Their actual alcohol consumption while watching was examined. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of the movie condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to movie alcohol increased alcohol consumption during the movie for men but not women. Identification and weekly alcohol consumption did not moderate the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayal can lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching the movie. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie:

  20. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims - This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design - A two (sex) x two (movie:

  1. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States commonly are fortified with thiamine, including breads and cereals. As a result, most people consume ... most frequently damaged in association with chronic alcohol consumption. Administering thiamine helps to improve brain function, especially ...

  2. Effect of taurine in chronic alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Yeh, Yen-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-07-25

    A study was undertaken to investigate the dietary effect of taurine in chronic alcoholic patients. The 30 chronic alcoholic patients with 2 to 5 times greater than normal activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) were selected and equally divided into taurine and control groups. In the taurine group, each patient took 6 g taurine per day, divided into 3 doses, for three months, and then stopped treatment for 1 month. In the control group, patients took a placebo without taurine for 4 months. It was found that the AST and ALT activities and levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), bilirubin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of serum plasma in the taurine group were all decreased, but increased alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and serum vitamins concentrations. Except for the level of TG, all were significantly different after taking taurine for 2 or 3 months. It indicated that taurine plays an important role in the properties of antioxidation and has some improvement on the liver tests of chronic alcoholic patients.

  3. Acute alcohol effects on explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol in socially drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.

  4. Effect of monohydric alcohols on structural properties of macromolecular solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, R.; Wanderlingh, F.; Cordone, L.; Cupane, A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the effects of monohydric alcohols on the thixotropic properties of a 1% (by weight) BSA solution is given. The presence of alcohols in the solution medium, even in a very small amount, weakens the structure responsible for the thixotropic properties: this effect increases with increasing alcohol concentration and alkyl group size. Indirect evidence relating the observed effects to the alteration, in the presence of alcohol, of protein-solvent hydrophobic interactions is also presented

  5. Understanding the effects of stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol via behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-06-01

    Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple-choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements, an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand, and a monetary delay discounting task, measuring intertemporal choice. The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  7. Alcohol and cirrhosis: dose--response or threshold effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: General population studies have shown a strong association between alcohol intake and death from alcoholic cirrhosis, but whether this is a dose-response or a threshold effect remains unknown, and the relation among alcohol misusers has not been studied. METHODS: A cohort of 6152...... alcohol misusing men and women aged 15-83 were interviewed about drinking pattern and social issues and followed for 84,257 person-years. Outcome was alcoholic cirrhosis mortality. Data was analyzed by means of Cox-regression models. RESULTS: In this large prospective cohort study of alcohol misusers...... there was a 27 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in men and a 35 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in women compared to the Danish population. Number of drinks per day was not significantly associated with death from alcoholic cirrhosis, since there was no additional risk of death...

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  11. Effects Of Alcohol On Oxidative Parameters Of Alloxan Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects o alcohol consumption on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in the alloxan induced dabetic rats. Plasma from the diabetic rats not treated with alcohol (DNT); diabetic rats treated with alcohol (DT) and non diabetic rats (ND) were analysed for their malondialdelyde (MDA) and vitamin C ...

  12. Effects of dexamphetamine with and without alcohol on simulated driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; Ramaekers, J.; Krul, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Skopp, G.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: In party circuits dexamphetamine is frequently used in combination with alcohol. It is hypothesized that co-administration of dexamphetamine to alcohol might reduce the sedative effects of alcohol, but may potentiate risk-taking behaviour. Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing the

  13. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  14. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  15. Community Alcohol Partnerships with the alcohol industry: what is their purpose and are they effective in reducing alcohol harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Douglas, N; D'Souza, P; Shi, Y M; Durand, M A; Knai, C; Eastmure, E; Mays, N

    2018-03-01

    Local initiatives to reduce alcohol harms are common. One UK approach, Community Alcohol Partnerships (CAPs), involves partnerships between the alcohol industry and local government, focussing on alcohol misuse and anti-social behaviour (ASB) among young people. This study aimed to assess the evidence of effectiveness of CAPs. We searched CAP websites and documents, and databases, and contacted CAPs to identify evaluations and summarize their findings. We appraised these against four methodological criteria: (i) reporting of pre-post data; (ii) use of comparison area(s); (iii) length of follow-up; and (iv) baseline comparability of comparison and intervention areas. Out of 88 CAPs, we found three CAP evaluations which used controlled designs or comparison areas, and further data on 10 other CAPs. The most robust evaluations found little change in ASB, though few data were presented. While CAPs appear to affect public perceptions of ASB, this is not a measure of the effectiveness of CAPs. Despite industry claims, the few existing evaluations do not provide convincing evidence that CAPs are effective in reducing alcohol harms or ASB. Their main role may be as an alcohol industry corporate social responsibility measure which is intended to limit the reputational damage associated with alcohol-related ASB.

  16. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    .001).Conclusions: High alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of alcohol-related medical events among those with low compared with high education. This interaction may be explained by differences in vulnerability and drinking patterns across educational groups. See video abstract at, http......Background: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...

  17. Stimulant alcohol effects prime within session drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Gearhardt, Ashley; Fromme, Kim

    2008-04-01

    Individual differences in subjective alcohol effects have been shown to differ by risk status (e.g., family history of alcoholism) and to predict future risk for alcohol-related problems. Presumably, individual differences in both stimulant and sedative responses affect the rewarding value of drinking which, in turn, impacts future drinking behavior. Although plausible, this theoretical model is largely untested. The current study attempted to provide experimental evidence for the impact of subjective alcohol responses on within session drinking behavior. Using a placebo-controlled between-subjects alcohol administration paradigm, experiences and evaluations of stimulant and sedative alcohol effects (after a target dose of 0.06 g%) were assessed as predictors of ad-libitum consumption in the context of anticipatory stress. Analyses indicated that an initial dose of alcohol increased experiences of both stimulation and sedation although stimulant effects were evaluated much more positively. In addition, stimulant effects after a priming dose predicted further consumption, whereas sedative effects did not. At least among moderate to heavy drinking college students, stimulant alcohol effects are more reinforcing and predict within session drinking behavior under social stress. Increased attention should be given to stimulant alcohol effects as a risk factor for excessive consumption in this population. Incorporating information about stimulant alcohol effects in prevention and intervention programs may also be important if additional research supports the current results.

  18. Evaluation of innovative state and community alcohol projects : breath alcohol testing program effectiveness, impact and transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) programs in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico are evaluated in regard to effectiveness, impact, and transferability of the special DWI enforcement squads and their use of BAT Mobiles. Squad activity effectiveness is me...

  19. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Alcohol is consumed worldwide as a drink by humans. Regular and unlimited use of alcohol leads to toxicity and alcohol-induced pathological ... High fat diet (45 % of energy divided from fat) and water were administered by ad libitum feeding. After 6 weeks, rats were fasted for 24 h and anesthetized with ...

  20. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of changes in alcohol taxation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a public health problem in many countries including Denmark, where 6% of the burden of disease is due to alcohol consumption, according to the new estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Pricing policies, including tax increases, have been shown to...... to effectively decrease the level of alcohol consumption.......Excessive alcohol consumption is a public health problem in many countries including Denmark, where 6% of the burden of disease is due to alcohol consumption, according to the new estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Pricing policies, including tax increases, have been shown...

  2. The Effect of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Vapors on Evidential Breath Alcohol Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawsine, Ellen; Lutmer, Brian

    2017-11-16

    This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code. These status codes were caused by ethanol vapors either in the room air or their inhalation by the subject, thereby causing a mouth alcohol effect. Replicate subject samples did not yield any consecutive positive numeric results. As ABHS application can cause a transitory mouth alcohol effect via inhalation of ABHS vapors, EBT operators should forego the use of ABHS in the 15 min preceding subject testing. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to

  4. "High" motivation for alcohol: what are the practical effects of energy drinks on alcohol priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo

    2013-02-01

    While several researchers have proposed a causal relationship between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption and subsequent alcohol intake, there is a dearth of research exploring the potential mechanisms underpinning this association. Marczinski and colleagues (in press) report the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-groups study assessing whether an initial AmED dose primes an increased motivation to drink relative to alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) received either alcohol (0.91 ml/kg vodka), energy drink (ED; 1.82 ml/kg Red Bull(®) ), AmED, or a placebo beverage and then self-reported their motivation to drink via the Desire-for-Drug scale. Subjective ratings of "desire more alcohol" were significantly higher than predrink in the placebo, alcohol, and AmED conditions, with this effect apparent at more time points in the AmED condition. While it was concluded that EDs may increase alcohol priming, between-condition analyses revealed that ratings did not differ significantly in AmED and alcohol conditions, with moderate magnitude treatment effects at most, and ratings of desire generally closer to 0 (absence of desire) than 100 (very much desire). While the study by Marczinski and colleagues fills an important gap in the literature, direct measurement of AmED priming's effect on subsequent alcohol consumption using a within-subjects design and appropriate statistical comparison is required to (i) establish the practical implications of these results for AmED consumers and (ii) discount any individual differences in such priming effects. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Promiscuous drug, wanton effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, Chelsea R.; Hayes, Dayna M.; McClain, Justin A.; Liput, Daniel J.; Marshall, S. Alex; Chen, Kevin Y.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche. PMID:24842804

  6. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  7. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Aygen, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of hypertension and lowering blood pressure with non-pharmacological treatment and lifestyle changes may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol while they also play an important role in reducing the cost of medical treatment. Reduction of alcohol consumption is one of the recommended lifestyle changes in the JNC VII report. Excessive amounts of alcohol consumption leads to an increase in blood pressure in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals...

  8. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Alcohol Intoxications on Hematological Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the accessibility of alcohol, people around the world become readily intoxicated with it and in turn, it produces protease devastating effects in the human system. This study investigates the hematological effects of alcohol in albino rats grouped into three (A, B and C). Group A and B served as test while C served as ...

  10. Context Effects of Alcohol Availability at Home: Implicit Alcohol Associations and the Prediction of Adolescents' Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Koning, Ina; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcohol-associated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this reasoning, we hypothesized that alcohol availability at home might moderate the relationship between implicit alcohol associations and future drinking behavior of adolescents. Participants were 262 at-risk adolescents (235 boys, 27 girls, adolescents with externalizing behavioral problems) with a mean age of 14.11 years (SD = 0.86, age range: 12-16 years) at baseline. Adolescents completed a questionnaire and a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test; SC-IAT). Stronger implicit alcohol associations predicted increase in frequency of alcohol use, only in adolescents who indicated that alcohol was available at home. No moderating effects were found for increase in quantity of alcohol use and problematic alcohol use, suggesting that implicit alcohol associations particularly influence the decision of whether to drink in adolescence. The findings illustrate that the availability of alcohol in the home setting influences adolescents' implicit alcohol associations and consequently affects the frequency of alcohol use. In this way, alcohol availability at home may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining the effect of implicit alcohol associations on the future drinking behavior of adolescents.

  11. The Effects of Prices on Alcohol Use and its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, economists and others have devoted considerable effort to assessing the impact of alcoholic-beverage taxes and prices on alcohol consumption and its related adverse consequences. Federal and State excise taxes have increased only rarely and, when adjusted for inflation, have declined significantly over the years, as have overall prices for alcoholic beverages. Yet studies examining the effects of increases of monetary prices (e.g., through raising taxes) on alcoho...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to...

  13. Effects of Alcohol on a Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Drinking alcohol while pregnant can result in cognitive, social, and motor deficiencies and other lifelong problems. Prenatal ... a gift that lasts a lifetime. • Mental retardation • Learning ... with impulse control, language, memory, and social skills Research is under way to learn more ...

  14. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  15. Effect of alcohol on performance in sport climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Šafránek, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    Name of thesis: The effect of alcohol on performance in sport climbing Abstract: The goals: The aim of this thesis is to assess the influence of alcohol on performance in sport climbing. Methods: There were six climbers (4 men a 2 women) with average age 24,8±4,5 in this study. Before the test, the first group of climbers had to drink fruit juice mixed with 0,6 ml of 100% alcohol per 1 kg of their body weight, or the fruit juice itself. 60 minutes after ingestion of alcoholic or nonalcoholic ...

  16. The effect of comorbid alcoholism on recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of comorbid alcoholism on the risk of recurrence in affective disorder have given contradictory results. METHOD: Using survival analysis, the rate of recurrence was calculated in a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective...... an auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients with a current auxiliary diagnosis of alcoholism had increased rate of recurrence following the first three affective episodes but not following subsequent episodes compared with patients without auxiliary diagnoses. The effect of alcoholism declined...... with the number of episodes. In contrast, no effect was found of other auxiliary diagnoses on the rate of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Rehospitalisation data suggest that concurrent alcoholism increases the risk of recurrence of affective episodes during the initial course of unipolar and bipolar disorder but has...

  17. Effects Of Alcohol And Paracetamol On Hepatic Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of paracetamol on hepatic glutathione concentration in rats after chronic alcohol and given intoxication was investigated using biochemical indices. Male albino rats were grouped into five and the different dosage regimens of paracetamol (300 mg/kg) and 12% alcohol. Hepatic glutathione concentration and the ...

  18. Effect of alcoholic treated MWCNT on tensile behavior of epoxy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Elongation are found to be effectively improved with the addition of alcoholic functionalized MWCNT in epoxy matrix. Increased tensile strength and elastic modulus of epoxy composites loaded with the alcoholic functionalized MWCNT are observed through experimental studies.

  19. The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): an Approach to Effective Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Sylvia; Black, Diane; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Nijhuis, Jan; Koek, Ger; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Recent Findings Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of

  1. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of external electric fields on the interaction energy between cyclodextrin and alcohol was analyzed in the light of density functional theory (DFT) and density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). Stability of the cyclodextrin-alcohol adducts was measured in terms of DFT based reactivity descriptor, global hardness, ...

  2. Density of familial alcoholism and its effects on alcohol use and problems in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Christy; Wood, Mark D

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) in college students have typically relied on dichotomous indices of paternal drinking. This study examined the prevalence of FHA and its effects on alcohol use and problems using a density measure in a sample (n = 408) of college students. Undergraduate students completed an anonymous survey in exchange for course credit. Data was collected between 2005 and 2006. Using a density measure of FHA, we observed an overall prevalence rate of 65.9% and a rate of 29.1% for FHA in both first and second-degree relatives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate relations among FHA, alcohol use/problems and previously identified etiological risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Results indicated a significant positive association between FHA and alcohol-related problems and this relationship was mediated by age of onset of drinking, behavioral undercontrol and current cigarette use. Behavioral undercontrol also mediated the relationship between gender and alcohol problems. Additionally, FHA was associated with an earlier age of onset of drinking and this was related to greater alcohol use. Assessing density of FHA in future trajectory research may capture a greater number of students at risk for acute alcohol-related problems and/or future development of AUDs. Future preventive interventions with this population, which should begin well before the college years, may benefit from considering personality factors and incorporating smoking cessation to help identify at-risk students and assist those who wish to cut down on their alcohol use but find that smoking acts as a trigger for increased drinking.

  3. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  4. Effects of low-molecular weight alcohols on bacterial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol based solutions are among the most convenient and wide spread aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. The current study followed the efficacy of several types and isomers of alcohols on different bacterial species. Seven alcohols (ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethylene glycol were used to evaluate their minimal inhibitory and bactericidal effects by microdilution method on bacteria that express many phenotypical characteristics: different cell-wall structure (Gram positive/negative bacteria, capsule production (Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance (MRSA vs MSSA or high environmental adaptability (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The best inhibitory effect was noticed for n-propyl, followed by iso-propyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl alcohols with equal values. Ethylene glycol was the most inefficient alcohol on all bacteria. In K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, the bactericidal concentrations were higher than the inhibitory one, and to a level similar to that encountered for most of the Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-positive cocci, E. faecalis presented the lowest susceptibility to alcohols. Conclusions: All alcohols presented good effect on bacteria, even in low concentrations. Compared to ethanol as standard, there are better alternatives that can be used as antimicrobials, namely longer-chain alcohols such as propyl or butyric alcohols and their iso- isomers. Ethylene glycol should be avoided, due to its toxicity hazard and low antimicrobial efficacy. Bacterial phenotype (highly adaptable bacteria, biofilm formation and structure (cell wall structure, presence of capsule may drastically affect the responsiveness to the antimicrobial activity of alcohols, leading to higher bactericidal than inhibitory concentrations.

  5. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  6. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and

  7. Low-dose alcohol effects on human behavior and performance: a review of post 1984 research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to survey the literature examining alcohol effects on human behavior and performance, especially low alcohol dose effects. Other comprehensive reviews on this topic from 1975 to 1990 found that alcohol could affect all ...

  8. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Nicotine on Alcohol Drinking in Female Mice Selectively Bred for High or Low Alcohol Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weera, Marcus M; Fields, Molly A; Tapp, Danielle N; Grahame, Nicholas J; Chester, Julia A

    2018-02-01

    Studies show that repeated nicotine use associates with high alcohol consumption in humans and that nicotine exposure sometimes increases alcohol consumption in animal models. However, the relative roles of genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, the alcohol drinking patterns, and the timing of nicotine exposure both with respect to alcohol drinking and developmental stage remain unclear. The studies here manipulated all these variables, using mice selectively bred for differences in free-choice (FC) alcohol consumption to elucidate the role of genetics and nicotine exposure in alcohol consumption behaviors. In Experiments 1 and 2, we assessed the effects of repeated nicotine (0, 0.5, or 1.5 mg/kg) injections immediately before binge-like (drinking-in-the-dark; Experiment 1) or during FC alcohol access (Experiment 2) on these alcohol drinking behaviors (immediately after injections and during re-exposure to alcohol access 14 days later) in adult high- (HAP2) and low-alcohol-preferring (LAP2) female mice (co-exposure model). In Experiments 3 and 4, we assessed the effects of repeated nicotine (0, 0.5, or 1.5 mg/kg) injections 14 days prior to binge-like and FC alcohol access on these alcohol drinking behaviors in adolescent HAP2 and LAP2 female mice (Experiment 3) or adult HAP2 female mice (Experiment 4). In Experiment 1, we found that repeated nicotine (0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) and alcohol co-exposure significantly increased binge-like drinking behavior in HAP2 but not LAP2 mice during the re-exposure phase after a 14-day abstinence period. In Experiment 2, 1.5 mg/kg nicotine injections significantly reduced FC alcohol intake and preference in the third hour postinjection in HAP2 but not LAP2 mice. No significant effects of nicotine treatment on binge-like or FC alcohol drinking were observed in Experiments 3 and 4. These results show that the temporal parameters of nicotine and alcohol exposure, pattern of alcohol access, and genetic predisposition for

  10. Creativity on tap? Effects of alcohol intoxication on creative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Panzierer, Lisa; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2017-11-01

    Anecdotal reports link alcohol intoxication to creativity, while cognitive research highlights the crucial role of cognitive control for creative thought. This study examined the effects of mild alcohol intoxication on creative cognition in a placebo-controlled design. Participants completed executive and creative cognition tasks before and after consuming either alcoholic beer (BAC of 0.03) or non-alcoholic beer (placebo). Alcohol impaired executive control, but improved performance in the Remote Associates Test, and did not affect divergent thinking ability. The findings indicate that certain aspects of creative cognition benefit from mild attenuations of cognitive control, and contribute to the growing evidence that higher cognitive control is not always associated with better cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. DESIGN: Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from...... the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. METHODS: Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991...... alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. RESULTS: The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI...

  12. Solvent effects on the magnetic shielding of tertiary butyl alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )4 and tetramethyl ammonium cation N(CH3)4(+) have also been presented. KEY WORDS: Solvent effects, Magnetic shielding, Tertiary butyl alcohol, Tertiary butyl amine, Continuum solvation calculations, Chemical shift estimation methods

  13. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  14. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related

  15. Pathogenetic Mechanism of Alcohol's Effect on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M. O. Welcome; E. V. Pereverzeva; V. A. Pereverzev

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory competence of blood glucose homeostasis might determine the degree of academic performance. The aim of this study was to produce a model of students' alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions that might define the pathogenetic mechanism of alcohol's effect on academic performance. The study took six hours and thirty minutes on fasting, involving thirteen male students. Disturbances in cognitive functions, precisely a decrease in the effectiveness ...

  16. The effectiveness of current French health warnings displayed on alcohol advertisements and alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Gloria; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Diouf, Jacques-François

    2017-08-01

    Many countries use health warnings in an attempt to regulate alcohol consumption. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in the research on alcohol warnings to support decision-making on effective health policies. This study explores the effectiveness of two mandatory warnings introduced in France in 1991 and 2007: the first (Alcohol abuse is harmful) is displayed on alcohol advertisements; the second (a pictogram) on bottles. Given that advertising content regulations have been implemented in some countries to reduce the attractiveness of alcohol marketing (e.g. the Evin law in France), this research also aims to explore whether such regulations can improve the effectiveness of warnings. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 French people aged 15-29 years. The effectiveness of health warnings was assessed in terms of recall, noticeability, credibility, comprehension, responsiveness, and ability to encourage moderate drinking and abstinence during pregnancy. Participants were shown alcohol advertisements and bottles that either followed or challenged content regulations. The data were analyzed using double manual coding and NVivo software. While both warnings suffered from a lack of visibility and noticeability due to their size, location, and outdatedness and because of competition from marketing design elements, the warning on the advertisement that followed content regulations was most visible. Both warnings were considered to be informationally vague, lacking in credibility and ineffective in terms of making participants feel concerned and influencing consumption habits. Current French warnings are ineffective and require modification. Improvements are suggested regarding the design and content of warnings to help increase their effectiveness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  18. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  19. Social determinants of alcohol and marijuana effects: a systematic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J D

    1975-01-01

    Based on the sociological perspective on recreational drug effects, three social determinants are propositionally related to the normal effects of alcohol and marijuana. Effects vary across drugs, users, and situations along an experimental-behavioral dimension termed "effect-orientation." The content of normative expectations toward effects and the interactional characteristics of drug-using situations are conceptualized as direct determinants of effect-orientations. The relative clarity of normative expectations indirectly influences effect-orientations through its relationship to the other two social determinants. The theory stresses the importance of comparative research on the normal uses of alcohol and marijuana.

  20. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between alcohol-induced oxidative stress and tissue phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH) content of rat liver and brain. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally ...

  1. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A; Avlund, K

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003, using a standard questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was defined as light, moderate and heavy drinking and used individually for each follow-up. The three follow-ups were summarized into long-term alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relation between alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI = [1.1; 19.42]). Early consumption of alcohol may increase the odds of having periodontitis 20 years later. There is a need for further studies including larger populations to investigate both alcohol consumption measured at different points in time, and long-term alcohol consumption and periodontitis progression over time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Searching for an environmental effect of parental alcoholism on offspring alcohol use disorder: A genetically-informed study of children of alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder by examining whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than the children of non-alcoholic parents even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of their 18–39 year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured psychiatric telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of non-alcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best. PMID:18729607

  3. [Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Tatjána; Fehér, János

    2009-12-06

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be associated with lower risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. An explanation for these epidemiologic observations is not entirely clear. Alcohol raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Other potential beneficial mechanisms have been proposed including anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. The association between moderate alcohol consumption and insulin sensitivity is still under debate. Possible mechanisms include elevation of adiponectin level, reduction of C-reactive protein and suppression of free fatty acid release from adipose tissue.

  4. The Effect of Alcohol Administration on the Corpus Cavernosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Min Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the effects of alcohol administration on the corpus cavernosum (CC using an animal model. Materials and Methods: CC sections and the aortic ring of rabbits were used in an organ bath study. After acute alcohol administration, changes in blood alcohol concentration and electrical stimulation induced intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP percentage were compared in rats. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP levels in the CC were measured using immunoassays. After chronic alcohol administration, ICP/MAP percentage, cAMP and cGMP were compared in rats. Histological changes were examined using the Masson trichrome stain and the Sircol collagen assay. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: Alcohol relaxed the CC in a dose-dependent manner, and the relaxation response was suppressed when pretreated with propranolol, indomethacin, glibenclamide, and 4-aminopyridine. In rats with acute alcohol exposure, the cAMP level in the CC was significantly greater than was observed in the control group (p<0.05. In rats with chronic alcohol exposure, however, changes in cAMP and cGMP levels were insignificant, and the CC showed markedly smaller areas of smooth muscle, greater amounts of dense collagen (p<0.05. Immunohistochemical analysis of eNOS showed a less intense response, and western blotting showed that eNOS expression was significantly lower in this group (p<0.05. Conclusions: Acute alcohol administration activated the cAMP pathway with positive effects on erectile function. In contrast, chronic alcohol administration changed the ultrastructures of the CC and suppressed eNOS expression, thereby leading to erectile dysfunction.

  5. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness.

  7. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  8. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  9. The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Atadashi Musa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.

  10. Alcohol Prevention on College Campuses: The Moderating Effect of the Alcohol Environment on the Effectiveness of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596

  11. Alcohol prevention on college campuses: the moderating effect of the alcohol environment on the effectiveness of social norms marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-03-01

    Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.

  12. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    behaviors, most importantly prenatal alcohol consumption. Second, it uses prenatal maternal reports on inputs and objective administrative data on child outcomes. Both features of the data reduce the threat of recall bias and measurement error. Third, the paper identifies the effect of health behaviors...... by exploiting variation between siblings. The results of the paper confirm and extend earlier findings. Maternal smoking decreases birth weight and fetal growth, with smaller effects in sibling models. The negative alcohol effect on birth outcomes is pronounced and remains intact in sibling models. Both effects...

  13. Nalmefene is effective at reducing alcohol seeking, treating alcohol-cocaine interactions and reducing alcohol-induced histone deacetylases gene expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Conde, Javier; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Giné, Elena; Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Nadal, Roser; Maldonado, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gual, Antoni; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The opioid antagonist nalmefene (selincro®) was approved for alcohol-related disorders by the European Medicines Agency in 2013. However, there have been no studies regarding the effectiveness of nalmefene when alcohol is used in combination with cocaine. Using operant alcohol self-administration in Wistar rats and qRT-PCR, we evaluated (i) the dose-response curve for s.c. and p.o. nalmefene; (ii) the effects of nalmefene with increasing concentrations of alcohol; (iii) the efficacy of nalmefene on cocaine-potentiated alcohol responding; and (iv) the gene expression profiles of histone deacetylases (Hdac1-11) in peripheral blood in vivo and in the prefrontal cortex, heart, liver and kidney post mortem. S.c. (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mg·kg(-1) ) and p.o. (10, 20, 40 mg·kg(-1) ) nalmefene dose-dependently reduced alcohol-reinforced responding by up to 50.3%. This effect of nalmefene was not dependent on alcohol concentration (10, 15, 20%). Cocaine potentiated alcohol responding by approximately 40% and nalmefene (0.05 mg·kg(-1) ) reversed this effect of cocaine. Alcohol increased Hdac gene expression in blood and nalmefene prevented the increases in Hdacs 3, 8, 5, 7, 9, 6 and 10. In the other tissues, alcohol and nalmefene either did not alter the gene expression of Hdacs, as in the prefrontal cortex, or a tissue-Hdac-specific effect was observed. Nalmefene might be effective as a treatment for alcohol-dependent patients who also use cocaine. Also, the expression of Hdacs in peripheral blood might be useful as a biomarker of alcohol use and drug response. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The effects of alcohol on emotion in social drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why people drink alcohol and in some cases develop drinking problems has long puzzled researchers, clinicians, and patients alike. In the mid-1940s and early 1950s, experimental research began to systematically investigate alcohol’s hedonic properties. Presumably, alcohol consumption would prove reinforcing as a consequence of its capacity either to relieve stress or to brighten positive emotional experiences. This article reviews experimental research through the years examining the impact of alcohol on both the relief of negative affect and the enhancement of positive affect. It covers initial accounts that emphasized direct pharmacological effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. These early studies offered surprisingly tepid support for the premise that alcohol improved emotional states. Next, studies conducted in the 1970s are considered. Informed by social learning theory and employing advances derived from experimental psychology, this research sought to better understand the complex effects of alcohol on emotion. Coverage of this work is followed by discussion of current formulations, which integrate biological and behavioral approaches with the study of cognitive, affective, and social processes. These current perspectives provide insight into the particular conditions under which alcohol can boost emotional experiences. Finally, future research directions and clinical implications are considered. PMID:28110679

  16. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol and Group Formation: A Multimodal Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol on Emotion and Social Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Sayette, Michael A.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Dimoff, John D.; Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Kirchner, Thomas R.; Levine, John M.; Moreland, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated research on emotion and on small groups to address a fundamental and enduring question facing alcohol researchers: What are the specific mechanisms that underlie the reinforcing effects of drinking? In one of the largest alcohol-administration studies yet conducted, we employed a novel group-formation paradigm to evaluate the socioemotional effects of alcohol. Seven hundred twenty social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) were assembled into groups of 3 unacquainted persons each an...

  18. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  19. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  1. Alcohol use in early adolescence: the effect of changes in risk taking, perceived harm and friends' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; Slater, Michael D; Oetting, Eugene R

    2005-03-01

    Friends' substance use, sensation seeking and low perceived harm are well-established risk factors for substance use, but they are often treated as stable factors that affect adolescents' likelihood of substance use. This study instead explores the effects of changes in risk factors for individual adolescents. Participants in this study were 1,065 male and female students. The students were in sixth or seventh grade at the initial survey and provided survey data on three additional occasions over a period of 2 years. Random-coefficient models were used to assess the intraindividual variability of friends' alcohol use, perceived harm, and risk taking and their effect on alcohol use. As expected, the overall number of alcohol-using friends is correlated with a student's own alcohol use. In addition, there is a dynamic relationship within student; as friends' alcohol use changes over time, it is accompanied by parallel changes in alcohol use by the individual. Two moderating variables of the effect of friends' use of alcohol were validated: perceived harm of alcohol use and risk taking. The effect of increased exposure to alcohol-using friends is more robust during times when an adolescent also has become less likely to perceive the harmful effects of alcohol use or when an adolescent indicates increased interest in risk-taking behavior. Although friends' use of alcohol is a salient predictor of an adolescent's own use of alcohol, some types of students are more likely than others to be influenced by friends' behavior, In particular, students' perception of harm and predisposition to risk taking are important moderators of the effect of friends' influence.

  2. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  3. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  4. Context effects of alcohol availability at home: Implicit alcohol associations and the prediction of adolescents' drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, M.; Koning, H.M.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcoholassociated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this reasoning, we hypothesized that alcohol availability at home might moderate the relationship between implicit alcohol associations and future drinking behavior of adolescents. Method: Participants were 26...

  5. Gender Specific Effects of Mood on Alcohol Seeking Behaviors: Preliminary Findings Using Intravenous Alcohol Self-Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.; VanderVeen, J. Davis; Plawecki, Martin; Millward, James B.; Hays, James; Kareken, David A.; O’Connor, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Although negative mood has long been implicated in differences in alcohol seeking by men and women, little research has used precise, well-controlled laboratory experiments to examine how negative mood affects alcohol seeking behaviors. Methods A total of 34 (19 Women) community-dwelling, alcohol using adults aged 21–32 (mean age=24.86, SD=3.40, 74.3% Caucasian; Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]= 10.1, SD= 3.4) completed two counter-balanced intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions: one under negative mood and one under neutral mood. Fourteen individuals (9 women; mean age=25.00, SD=2.77) participated in an alcohol “liking” experiment (i.e., free access drinking) and 20 individuals (10 women; mean age=24.77, SD=3.73) participated in an alcohol “wanting” experiment, in which gaining access to alcohol required progressively effortful work. There was no significant difference between men and women on the AUDIT (t(34)=−0.38, p=.71). Results Priming with negative mood induction caused a significant decrease in self-reported mood (mean change=−1.90, t(39)=−6.81, pmood was associated with a significantly increased peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC; F=9.41, p=.01), with a trend toward a greater effect in men than in women (F=2.67, p=.13). Negative mood also had a significant effect on peak BrAC achieved in the progressive work paradigm (F=5.28, p=.04), with a significantly stronger effect in men (F=5.35, p=.03) than women; men also trended toward more consistent work for alcohol across both neutral and negative sessions. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate a gender-specific response on how mood affects alcohol seeking and suggest gender-specific interventions to prevent mood-based alcohol consumption. PMID:26842258

  6. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson SJ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sean J Johnson,1 Chris Alford,1 Karina Stewart,2 Joris C Verster3–5 1Department of Health and Social Sciences, Psychological Sciences Research Group, University of the West of England, 2Department of Applied Sciences, Biomedical and Analytical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; 3Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 4Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Introduction: Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO. Methods: A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250. Results: Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol

  7. BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

    2004-01-01

    The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed.

  8. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  9. Effects of the serotonin transporter gene, sensitivity of response to alcohol, and parental monitoring on risk for problem alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lora M; Munier, Emily C; Trucco, Elisa M; Hardee, Jillian E; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2017-03-01

    The serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been previously associated with alcohol-related risk. Most findings point to short (S) allele carriers being at increased risk for negative alcohol outcomes relative to long allele homozygotes, although some work indicates a more complex relationship. The current prospective study aimed to clarify how and under what circumstances variations in 5-HTTLPR transmit risk for various alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 218 adolescents and young adults (29% female) enrolled in the Michigan Longitudinal Study. We tested a moderated mediation model with 5-HTTLPR as the predictor, Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) score as the mediator, alcohol-related outcomes as the dependent variables, parental monitoring as the moderator of the SRE to alcohol outcomes path, and prior drinks, sex, age, and body mass index as covariates. Four alcohol-related outcomes were tested. The S allele was associated with higher SRE scores (i.e., lower response to alcohol). Parental monitoring was a significant moderator: At low levels of parental monitoring, higher SRE scores predicted more drinks consumed and binge drinking episodes. At high levels of monitoring, higher SRE scores were significantly related to fewer alcohol-related problems. Findings suggest that one mechanism by which 5-HTTLPR variation transmits alcohol-related risk is through level of response to alcohol. Furthermore, the strength and direction of this effect varied by level of parental monitoring, indicating that even in the presence of genetic and physiological vulnerability, parents can influence the likelihood of offspring developing problematic alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, Suharni

    1987-01-01

    Irradiation effects on the alcohol fermentation ability of saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae suspensions of 1.5x10 8 clls/ml were exposed to single and fractionated doses of gamma irradiation, i.e. 0; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90; and 1.20 kGy in aerobic condition at dose rate of 1.63 kGy/hour. The fractionated doses were given with time interval of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fermentation was held at 30 0 C for 40 hours. It is seen that an increase of alcohol production was obtained when cells were irradiated at 0.60 kGy, although the result has no significant difference statistically with control. At the dose of 1.20 kGy the alcohol fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae decreased drastically as compared to control. Irradiation using single or fractionated doses with time interval of 15-45 minutes did not influence the alcohol production. Comparing the time interval of 45 minutes at 0.60 kGy and at 1.20 kGy, it appeared that the yield of alcohol was different. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Effects of cognitive bias modification training on neural alcohol cue reactivity in alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Stelzel, C.; Gladwin, T.E.; Park, S.Q.; Pawelczack, S.; Gawron, C.K.; Stuke, H.; Heinz, A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Walter, H.; Bermpohl, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol cues evoke increased activation in mesolimbic brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. Moreover, patients show an alcohol approach bias, a tendency to more quickly approach than avoid alcohol cues. Cognitive bias modification

  12. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  13. Alcoholism and its Effects: an Approach Based on Health Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.

  14. Effect of alcohol treatment on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Abraham, E; Velasco Plaza, A; Marin, B

    1991-08-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol treatment on sexual parameters of the male rats was studied. The results showed that the ingestion of cognac leads to significant alterations in the sexual behaviour of the male rat. Sexual parameters indicated that sexual behaviour is drastically affected by cognac consumption. The parameters affected were the number of ejaculation; initial latency, ejaculation latencies and neuromotor activities which showed significant variation (P less than 0.01). Further, mounts without, with and total intromissions and refractory periods were significantly affected by alcohol consumption. In addition, the percentage of tests during which an ejaculation was observed was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) in the alcohol-treated males when compared with control groups.

  15. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    2016-01-01

    A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. The most frequent neutral motives reported for AMED consumption included "I like the taste" (66.5%), and "to celebrate a special occasion" (35.2%). 52.6% of AMED consumers reported consuming AMED for at least one of five negative motives, primarily "to get drunk" (45.6%). Despite these negative motives those students reported consuming significantly less alcohol and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions compared to alcohol-only (AO) occasions. Although the motives for consuming AMED and AMOB were comparable, more participants reported consuming AMED "to celebrate a special occasion", "to get drunk", because they "received the drink from someone else" or "because others drink it as well". However, significantly more students reported consuming AMOB than AMED because "It feels like I can drink more alcohol". Alcohol consumption was significantly less on AMED occasions compared to AMOB occasions, and both occasions significantly less than AO occasions. The majority of reasons for consuming AMED relate to neutral motives. Although 52.6% of students reported one or more negative motives for AMED consumption (predominantly "to get drunk") this had no differential effect on total alcohol consumption. The differences in motives suggest AMED is consumed more to enjoy special occasions and as a group-bonding experience, however alcohol consumption is significantly lower on such occasions in comparison to when AMOB or AO are consumed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of three classes of alcoholic beverages on chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three different types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and gin) on the absorption of chloroquine in the stomach and intestine of rats were determined. The in situ loop method and in situ re-circulation technique were used to determine the absorption of chloroquine [CQ] in the stomach and intestine ...

  17. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  18. Effect of marihuana and alcohol on visual search performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of alcohol and marihuana on visual scanning patterns in a simulated driving situation. In the first experiment 27 male heavy drinkers were divided into 3 groups of 9, defined by three blood alco...

  19. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on biochemical indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of alcohol and kolanut interactions on biochemical indices of neuronal gene expression in Wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4ml of distilled water). Groups 2 - 6 were treated for a period ...

  20. Effect of Pinealectomy and Blindness on Alcohol Induced Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though ethanol is a well known testicular toxicant causing part of its damage through increased lipid Peroxidation, it is not known how the testis in blind or pinealectomized rats will respond to alcohol exposure. Objective: An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol on the testicular lipid Peroxidation ...

  1. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  2. [Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Staszewski, Krzysztof O; Borucka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Mozliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N = 802) comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade) from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 421) and the reference group (n = 381). A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. The program had an expected influence on the students' attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants' initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the field of alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.

  3. Effect of Maternal Alcohol Consumption on Epididymal Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the growth of epididymis in neonatal mice. Three groups of adult female mice were used. The pups of group 1 served as control while the pups of groups 2 and 3 were given 30% ethanol (v/v) during pregnancy and during pregnancy and ...

  4. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current work aimed to evaluate demographic factors in an IBS population in Iran using a case‑control design. Subjects and Methods. From, October 2010 to October 2011, we performed. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index,. Alcohol Drinking and Smoking Habits on Irritable. Bowel Syndrome: A Case Control ...

  5. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  6. Context Effects of Alcohol Availability at Home : Implicit Alcohol Associations and the Prediction of Adolescents' Drinking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Koning, I.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcohol-associated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this

  7. Temperature effect on 4-aminophtalimide fluorescence in n-alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobek, Krzysztof, E-mail: dobas@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Karolczak, Jerzy, E-mail: jgkarol@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Center For Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-09-15

    The compound 4-aminophthalimide (4-AP) is a well-known dye used as an environment polarity sensitive probe e.g. in solvation studies. This paper presents the effect of temperature on 4-aminophthalimides steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence in five n-alcohols. It is shown that the hydrogen bonding ability of n-alcohols affects the shifts of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-aminophthalimide at room temperature, and the shifts of fluorescence also at temperatures from the range 180 to 323 K. Temperature is shown to affect the change in hydrogen bond energy that follows 4-AP excitation, in a way dependent on the n-alcohol alkyl chain length. On the other hand, time-resolved results indicate that the temperature dependence of 4-AP deactivation follows mainly from the energy-gap dependent non-radiative deactivation rate. Fluorescence transition dipole moments at room temperature have been found to be slightly dependent on the solvent, but nothing proves that these changes are connected to different hydrogen bonding character of each n-alcohol. Therefore, while the steady-state results provide clear evidence of hydrogen bonding between 4-AP and n-alcohols, the time-resolved results do not show any evident sign of hydrogen bonding, besides the influence of the position of fluorescence emission on the radiative and non-radiative rates. - Highlights: • We show temperature effect on 4-aminophthalimide (4-AP) absorption and emission. • Hydrogen bonds formation between n-alcohols and 4-AP affect steady-state results. • Temperature change influences hydrogen bonds energy. • 4-AP non-radiative deactivation is energy-gap controlled.

  8. Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access

    OpenAIRE

    Jason M. Lindo; Isaac D. Swensen; Glen R. Waddell

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol, which is known to increase drinking behavior, on academic performance. We first estimate the effect using an RD design but argue that this approach is not well-suited to the research question in our setting. Our preferred approach instead exploits the longitudinal nature of the data, essentially identifying the effect by comparing a student's academic performance before and after turning 21. We find that students' grades fall below their expe...

  9. BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sundari, S. Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T.; Jaswanth, A.; Valarmathy, R

    2004-01-01

    The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p

  10. The effects of the therapeutic workplace and heavy alcohol use on homelessness among homeless alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (Self-ratings of alcohol craving. The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (P = .02) or without (P = .049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy.

  12. Alcohol effects on the epigenome in the germline: Role in the inheritance of alcohol-related pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Lucy G; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-05-01

    Excessive alcohol exposure has severe health consequences, and clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that disruptions in the epigenome of somatic cells, such as those in brain, are an important factor in the development of alcohol-related pathologies, such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). It is also well known that alcohol-related health problems are passed down across generations in human populations, but the complete mechanisms for this phenomenon are currently unknown. Recent studies in animal models have suggested that epigenetic factors are also responsible for the transmission of alcohol-related pathologies across generations. Alcohol exposure has been shown to induce changes in the epigenome of sperm of exposed male animals, and these epimutations are inherited in the offspring. This paper reviews evidence for multigenerational and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of alcohol-related pathology through the germline. We also review the literature on the epigenetic effects of alcohol exposure on somatic cells in brain, and its contribution to AUDs and FASDs. We note gaps in knowledge in this field, such as the lack of clinical studies in human populations and the lack of data on epigenetic inheritance via the female germline, and we suggest future research directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Shankhpushpi on Alcohol Addiction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heba, Mahi; Faraz, Sana; Banerjee, Sugato

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a worldwide problem. It has mainly two components: dependence and withdrawal. Characteristic properties of most anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and nootropic actions. Shankhpushpi ( Convolvulus pluricaulis . Convolvulaceae), known ethnopharmacologically as brain tonic, possess all the properties mentioned above. Here, we screen shankhpushpi for possible anti-addictive potential. Effect of shankhpushpi churna was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze. The role of shankhpushpi on chronic ethanol consumption (21 days) was measured using two bottle choice protocol of voluntary drinking. We also measured the effect of the above herb on cortico-hippocampal GABA levels. Shankhpushpi was found to reduce alcohol withdrawal anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. The herb also decreased ethanol intake and increased water intake significantly ( P < 0.001) after 4 days of administration. Both these effects were blocked ( P < 0.001) by GABAA antagonist suggesting the role of GABAA receptor. Chronic administration of shankhpushpi also significantly ( P < 0.01) increased cortico-hippocampal GABA levels in mice. Shankhpushpi reduced both alcohol dependence and withdrawal in a GABAA-dependent manner, thus showing anti-addictive potential. Shankhpushpi prevented ethanol withdrawal anxiety and alcohol addiction in a GABA A -dependent manner. Abbreviations used: GABA: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, CNS: Central Nervous System.

  14. Alcohol intoxication effects on simulated driving: exploring alcohol-dose effects on brain activation using functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vince D; Pekar, James J; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2004-11-01

    Driving while intoxicated is a major public health problem. We investigated impaired driving using a simulated driving skill game that presents an 'in-car' view of a road and a readout of speed. We explored brain activation and behavioral alterations from baseline at two blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Participants received single-blind individualized doses of beverage alcohol designed to produce blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.04 and 0.08 or placebo. Scanning occurred on a 1.5 Tesla Philips MRI scanner after training to asymptote performance. Analysis was performed using independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate systematically nonoverlapping 'networks' and their time courses. Imaging results revealed seven separate driving-related brain networks with different time courses. Several significant findings were observed for the imaging data. First, dose-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes were revealed in orbitofrontal (OF) and motor (but not cerebellar) regions; visual and medial frontal regions were unaffected. Second, cerebellar regions were significantly associated with driving behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, a global disruptive effect of alcohol on the ICA time courses was observed with highly significant differences in OF and motor regions. Alcohol thus demonstrated some behavioral effects and unique, disruptive, dose-dependent effects on fMRI signal within several brain circuits. The fMRI data also suggest that the deficits observed in alcohol intoxication may be modulated primarily through OF/anterior cingulate, motor and cerebellar regions as opposed to attentional areas in frontoparietal cortex.

  15. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: no alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H W; van der Vorst, Haske; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Schulten, Ingrid; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-08-04

    In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old), randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction).Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol), alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups). The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old). It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the prevention appears to be effective, it can easily and relatively

  16. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  17. Social networks as mediators of the effect of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Humphreys, Keith

    2002-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and reduced substance use is partially explained (or 'mediated') by changes in social networks. This is a naturalistic longitudinal study of the course of alcohol problems. Study sites were the 10 largest public and private alcohol treatment programs in a northern California county. Three hundred and seventy-seven men and 277 women were recruited upon seeking treatment at study sites. At baseline and 1-year follow-up, we assessed alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms, consumption, social support for abstinence, pro-drinking social influences and AA involvement. In the structural equation model, AA involvement was a significant predictor of lower alcohol consumption and fewer related problems. The size of this effect decreased by 36% when network size and support for drinking were included as mediators. In logistic regression models predicting abstinence at follow-up, AA remained highly significant after including social network variables but was again reduced in magnitude. Thirty-day abstinence was predicted by AA involvement (OR=2.9), not having pro-drinking influences in one's network (OR=0.7) and having support for reducing consumption from people met in AA (versus no support; OR=3.4). In contrast, having support from non-AA members was not a significant predictor of abstinence. For alcohol-related outcomes other than abstinence, significant relationships were found for both AA-based and non-AA-based support. The type of social support specifically given by AA members, such as 24-hour availability, role modeling and experientially based advice for staying sober, may help to explain AA's mechanism of action. Results highlight the value of focusing on outcomes reflective of AA's goals (such as abstinence) when studying how AA works.

  18. Effect of alcoholic beverages on progeny and reproduction of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dias Figueiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum, with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the testes and epididymis. The alcoholic beverages promoted significant testosterone level and fertilization index diminution, and morphological alterations in the spermatozoa. The beer group presented decreased implantation sites and a high frequency of dominant lethal. The number of reabsorptions in the wine group was increased. The fermented beverages presented higher potential to induce visceral malformations, while the cachaça caused fetal skeletal malformations. The cachaça treated group presented a negative impact on semen quality and fertilization potential. The treatment with different alcoholic beverages, during spermatogenesis, demonstrated contrasting degrees of induction of toxic effects, interfering in a general aspect in male reproductive performance, fetal viability during intrauterine life, and birth defects. From the data, it is possible to infer that the distillated beverage caused more harmful effects to reproduction in this study.

  19. Alcohol and student performance: estimating the effect of legal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M; Swensen, Isaac D; Waddell, Glen R

    2013-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. Our preferred approach identifies the effect through changes in one's performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as one makes progress towards their degree. We also report RD-based estimates but argue that an RD design is not well suited to the research question in our setting. We find that students' grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally, but by less than previously documented. We also show that there are effects on women and that the effects are persistent. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we show that students drink more often after legal access but do not consume more drinks on days on which they drink. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED). The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days. A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively), and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4), significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5), and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9). The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5) in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7). Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours). Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were reported (2.6) for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9). Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.

  1. The effect of alcohol-containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash towards the power chains force decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Power chains is the common device used in fixed orthodontic treatment. Force decay in power chains is a problem that can affect the teeth movement due to a continuous force cannot be maintained. Force decay in power chain can be affected by the use of alcohol or non-alcohol mouthwash. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alcoholic mouthwash, non-alcoholic mouthwash and artificial saliva towards the power chains force decay. Methods: This research was an experimental analytic laboratory in vitro with the comparative approach. The sample in this study were 40 power chain - short A (SA; 40 power chain - short B (SB; 40 power chain - long A (LA; and 40 power chain - long B (LB, which divided into 5 groups that were consecutively exposed to the artificial saliva as control group; Minosep® with 0.1% of chlorhexidine gluconate; Listerine® with 0% of alcohol; Hexadol® with 9% of alcohol; and Listerine® with 26.9% of alcohol. The measurement of force decay was performed with digital force gauge on day 0, 1, 14 and 28. The statistical analysis was done by using the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. Result: There was a significant difference (p < 0.05 between the force decay of power chain that exposed to the alcoholic mouthwash, non-alcoholic mouthwash and the artificial saliva. Conclusion: The force decay level of power chain that exposed to an alcoholic mouthwash was higher compared to the force decay level of power chain that exposed to a non-alcoholic mouthwash and an artificial saliva.

  2. The Effects of Alcohol on Quality of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-Yeob; Oh, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Bum-Soon; Kim, Haa-Gyoung; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Ji-Ho; Lim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Jin-Young

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is traditionally known to have a relaxing effect. However, persons who consume alcohol in excessive amounts suffer from poor sleep quality and patients with alcohol use disorders commonly report insomnia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of alcohol use on sleep quality. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 234 men and 159 women who had visited a general hospital. We used structured questionnaires, including Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Korean version (PSQI-K). We analyzed the association between scores for all subcategories of the PSQI-K and the AUDIT-KR and then analyzed the correlation between AUDIT-KR and global PSQI-K scores. The global PSQI-K score for men was positively correlated with the AUDIT-KR score (P=0.008) after adjusting for age, chronic disease, tobacco use, exercise, depression, and anxiety. The AUDIT-KR score was significantly associated with subjective sleep quality (P=0.005), sleep duration (P=0.047), and sleep disturbance (P=0.048); it was not associated with sleep latency, sleep efficiency, or daytime dysfunction. Sleep disturbances due to snoring were significantly associated with total AUDIT-KR score (P=0.008). There was no correlation between the global PSQI-K and AUDIT-KR scores for women (P=0.333). However, daytime dysfunction showed a significant association with total AUDIT-KR score (P=0.048). Men with higher AUDIT-KR scores tended to suffer from poor sleep quality. AUDIT-KR scores showed significant correlations with subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, and sleep disturbances in men.

  3. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  4. The Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in College Students: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  5. There's alcohol in my soap: Portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Fennis, B.M.; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character,

  6. The effect of beverage type on alcoholic psychoses rate in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Y E

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis of beverage-specific effect in Russia on the incidence rate of alcoholic psychoses (a known indicator of a population's alcohol-related problems). Time series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA) were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages (vodka, wine, beer) and alcoholic psychoses incidence rate between 1970 and 2013. The analysis suggests that of the three beverages vodka alone was associated with alcoholic psychoses incidence rate. The estimated effect of vodka sales on the alcohol psychoses rate is statistically significant: a 1 l per person per year increase in vodka sales would result in a 23.4% increase in the alcoholic psychoses incidence rate. The incidence of alcoholic psychoses is more responsive to changes in vodka sales per capita than wine or beer sales. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract of Indian Polygala arvensis in Experimental Animals. ... time in the hot plate method by 69.55% (p < 0.01) and 107.13% (p < 0.001) respectively as well as in analgesymeter-induced mechanical pain by 28.84% (p < 0.5) and 55.71% (p < 0.05) respectively.

  8. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria termin...

  9. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  10. Acute alcohol effects on inhibitory control and implicit cognition: implications for loss of control over drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Wiers, R.W.; Christiansen, P.; Fillmore, M.T.; Verster, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of

  11. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  12. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  13. The party effect: Prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140

  14. Direct and indirect effects of alcohol expectancies through drinking motives on alcohol outcomes among students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Pham Bich; Schelleman-Offermans, K; Kuntsche, E; De Vries, Nanne; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the links between alcohol expectancies (tension reduction; global positive change; improved cognitive and motor abilities; and change in social behavior) and alcohol outcomes (drinking volume, 6+ drinks, alcohol problems, and symptoms of alcohol dependence) are mediated by drinking motives (social, enhancement, conformity, and coping). A multi-stage sampling strategy was used in four Vietnamese provinces, resulting in a final sample of 4756 students (43.2% females) with mean age 20.6 (SD 1.8) years. Structural equation models, including indirect effects, were estimated for women and men separately. Overall, there were many cases of full mediation (indirect effects range from -0.006 to 0.083 and p-values from social motives also played a role in mediating the effects of expectancies on alcohol outcomes. Among women, full mediation was found far less often and less consistently. By confirming that, in Vietnam, motives mediate the link between expectancies and drinking behavior, this study supports the cultural robustness of a key assumption of the motivational model (i.e. that drinking motives are more closely associated with alcohol use than expectancies). Enhancement, coping and social motives are most frequently found as mediators among male students whereas coping motive only is most frequently found as a mediator among female students. As most of the effects of expectancies were mediated by motives, drinking motives appear to be a promising factor for interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  17. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  18. Alcohol related mental imagery: The effects of a priming dose in at risk drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yates

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the ‘elaborated intrusion’ theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n=40 consumed alcohol (0.3g/kg or placebo, in a crossover design. Sensory and visuospatial qualities of imagery, along with associated craving, positive affect and ‘mind wandering’ were assessed. Results: Alcohol related mental imagery was rated as more vivid and sensorially rich, effects that were larger following the priming dose of alcohol. In addition, mind wandering was substantially lower during alcohol versus neutral imagery, especially after alcohol consumption. First person perspective was more prevalent for alcohol imagery after alcohol, although the Drink×Imagery type interaction did not reach statistical significance. However, first person imagery was associated with higher levels of craving during alcohol related imagery. Conclusions: Alcohol related mental imagery differs phenomenologically from neutral imagery on a number of dimensions. Priming with alcohol may enable cognitive elaboration by biasing the output of controlled cognitive processing towards enhanced sensory elaboration and increased attention to alcohol related cognition. These feedforward effects may be involved in focusing cognitive and behavioural resources on alcohol acquisition/consumption through the elaboration and rehearsal of relevant goals and plans. Keywords: Mental imagery, Elaborated intrusion theory, Alcohol, Alcohol priming, Craving, Mind wandering

  19. Behavioral effects of the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks on alcohol hangover in an experimental mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2018-03-23

    In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unrecorded alcohol consumption: its economics and its effects on alcohol control in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, S; Osterberg, E

    2000-12-01

    The starting point of this paper is the fact that no country has complete records of alcohol consumption. In addition to being a matter or statistical accuracy, unrecorded alcohol also plays an important role in alcohol policy discussions. Furthermore, its quantity is bound to basic economic laws. These latter two aspects are the main interest in this paper, which discusses, first, what is really meant by unrecorded alcohol consumption and what kind of categories are included in it. The next task is to discuss the economics of different categories of unrecorded alcohol and the mechanisms which lead to increases or decreases in them. The examples in this part of the paper come from the Nordic countries. Arguments about increased smuggling and illegal distilling have always been used against alcohol policy restrictions in the Nordic countries. Recently the level of travellers' alcohol imports and border trade have also been used for the same purpose. In the European Union the task to harmonize alcohol excise taxes is partly given to increased travellers' duty-free allowances and market forces. This policy has already led to reductions in alcohol taxation both in Denmark and Sweden.

  1. Effects of alcohol dependence and withdrawal on stress responsiveness and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Howard C

    2012-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body's stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body's neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produced and released from the hypothalamus and activates the pituitary in response to stress, plays a central role in the relationship between stress and alcohol dependence and withdrawal. Chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal lead to changes in CRF activity both within the HPA axis and in extrahypothalamic brain sites. This may mediate the emergence of certain withdrawal symptoms, which in turn influence the susceptibility to relapse. Alcohol-related dysregulation of the HPA axis and altered CRF activity within brain stress-reward circuitry also may play a role in the escalation of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent individuals. Numerous mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the relationship between alcohol dependence, stress, and drinking behavior. These include the stress hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to HPA axis activation (i.e., corticosteroids), neuromodulators known as neuroactive steroids, CRF, the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, and other stress-related molecules.

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  3. The Effect of Chronic Alcoholism on the Conjunctival Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Göksel; Gunduz, Abuzer; Polat, Nihat; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Yakupogulları, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol abuse on the conjunctival flora. The cases were evaluated as two groups. The study group consisted of 55 heavy-drinking males diagnosed with alcohol abuse, while the control group consisted of 55 males without a history of alcohol abuse. Samples were taken from the inferior fornix conjunctiva with sterile cotton-tipped swabs (Amies transport medium) for culture. The samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, eosine methylene blue agar and Saboraud-Dextrose agar (Oxoid/UK) with the dilution method. The microorganisms that grew in study group subjects were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) in 30 (54.5%), Staphylococcus aureus in 14 (25.5%), Moraxella spp. in 3 (5.5%), Streptococcus spp. in 3 (5.5), Bacillus spp. in 3 (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. in 3 (5.5%), Candida spp. in 3 (5.5%), Haemophilus spp. in 2 (3.6%), Acinetobacter spp. in 2 (3.6%), Neisseria spp. in 1 (1.8%) and Micrococcus spp. in 1 (1.8%). The results for control group were CNS in 31 (56.4%), Bacillus spp. in 7 (12.7%), S. aureus in 5 (9.1%), and Corynebacterium spp. in 2 (3.6%). Moraxella spp., Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Haemophilus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Micrococcus spp. microorganisms grew in the conjunctival flora samples of the study group but not in the control group. S. aureus colonization was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p flora samples of the study group. These findings indicate that the conjunctival flora in persons with chronic alcoholism is different than the normal population.

  4. Social network effects in alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dwyer, Debra S

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in explaining drinking behavior among adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer selection to purge the potential biases from the estimates of peer influence. Our peer group measures are drawn not only from the nomination of close friends, but also from classmates. Drinking behavior among the peer groups was constructed using the peers' own report of their alcohol consumption. Controlling for parent level characteristics, and other demographic parameters, we find that a 10% increase in the proportion of classmates who drink will increase the likelihood of drinking participation and frequency by approximately four percentage points. We also find evidence to show that the influence of close friends, while still significant, diminishes in magnitude after accounting for unobserved environmental confounders. Our findings support the literature that peer effects are important determinants of drinking behavior even after controlling for potential biases. Effective policy aimed at reducing alcohol consumption among adolescents would consider these significant peer effects. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Alcohol Intoxication : Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007–2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an

  6. Effect of Drug and Alcohol Education on Attitudes of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…

  7. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the...

  8. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  9. The Effects of Education on the Attitudes of Counselors in Training toward Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Pamela Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of education on the attitudes of counselors in training toward alcoholism. Alcoholism is a treatable disease if recognized, properly diagnosed and the appropriate interventions are made available to the alcoholic and their families. There is estimated to be more than two billion people…

  10. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-09

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  11. Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; Van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007-2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an overrepresentation in "low" school levels. The…

  12. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geshi, Masayo; Hirokawa, Kumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38) or a control group (n=33). The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and ...

  13. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: Beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Meredith, Steven E.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. Objectives This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Methods Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., Beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., Beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., Beverage A or B). Effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. Results A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings, and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Conclusions Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine. PMID:28108773

  14. Effectiveness of policy changes to reduce harm from unrecorded alcohol in Russia between 2005 and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market. Various policy measures mainly targeting availability and price of recorded and unrecorded alcohol have been introduced since 2005, which generally coincided with the decreases in alcohol-related mortality observed at that time. However, regulations on medicinal and cosmetic products have remained inconsistent providing the foundations for the continued existence of a legal industry of surrogates with broad availability and misuse. The Russian experiences of introducing alcohol policies demonstrate that there are effective measures to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption and attributable harm. The government's multi-level strategy of alcohol consumption and harm reduction should be pursued stringently and all the possible loop-holes for producers, sellers and distributors of illegal and/or unrecorded alcohol should be eliminated or at least critically reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  16. The party effect: prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2017-01-01

    To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non

  17. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol

  18. Watching and drinking: expectancies, prototypes, and friends' alcohol use mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media and adolescent alcohol use. The design consisted of a structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. The main outcome measures were adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure to movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior.

  19. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  20. Beneficial Effect of Alcohol Withdrawal on Gut Permeability and Microbial Translocation in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Pansu, Nathalie; Mura, Thibault; Pelletier, Stéphanie; Alarcon, Régis; Gamon, Lucie; Perney, Pascal; Apparailly, Florence; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota exerts beneficial or harmful effects in several disorders. Many factors, including alcohol consumption, may influence its composition and trigger bacterial translocation. Excessive alcohol consumption increases gut permeability and translocation of endotoxin into peripheral circulation. Although plasma endotoxin concentrations have been measured often, quantitative changes following alcohol withdrawal have never been described in subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The aim of this study was to measure microbial translocation (MT) and gut permeability markers in patients with AUD, to compare these markers to healthy controls (HC) and to monitor markers during the first 6 weeks of abstinence. Sixty-five patients with AUD and hospitalized for alcohol withdrawal were included. Epidemiological, clinical, biological, and addictological data were gathered. Blood samples were collected at baseline, then 3 and 6 weeks after alcohol withdrawal. A hundred healthy volunteers were used as controls. Three markers of MT were monitored in plasma samples: sCD14 and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) were quantified using ELISA, and 16S rDNA was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Zonulin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) blood levels were also monitored as indirect markers of gut permeability, using ELISA. At baseline, LBP, 16S rDNA, sCD14 and I-FABP markers were significantly higher in patients with AUD than in HC. Six weeks after alcohol withdrawal plasma levels of sCD14 and LBP decreased significantly. Cannabis consumption and body mass index (BMI) before alcohol withdrawal influenced baseline MT levels and the decrease in MT markers after 6 weeks. Finally, markers of MT and gut permeability did not correlate with each other before and after alcohol withdrawal. Before alcohol withdrawal, MT markers were higher in patients with AUD than in HC. After 6 weeks of abstinence, an improvement in MT

  1. Effects of alcohol compounds on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available The inhibitors present in dilute acid-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates would show great effect on the growth and product formation of microorganisms. To understand their inhibitory law and mechanism on oleaginous microorganism could help improving the efficiency of lignocellulose hydrolysis, detoxification, and lipid fermentation. The effects of four representative alcohol compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including furfuryl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, catechol, hydroquinone on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of Trichosporon fermentans were systematically investigated in this work. The toxicity of selected alcohol compounds was well related to their log P value except furfuryl alcohol, whose log P value was the minimum but with the highest toxicity to T. fermentans. The inhibition of all the alcohol compounds on the growth of T. fermentans was more serious than on the lipid synthesis. Also, the growth of T. fermentans was more sensitive to the variation of inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than lipid synthesis in the presence of alcohol compounds. Initial pH had more profound influence on the lipid fermentation than inoculum size and cultural temperature did. Careful control of fermentation conditions could be helpful for improving lipid yield of T. fermentans in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Among the four alcohol compounds tested, most alcohol compounds showed inhibition on both sugar consumption and malic enzyme activity of T. fermentans. However, vanillyl alcohol had little influence on the malic enzyme activity. Similarly, all alcohol compounds except vanillyl alcohol exerted damage on the cell membrane of T. fermentans.

  2. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  3. Peer selection and influence effects on adolescent alcohol use: a stochastic actor-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Mercken, Liesbeth; Zakletskaia, Larissa

    2012-08-06

    Early adolescent alcohol use is a major public health challenge. Without clear guidance on the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be incomplete. The objective of this study is to disentangle selection and influence effects associated with the dynamic interplay of adolescent friendships and alcohol use. The study analyzes data from Add Health, a longitudinal survey of seventh through eleventh grade U.S. students enrolled between 1995 and 1996. A stochastic actor-based model is used to model the co-evolution of alcohol use and friendship connections. Selection effects play a significant role in the creation of peer clusters with similar alcohol use. Friendship nominations between two students who shared the same alcohol use frequency were 3.60 (95% CI: 2.01-9.62) times more likely than between otherwise identical students with differing alcohol use frequency. The model controlled for alternative pathways to friendship nomination including reciprocity, transitivity, and similarities in age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The simulation model did not support a significant friends' influence effect on alcohol behavior. The findings suggest that peer selection plays a major role in alcohol use behavior among adolescent friends. Our simulation results would lend themselves to adolescent alcohol abuse interventions that leverage adolescent social network characteristics.

  4. Peer selection and influence effects on adolescent alcohol use: a stochastic actor-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundt Marlon P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early adolescent alcohol use is a major public health challenge. Without clear guidance on the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be incomplete. The objective of this study is to disentangle selection and influence effects associated with the dynamic interplay of adolescent friendships and alcohol use. Methods The study analyzes data from Add Health, a longitudinal survey of seventh through eleventh grade U.S. students enrolled between 1995 and 1996. A stochastic actor-based model is used to model the co-evolution of alcohol use and friendship connections. Results Selection effects play a significant role in the creation of peer clusters with similar alcohol use. Friendship nominations between two students who shared the same alcohol use frequency were 3.60 (95% CI: 2.01-9.62 times more likely than between otherwise identical students with differing alcohol use frequency. The model controlled for alternative pathways to friendship nomination including reciprocity, transitivity, and similarities in age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The simulation model did not support a significant friends’ influence effect on alcohol behavior. Conclusions The findings suggest that peer selection plays a major role in alcohol use behavior among adolescent friends. Our simulation results would lend themselves to adolescent alcohol abuse interventions that leverage adolescent social network characteristics.

  5. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials...... and methods. Ten participants were investigated on four occasions. On one alcohol was ingested; on another alcohol was given after pretreatment with sucralfate; on a third water was ingested; and on a fourth sucralfate was ingested followed by water. Serum hormones and ethanol concentrations were determined....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...

  6. Effects of wine, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease risk factors: evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Arranz, Sara; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to focus on the knowledge of the cardiovascular benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, as well as to analyze the effects of the different types of alcoholic beverages. Systematic revision of human clinical studies and meta-analyses related to moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) from 2000 to 2012. Heavy or binge alcohol consumption unquestionably leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, moderate alcohol consumption, especially alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols, such as wine and beer, seems to confer cardiovascular protective effects in patients with documented CVD and even in healthy subjects. In conclusion, wine and beer (but especially red wine) seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits because of their polyphenolic content. However, caution should be taken when making recommendations related to alcohol consumption.

  7. Effect of alcohol on behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, C.J.; Stead, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Male, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in dosages of 0, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg and then placed in a temperature gradient that permitted the measurement of preferred ambient temperature (Ta). The 3 g/kg dosage of ethanol resulted in a slight lowering of the preferred Ta during the first 30 min of placement in the gradient. However, there was no overall statistically significant effect of alcohol dosage on preferred Ta. In another experiment, BALB/c mice were treated with the aforementioned ethanol dosages while metabolic rate (MR), evaporative water loss (EWL), and colonic temperature were measured 60 min post-injection at Ta's of 20, 30, and 35 C a dosage of 3 g/kg caused a significant decrease in MR, EWL, and colonic temperature. At a Ta of 30 C this same dosage caused significant reduction in colonic temperature, however; at Ta of 35 C ethanol had no effect on these parameters. In spite of the significant decrease in colonic temperature at a Ta of 30 C, which approximates the normal preferred Ta, the behavioral thermal preference was marginally affected. It is not clear whether or not ethanol injection results in a decrease in the set-point body temperature.

  8. Alcohol use and drunk driving: the modifying effect of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Norström, Thor; Storvoll, Elisabet E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how an increase in the frequency of heavy drinking episodes affects the incidence of drunk driving and (b) to examine whether the effect of alcohol use on drunk driving is contingent on impulsivity. Two waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study were applied (N = 2,603; response rate: 67%), when the respondents were on average 17 (1994) and 28 (2005) years of age. Measurements consisted of self-reported heavy episodic drinking, drunk driving, and impulsivity. The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between heavy episodic drinking and drunk driving. This means that changes in the frequency of drunk driving were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. In this way, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. The results showed that every additional episode of heavy drinking was associated with a 2.6% increase in the frequency of drunk driving. The increase for males was significantly higher than among females. The analyses supported the hypothesis that impulsivity modifies the association between alcohol use and drunk driving. The association between drinking and drunk driving is significantly stronger among those with a high score on impulsivity compared with those who have a low score.

  9. Alcohol and cannabis: Comparing their adverse health effects and regulatory regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use. Third, it speculates about how the adverse health effects of cannabis may change after legalisation. Fourth, it questions the assumption that alcohol provides the best regulatory model for a legal cannabis market. Fifth, it outlines the major challenges in regulating cannabis under the liberal alcohol-like regulatory regimes now being introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial: effects on youth drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Andréasson, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Local communities are increasingly targeted for alcohol and drug prevention campaigns. This study describes some of the key findings from the Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial (2003-2007) and lessons learned following an evaluation of the trial's effectiveness. The paper focuses mainly on changes in youth drinking and related harms. This was a pre- to post-intervention effect study comparing six trial communities that received added training and technical support with six control communities where regular prevention efforts were supported by national alcohol and drug action plans. A repeated, cross-sectional survey of 8092 youths aged 15-19 years assessed changes in alcohol consumption, binge drinking, perceived alcohol availability, access to alcohol via parents and adult attitudes towards the supply of alcohol to youths. National registry data were used to assess changes in hospital admissions due to alcohol intoxication. Overall, there were few significant improvements in the six trial communities compared with the control communities. The absence of program effects was largely attributable to the selection of strategies (in particular, school and parental programs) lacking evidence of effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption at the aggregate level. Prevention programs based on efficacy studies need to be tested in community-based effectiveness trials before being disseminated. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Claire; Room, Robin

    2009-07-01

    In light of possible introduction of alcohol warning labels in Australia and New Zealand, this paper discusses the international experience with and evidence of effects of alcohol warning labels. The report describes international experience with providing information and warnings concerning the promotion or sale of alcoholic beverages, and considers the evidence on the effects of such information and warnings. The experience with and evaluations of the effects of tobacco warning labels are also considered. The most methodologically sound evaluations of alcohol warning labels are based on the US experience. Although these evaluations find little evidence that the introduction of the warning label in the USA had an impact on drinking behaviour, there is evidence that they led to an increase in awareness of the message they contained. In contrast, evaluations of tobacco warning labels find clear evidence of effects on behaviour. There is a need and opportunity for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of introducing alcohol warning labels to add to the published work on their effectiveness. The experience with tobacco labels might guide the way for more effective alcohol warning labels. Alcohol warning labels are an increasingly popular alcohol policy initiative. It is clear that warning labels can be ineffective, but the tobacco experience suggests that effective warning labels are possible. Any introduction of alcohol warning labels should be evaluated in terms of effects on attitudes and behaviour.

  12. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More

  13. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Access: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Nilsson, Anton; Kedir, Abdu

    We exploit changes in minimum legal alcohol purchasing ages in Denmark in order to estimate effects on short- and long-term health outcomes, as well as on human capital formation. Employing a difference-in-differences approach for immediate outcomes and a “regression kink design” for long......-term outcomes, we bring comprehensive evidence on the health and education effects of three reforms, which affected alcohol availability along different dimensions and margins – 1) establishing an off-premise alcohol purchase age of 15 (1998), 2) raising the off-premise alcohol purchase age to 16 (2004), and 3......) increasing the purchase age of beverages exceeding 16.5% in alcohol content from 16 to 18 (2011). Our findings show significant short-term effects of the first and third reforms in terms of reducing injuries and alcohol-related conditions, and some long-term effects of the first reform in terms of reducing...

  14. Radiation effect of ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meihua; Jilin Univ., Changchun; Deng Pengyang; Sun Jiazhen; Dong Lisong; Sun Guoen; Zhang Wanxi

    2006-01-01

    The radiation effect of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), EVOH/glycerin blend was studied by solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) methods. Samples were irradiated up to 1800 kGy at room temperature under N 2 . The results show that degradation is the main reaction in pure EVOH. Trace gel content could be found in E151 irradiated to at least 800 kGy, and only 5.9% gel content was found in the sample irradiated to 1200 kGy. While trace gel content could be found in F101 irradiated to at least 1800 kGy, the different gelation doses of E151 and F101 are due to different contents of vinyl alcohol units. Unsaturation structure can be found in the irradiated EVOH. The content increased at first, and then decreased, with the dose. The existence of double bond enhances the radiation efficiency of EVOH. For EVOH/glycerin blend, the gel content was higher than that of pure EVOH when the absorbed dose exceeds 800 kGy, and the gel content increased with the absorbed dose. But it cannot enhance radiation efficiency of EVOH as water. (authors)

  15. Context effects of alcohol availability at home: Implicit alcohol associations and the prediction of adolescents' drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Koning, H.M.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcoholassociated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this

  16. In the company of others: social factors alter acute alcohol effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Alcohol is usually consumed in social contexts. However, the drug has been studied mainly under socially isolated conditions, and our understanding of how social setting affects response to alcohol is limited. The current study compared the subjective, physiological, and behavioral effects of a moderate dose of alcohol in moderate social drinkers who were tested in either a social or an isolated context and in the presence of others who had or had not consumed alcohol. Healthy men and women were randomly assigned to either a social group tested in pairs (SOC; N = 24), or an isolated group tested individually (ISO; N = 20). They participated in four sessions, in which they received oral alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo on two sessions each, in quasi-randomized order under double-blind conditions. In the SOC condition, the drug conditions of the co-participants were varied systematically: on two sessions, both participants received the same substance (placebo or alcohol) and on the other two sessions one received alcohol while the other received placebo. Cardiovascular measures, breath alcohol levels, and mood were assessed at regular intervals, and measures of social interaction were obtained in the SOC group. Alcohol produced greater effects on certain subjective measures in the SOC condition compared with the ISO condition, including feelings of intoxication and stimulation, but not on other measures such as feeling sedated or high, or on cardiovascular measures. Within the SOC condition, participants rated themselves as more intoxicated when their partner received alcohol, and paired subjects interacted more when at least one participant received alcohol. The presence of others enhances some of the subjective and behavioral effects of alcohol, especially the presence of another intoxicated individual. This enhancement of alcohol effects may explain, in part, why it is used in a social context.

  17. The effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Haga, Sondre; Gjernes, Mikjel Fredericson; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC]  0.40 mg/L; ≈0.80 mg/L) amounts of alcohol]. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic variables, subjective intoxication, alcohol effects (stimulant and sedative), and gambling factors (behavior and problems, evaluation, and beliefs). Participants also gambled on a simulated slot machine. Results A significant main effect of beverage intake on subjective intoxication and alcohol effects was detected as expected. No significant main or interaction effects were detected for number of gambling sessions, bet size and variation, remaining credits at termination, reaction time, and game evaluation. Conclusion Alcohol expectancy and intake do not affect gambling persistence, dissipation of funds, reaction time, or gambling enjoyment.

  18. Weakening of one more alcohol control pillar: a review of the effects of the alcohol tax cuts in Finland in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Pia; Osterberg, Esa

    2009-04-01

    To review the consequences of the changes in Finnish alcohol policy in 2004, when quotas for travellers' tax-free imports of alcoholic beverages from other European Union (EU) countries were abolished, Estonia joined the EU and excise duties on alcoholic beverages were reduced in Finland by one-third, on average. A review of published research and routinely available data. Finland. Prices of alcoholic beverages, recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption, data on criminality and other police statistics, alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, service use. Alcohol consumption increased 10% in 2004, clearly more than in the early 2000s. With few exceptions, alcohol-related harms increased. Alcohol-induced liver disease deaths increased the most, by 46% in 2004-06 compared to 2001-03, which indicates a strong effect on pre-2004 heavy drinkers. Consumption and harms increased most among middle-aged and older segments of the population, and harms in the worst-off parts of the population in particular. Alcohol taxation and alcohol prices affect consumption and related harms, and heavy drinkers are responsive to price. In Finland in 2004, the worst-off parts of the population paid the highest price in terms of health for cuts in alcohol prices. The removal of travellers' import quotas, which was an inherent part of creating the single European market, had serious public health consequences in Finland.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of kaempferol against alcoholic liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Sun, Jianguo; Jiang, Zhihui; Xie, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol is a biologically active component present in various plants. The hepatoprotective effect of kaempferol in drug-induced liver injury has been proven, while its effect against alcoholic liver injury (ALI) remains unclear. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of kaempferol against ALI in mice. The experimental ALI mice model was developed and the mice were treated with different doses of kaempferol for 4 weeks. The liver functions were observed by monitoring the following parameters: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) levels in serum; histopathological studies of liver tissue; oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH); the lipid peroxidation status by malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid accumulation by triglyceride (TG) level in serum; and the expression levels and activities of a key microsomal enzyme cytochrome 2E1 (CYP2E1), by both in vitro and in vivo methods. The ALI mice (untreated) showed clear symptoms of liver injury, such as significantly increased levels of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and excessive CYP2E1 expression and activity. The mice treated with different kaempferol dosages exhibited a significant decrease in the oxidative stress as well as lipid peroxidation, and increased anti-oxidative defense activity. The kaempferol treatment has significantly reduced the expression level and activity of hepatic CYP2E1, thus indicating that kaempferol could down regulate CYP2E1. These findings show the hepatoprotective properties of kaempferol against alcohol-induced liver injury by attenuating the activity and expression of CYP2E1 and by enhancing the protective role of anti-oxidative defense system.

  20. Effects of alcohol on pericardial adhesion formation in hypercholesterolemic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-04-01

    Reoperative cardiac surgery is complicated in part because of extensive adhesions encountered during the second operation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol with and without resveratrol (red wine vs vodka) on postoperative pericardial adhesion formation in a porcine model of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Male Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet to simulate conditions of coronary artery disease followed by surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to induce chronic ischemia. Postoperatively, control pigs continued their high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the 2 experimental groups had diets supplemented with red wine or vodka. Seven weeks after ameroid placement, all animals underwent reoperative sternotomy. Compared with controls, pericardial adhesion grade was markedly reduced in the vodka group, whereas there was no difference in the wine group. Intramyocardial fibrosis was significantly reduced in the vodka group compared with controls. There was no difference in expression of proteins involved in focal adhesion formation between any groups (focal adhesion kinase, integrin alpha-5, integrin beta-1, paxillin, vinculin, protein tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase C ε, and phosphorylated protein kinase C ε). The wine group exhibited elevated C-reactive protein levels versus the control and vodka groups. Postoperative vodka consumption markedly reduced the formation of pericardial adhesions and intramyocardial fibrosis, whereas red wine had no effect. Analysis of protein expression did not reveal any obvious explanation for this phenomenon, suggesting a post-translational effect of alcohol on fibrous tissue deposition. The difference in adhesion formation in the vodka versus wine groups may be due to increased inflammation in the wine group. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  2. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  3. Prospective effects of possible selves on alcohol consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F; Park, Chang G; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents' alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents' alcohol consumption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A comprehensive review of the effects of mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol’s Effects on Sleep in Alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Kirk J.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep problems, which can have significant clinical and economic consequences, are more common among alcoholics than among nonalcoholics. During both drinking periods and withdrawal, alcoholics commonly experience problems falling asleep and decreased total sleep time. Other measures of sleep are also disturbed. Even alcoholics who have been abstinent for short periods of time (i.e., several weeks) or extended periods of time (i.e., several years) may experience persistent sleep abnormalities...

  6. Time-Varying Effects of Parental Alcoholism on Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Sunita; Selya, Arielle S.; Jonk, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Children of alcoholic parents are at increased risk for lifetime depression. However, little is known about how this risk may change in magnitude across age, especially in mid-adulthood and beyond. Methods We used a nationally representative sample (N = 36,057) of US adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, wave III. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, we examined the relationship between parental alcoholism and outcomes of 1) ...

  7. [Effect Of Polyelectrolytes on Catalytic Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, A V; Musina, E V; Kim, A L; Tikhonenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and optical spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS), as well as positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMA). As found, DS and PDADMA did not affect the structural and catalytic enzyme properties. In contrast, PSS slightly decreased the protein self-fluorescence over 1 h of incubation, which is associated with partial destruction of its quaternary (globular) structure. Investigation of the ADH activity with and without PSS showed its dependency on the incubation time and the PSS presence. Sodium chloride (2.0 M and 0.2 M) or ammonium sulfate (0.1 M) added to the reaction mixture did not completely protect the enzyme quaternary structure from the PSS action. However ammonium sulfate or 0.2 M sodium chloride stabilized the enzyme and partially inhibited the negative PSS effect.

  8. The association between alcohol use and intimate partner violence: linear effect, threshold effect, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K Daniel; Schumacher, Julie A

    2003-12-01

    The present study examined whether the association between alcohol and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) is most meaningfully described as a linear relationship, a threshold effect, or both. Men in two nationally representative samples, the National Family Violence Survey (NFVS) and the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), were divided into similar drinking groups based on quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Analyses of the association between IPV and drinking category revealed that although linear associations between drinking classification and IPV were significant in both samples, the associated effect sizes were very small. Further, only heavy drinkers and binge drinkers were major contributors to the significant chi-squares. Overall, the results revealed both linear and threshold effects, and suggest that distinctions among drinking patterns may be more important than incremental increases in quantity or frequency in conceptualizing alcohol as a risk factor for IPV.

  9. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  10. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive...... tract cancer and alcohol dependency. Second, it is justified that alcohol has beneficial effects for some individuals, especially with regard to prevention of thrombosis of the heart. The public health relevance of these results is considered. The sensible drinking limits, used in both the UK...

  11. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan; Cleveringa, A. M.; Greijdanus, B.; Meyer, P.; Heineman, E.; Hulscher, J. B.

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced

  12. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  13. Mechanisms of protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Branko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been known in many cultures since the ancient civilizations, so harmful consequences of excessive alcohol intake have been well explained. Many epidemiological studies confirmed lower morbidity and mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases in persons who drink alcohol "moderately" (1-2 drinks a day, independently of the kind of alcoholic beverage. This paper presents the review of molecular mechanisms that are believed to explain cardioprotective effect of moderate drinking-alcohol effects on lipoproteins, endothelial cells, blood clot formation and dissolution, as well as genetic and gender variances modifying the relation. A simple recommendation regarding the increase of alcohol consumption cannot be made on population level. The professionals must therefore concentrate on other preventive methods in order to reduce other significant risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G Cooper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  15. Effects of alcohol on the morphology of the thyroid gland in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy results to, among other effects, retardation of growth in the offspring. However, information is limited on the effects on the organs of dams exposed to alcohol during pregnancy including the thyroids which is the focus of this study. The experimental animal model, involving Wistar rats, ...

  16. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  17. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant

  18. Comparative effects of curcumin and an analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2004-08-20

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major medical complication of alcohol abuse and a common liver disease in western countries. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress plays an important etiologic role in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol alone or in combination with high fat is known to cause oxidative injury. The present study therefore aims at evaluating the protective role of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric and a synthetic analog of curcumin (CA) on alcohol and thermally oxidised sunflower oil (DeltaPUFA) induced oxidative stress. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. The liver marker enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the lipid peroxidative indices: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP) and antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were used as biomarkers for testing the antioxidant potential of the drugs. The liver marker enzymes and lipid peroxidative indices were increased significantly in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups. Administration of curcumin and CA abrograted this effect. The antioxidant status which was decreased in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups was effectively modulated by both curcumin and CA treatment. However, the reduction in oxidative stress was more pronounced in CA treatment groups compared to curcumin. In conclusion, these observations show that CA exerts its protective effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidant status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant.

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  20. Combined effects of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeke, S C; Callaway, E; Jones, R T; Stone, G C; Doyle, J

    1980-01-01

    The effect of combining sleep deprivation and moderate alcohol consumption in male college students differed from the effects of each treatment alone. Following either alcohol or sleep deprivation, there was mild performance impairment, decreased alertness and reduced amplitude and increased latency of cortical evoked potential (EP) components. Heart rate increased after alcohol and anxiety increased after sleep deprivation. When alcohol and sleep deprivation were combined, antagonistic effects were found for most measures (reaction time, heart rate, alertness, anxiety, latency of early EP components), but synergistic effects also occurred (performance accuracy, latency of late EP components). These effects were found in a double-blind experiment using 24 subjects. The experimental treatments were alcohol doses of 0, 0.45 and 0.90 ml/kg of 95% ethanol and 0 and 26 h of sleep deprivation.

  1. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  2. Analytical assessment of the effects of alcohol consumption on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D Edebatu, O E Osuagwu, E E Nwabuze, A I Chijioke, I R N Jecinta ... Recognition of the consequences of alcohol and abuse on physical and mental health as well as socio-occupational life are necessary steps for initiating appropriate action to reduce the harm/dangers from alcohol consumption. This work was motivated ...

  3. Effects of MAOA-Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. PMID:19120058

  4. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Separate and joint effects of alcohol and caffeine on conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; Amlung, Michael T; Morris, David H; Price, Mason H; Von Gunten, Curtis; McCarthy, Denis M; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine is commonly believed to offset the acute effects of alcohol, but some evidence suggests that cognitive processes remain impaired when caffeine and alcohol are coadministered. No previous study has investigated the separate and joint effects of alcohol and caffeine on conflict monitoring and adaptation, processes thought to be critical for self-regulation. This was the purpose of the current study. Healthy, young adult social drinkers recruited from the community completed a flanker task after consuming one of four beverages in a 2 × 2 experimental design: Alcohol + caffeine, alcohol + placebo caffeine, placebo alcohol + caffeine, or placebo alcohol + placebo caffeine. Accuracy, response time, and the amplitude of the N2 component of the event-related potential (ERP), a neural index of conflict monitoring, were examined as a function of whether or not conflict was present (i.e., whether or not flankers were compatible with the target) on both the previous trial and the current trial. Alcohol did not abolish conflict monitoring or adaptation. Caffeine eliminated conflict adaptation in sequential trials but also enhanced neural conflict monitoring. The combined effect of alcohol and caffeine was apparent only in how previous conflict affected the neural conflict monitoring response. Together, the findings suggest that caffeine leads to exaggeration of attentional resource utilization, which could provide short-term benefits but lead to problems conserving resources for when they are most needed.

  6. Effects of caffeine and alcohol on mood and performance changes following consumption of lager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined whether caffeine would modify the behavioural effects of alcohol. The aim of the study was to determine whether caffeine modifies the effects of alcohol on mood and psychomotor performance and to identify possible dose-response and temporal relationships. A double-blind study examined the effects of three successive lager drinks (330 ml each) in the early afternoon on mood and psychomotor performance assessed at 30-min intervals over a 2-h period. Participants carried out a baseline session and were then randomly assigned to one of six conditions formed by combining three different doses of caffeine (0, 62.5 and 125 mg per drink) with either no alcohol or 4.3 % alcohol. One hundred and forty-six young adults (65 male, 81 female; age range 18-30 years) participated in the study. Mood (alertness, hedonic tone and anxiety) was assessed before and after performing simple reaction time and choice reaction time tasks. Alcohol was associated with higher hedonic tone (p Caffeine had no modifying effect on hedonic tone or anxiety. However, the highest dose of caffeine did remove the effect of alcohol on alertness (p caffeine were found on the performance tasks (all p values caffeine does not remove the negative effects of alcohol on performance although high doses counteract the drop in subjective alertness produced by alcohol.

  7. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Adolescent counterarguing of TV beer advertisements: evidence for effectiveness of alcohol education and critical viewing discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Rouner, D; Murphy, K; Beauvais, F; Van Leuven, J; Domenech-Rodriguez, M M

    1996-01-01

    The pervasiveness of American youth's exposure to alcohol advertising is well-documented, as is the correlational evidence linking such exposure to alcohol-related attitudes, use, and expectancies. While efforts to train young people to resist persuasive appeals are often made in alcohol education programs, little evidence exists concerning the effectiveness of such efforts. The present study (N = 83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in such classes predicts cognitive resistance (counterarguing) of such advertisements months or even years after class exposure. Age, gender, and ethnicity were statistically controlled. While females tended to counterargue the alcohol advertisements more than did males, there was no statistically significant difference in the impact of education on males and females.

  9. Effect of solvent alcohol on degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Seiko

    2002-01-01

    1,1,2-Trichloro-trifluoroethane (CFC113) was dissolved in alkaline 1-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butyl alcohol, and phenyl ethyl alcohol and irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays after being purged with pure nitrogen gas. In all these solvents, the concentration of CFC113 and hydroxide ion decreased and that of chloride ion increased with a dose observed in 2-propanol solution. The reaction efficiency increases in the following order: 1-butanol < iso-butyl alcohol < phenyl ethyl alcohol < 2-butanol < 2-propanol. The solvent effect will depend on the binding energy of the αC-H of the alcohol molecule and electron affinity and dipole moment of the ketones or aldehydes produced from the alcohols. (author)

  10. Simulating the effect of alcohol on the structure of a membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Marieke; Smit, Berend

    2004-06-18

    Adsorption of alcohol molecules or other small amphiphilic molecules in the cell membrane can induce significant changes in the structure of the membrane. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these structural changes, we developed a mesoscopic membrane model. Molecular simulations on this model nicely reproduce the experimental phase diagrams. We find that alcohol can induce an interdigitated structure in which the normal bilayer structure changes into a monolayer in which the alcohol molecules screen the hydrophobic tails from the water phase. We compute the effect of the chain length of the alcohol on the phase behaviour of the membrane. At low concentrations of alcohol, the membrane has domains of the interdigitated phase that are in coexistence with the normal membrane phase. We use our model to clarify some of the experimental questions related to the structure of the interdigitated phase and put forward a simple model that explains the alcohol chain length dependence of the stability of this interdigitated phase.

  11. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of alcoholic beverage treatment on spatial learning and fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Mishima, Shuta; Nagase, Shotaro; Morita, Keishi; Otsuka, Ami; Hashikawa, Naoya

    2018-04-24

    Although chronic ethanol treatment is known to impair learning and memory, humans commonly consume a range of alcoholic beverages. However, the specific effects of some alcoholic beverages on behavioral performance are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a range of alcoholic beverages (plain ethanol solution, red wine, sake and whiskey; with a matched alcohol concentration of 10%) on learning and memory. 6-week-old C57BL6J mice were orally administered alcohol for 7 weeks. The results revealed that red wine treatment exhibited a trend toward improvement of spatial memory and advanced extinction of fear memory. Additionally, red wine treatment significantly increased mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mice hippocampus. These results support previous reports that red wine has beneficial effects.

  14. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins: effect of alcohols on cationic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ing and fabrication costs of military systems, including fixed-winged and rotor aircraft, ground vehicles, ... hydroxyl groups, i.e. water, alcohol, polymer chain ends, and comonomer, can favour the AM mechanism. ... In this work, we investigate the effect of presence of water and alcohols on the e-beam induced polymerization.

  15. The Effect of Moderate Alcohol Intake on Gallblader Motility: A Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of periodic and moderate alcohol intake on gallbladder motility. Methods: The ultrasonographic ellipsoid method was used in 21 healthy male subjects: 12 nonalcohol and 9 alcohol drinkers. The stimulus for gallbladder contraction was 165 ml of half cream milk. Gallbladder dynamics were ...

  16. The effects of alcohol on mood induced by an emotional film. A study among women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.A.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol on women's reactions to a negative mood-inducing stimulus. It is hypothesized that, like in men, alcohol also reduces tension or induces positive mood in women. In addition, we explored whether different mood states were

  17. Moderating Effects of Gender on Alcohol Use: Implications for Condom Use at First Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at…

  18. Direct Clinical Health Effects of the Consumption of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink in Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Karin; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    The direct clinical health effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) consumption are largely unknown. Using data from a nationwide questionnaire, two groups were compared: adolescents who consumed an energy drink at the event (ED+) and adolescents who did not (ED–). Blood alcohol

  19. Effects of congener and noncongener alcoholic beverages on a clinical ataxia test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    It is clear that the ingestion of alcohol can disturb postural measures and it is possible that the effects of alcohol may be manifested at significant stages subsequent to acute intoxication; i.e., during so-called 'hangover' periods. This study was...

  20. School-attending adolescents and alcohol use: effect of religion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, type of school attended, family structure and religious affiliation were not associated with alcohol use. CONCLUSION: Religious commitment and high parental religiosity appear to have protective effects against alcohol use by adolescents. Large scale collaborative studies to test these findings are advocated.

  1. Comined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, S.N.; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Muller Kobold, A.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Beek, van A.P.; Klauw, van der M.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction - The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods - 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the

  2. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome : The LifeLines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Sandra N; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vonk, Judith M; Boezen, Hendrika; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anna; Feskens, Edith J M; van Beek, André P; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines

  3. Sorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) and its cationic derivative on silica oxide: effect of charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesiene, J.; Matulioniene, J.; Aniulyte, J.; Keizer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based cationic polyelectrolyte (DEAE-PVA) as well as unmodified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) onto silica oxide surface was studied by means of reflectometry. The study was focused on the effect of charge of polymer segments on their adsorption on silica oxide. The

  4. Effects of monoaminergic agonists on alcohol-induced increases in mouse aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G C; Fisher, H; Pole, N; Borve, T; Johnson, S K

    1993-09-01

    Two sets of studies were conducted on alcohol-induced increases in aggression. In the first, the effects of alcohol on target biting and resident-intruder attack were assessed in mice fed a standard diet or one supplemented with 0.5% L-tryptophan. Mice attacked an inanimate target at a high rate following tail shock, an intermediate rate during the intershock interval and a low rate during a tone that preceded the shock. Alcohol increased target biting following shock and during the intershock interval, an effect partially blocked by tryptophan. Resident mice attacked intruders 27.2 +/- 5.3 times per 10-minute session with an average latency of 155 +/- 42 seconds. Alcohol increased the number of attacks and lowered the latency to the first attack. Again, tryptophan partially blocked these effects. Finally, in a second set of mice, the same tryptophan diet was found to potentiate the aggression-reducing effects of fluoxetine and fenfluramine without disrupting motor performance. In the second study, the effects of alcohol administered alone or in combination with tyramine were assessed in the resident-intruder paradigm. Again, it was observed that low doses of alcohol increased the resident attack of intruders. Although this effect was heightened by the co-administration of tyramine, the effect failed to reach statistical significance. These observations are discussed in reference to alcohol-induced increases in offensive and defensive aggression and the possible modulation of this effect by brain monoamines.

  5. Differentiating the contribution of pharmacological from alcohol expectancy effects to changes in subjective response and priming over successive drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Abigail K; Hobbs, Malcolm; Drummond, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption can prime motivation to continue drinking and may contribute to excessive drinking. Most alcohol administration research assesses the effect of a single alcohol dose on outcome measures; however, this differs from typical drinking occasions in which several drinks are consumed over time. This research tracks priming measures (alcohol urge, latency to first sip, and consumption time) and subjective effects (intoxication, stimulation, and sedation) across consumption of 5 drinks, over a period of 2.5 hours. Alcohol, placebo, and no-alcohol (i.e., soft drink) conditions are compared with isolate the effects of alcohol expectancies and differentiate these from alcohol's pharmacological effects. Alcohol urge and subjective state were measured before and after an initial drink was consumed (preload: alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol). Four additional drinking phases followed whereby participants had access to 2 drinks (alcohol/no-alcohol, or placebo/no-alcohol). Experimental priming (urge, latency to first sip, consumption time) and subjective effect (intoxication, stimulation, and sedation) outcomes were recorded after each drink. The pattern of alcohol urge following placebo drinks differed compared with alcohol and no-alcohol consumption, Fs(1, 90) > 4.10, ps alcohol condition, while in the alcohol condition urge increased after the first few drinks before decreasing. Urge ratings showed the opposite pattern in the placebo condition (a decrease followed by an increase). Alcohol produced the highest ratings of lightheadedness, F(5, 440) = 2.8, p alcohol and placebo produced increased sedated feelings, Fs ≥ 19.05, ps ≤ 0.001. After placebo, urge was positively related to liking and enjoying the "alcoholic" drinks and feeling more stimulated (rs ≥ 0.31, ps ≤ 0.01). In social drinkers, different factors may affect priming during different stages of a drinking episode. For example, the pharmacological effects of alcohol appear

  6. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  7. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrimination and alcohol-related problems among college students: a prospective examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  10. Effect of cues associated with an alcoholic beverage on executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birak, Kulbir Singh; Terry, Philip; Higgs, Suzanne

    2010-07-01

    To investigate whether alcohol-associated drink cues can elicit conditioned compensatory responses that counter alcohol's effects on cognition. A between-subjects design was used in which participants were randomly assigned to one of three drink groups: an alcohol-associated drink (lager based) or one of two drinks not usually associated with alcohol (a fruit squash-flavored drink or an apple schnapps-flavored drink; n = 15 per group). The amount of alcohol in each was the same: 0.65 g/kg body weight for men and 0.57 g/kg for women. Executive functions of inhibition, updating of working memory, and attentional set shifting were measured using the CANTABeclipse computerized test battery before and after alcohol consumption. Self-reported mood was measured, and participants provided ratings of the drinks' sensory and hedonic properties. Participants in the lager drink group showed less disinhibitory responding in an affective go/nogo task and less of a reduction in alertness than participants in the two other groups. The lager group was also faster to respond in the set-shifting task than the group given the "squash" (nonassociated) drink. There were no significant differences between the groups in how they evaluated the drinks' sensory/hedonic properties. These data provide provisional evidence to suggest that cues previously associated with alcohol in lager drinkers (particularly the taste and smell of lager) can elicit compensatory responses that counter alcohol's cognitive effects and its effects on alertness.

  11. Increased minimum legal age for the sale of alcohol in the Netherlands as of 2014: The effect on alcohol sellers' compliance after one and two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Roodbeen, Ruud T J; Lemmens, Paul H H M

    2017-11-01

    As of January 2014, the Dutch minimum legal age for the sale and purchase of all alcoholic beverages has increased from 16 to 18 years of age. The effectiveness of a minimum legal age policy in controlling the availability of alcohol for adolescents depends on the extent to which this minimum legal age is complied with in the field. The main aim of the current study is to investigate, for a country with a West-European drinking culture, whether raising the minimum legal age for the sale of alcohol has influenced compliance rates among Dutch alcohol vendors. A total of 1770 alcohol purchase attempts by 15-year-old mystery shoppers were conducted in three independent Dutch representative samples of on- and off-premise alcohol outlets in 2013 (T0), 2014 (T1), and 2016 (T2). The effect of the policy change was estimated controlling for gender and age of the vendor. Mean alcohol sellers' compliance rates significantly increased for 15-year-olds from 46.5% before to 55.7% one year and to 73.9% two years after the policy change. Two years after the policy change, alcohol vendors were up to 3 times more likely to comply with the alcohol age limit policy. After the policy change, mean alcohol compliance rates significantly increased when 15-year-olds attempted to purchase alcohol, an effect which seems to increase over time. Nevertheless, a rise in the compliance rate was already present in the years preceding the introduction of the new minimum legal age. This perhaps signifies a process in which a lowering in the general acceptability of juvenile drinking already started before the increased minimum legal age was introduced and alcohol vendors might have been anticipating this formal legal change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of alcohol on automated and controlled driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Gineyt, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently detected substance in fatal automobile crashes, but its precise mode of action is not always clear. The present study was designed to establish the influence of blood alcohol concentration as a function of the complexity of the scenarios. Road scenarios implying automatic or controlled driving performances were manipulated in order to identify which behavioral parameters were deteriorated. A single blind counterbalanced experiment was conducted on a driving simulator. Sixteen experienced drivers (25.3 ± 2.9 years old, 8 men and 8 women) were tested with 0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 g/l of alcohol. Driving scenarios varied: road tracking, car following, and an urban scenario including events inspired by real accidents. Statistical analyses were performed on driving parameters as a function of alcohol level. Automated driving parameters such as standard deviation of lateral position measured with the road tracking and car following scenarios were impaired by alcohol, notably with the highest dose. More controlled parameters such as response time to braking and number of crashes when confronted with specific events (urban scenario) were less affected by the alcohol level. Performance decrement was greater with driving scenarios involving automated processes than with scenarios involving controlled processes.

  13. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  14. Acute effects of alcohol on memory: impact of emotional context and serial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennie; Brignell, Catherine M; Dhiman, Sharinjeet K; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Although the amnestic effects of alcohol in humans are well known, its effects on emotional memory are unclear. In this study, using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, we examine narrative emotional episodic memory in healthy human female volunteers (n=32) who received either a single dose of alcohol (0.6g/kg), or a placebo and then viewed neutral story elements presented in either a neutral or emotional context. Memory was tested for gist and detail of the neutral elements 3days later in a surprise recognition test. Since alcohol modulates GABAergic neurotransmission and may exert its effects on emotion through the limbic system, we predicted that acute alcohol treatment would reduce the expected emotional memory-advantage for gist, leaving detail memory relatively unaffected. Furthermore, given previous findings showing that 'primacy' memory is enhanced by physiological arousal, we predicted that reduced arousal produced by alcohol would have the opposite effect and impair primacy memory relative to the middle or 'recency' sections of the narrative. Emotional arousal was expected to oppose this effect, so impaired primacy memory following alcohol was only expected in the neutral version of the narrative. Although there was a main effect of story phase (though not of story version), contrary to expectations, alcohol impaired primacy memory for emotionally encoded neutral material. The results suggest that under certain circumstances emotional context or physiological arousal make memories labile and susceptible to disruption through pharmacological manipulation during encoding. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcoholic beverages and gastric epithelial cell viability: effect on oxidative stress-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguercio, C; Tuccillo, C; Federico, A; Fogliano, V; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; Romano, M

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol is known to cause damage to the gastric epithelium independently of gastric acid secretion. Different alcoholic beverages exert different damaging effects in the stomach. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, it is not known whether the non-alcoholic components of alcoholic beverages also play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric epithelial cell damage. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate whether different alcoholic beverages, at a similar ethanol concentration, exerted different damaging effect in gastric epithelial cells in vitro. Moreover, we evaluated whether pre-treatment of gastric epithelial cells with alcoholic beverages prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to gastric cells. Cell damage was assessed, in MKN-28 gastric epithelial cells, by MTT assay. Oxidative stress was induced by incubating cells with xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Gastric cell viability was assessed following 30, 60, and 120 minutes incubation with ethanol 17.5-125 mg/ml(-1) or different alcoholic beverages (i.e., beer, white wine, red wine, spirits) at comparable ethanol concentration. Finally, we assessed whether pre-incubation with red wine (with or without ethanol) prevented oxidative stress-induced cell damage. Red wine caused less damage to gastric epithelial cells in vitro compared with other alcoholic beverages at comparable ethanol concentration. Pre-treatment with red wine, but not with dealcoholate red wine, significantly and time-dependently prevented oxidative stress-induced cell damage. 1) red wine is less harmful to gastric epithelial cells than other alcoholic beverages; 2) this seems related to the non-alcoholic components of red wine, because other alcoholic beverages with comparable ethanol concentration exerted more damage than red wine; 3) red wine prevents oxidative stress-induced cell damage and this seems to be related to its ethanol content.

  16. Persistent next-day effects of excessive alcohol consumption on laparoscopic surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Boyle, Emily; Toner, Paul; Neary, Paul C; Andersen, Dana K; Satava, Richard M; Seymour, Neal E

    2011-04-01

    To examine the effect of previous-day excessive alcohol consumption on laparoscopic surgical performance. Study 1 was a randomized controlled trial. Study 2 was a cohort study. Surgical skills laboratory. Sixteen science students (laparoscopic novices) participated in study 1. Eight laparoscopic experts participated in study 2. All participants were trained on the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer Virtual Reality (MIST-VR). The participants in study 1 were randomized to either abstain from alcohol or consume alcohol until intoxicated. All study 2 subjects freely consumed alcohol until intoxicated. Subjects were assessed the following day at 9 am, 1 pm, and 4 pm on MIST-VR tasks. Assessment measures included time, economy of diathermy use, and error scores. In study 1, both groups performed similarly at baseline, but the alcohol group showed deterioration on all performance measures after alcohol consumption. Overall, although the time score differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant (P = .29), there was a significant difference between the 2 groups' diathermy (P < .03) and error (P < .003) scores. There was also a significant effect for time of testing (P < .003), diathermy (P < .001), and errors (P < .001). In study 2, experts demonstrated a similar postalcohol performance decrement for time (P < .02), diathermy (P < .001), and error scores (P < .001). Excessive consumption of alcohol appeared to degrade surgical performance the following day even at 4 pm, suggesting the need to define recommendations regarding alcohol consumption the night before assuming clinical surgical responsibilities.

  17. Lack of tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Hays, Lon R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol tolerance is observed as a diminished response to a given dose as a function of repeated administrations of the drug. Research has consistently shown that heavier drinkers display reduced reactions to alcohol (i.e., tolerance) compared with lighter drinkers. However, the majority of this work has focused primarily on measures of motor performance, whereas the development of tolerance to alcohol's impairing effects on cognitive processes, such as inhibitory mechanisms of behavioral control, remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between drinking habits and the degree to which alcohol affects drinkers' inhibitory control and motor coordination. Fifty-two non-dependent drinkers reported their recent drinking patterns. Their inhibitory control and motor coordination were measured in response to placebo and 0.65 g/kg alcohol. Alcohol significantly impaired inhibitory control and motor coordination compared with placebo. Moreover, greater quantity and frequency of recent consumption predicted less alcohol impairment of motor coordination. However, there was no relationship between recent drinking habits and the degree of impairment of inhibitory control. These findings suggest that tolerance to the disinhibiting effects of alcohol might not readily develop as a result of recent, heavy drinking.

  18. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Phillip A; Green, Stefan J; Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies.

  19. Long-term effects of the strong African American families program on youths' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C

    2010-04-01

    This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Horng, Fen-Fang; Sung, Su-Ching

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour. The prevalence of alcohol abuse has increased over the past 10 years, and the age of initial alcohol use has decreased gradually in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of disability and has led to increases in the incidence of crime and violence, with alcohol abuse identified as a problem in society. A quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent pre/post-testing was used. Alcohol-dependent inpatients undergoing alcohol treatment were selected from the psychiatric ward of a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. The effectiveness of the psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour was evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. In total, 24 and 51 participants were recruited to the experimental and control groups, respectively, for the baseline survey, and 14 and 17 were in the final survey, respectively. After adjustment for baseline survey scores, the experimental group showed significantly greater increases in recognition and ambivalence relative to those observed in the control group. The results not only showed that the psychoeducational programme was effective in reinforcing addicted inpatients' motivation for changing their drinking behaviour but also provided clinical nurses with practical methods via which to enhance patient motivation. The psychoeducational programme could assist clinical nurses in helping alcohol-dependent patients to recognise the nature of their problematic drinking; increase participants' ambivalence towards their drinking behaviour, leading to the contemplation of change; and strengthen the possibility that they will change their addictive behaviour. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, John B; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Pergadia, Michele L; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption has multiple biochemical consequences. Only a few of these are useful as diagnostic markers, but many reflect potentially harmful or beneficial effects of alcohol. Average consumption of 2 to 4 drinks per day is associated with lower overall or cardiovascular mortality risk than either lower or higher intake. We have analyzed the dose-response relationships between reported alcohol consumption and 17 biomarkers, with emphasis on intake of up to 3 drinks per day. Biochemical tests were performed on serum from 8,396 study participants (3,750 men and 4,646 women, aged 51 ± 13 years, range 18 to 93) who had provided information on alcohol consumption in the week preceding blood collection. Gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, urate, ferritin, and bilirubin showed little or no change with alcohol consumption below 2 to 3 drinks per day, but increased with higher intake. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin showed increasing results, and insulin showed decreasing results, across the entire range of alcohol use. Biphasic responses, where subjects reporting 1 to 2 drinks per day had lower results than those reporting either more or less alcohol use, occurred for triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and butyrylcholinesterase. Increasing alcohol use was associated with decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in younger women, but higher LDL-C in older men. Some markers show threshold relationships with alcohol, others show continuous ones, and a third group show biphasic or U-shaped relationships. Overall, the biochemical sequelae of low-to-moderate alcohol use are consistent with the epidemiological evidence on morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. The Indirect Effect of Alcohol Use on GPA in First-Semester College Students: The Mediating Role of Academic Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James M.; DiPlacido, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on first-semester college students, investigating (a) indirect effects of aggregate alcohol use on grade point average (GPA) through academic effort (skipping class and time on schoolwork) and (b) daily effects of alcohol use on reduced effort. Eighty students reported daily alcohol use and academic effort (skipping class and…

  3. Effects of low doses of alcohol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol's effects in pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L.; Subramanian, M.G. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with 50 mg/kg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or with THC plus alcohol to determine if a low dose of alcohol would significantly increase blood levels of THC. On the basis of this study, a second study was conducted in which pregnant rats were intubated with THC plus alcohol from gestation day six to parturition. THC reduced birth weights but did not significantly affect litter size or passive avoidance learning. Alcohol did not have a significant effect on offspring birth weight nor did it interact with THC to affect offspring.

  4. Effects of early and later marriage on women's alcohol use in young adulthood: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Collins, Rebecca L; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Martino, Steven C; Klein, David J

    2005-11-01

    Previous research shows that marriage leads to reductions in alcohol use, especially for women. Because marriage prior to age 20 (early marriage) is a marker for deviance, the protective effects of marriage may not extend to those who marry in adolescence. We compared the effects of marriage in adolescence versus young adulthood on alcohol consumption, negative alcohol-related consequences and heavy episodic drinking at age 29. We analyzed data from 1,138 women in a longitudinal cohort followed from ages 18 to 29. The original sample was recruited from 30 California and Oregon middle schools and first surveyed at age 13. Women who had not married, had married early or had married between ages 20 and 29 did not differ on alcohol use at age 18. Women who married as young adults were less likely than singles to engage in any alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking or experience negative consequences and reported less alcohol use at age 29. Women who married in adolescence reported fewer negative consequences at age 29 than did singles and (if they had not divorced) were less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking or experience any negative consequences, reported fewer consequences and consumed less alcohol. The protective effects of marriage in young adulthood were observed whether or not women divorced. Parenthood and college attendance before age 23 did not explain the marriage effect. Results support role theory, which posits that individuals who marry are socialized into conventional adult roles that discourage deviant behavior.

  5. Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): effects of container size adjustments on estimates of alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Harris, T Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine discrepancies in alcohol consumption estimates between a self-reported standard quantity-frequency measure and an adjusted version based on respondents' typically used container size. Using a multistage cluster sample design, 5,224 Hispanic individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey-weighted response rate was 76%. Personal interviews lasting an average of 1 hour were conducted in respondents' homes in either English or Spanish. The overall effect of container adjustment was to increase estimates of ethanol consumption by 68% for women (range across Hispanic groups: 17%-99%) and 30% for men (range: 14%-42%). With the exception of female Cuban American, Mexican American, and South/Central American beer drinkers and male Cuban American wine drinkers, all percentage differences between unadjusted and container-adjusted estimates were positive. Second, container adjustments produced the largest change for volume of distilled spirits, followed by wine and beer. Container size adjustments generally produced larger percentage increases in consumption estimates for the higher volume drinkers, especially the upper tertile of female drinkers. Self-reported alcohol consumption based on standard drinks underreports consumption when compared with reports based on the amount of alcohol poured into commonly used containers.

  6. Sensation seeking and alcohol use by college students: examining multiple pathways of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use both directly and indirectly, through its impact on students' frequency of association with alcohol-using peers and the size of their drinking norm misperception. The findings suggest that interventions that seek to limit the frequency in which high sensation seekers associate with peers whose alcohol use is extreme or, alternatively, seek to facilitate social interactions of high sensation seekers with normative peers, may supplement efforts to influence sensation seekers' alcohol and other drug use through tailored mass media advertisements.

  7. Extracurricular activities, athletic participation, and adolescent alcohol use: gender-differentiated and school-contextual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P

    2006-09-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the association depends on the school context. Using a multilevel model, I examine whether school-level factors affect the relationship between involvement in athletic or nonathletic activities and changes in adolescent alcohol use from 1990 to 1992. The results indicate that the negative association between nonathletic activities and alcohol use is stronger among males in low-minority-population schools. Moreover the positive association between athletic involvement and alcohol use is stronger among females in lower-socioeconomic-status schools and males in higher-socioeconomic-status schools. I propose that these results reflect variation in high school cultures and in the resources available to schools.

  8. The Indirect Effects of Childhood ADHD on Alcohol Problems in Adulthood through Unique Facets of Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A.P.; Harty, Seth C.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Research has not studied unique impulsivity dimensions as prospective links between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol problems. We examined the association between childhood ADHD, 5 facets of impulsivity and alcohol problems in adulthood, and the indirect effects of childhood ADHD-to-impulsivity-to-alcohol problems. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants were from a longitudinal study (N = 289, MAge = 28.67) of individuals with (n = 170) and without (n = 119) childhood ADHD. The ADHD sample, as part of an ADHD summer treatment program, was initially diagnosed in childhood (1987–1996, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) via structured parent interview and standardized parent/teacher ratings. The ADHD sample and demographically similar individuals without ADHD (living in the greater Pittsburgh area) were recruited to participate in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) between 1999 and 2003. Measurements Self-reported impulsivity (UPPS-P) and alcohol-related problems were assessed in adulthood (2011 – 2014). Findings Adults with, compared with those without, childhood ADHD had more alcohol problems (β = .34, p facets (except sensation seeking) were related to number of alcohol problems (β’s = .34–.61, p’s < .05). Negative (b = .26, p < .01) and positive (b = .27, p < .01) urgency mediated the association between childhood ADHD and number of adult alcohol problems. Conclusions Elevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may place children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood. PMID:26999438

  9. Effect of linear alcohol molecular size on the self-assembly of fullerene whiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Maher S.; Todd, T. Kyle; Busbee, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The longer the alcohol molecule, the shorter the length of the assembled whisker. → Interaction between alcohol and fullerene solvent is the key factor. → The stronger the alcohol/solvent interaction, the longer the whisker. - Abstract: The recent development of self-assembled fullerene whiskers and wires has created an enormous potential and resolved a serious challenge for utilizing such unique class of carbon material in advanced nano-scale, molecular-based electronic, optical, and thermal devices. In this paper we investigate, the self-assembly of C 60 molecules into one-dimensional whiskers using a series of linear alcohols H(CH 2 ) n OH, with n changing from 1 (methanol) to 3 (isopropyl alcohol), to elucidate the effect of alcohol molecular size on the size distribution of the self-assemble fullerene whiskers. Our results show that the length of the produced fullerene whiskers is affected by the molecular size of the alcohol used in the process. The crucial role played by solvent/alcohol interaction in the assembly process is discussed. In addition, Raman spectroscopy measurements support the notion that the self-assembled whiskers are primarily held by depletion forces and no evidence of fullerene polymerization was observed.

  10. Alcohol Storylines in Television Episodes: The Preventive Effect of Countering Epilogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Grube, Joel W; McQuarrie, Edward

    2017-08-01

    This experimental study assessed whether alcohol television storylines impact youth drinking attitudes and intentions and whether corrective epilogues can potentially moderate this impact. Television episodes were professionally produced to depict heavy drinking leading to either positive or negative consequences. The pro- and anti-alcohol episodes were shown alone or with an epilogue where a main character discussed the deleterious effects of excessive drinking. Attitudes toward drinkers and drinking intentions were measured subsequently, along with reactions to the episode and demographic data, among participants aged 14-17 using an online study. Exposure to the pro-alcohol episode was related to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. Including an epilogue after a pro-alcohol episode was related to more negative viewers' attitudes toward drinkers and lower drinking intentions compared to a pro-alcohol episode with no epilogue. By contrast, including an epilogue after an anti-alcohol episode was unrelated to attitudes toward drinkers or drinking intentions. Viewing a single television episode with a pro-alcohol message may lead to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. The finding that a brief epilogue may reduce the impact of the pro-alcohol storyline suggests easily implemented preventive strategies to counter the adverse impact of substance use portrayals in entertainment programming.

  11. The effects of next-day class characteristics on alcohol demand in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Hanna L; Martinetti, Margaret P

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral economic principles have been useful for addressing strategies to reduce alcohol consumption among college students. For example, academic variables (such as class schedule or academic rigor) have been found to affect alcohol demand assessed with a hypothetical alcohol purchase task (APT). The present studies used the APT to address the effects of 2 academic variables: next-day course level (no class, introductory level or upper level) and class size (no class, 30-student or 12-student). In each of 2 experiments, undergraduate participants read a description of a drinking context (either a no-class control version or 1 of the academic constraint conditions) and were asked to indicate how many drinks they would purchase at a variety of prices. Hursh and Silberberg's (2008) exponential demand equation was used to determine intensity and elasticity of demand, and Hursh and Roma's (2015) essential value (EV) parameter was calculated to assess essential value. In both experiments, a next-day class reduced alcohol demand, and alcohol consumption decreased as drink price increased. The presence of a smaller next-day class reduced alcohol demand compared with a larger next-day class; however, course level did not differentially affect alcohol demand. These results suggest that smaller next-day classes may reduce alcohol demand among college students and also provide initial evidence for the reliability of EV across studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Smells like inhibition: The effects of olfactory and visual alcohol cues on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, R L; Sunley, J; Qureshi, A W; Heim, D

    2016-04-01

    How the smell of alcohol impacts alcohol-related thoughts and behaviours is unclear, though it is well-documented that alcohol-related stimuli and environments may trigger these. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate the priming effects of both visual and olfactory alcohol cues on inhibitory control. Forty individuals (M age = 23.65, SD = 6.52) completed a go/no-go association task (GNAT) which measured reaction times, response accuracy and false alarm rates whilst being exposed to alcohol-related (or neutral) olfactory and visual cues. Alcohol-related visual cues elicited lower false alarm rates, slower reaction times and higher accuracy rates relative to neutral pictorial cues. False alarm rates were significantly higher for those exposed to alcohol as opposed to neutral olfactory cues. By highlighting that exposure to alcohol-related olfactory cues may impede response inhibition, the results indicate that exposure to such stimuli may contribute to the activation of cognitive responses which may drive consumption.

  13. [Which prevention programs effectively reduce the risk of alcohol consumption in young people?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, A; Vinelli, A; Baldovin, T; Gallimberti, L; Bardelle, G; Rausa, G; Baldo, V

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young people is a major public health problem and the Italian National Health Institute considers it the leading cause of death for people under 24 years old, mainly due to road accidents. This study summarizes the evidence emerging from three Cochrane Collaboration reviews, aiming to orient the choice of alcohol prevention programs for young people. The first review considered schemes implemented at school to prevent alcohol consumption under 18 years of age; the second concerned studies on programs to reduce alcohol abuse by means of social norms; the third examined 56 trials on schemes for preventing young people from drinking. In the first review, 6 of 11 alcohol prevention schemes showed some signs of efficacy, and 14 of 39 schemes to combat substance abuse generally induced a significantly alcohol use reduction. The second review included three specific programs for alcohol-related problems with a > 17-month follow-up and they were effective. In the third review, 15 of 39 schemes proved effective in the short-term, 9 of 12 with medium follow-up were no longer effective (and alcohol consumption even increased in 2), while 3 long-term trials and 2 of 3 community schemes proved effective. These Cochrane reviews did not assess all strategies for preventing alcohol abuse in the young which have been implemented in different countries, because many interventions has been conducted spontaneously without any evaluation of their efficacy. An international registry on substance abuse prevention measures is warranted, with shared criteria for assessing their effects, to orient public health policies.

  14. [Effects of polydatin on learning and memory and Cdk5 kinase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-juan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chun-yang; Li, Shuang; Du, Ai-lin; Zhang, Li-bin; Zhang, Rui-ling

    2015-03-01

    To observe the effects of polydatin on learning and memory and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) kinase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, chronic alcoholism group, low and high polydatin group. The rat chronic alcoholism model was established by ethanol 3.0 g/(kg · d) (intragastric administration). The abstinence scoring was used to evaluate the rats withdrawal symptoms; cognitive function was measured by Morris water maze experiment; Cdk5 protein expression in the hippocampus was detected by immunofluorescence; Cdk5 kinase activity in the hippocampus was detected by liquid scintillation counting method. The abstinence score, escape latency, Cdk5 kinase activity in chronic alcoholism group rats were significantly higher than those of control group (P alcoholism group (P alcoholism group( P alcoholism group were significantly increased compared with control group (P alcoholism group ( P alcoholism damage may interrelate with regulation of Cdk5 kinase activity.

  15. Acute and residual interactive effects of repeated administrations of oral methamphetamine and alcohol in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Levin, Frances R.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2011-01-01

    Although methamphetamine and alcohol are commonly used together in a binge-like pattern, there is a dearth of empirical data investigating the repeated effects of this drug combination. The current study examined acute and residual mood, performance, and physiological effects of methamphetamine alone, alcohol alone, and the combination. Nine adult male volunteers completed this 20-day within-participant, residential laboratory study. During four 5-day blocks of sessions, participants were administered oral methamphetamine (0, 10 mg) combined with alcohol (0, 0.375, 0.75 g/kg) three times (day 2: AM, day 2: PM, and day 3: PM). Breath alcohol concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and cognitive/psychomotor performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Subjective and objective sleep measures were also assessed; residual effects were assessed on days 3–5 of each block. Following the first drug administration, the methamphetamine–alcohol combination produced greater elevations of heart rate and ratings of “good drug effect” compared to either drug alone. Methamphetamine attenuated alcohol-related performance decrements and feelings of intoxication, whereas alcohol attenuated methamphetamine-related sleep disruptions. By the third administration, many of these effects were significantly diminished, suggesting that participants developed tolerance. Few residual effects were observed. These data show that methamphetamine combined with alcohol produced a profile of effects that was different from the effects of either drug alone. The largely positive effects of the drug combination (i.e., greater euphoria, and fewer performance and sleep disruptions) might explain why these drugs are often used in combination. PMID:21748253

  16. Effect of alcohol on the endocrine glands of pregnant Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , PC Ozebge, JO Omirinde. Abstract. Background: An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of alcohol on some endocrine glands of pregnant Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats divided into 2 groups of 15 each were ...

  17. Effects of Hydro Alcoholic Extraction of Valeriana on Astrocyte Raphe Magnus in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajad Hatami joni

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of hydro alcoholic extract of valerian increases astrocytes number and decreases their size in nucleus of raphe Magna, which indicated the effect of this extraction on proliferation of astrocytes increasing.

  18. A Message in a Bottle: Extrapharmacological Effects of Alcohol on Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A Message in a Bottle: Extrapharmacological Effects of Alcohol on Aggression correspondance: Corresponding author. (Begue, Laurent) (Begue, Laurent) University of Grenoble and University Institute of France--> , Psychology Department--> , --> - (Begue, Laurent) University of Grenoble and University Institute of France--> , Psychology Department--> , --> ...

  19. Vascular and Biochemical Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption: Mechanisms of Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the vascular and biochemical effects of moderate alcohol consumption and the mechanisms of protection against cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease, is the leading cause

  20. Review: Use of Asian samples in genetic research of alcohol use disorders: Genetic variation of alcohol metabolizing enzymes and the effects of acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that Asian populations report lower rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) compared with other racial groups. These differences result from a variety of biological, genetic, and environmental influences, some of which are related to the metabolism of alcohol. We will review several studies of these metabolic factors, including several alcohol clamping studies conducted in our laboratory, that provide further insight into the role of the alcohol metabolizing genes and drinking behavior among Japanese drinkers. This manuscript reviewed studies investigating genetic variations of alcohol metabolizing enzymes among Asians and several mechanisms by which these genes are thought to give rise to differences in rates of alcohol dependence. The inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and highly active alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) genes are protective factors for the development of AUD. The inactive ALDH2 provides its protective effect through the accumulation of acetaldehyde after consuming alcohol, resulting in unpleasant effects, and heightened sensitivity to alcohol. However, the suppressive effects of inactive ALDH2 and highly active ADH1B for AUDs are only partial and interact with other factors, such as personality traits, psychiatric comorbidities, and environmental factors. While Asians are excellent models for the study of certain genetic effects on the development and consequences of AUD, few clinical studies of this population have been conducted. Further exploration of the interactions between various genetic, individual, and environmental factors influencing drinking behavior and, thus affecting the risk of AUD, would enhance our understanding of how alcohol-related problems develop. The heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 genotype has only partial effects on limiting drinking behavior, suggesting the potential interaction with other factors. Therefore AUD patients with inactive ALDH2 may be a useful model to identify and to

  1. Assessment of the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Majrashi, Mohammed; Ramesh, Sindhu; Govindarajulu, Manoj; Bloemer, Jenna; Fujihashi, Ayaka; Crump, Bailee-Ryan; Hightower, Harrison; Bhattacharya, Subhrajit; Moore, Timothy; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2018-02-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. However, there are very few scientific reports on the effect of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum of the offspring. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in a rodent model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In this study, we evaluated the behavioral changes, biochemical markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis, mitochondrial functions and the molecular mechanisms associated with nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum. Prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure induced oxidative stress, did not affect the mitochondrial functions, increased the monoamine oxidase activity, increased caspase expression and decreased ILK, PSD-95 and GLUR1 expression without affecting the GSK-3β. Thus, our current study of prenatal alcohol and nicotine exposure on cerebellar neurotoxicity may lead to new scientific perceptions and novel and suitable therapeutic actions in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of youth, price, and audience size on alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P; Young, Douglas J

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of youth readership, price of advertisements, and audience size on alcohol advertising in 35 major magazines. The regressions also account for readership demographics (adult reader age, income, gender, race), magazine characteristics (newsstand sales, number of annual issues), and type of beverage (beer, wine, spirits). Using count data models, the results indicate significant effects for price, audience size, and adult demographics, but fail to support claims that alcohol advertisers target adolescent readers.

  3. The effect on emergency department visits of raised alcohol minimum prices in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Adam; Stockwell, Tim; Callaghan, Russell C

    2018-02-12

    The province of Saskatchewan, Canada introduced minimum prices graded by alcohol strength in April 2010. As previous research found this intervention significantly decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable morbidity, we aim to test the association between the intervention and the rate of emergency department (ED) visits in four alcohol-related injury categories [motor vehicle collisions (MVC), assaults, falls and total alcohol-related injuries]. Data on ED visits in the city of Regina were obtained from the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test the immediate and lagged effects of the pricing intervention on rates of alcohol-related nighttime. ED visits and controlled for daytime rates of ED visits, economic variables, linear and seasonal trends, and auto-regressive and moving average effects. The implementation of an alcohol minimum pricing strategy in Saskatchewan was associated with decreased MVC-related ED visits for women aged 26 and over after a 6 month lag period (-39.4%, P age categories; however, rates of ED visits among young males for MVCs and assaults decreased substantially during this study. The minimum pricing policy change led to a lagged decrease in motor vehicle-collision-related ED visits for women older than 25. Of note, there did not appear to be an instantaneous effect on the rate of alcohol-related injury ED visits immediately after the policy implementation nor lagged effects for other gender-age groups. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, S. J.; Alford, C.; Stewart, K.; Verster, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when the...

  6. Craving Alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2014-01-01

    Individuals involved in the treatment of alcoholism for decades have argued that men and women crave alcohol essentially because they enjoy the effect it offers. This effect is so mysterious that, while adults will confess that these cravings are potential dangerous to their health and well being, during consumption their reasoning and belief of these facts will alternate between the true and the false. In essence these individuals alcohol cravings life actually seems to them the only normal ...

  7. Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette Smoke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are among social practices of some Nigerian youths. These practices have adverse health consequences but the basis of which is yet to be elucidated. This study was designed to provide information on humoral immune responses in Nigerians that smoke cigarettes, consume ...

  8. Hypoglycemic Effect Of Alcoholic Extract Of Various Species Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration of alcoholic extracts of leaves of Passiflora edulis, P. mollisima and P. quadrangularis used in Indian folklore medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus produced a gradual but significant reduction in blood glucose in alloxan treated hyperglycaemic rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight over a ...

  9. Anticancer effects of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort alcohol extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was mainly to study the optimisation of extraction process of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort alcohol extracts. Stable passage pancreatic cancer HS 766 T cell lines were created by cell culture, and the cell proliferation data were measured by MTT assay. The determination of HS766T cell cycle and apoptosis ...

  10. Anti-apoptotic effects of phyllanthin against alcohol- induced liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HepG2 cells alone and in co-culture with human monocytic (THP-1) differentiated macrophage cells. Methods: Cell viability was ... Results: Alcohol exposure significantly increased intracellular ROS generation (p < 0.001), decreased. MMP changes (p .... both cell types were cultured at a density of 3 x. 104 cells/well. Before ...

  11. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic extract of Polygala arvensis (family Polygalaceae) was screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. The extract was administered for three consecutive days. Following an oral dose of 25 - 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited graded dose response equivalent to 16.24% ...

  12. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  13. The effect of disulfiram on excretion of catecholamine alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forms the basis for its use in the treatment of alcoholism. In addition, disulfiram inhibits dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) through a copper-chelating action 2. Since DBH catalyses the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline, we decided to investi- gate the urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites in a group of recently ...

  14. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both groups were asked to complete a self‑rating questionnaire containing information, which included questions about age, sex, monthly income, education level, marital status, height, weight, alcohol drinking and smoking habits. Student's t‑test, Pearson's Chi-square and logistic regression were used to statistical analysis ...

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption : effects on lipids and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J

    2001-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, as well as ischaemic stroke and possibly type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological and physiological data are in favour of a causal relationship. Proposed protective mechanisms include the stimulation of

  16. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  17. DRD4 polymorphism moderates the effect of alcohol consumption on social bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey G Creswell

    Full Text Available Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition ×2 (genotype design (N = 422 to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.

  18. Effects of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shati, Ali A; Elsaid, Fahmy G

    2009-08-01

    Alcohol abuse has many harmful effects on human body. This study aimed to investigate the role of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as natural product extracts to detoxify the injuries of alcohol abuse on liver and brain of mice. Alcohol at a dose of 1.25 ml/50 ml water was orally administered at the first day of treatment with continuously increase of 1.25 ml per day to the end of experiment (14 days, 0.1 ml/45 g /d). Mice also were orally administered with alcohol and water extracts of thyme and ginger in concentration of 500 mg /kg body weight for 2 weeks. The results showed very highly significant increase in nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level in liver and brain and a very highly significant decrease in the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in alcoholic group. In addition, the liver function enzymes such as L-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and butyryl cholinesterase activities showed very highly significant increase in alcoholic group. In contrast, the water extracts of thyme and ginger showed significant amelioration on these changes both in liver and brain tissues. The water extracts of thyme and ginger has detoxifying and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use them to avoid alcohol toxicity.

  19. The effects of energy drinks alone and with alcohol on neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kim; Stasio, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks-alone or with alcohol-are heavily marketed to young adults, many of whom believe that caffeine counteracts some negative effects of alcohol intoxication. While the effects of caffeine and alcohol have been widely investigated, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance after consumption of a beverage containing both ingredients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 non-caffeine-deprived female participants were randomly assigned to consume a caffeinated energy drink alone, one containing alcohol, or a non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated control beverage. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted using alternate forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants who consumed the energy drink plus alcohol evidenced significantly lower post-test performance on a global score of neuropsychological status. Specifically, deficits were found in both visuospatial/constructional and language performance scores. While participants who consumed the caffeinated beverage alone trended toward improved attention scores, neuropsychological status did not show meaningful changes from the pre- to post-test. Consumption of an energy drink containing 6% alcohol by volume negatively influenced performance on a global measure of cognitive functioning. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Su, Bo; Fan, Sumei; Fei, Haixia; Zhao, Wei

    2015-03-20

    The long-term consumption of alcohol has been associated with multiple pathologies at all levels, such as alcoholism, chronic pancreatitis, malnutrition, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cancer. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury and the possible mechanisms using ethanol-induced chronic liver damage mouse models. The results showed that OPC significantly improved alcohol-induced dyslipidemia and alleviated liver steatosis by reducing levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-c) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and increasing levels of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), liver superoxide dismutase (SOD). Further investigation indicated that OPC markedly decreased the expressions of lipid synthesis genes and inflammation genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), protein-2 (Srebp2), interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, AML-12 cells line was used to investigate the possible mechanisms which indicated that OPC might alleviate liver steatosis and damage through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation involving oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study demonstrated excellent protective effect of OPC against alcohol-induced liver steatosis and injury, which could a potential drug for the treatment of alcohol-induced liver injury in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep TMS on alcoholics: effects on cortisolemia and dopamine pathway modulation. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Marco; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Raccah, Ruggero; Fiore, Marco; Zangen, Abraham; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and dopamine have a key role in transition from alcohol social use to addiction. The medial prefrontal cortex was shown to modulate dopaminergic activity and cortisol releasing factor (CRF) release in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic systems. The recent advancements in non-invasive neurostimulation technologies has enabled stimulation of deeper brain regions using H-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study aims to evaluate H-coil efficacy in stimulating the medial prefrontal cortex. Cortisolemia and prolactinemia were evaluated as effectiveness markers. Alcohol intake and craving were considered as secondary outcomes. Eighteen alcoholics were recruited and randomized into 2 homogeneous groups: 9 in the real stimulation group and 9 in the sham stimulation group. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) was administered through a magnetic stimulator over 10 sessions at 20 Hz, directed to the medial prefrontal cortex. rTMS significantly reduced blood cortisol levels and decreased prolactinemia, thus suggesting dopamine increase. Craving visual analogic scale (VAS) in treated patients decreased, as well as mean number of alcoholic drinks/day and drinks on days of maximum alcohol intake (DMAI). In the sham group there was no significant effect observed on cortisolemia, prolactinemia, mean number of alcoholic drinks/day, or drinks/DMAI. Thus, deep rTMS could be considered a potential new treatment for alcoholism.

  2. Effects of alcohol feeding on androgen receptors in the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Specific binding of testosterone-1β,2β- 3 H by cytosol from anterior pituitary gland of ethanol-fed, isocaloric control, and castrated control and ethanol-fed rats with or without testosterone treatment has been investigated by charcoal assay. The number of androgen binding sites was significantly reduced in alcohol-fed rats when compared to the isocaloric control value, with no significant change in Kd. Castration significantly increased the number of receptor sites in control rats and when castrated control animals were treated with testosterone the binding sites were decreased to the intact control level. In contrast, castration or testosterone given to castrated alcohol-fed rats did not alter alcohol-induced reduction of the receptor sites. The binding affinity (Kd) is identical in all groups. The concentration of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower in alcohol-fed rats when compared to that of normal controls. An increased serum LH level with a decreased testosterone level was noted in castrated control rats. However, castration of alcohol-fed rats had little or no effects on the concentrations of LH and testosterone. Administration of testosterone suppressed castration-induced high LH in control rats but alcohol induced reduction of LH level was not altered by this treatment. These findings indicate that alcohol exerts a suppressive effect on the content of androgen receptors and secretory functions of gonadotropins in the pituitary gland. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  3. DRD4 polymorphism moderates the effect of alcohol consumption on social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Manuck, Stephen B; Ferrell, Robert E; Hill, Shirley Y; Dimoff, John D

    2012-01-01

    Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition) ×2 (genotype) design (N = 422) to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.

  4. Acute and chronic effects of alcohol on trail making test performance among underage drinkers in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Anne M; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Johansen, Gerard E; Spear, Linda P

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol's effects on executive functioning are well documented. Research in this area has provided much information on both the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on processes such as working memory and mental flexibility. However, most research on the acute effects of alcohol is conducted with individuals older than 21 years of age. Using field recruitment methods can provide unique empirical data on the acute effects of alcohol on an underage population. The current study examined the independent effects of acute alcohol intoxication (measured by breath alcohol content) and chronic alcohol use (measured by years drinking) on a test of visuomotor performance and mental flexibility (Trail Making Test) among 91 drinkers ages 18-20 years recruited from a field setting. Results show that breath alcohol predicts performance on Trails B, but not on Trails A, and that years drinking, above and beyond acute intoxication, predicts poorer performance on both Trails A and B. These data suggest that, independent of the acute effects of alcohol, chronic alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on executive functioning processes among underage drinkers. Our discussion focuses on the importance of these data in describing the effect of alcohol on adolescents and the potential for engaging in risky behavior while intoxicated.

  5. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption.

  6. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types ...

  7. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p......There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  8. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  9. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  10. Effects of acute alcohol ingestion on eye movements and cognition: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jéssica Bruna Santana; Cristino, Eva Dias; de Almeida, Natalia Leandro; de Medeiros, Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra; dos Santos, Natanael Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying t...

  11. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Muscle Soreness and Inflammation During Recovery From Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yen Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although parties or get-togethers with alcoholic beverages after sporting competitions are popular, studies on the effects of alcohol ingestion after strenuous exercise on muscle damage and inflammation in non-drinkers’ are few and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol ingestion during recovery from an acute bout of exercise on muscle soreness and inflammatory markers in regular exercisers who do not regularly consume alcohol. Male participants (n = 15 completed two bouts of exercise on a rowing ergometer for 2000 m in a randomized fashion. All participants ingested 5 mL of alcoholic (AL or placebo (PL beverage per kg of body weight within 10 min post-exercise. Blood samples for blood alcohol, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin (IL-6 concentrations were collected pre-exercise (T0, and at 1 (T1, 3 (T2, and 24 h (T3 post-ingestion. Self-reported muscle soreness was assessed at the same time points. Lactate levels were measured before exercise and within 1 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the AL than the PL trials at T3 (p < 0.05. Although CK, IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher during recovery than before exercising, there was no significant difference between the AL and PL trials. In addition, no significant difference in lactate concentrations between the two trials was evident in the 1 h after exercise. For regular exercisers, the alcoholic beverage ingested did not increase CK, IL-6, or CRP compared to their placebo trial, despite attenuated muscle soreness. Comparisons between drinkers and non-drinkers of high fitness ingesting permissible alcohol doses should be performed in the future.   Keywords: alcohol, inflammation, strenuous exercise, muscle damage

  12. Effects of alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drug use on fetal growth in black infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W; Sokol, R J; Martier, S S; Ager, J W; Shankaran, S

    1994-05-01

    To compare the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs on birth size. Prospective, longitudinal correlational study, with statistical control for confounding. Four hundred seventeen black infants. Mothers recruited at first prenatal clinic visit on the basis of moderate-to-heavy use of alcohol or cocaine or both, plus a 5% random sample of lower-level drinkers and abstainers. Alcohol, smoking, opiates, and cocaine were each correlated with smaller birth weight, length, and head circumference (median r = -0.21; p illicit drug use may be a consequence of simultaneous exposure of the fetus to alcohol and smoking. Opiate exposure is specifically related to reduced head circumference, and the effect of cocaine on birth size is primarily an indirect consequence of shorter gestation and poorer maternal nutrition.

  13. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effect of alcohol on internally deposited Am-241 in the baboon: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Antonelli, R.; LoSasso, T.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of ethyl alcohol in enhancing the excretion of Am-241 from the baboon has been tested. Alcohol enhances Am-241 excretion via the fecal route by a factor of about 2.5. However, there is a corresponding increase in fecal volume, and no significant change in the concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Other cathartics tested caused increased fecal volumes with no change in amount of activity excreted leading to a decreased concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Alcohol is not as effective as DTPA in removing Am-241 from the body. Preliminary results suggest that alcohol has little or no enhancement effect on the decorporation capability of DTPA

  15. Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Klostermann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  16. Effects of relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol on women's risky sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M; Morrison, Diane M; Stoner, Susan A; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A

    2009-06-01

    This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation and then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high) and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants' primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically based risky sex interventions.

  17. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  18. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  19. Alcohol consumption and awareness of its effects on health among secondary school students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M.; Njoku, Helen Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Akubue, Benedette Nwanneamaka; Ezeanwu, Amaka Bibian; Ugwu, Uchenna Cosmas; Ofuebe, Justina Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption among secondary school students is a major public health issue worldwide; however, the extent of consumption among secondary school students and their understanding of its effects on human health remain relatively unknown in many Nigerian States. This study aimed to determine the extent of alcohol consumption and of the awareness of its negative effects on human health among secondary school students. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Self-report questionnaire developed by the researchers was administered to representative sample (N = 1302) of secondary school students in the study area. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using means and t test. The results showed that male secondary school students moderately consumed beer (55.2%) and local cocktails (51.5%), whereas their female counterparts reported rare consumption of these 2 alcoholic drinks (44.8%; 48.5% respectively). The findings also indicated rare consumption of distilled spirits among both male and female students in the investigated area, whereas wine, liquor, local spirits, and palm wine were consumed moderately, regardless of gender. Finally, male and female secondary school students differed significantly in their awareness of the negative effects of alcohol consumption on health. There is a need to intensify efforts to further curtail the extent of alcohol consumption and increase awareness of the negative effects of alcohol use on human health among secondary school students. PMID:29310396

  20. Effects of the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor DOV 102,677 on alcohol-motivated responding and antidepressant activity in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Andrew R S T; Yi, Heon S; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Mamczarz, Jacek; June, Harry L; Mallick, Nikhil; Krieter, Philip A; Tonelli, Leonardo; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S; June, Harry L

    2012-05-01

      Concurrent inhibitors of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin uptake have been proposed as novel antidepressants. Given the high comorbidity between alcoholism and depression, we evaluated the activity of DOV 102,677 (DOV) on alcohol-maintained responding and performance in the forced swim test (FST), a model of antidepressant (AD) activity, using alcohol-preferring (P) rats.   Following training to lever press for either alcohol (10% v/v) or sucrose (3, 2%, w/v) on a fixed-ratio 4 (FR4) schedule, DOV (1.56 to 50 mg/kg; PO) was given 25 minutes or 24 hours prior to evaluation. The effects of DOV (12.5 to 50 mg/kg; PO) in the FST were evaluated 25 minutes posttreatment.   DOV (6.25 to 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced alcohol-maintained responding by 59 to 88% at 25 minutes posttreatment, without significantly altering sucrose responding. The reduction in alcohol responding (44% at 50 mg/kg) was sustained for up to 120 hours after a single dose. Administration of a single dose of DOV (25, 50 mg/kg) 24 hours before testing suppressed alcohol responding for 48 hours by 59 to 62%. DOV (12.5 to 50 mg/kg) also dose-dependently reduced immobility of P rats in the FST.   DOV produces both prolonged and selective reductions of alcohol-motivated behaviors in P rats. The elimination kinetics of DOV suggests that its long duration of action may be due to an active metabolite. DOV also produced robust AD-like effects in P rats. We propose that DOV may be useful in treating comorbid alcoholism and depression in humans. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  2. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  4. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...

  5. Effect of Bile Alcohols on the Microbial 7α-dehydroxylation of Chenodeoxycholic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, A.; Midtvedt, T.; Skrede, S.; Sjövall, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bile alcohols on the microbial 7α-dehydroxylation of chenodeoxycholic acid was investigated. Bile alcohols isolated from urine of patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis were added to anaerobic incubations of rat faecal microflora or isolated 'Strain II' with [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid, and the formation of labelled metabolites was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after 7 d of incubation. The 7α-dehydroxylation by rat faecal microflora was inhi...

  6. Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in

  7. [Pharmacological study on hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation effects of the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Zhi; Yuan, Xian-Ling; Tan, Yuan-Feng; Ning, Xiao-Qing

    2013-10-01

    To study the effects of hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation of the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus and offer pharmacological and experimental basis for its safe and effective use in clinic. The effects of hemostasist were observed with tail breaking method, capillary tube method and slide method; Hot board and body distortion induced by acetic acid methods were applied in mice analgesia experiment, the mice model of acute auricle swelling induced by dmi ethylbenzene and capillary permeability induced by acetic acid were applied to observe the anti inflammatory effects. The alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus could significantly reduce the bleeding time and the clotting time, delay the plant reaction time and reduce the writhing times of the mice, and it also had effect on inhibiting swelling of mice ear and the permeability of the capillary. These results suggest that the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus has the effects of hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation.

  8. Effects of ethanol on offspring of C57BL/6J mice alcoholized during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinfeld Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed in the gestation and offspring of alcoholized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed overnight with stud males and the presence of a sperm plug in the next morning indicated the onset of gestation. Pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matched groups. In the alcoholized group, the mice received a high protein liquid diet ad libitum containing 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories (5.28% v/v from gestation day 5 to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containing isocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol. After postnatal day zero, the dams received food pellets and tap water ad libitum. On postnatal day 6 the pups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the 60th day of life. The majority of the pregnant dams that have received ethanol completed the gestational period, and the chronic consumption of alcohol did not interfere with the number of dams that gave birth. The alcoholized and control dams gained an equivalent weight and consumed an equivalent volume of diet throughout the gestation. The number of pups from alcohol diet dams was 46,26% smaller compared with the control group. There were less male than female pups in the offspring of alcoholized mice. Teratogeny like gastroschisis and limb malformation were present in the offspring of alcoholized dams. The body weight of the offspring of alcoholized mice increased from the 18th to the 36th postnatal day.

  9. Economic Recession, Alcohol, and Suicide Rates: Comparative Effects of Poverty, Foreclosure, and Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Kaplan, Mark S; Huguet, Nathalie; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; McFarland, Bentson H

    2017-04-01

    Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008-2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005-2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level. Panel models with year and state fixed effects included county-level measures of unemployment, foreclosure, and poverty rates. Poverty rates were strongly associated with suicide rates for both genders and all age groups, were positively associated with alcohol involvement in suicides for men aged 45-64 years, and negatively associated for men aged 20-44 years. Foreclosure rates were negatively associated with suicide rates for women and those aged ≥65 years but positively related for those aged 45-64 years. Unemployment rate effects on suicide rates were mediated by poverty rates in all groups. Population risk of suicide was most clearly associated with county-level poverty rates, indicating that programs addressing area poverty should be targeted for reducing suicide risk. Poverty rates were also associated with increased alcohol involvement for men aged 45-64 years, indicating a role for alcohol in suicide for this working-aged group. However, negative associations between economic indicators and alcohol involvement were found for four groups, suggesting that non-economic factors or more general economic effects not captured by these indicators may have played a larger role in alcohol-related suicide increases. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA (ΔPUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ΔPUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ΔPUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The compositions of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty acid composition, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA-induced changes in fatty acid composition and preserves membrane integrity.

  11. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kids and Alcohol KidsHealth / For Parents / Kids and Alcohol What's in ... it as they grow up. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of ...

  12. Gender and Direction of Effect of Alcohol Problems and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homman, Lina E; Edwards, Alexis C; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-03-21

    Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607). Three waves of questionnaire-based data were collected over the first two years of college (in 2011-2013). Cross-lagged models were applied to examine the possible direction of effect of internalizing symptoms and alcohol problems. Possible effects of gender were investigated using multigroup modeling. There were significant correlations between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms. A direction of effect was found between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms but differed between genders. A unidirectional relationship varying with age was identified for males where alcohol problems initially predicted internalizing symptoms followed by internalizing symptoms predicting alcohol problems. For females, a unidirectional relationship existed wherein alcohol problems predicted internalizing symptoms. Conclusions/Importance: We conclude that the relationship between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms is complex and differ between genders. In males, both phenotypes are predictive of each other, while in females the relationship is driven by alcohol problems. Importantly, our study examines a population-based sample, revealing that the observed relationships between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.

  13. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  14. France's Évin Law on the control of alcohol advertising: content, effectiveness and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Spilka, Stanislas; Mutatayi, Carine; Rigaud, Alain; Lecas, Franck; Beck, François

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the 2015 version of the French Évin Law that was implemented in 1991 with the objective of protecting young people from alcohol advertising. Data were obtained from survey questions measuring exposure and receptivity to alcohol advertisements that were introduced for the first time in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). A representative sample of 6642 10th-12th grade students (mean age 17.3 years) were interviewed in 198 schools in France by a self-administered questionnaire. Information was collected on alcohol advertising exposure in different media (outside billboards, internet, etc.) and receptivity to recent advertisements (attractiveness, incentive to drink, etc.). The majority of students declared that they had been exposed at least once a month to alcohol advertisements in supermarkets (73.2%), in movies (66.1%), magazines and newspapers (59.1%), on billboards in streets (54.5%), and on the internet (54.1%). Concerning the last recalled advertisements, 27.8% remembered the beverage type, 18.2% the brand, 13% felt like having a drink after having seen the advertisement and 19.6% found the advertisement attractive (boys ranked significantly higher than girls for all these indicators; P-value effectively from exposure to alcohol advertising in France. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The effects of stereotype threat and contextual cues on alcohol users' inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Qureshi, Adam; Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that users of illicit substances exhibit diminished cognitive function under stereotype threat. Advancing this research, the current study aimed to examine the effects of stereotype threat on alcohol users' inhibitory control. It also examined whether drinkers demonstrate a greater approach bias towards alcohol-related relative to neutral stimuli. Fifty-five participants were assigned randomly to a stereotype threat condition, in which they were primed with a negative stereotype linking drinking behavior to cognitive decline, or a non-threat control condition. All participants then completed a modified version of the Cued Go/No-Go Association Test that exposed participants to alcohol-related and neutral pictorial stimuli and sound cues. Stereotype threatened participants demonstrated a speed-accuracy trade off, taking significantly longer to respond to go-trials with equivalent accuracy to the control condition. They also showed reduced response accuracy to both alcohol-related and neutral stimuli in reversed instruction trials. Participants in the control condition were both more accurate and quicker to respond to alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. These results suggest that awareness of negative stereotypes pertaining to alcohol-related impulsivity may have a harmful effect on inhibitive cognitive performance. This may have implications for public health campaigns and for methodological designs with high levels of procedural signaling with respect to not inadvertently inducing stereotype threat and impacting impulsivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes

  17. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Kristen E.; Helms, Christa M.; Sobus, Jon R.; Daunais, James B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may be key sites for these effects. Here, we measured circulating levels of several steroid hormones and performed whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from acutely-prepared BNST slices of male rhesus monkeys allowed to self-administer alcohol for 12 months or a control solution. Initial comparisons revealed that BNST neurons in alcohol-drinking monkeys had decreased membrane resistance, increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) with no change in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). We then used a combined variable cluster analysis and linear mixed model statistical approach to determine whether specific factors including stress and sex hormones, age, and measures of alcohol consumption and intoxication are related to these BNST measures. Modeling results showed that specific measures of alcohol consumption and stress-related hormone levels predicted differences in membrane conductance in BNST neurons. Distinct groups of adrenal stress hormones were negatively associated with the frequency of sIPSCs and sEPSCs, and alcohol drinking measures and basal neuronal membrane properties were additional positive predictors of inhibitory, but not excitatory, PSCs. The amplitude of sEPSCs was highly positively correlated with age, independent of other variables. Together, these results suggest that chronic voluntary alcohol consumption strongly influences limbic function in non-human primates, potentially via interactions with or modulation by other physiological variables, including stress steroid hormones and age. PMID:26223349

  19. Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access. NBER Working Paper No. 17637

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M.; Swensen, Isaac D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. We first estimate the effect using an RD design but argue that this approach is not well suited to the research question in our setting. Our preferred approach instead exploits the longitudinal nature of the data, identifying the effect by measuring the extent to which a…

  20. Reducing Children's Susceptibility to Alcohol Use: Effects of a Home-Based Parenting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M; Choi, Seulki; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children's cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; mean age of 9.2 years at baseline) completed telephone interviews prior to randomization and follow-up interviews 12, 24, 36, and 48 months post-baseline. Mothers of children randomized to treatment received a 5-month-long parenting program during year 1, followed by two 1-month-long boosters in years 2 and 3. Exposure to the program was significantly inversely associated with susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline (b = -0.03, p = .04), with no variation in program effects by parental alcohol use or mother's race/ethnicity or education, suggesting broad public health relevance of the parenting program. Path analyses of simple indirect effects through each hypothesized mediator showed that program exposure positively influenced parental communication to counter pro-drinking influences in the family and media domains and parental rule setting 36 months post-baseline; these variables, in turn, predicted reduced susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline. Parallel (multiple) mediation analysis showed that the program had a significant indirect effect on susceptibility through parental rule setting. Together, the findings indicate that internalization of protective alcohol-related expectancies and intentions is possible among children whose mothers provide early exposure to alcohol-specific socialization. Additional research is needed to link alcohol-specific socialization during childhood with adolescent drinking outcomes.

  1. The Effects of the Global Economic Recession and a Reduced Alcohol Tax on Hospitalizations Due to Alcohol-Attributed Diseases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Mao; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2017-05-30

    This study is to assess the effects of the 2008 economic crisis and a 2009 alcohol tax reduction on alcohol-related morbidity for men of different socioeconomic statuses in Taiwan. Admissions data for the period from 2007 to 2012 for men aged 24-59 years in 2007 was retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database. With stratification over three income levels, an interrupted time-series analysis examining the effects of the crisis and taxation reduction on incidence rates of hospitalization for alcohol-attributed diseases (AADs) was employed. The low income group showed a significant (p recession and the reduction of the alcohol tax resulted in an increased rate of AAD among low income men.

  2. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  3. Effects of acute alcohol and driving complexity in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Julianne L; Lewis, Ben; Boissoneault, Jeff; Frazier, Ian R; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2018-03-01

    Our previous work demonstrated differential neurobehavioral effects of low-dose alcohol consumption on older and younger adults in a driving simulator. However, the ability to enhance or suppress a response in such context has yet to be examined. The current study contrasted older and younger drivers' responses to specific stimuli (i.e., relevant, irrelevant) in scenarios of differing complexity following low-dose acute alcohol administration. Healthy older (55-70) and younger (25-35) adults completed two driving scenarios (i.e., country and metropolis) both before and after consuming beverages targeted to reach peak BrACs of 0.00, 0.04, or 0.065%. Throughout the simulation, participants encountered relevant stimuli (e.g., pedestrians walking into the street) and irrelevant stimuli (e.g., pedestrians walking parallel). Peak deceleration, range of steering, and distance until brake application were assessed within a 450-ft window preceding each stimulus. Following low-dose alcohol consumption, older adults shifted from a strategy using both deceleration and steering to relying solely on deceleration in responding to relevant stimuli in the country. Older adults under both low and moderate alcohol conditions displayed an inability to withhold responses to irrelevant stimuli in the metropolis. These findings are consistent with our prior work showing differential effects of low-dose alcohol on older, relative to younger, adults. The interactive effects of age and alcohol, however, depend on stimulus type and environmental complexity. Continued investigation of neurobehavioral mechanisms in ecologically valid paradigms is necessary for understanding the implications of the combined impairing effects of alcohol and older age.

  4. Are Alcohol Taxation and Pricing Policies Regressive? Product-Level Effects of a Specific Tax and a Minimum Unit Price for Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-07-01

    To compare estimated effects of two policy alternatives, (i) a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol and (ii) specific (per-unit) taxation, upon current product prices, per capita spending (A$), and per capita consumption by income quintile, consumption quintile and product type. Estimation of baseline spending and consumption, and modelling policy-to-price and price-to-consumption effects of policy changes using scanner data from a panel of demographically representative Australian households that includes product-level details of their off-trade alcohol spending (n = 885; total observations = 12,505). Robustness checks include alternative price elasticities, tax rates, minimum price thresholds and tax pass-through rates. Current alcohol taxes and alternative taxation and pricing policies are not highly regressive. Any regressive effects are small and concentrated among heavy consumers. The lowest-income consumers currently spend a larger proportion of income (2.3%) on alcohol taxes than the highest-income consumers (0.3%), but the mean amount is small in magnitude [A$5.50 per week (95%CI: 5.18-5.88)]. Both a MUP and specific taxation will have some regressive effects, but the effects are limited, as they are greatest for the heaviest consumers, irrespective of income. Among the policy alternatives, a MUP is more effective in reducing consumption than specific taxation, especially for consumers in the lowest-income quintile: an estimated mean per capita reduction of 11.9 standard drinks per week (95%CI: 11.3-12.6). Policies that increase the cost of the cheapest alcohol can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, without having highly regressive effects. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Prejudice on Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J; Lisco, Claire G

    2015-07-01

    This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men's sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities.

  6. Effects of Assault Type on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Coexisting Depression and Alcohol Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although assault exposure is common in mental health and substance misusing populations, screening for assaults in treatment settings is frequently overlooked. This secondary analysis explored the effects of past sexual (SA and physical (PA assault on depression, alcohol misuse, global functioning and attrition in the Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single focussed Intervention (DAISI project, whose participants (N = 278 received cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for their depression and/or alcohol misuse. Of the 278 DAISI participants, 220 consented to screening for past assault (either by a stranger or non-stranger at baseline. Depression, alcohol, and global functioning assessments were administered at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post baseline. A between-group analysis was used to assess differences between SA and No SA, and PA and No PA groupings, on adjusted mean treatment outcomes across all assessment periods. SA and PA participants had similar mean symptom reductions compared to No SA and No PA participants except for lower depression and global functioning change scores at the 12-month follow-up. People with coexisting depression and alcohol misuse reporting SA or PA can respond well to CBT for depression and alcohol misuse. However, follow-up is recommended in order to monitor fluctuations in outcomes.

  7. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis : Meta-analysis of effects on lipids and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunying; Li, Yongmei; Zheng, Sichao; Yang, Xin; Wang, Tenghua; Zeng, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the risk of major cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the association between moderate alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis. In this study four databases and reference lists of retrieved articles were searched to identify eligible studies. A meta-analysis was carried out of all interventional studies that assessed the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A I, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, fibrinogen, and other biomarkers previously found to be associated with risk of atherosclerosis. A total of 31 studies met the eligibility criteria. In response to moderate alcohol consumption, low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by 0.08 mmol/l (P = 0.05), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.08 mmol/l (P cholesterol and triglyceride remained the same. Moreover, interleukin 6 decreased by 0.43 pg/ml (P = 0.03), whereas C‑reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor a remained the same. Several hemostatic factors and adiponectin were modestly affected by alcohol consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption is causally related to lower risk of atherosclerosis through changes in lipid profiles and inflammation.

  10. The short- and long-run effects of smoking cessation on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukert, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-term effects of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption using the Lung Health Study, a randomized smoking cessation program. The paper estimates the relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption using several self-reported and objective smoking measures, while also implementing a two-stage least squares estimation strategy that utilizes the randomized smoking cessation program assignment as an instrument for smoking. The analysis leads to three salient findings. First, self-reported and clinically verified smoking measures provide mixed evidence on the short-term impact of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption. Second, the long-term impact of smoking on alcohol consumption, measured with the historic 5 years smoking behavior, suggests that those with the highest average cigarette consumption and those with the longest smoking history see the largest increase in alcohol consumption. Specifically, abstaining from smoking or reducing the average cigarette consumption to the mean level lowers alcohol consumption by roughly 25% per week. As a result, these findings present comprehensive evidence that smoking and drinking are complements in the long-term and that the public health and finance benefits in smoking cessations treatments are undervalued.

  11. Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Prejudice on Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278

  12. Effects of a school-based prevention program on European adolescents' patterns of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Maria Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2011-02-01

    School-based substance abuse prevention programs are widespread but are rarely evaluated in Europe. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a new school-based prevention program against substance use on the frequency of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problem behaviors among European students. During the school year 2004-2005, a total of 7,079 students aged 12-14 years from 143 schools in seven European countries participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (65 schools, 3,532 students) or to a 12-session standardized program based on the comprehensive social influence model (78 schools, 3,547 students). Alcohol use and frequency of alcohol-related problem behaviors were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. The association between intervention and changes in alcohol-related outcomes was expressed as odds ratio (OR), estimated by multilevel regression model. The preventive program was associated with a decreased risk of reporting alcohol-related problems (OR = .78, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = .63-.98), although this reduction was not statistically significant in the subgroup of 743 current drinkers at baseline. The risk for alcohol consumption was not modified by exposure to the program (OR = .93, 95% CI = .79-1.09). In the intervention group, nondrinkers and occasional drinkers at baseline progressed toward frequent drinking less often than in the control group. School curricula based on the comprehensive social-influence model can delay progression to frequent drinking and reduce occurrence of alcohol-related behavioral problems in European students. These results, albeit moderate, have potentially useful implications at the population level. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  14. The effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error adjustments

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    Klaas eBombeke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown detrimental effects of alcohol on post-error adjustments. In contrast to previous studies, which focused on only one aspect of post-error adaptive behavior, we compared the effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error slowing, post-error reduction of interference and post-error improvement of accuracy. Moreover, we used a between-subjects design (N = 45 comparing a control condition to both an alcohol and an alcohol-placebo condition as to disentangle physiological and expectancy effects of alcohol. In a standard Stroop congruency task, we found that intoxicated participants as well as participants with the incorrect belief of being intoxicated showed significant decreased post-error slowing compared to a control group. Furthermore, we found evidence for a condition-independent post-error increase of interference and post-error decrease of accuracy. The underlying mechanisms of the post-error adaptation effects are discussed in terms of the orienting account (Notebaert et al., 2009.

  15. Psychometric validation of the Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M; Newins, Amie R; Mills, Llewellyn; Ham, Lindsay S

    2017-12-01

    Young people are increasingly consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). As coingestion of these beverages results in greater adverse consequences than from drinking alcohol alone, we need to understand what factors contribute to and deter coingestion. Existing studies in this area have not utilized a theoretically based or empirically validated measure of outcome expectancies for drinking AmEDs. Our study modified Morean, Corbin, and Treat's (2012) Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale to assess the expected effects of drinking AmEDs. We evaluated the factor structure and concurrent validity of the Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks (AEAMEDS) among 549 university students, aged 18-25, who had a lifetime history of consuming alcohol (231 had consumed AmEDs in the past 90 days). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 4-factor structure. Consistent with hypotheses, stronger high arousal/positive expectancies and weaker low arousal/negative expectancies were associated with greater AmED use. At the bivariate level, stronger low arousal/positive expectancies were associated with greater quantities of AmED use, but this relationship disappeared when taking into account other outcome expectancies. Moreover, students expected low arousal/positive expectancies to be less intense when consuming AmEDs than alcohol alone, but ratings for all other AmED expectancies were equivalent to consuming alcohol alone. These findings contribute to our knowledge of risk and protective factors for AmED use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Effect of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Consumption Among Individuals With Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among participants (N = 151) who were enrolled...

  17. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers

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    Sonja Mellingen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS.

  18. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS.

  19. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Schulten, I.G.H.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controll...

  20. Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to review physio-pathological effects of alcohol on cardiovascular and related systems and to describe its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol and hypertension is well known, and a reduction in the alcohol intake is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. Moreover, alcohol has both pressor and depressor actions. The latter actions are clear in Oriental subjects, especially in those who show alcohol flush because of the genetic variation in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Repeated alcohol intake in the evening causes an elevation in daytime and a reduction in nighttime blood pressure (BP), with little change in the average 24-h BP in Japanese men. Thus, the hypertensive effect of alcohol seems to be overestimated by the measurement of casual BP during the day. Heavy alcohol intake seems to increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia and heart failure. On the other hand, alcohol may act to prevent atherosclerosis and to decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease, mainly by increasing HDL cholesterol and inhibiting thrombus formation. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been observed between the level of alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality and total mortality. It is reasonable to reduce the alcohol intake to less than 30 ml per day for men and 15 ml per day for women in the management of hypertension. As a small amount of alcohol seems to be beneficial, abstinence from alcohol is not recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  1. Maternal age, alcohol abuse history, and quality of parenting as moderators of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on 7.5-year intellectual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Sokol, Robert J; Chiodo, Lisa M; Corobana, Raluca

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the extensive literature documenting IQ deficits in patients with fetal alcohol syndrome, effects on IQ have not generally been reported for children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). This study examined the role of maternal age, MAST, and quality of parenting in moderating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the WISC-III IQ test in moderate-to-heavily exposed children. A total of 337 inner-city African American children whose mothers were recruited prenatally were administered the WISC-III at 7.5 years. Alcohol exposure was assesed with a timeline follow-back interview administered at every prenatal clinic visit. Moderating effects of the three risk factors were examined by adding interaction terms to regression analyses and dichotomizing the moderators and performing separate regressions on the two groups. Prenatal alcohol exposure was related to WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility but not to Full Scale IQ for the sample as a whole. However, among children born to older mothers, an alcohol effect emerged on Full Scale IQ and five of seven composite IQ scores. Similarly, adverse effects were seen among children of MAST-positive mothers and children whose parents provided less optimal cognitive stimulation. Each additional ounce of absolute alcohol consumed per day during pregnancy was associated with a 2.9-point decrease in Full Scale IQ and a 5.6-point decrement on Freedom from Distractibility. This study is the first to demonstrate IQ effects among children with ARND born to older and MAST-positive mothers, particularly in relation to first-trimester drinking. These findings suggest that there are subgroups of more vulnerable and severely affected children whose intellectual performance is compromised. A moderate- to heavy-drinking mother who has given birth to an unaffected child when she was younger needs to be warned that her risk of having an adversely affected child increases as she grows older.

  2. Effects of alcohol and initial gambling outcomes on within-session gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronce, Jessica M; Corbin, William R

    2010-04-01

    Concurrent drinking and gambling is prevalent among young adults and may increase negative consequences associated with each behavior. The effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, gambling-related cognitions, and impulsivity on gambling behavior were evaluated. Initial gambling outcomes, gambling-related cognitions, and impulsivity were also assessed as potential moderators of the relation between alcohol and gambling behavior. Participants (N = 130) were randomly assigned to receive active placebo or alcohol (0.84 g/kg and 0.76 g/kg for men and women, respectively) and were invited to wager on a simulated slot machine programmed to produce 1 of 3 initial outcomes (win, breakeven, or loss) before beginning a progressive loss schedule. Alcohol consumption was associated with larger average bets and more rapid loss of all available funds, though no evidence was found for predicted main effects and interactions for gambling persistence. The effect of impulsivity was moderated by beverage condition, such that higher levels of impulsivity were associated with larger average bets for participants in the placebo but not the alcohol group. Results have direct implications for individual-focused and public-health interventions. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Alcohol and aggressive behavior in men--moderating effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L

    2012-03-01

    We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans. © 2011 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Short-term effects of alcohol-based disinfectant and detergent on skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant, to a det......The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant......, to a detergent and to an alcohol-based disinfectant/detergent alternately. The hardening effect in preirritated skin after a 4-week interval was also evaluated. Detergent, disinfectant and disinfectant/detergent alternately were applied daily every 15 min for 6 h for 2 days to the flexor upper arms and forearms...... of 15 volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks, a sodium lauryl sulfate patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified by visual score, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour at baseline, D3, D8, D35 and D37. As evaluated by clinical assessment, detergent...

  5. Interactive effects of individuation, family factors, and stress on adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, J H; Adams, G J; Getz, J G; Stovall, T

    2001-10-01

    A prospective, school-based study of increasing alcohol use in a multi-ethnic sample of 7,540 adolescents showed that the effects of stress, family conflict, and parental monitoring were differentially moderated by two modes of individuation. The effects of stress were moderated by ethnic status and individuation. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  6. The Effect of Alcohol Extract of Neem Seed on Ovulation, Estrous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a search for a cheap, available and effective contraceptive to meet the increasing need for population control. This study was designed to determine the effect of alcoholic extract of Neem seed on the estrous cycle, ovulation and fertility of 38 female cyclic adult Sprague–Dawley rats weighing between 140 – 180g.

  7. Effect of anticipatory stress on placebo alcohol consumption in a bar laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael H; Wood, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Only one laboratory study has examined the relation between stress and alcohol use in an ecologically valid drinking context. In that prior study, drinking was measured after the stressful situation. To examine the effect of an anticipatory stressor, and trait social anxiety on "alcohol" consumption in a bar laboratory. College students aged 18 and older (N = 127) in same-sex groups of two or three participants took part in a study that ostensibly examined alcohol's effect on language fluency. Using a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to a stress or control condition. Participants in the stress condition anticipated giving a stressful speech for the fluency procedure, whereas those in the control group anticipated a nonstressful activity. Before the alleged fluency task, groups could order and consume mixed drinks ad lib in a bar laboratory. No beverages actually contained alcohol, but we used a validated procedure to ensure that participants included in these analyses were deceived. Primary analyses were performed with a hierarchical linear model (HLM) due to a substantial group/modeling effect. Counter to expectations, participants in the control group consumed more placebo alcohol than those in the stress condition. This main effect was moderated by past 3 months' drinks per week, such that the effect was attenuated (or reversed) among heavy drinkers. No main or interaction effects were observed for trait social anxiety. Some stressors (i.e., those invoking performance anxiety) may decrease consumption. People with higher levels of alcohol involvement might be especially motivated to drink for tension reduction purposes.

  8. Risk modifying effect of social capital on measures of heavy alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, harms, and secondhand effects: national survey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Elissa R; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2005-04-01

    To examine associations between social capital and individual risk for alcohol abuse and harms and identify protective effect mechanisms. Multilevel multivariate analysis with individual level data from a national panel survey of drinking and a contextual measure of social capital reflecting college mean aggregate reports of student volunteerism. Outcomes include heavy episodic (binge) drinking, frequent drinking, frequent drunkenness, diagnosable alcohol abuse, intentional drunkenness, acquisition of binge drinking, harms, secondhand effects from others' drinking. United States, 119 four year colleges. Representative samples of youth ages 18-24 surveyed in 1997 and 1999 using an anonymous mailed questionnaire (total n = 27 687). Students from colleges with higher levels of social capital reported reduced risks for binge drinking (adjusted OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.69, p = 0.002), frequent drunkenness (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.98, p = 0.04), acquisition of binge drinking in college (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.95, p = 0.03), and alcohol abuse (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.91, p = 0.02) in multilevel multivariate analyses that controlled for individual volunteering, the measure on which social capital was based. Higher levels of social capital protected against multiple drinking related harms (adjusted OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90, p = 0.02) and secondhand drinking effects (adjusted OR, 0.30, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.58, p = 0.0003). Significant cross level interactions exist between fraternity/sorority membership and social capital for measures of risky drinking. Harm reduction primarily reflects consumption modification. Social capital exerts strong protective effects on alcohol abuse and harm in college including among high risk students.

  9. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59 % female, 33 % non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period. PMID:26036995

  10. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on the poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terence, M.C.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) is a polymer used as bio material. The PVAL was used as ocular insert and may be used as a drug delivery system (DDS) for pair PVAL/gancyclovir, where the last one is used for treatment of people with retinitis caused by cytomegalovirus. These inserts are crosslinked systems. The crosslink was induced by gamma radiation applied in polymer. The samples of PVAL was irradiated by gamma rays with doses in the range 0 to 100 kGy. On irradiated PVAL samples was observed a low yellowness, attributed to the formation of polymeric radicals that are stable in the structure of the polymer, from radiolysis of PVAL. (author)

  12. LET effect on irradiation of hydroxyphthal imide in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyphthalimide(C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOH) was irradiated with C ion (290MeV/u) in isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. LET was 13.2 and 26.5 keV/m. Dose was 5 and 10 kGy. A little amount of phthalimide was produced. The G value of the production of phthalimide by ion irradiation was less than that by -irradiation except for in methanol. In methanol solution, the production rate of phthalimide increased with increasing the value of LET. The amount of the substitution for C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOD in methanol-d decreased by ion irradiation. These results suggest that the reaction mechanism in ion irradiation is different from -irradiation. (author)

  13. Is ADH1C genotype relevant for the cardioprotective effect of alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Næss, Oyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Mørland, Jørg

    2013-03-01

    The cardioprotective effect of ethanol has been suggested to be linked to one of the ethanol metabolizing enzymes (ADH1C), which constitutes a high V(max) and a low V(max) variant. This has been demonstrated in some studies, while others have not been able to replicate the findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the different ADH1C genotypes, death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and alcohol in a material larger than the previously published studies. Eight hundred CHD deaths as well as 1303 controls were genotyped for the high V(max) (γ1) and the low V(max) (γ2) ADH1C variant. Information of alcohol use was available for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to study if the decreased risk of death from CHD in alcohol consuming subjects was more pronounced in subjects homozygous for the γ2 allele (γ2γ2 subjects) compared to γ1γ1 and γ1γ2 subjects. The odds ratio (OR) for death from CHD in alcohol consumers compared to abstainers was similar in the genotype groups, i.e., 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88) in γ1γ1 subjects and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.91) in γ2γ2 subjects. Also when stratifying the results by gender and when dividing alcohol consumers into different alcohol consumption groups, there was no difference in the OR between the different genotype groups. This study, which included the largest study group published so far, failed to find any link between the ADH1C genotype and the cardioprotective effects of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperative disinfection of surgeons' hands: use of alcoholic solutions and effects of gloves on skin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowbury, E J; Lilly, H A; Ayliffe, G A

    1974-11-16

    A single application of about 10 ml of 95% alcoholic chlorhexidine (0.5%) or tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol (0.1%) rubbed on to the hands until they were dry led to mean reduction in viable bacterial counts from standard handwashings of 97.9 +/- 1.09% and 91.8 +/- 4.63% respectively. After six of such treatments, three on each of two successive days, the mean reductions in relation to viable counts before the first treatment were 99.7 +/- 0.09% for alcoholic chlorhexidine and 99.5 +/- 0.17% for tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol. These reductions were greater than those obtained with 4% chlorhexidine detergent solution- 87.1 +/- 3.5% and 98.2 +/- 1.6%, and with 95% or 70% ethyl alcohol and with aqueous 0.5% chlorhexidine. Preoperative washing of the surgeon's hands with alcoholic chlorhexidine used without addition of water is more effective and less expensive than handwashing with antiseptic detergent preparations and running water.The viable counts of washings from hands treated with various antiseptics, including ethyl alcohol, were lower in relation to the pretreatment levels when gloves had been worn for three hours than when samples for counts were taken immediately after the antiseptic treatment. No such difference was found in samplings from hands washed with unmedicated soap.Tests for residual action of antiseptics on the skin showed a greater effect with alcoholic chlorhexidine than with tetrabrom-o-methyl phenol, though both showed greater residual activity than an Irgasan DP 300 detergent preparation. No residual action was shown after 70% ethyl alcohol.

  15. The Effects of the 2004 Reduction in the Price of Alcohol on Alcohol-Related Harm in Finland – a Natural Experiment Based on Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Herttua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in alcohol pricing have been documented as inversely associated with changes in consumption and alcohol-related problems. Evidence of the association between price changes and health problems is nevertheless patchy and is based to a large extent on cross-sectional state-level data, or time series of such cross-sectional analyses. Natural experimental studies have been called for. There was a substantial reduction in the price of alcohol in Finland in 2004 due to a reduction in alcohol taxes of one third, on average, and the abolition of duty-free allowances for travellers from the EU. These changes in the Finnish alcohol policy could be considered a natural experiment, which offered a good opportunity to study what happens with regard to alcohol-related problems when prices go down. The present study investigated the effects of this reduction in alcohol prices on (1 alcohol-related and all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, (2 alcohol-related morbidity in terms of hospitalisation, (3 socioeconomic differentials in alcohol-related mortality, and (4 small-area differences in interpersonal violence in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. Differential trends in alcohol-related mortality prior to the price reduction were also analysed.  A variety of population-based register data was used in the study. Time-series intervention analysis modelling was applied to monthly aggregations of deaths and hospitalisation for the period 1996-2006. These and other mortality analyses were carried out for men and women aged 15 years and over. Socioeconomic differentials in alcohol-related mortality were assessed on a before/after basis, mortality being followed up in 2001-2003 (before the price reduction and 2004-2005 (after. Alcohol-related mortality was defined in all the studies on mortality on the basis of information on both underlying and contributory causes of death. Hospitalisation related to alcohol meant that there was a

  16. Protective effect of corn peptides against alcoholic liver injury in men with chronic alcohol consumption: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhong; Pan, Xingchang; Zhang, Shixiu; Wang, Wenxian; Cai, Muyi; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Fan; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-12-13

    Corn peptides (CPs) are a novel food prepared from corn gluten meal, which is a main by-product of the corn starch industry. Recently, significant beneficial effects of CPs on early alcoholic liver injury in rats and on acute alcoholic injury in mice were observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report showing that CPs supplementation has beneficial effects on lipid profile, oxidative stress and alcoholic liver injury in men with chronic alcohol consumption. A 9-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2012 to assess the hepatoprotective effect of CPs. A total of 161 men were randomized to receive CPs (n=53), whey protein (n=54), or corn starch placebo (n=54) at the same dose of 2 g twice daily. 146 participants completed the study. Serum lipid profile, serum markers of liver injury, oxidative stress and inflammation, and fatty liver based on the results of abdominal ultrasonography were assessed at the beginning and end of the intervention. CPs supplementation (4 g/d) for 9 weeks significantly lowered serum levels or activities of total cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α, and significantly increased serum activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, but the same dose of whey protein and corn starch (placebo) did not demonstrate these effects. Our results indicate that CPs may have protective effects on alcohol-induced liver damage via modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. CPs may potentially be used as a functional food for the management of alcoholic liver disease in subjects with chronic alcohol consumption.

  17. Changes in depression mediate the effects of AA attendance on alcohol use outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Tonigan, J Scott

    2018-01-01

    Depression may contribute to increased drinking in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance predicts drinking reductions, there is conflicting information regarding the intermediary role played by reductions in depression. We explored whether AA attendance reduces depressive symptoms, the degree to which improvement in depression results in reductions in drinking, and in which subgroups these effects occur. 253 early AA affiliates (63% male) were recruited and assessed at baseline 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. AA attendance and alcohol use outcomes were obtained with the Form 90. Mediation analyses were performed at early (3, 6, and 9 months) and late (12, 18, and 24 months) follow-up to investigate the degree to which reductions in depression mediated the effect of AA attendance on drinking, controlling for concurrent drinking. In addition, a series of moderated mediation analyses were performed using baseline depression severity as a moderator. At early follow-up, reductions in depression (6 months) mediated the effects of AA attendance (3 months) on later drinking (drinks per drinking day) (9 months) (b = -0.02, boot CI [-0.055, -0.0004]), controlling for drinking at 6 months. Baseline depression severity did not moderate the degree to which BDI mediated the effects of AA attendance on alcohol use (ps > .05). These findings provide further evidence that depression reduction is a mechanism by which AA attendance leads to reductions in alcohol use. Improving depression may help reduce alcohol use in individuals with AUD, and AA attendance may be an effective way to achieve that goal.

  18. Gender Effects in a Multischool Alcohol Media Literacy Study With Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Howard, Steven J; Kervin, Lisa K; Jones, Sandra C

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol media literacy (AML) programs have achieved positive results for alcohol prevention; however, gender may moderate program effectiveness. This study investigated gender differences for an Australian AML intervention. Fifth and sixth graders ( N = 165), allocated to an intervention or wait-list control group, participated in an AML program. Student questionnaires were administered at three time points. The intervention resulted in significantly higher media deconstruction skills but did not lead to less preference for branded merchandise or greater understanding of persuasive intent, and these effects did not differ by gender. Gender differences were present in social norms for drinking and alcohol expectancies. AML education likely has appeal and benefit to both genders as it connects with students' lifeworlds. Social norms may be more difficult to shift for males due to a more ingrained drinking culture. Future research could explore contextual factors responsible for gender differences.

  19. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity......Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children...

  20. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on executive functions controlling self-regulated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Suzanne; Maisto, Stephen A; White, Corey N; Huddleson, Tani

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption may lead to deficits in the executive functions that govern self-regulation. These deficits could lead to risk-taking behaviors; therefore, it is important to determine the magnitude of these deficits on executive functioning. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on three of the executive functions that are hypothesized to affect self-regulation, which are inhibition, set shifting, and working memory, using a mixed-methods study design. The participants were 75 moderate or heavy drinkers between the ages of 21 and 35 who were randomized into one of three beverage conditions (control, placebo, or 0.65-g alcohol dose/kg body weight). Performance on working memory, set shifting, and inhibition were measured pre- and post-beverage consumption. The results showed only a significant interaction in the working memory data, as there was an increase in performance post-beverage relative to pre-beverage for the control participants as compared to the alcohol and placebo participants. It was concluded that the dose of alcohol (BAC = 0.063%) given to moderate to heavy drinkers was not sufficient to cause significant impairment in the executive functions tested. The results were further discussed and methodological concerns were considered, such as the low BAC achieved, practice effects, and insensitivity of tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How effective is the revised regulatory code for alcohol advertising in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Danika; Munro, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Australia, like several other countries, has a self-regulatory approach to advertising. However, in recent years the effectiveness of the regulatory system has been questioned, and there have been increasing public calls for an overhaul of the system. Following a formal review in 2003, the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy proposed a revised Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC), which came into operation in 2004. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of this revised system. From May 2004 until March 2005 television and magazine advertising campaigns were monitored for alcohol products. Over this period 14 complaints against alcohol advertisements were lodged with the self-regulatory board, and the authors recruited an independent expert panel to assess the advertisements and complaints. In eight of the 14 cases a majority of the judges perceived the advertisement to be in breach of the code, and in no cases did a majority perceive no breach. Conversely, however, none of the complaints were upheld by the Advertising Standards Board (ASB) and only one by the ABAC Panel. The results of this study suggest that the decisions made by the ASB in relation to complaints against alcohol advertisements are not in harmony with the judgement of independent experts, and that the ASB may not be performing an adequate job of representing community standards or protecting the community from offensive or inappropriate advertisements. Further, it appears that the revisions to the ABAC code, and associated processes, have not reduced the problems associated with alcohol advertising in Australia.

  2. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  3. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Schulten, I.G.H.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a

  4. Sugar alcohols: what is the evidence for caries-preventive and caries-therapeutic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loveren, C

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used sugar alcohols are: xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol and the products Lycasin and Palatinit. It is often claimed that xylitol is superior to the other sugar alcohols for caries control. This paper examines clinical studies on the caries-preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar alcohols with emphasis on sorbitol and xylitol. It is concluded that chewing sugar-free gum 3 or more times daily for prolonged periods of time may reduce caries incidence irrespective of the type of sugar alcohol used. It may be sufficient to do this only on school days. Sucking xylitol-containing candies or tablets may have a similar effect as chewing xylitol chewing gum. Clinical trials suggest greater caries reductions from chewing gums sweetened with xylitol than from gums sweetened with sorbitol. However, the superiority of xylitol was not confirmed in 2 out of 4 clinical trials comparing the caries-preventive effect of xylitol- with sorbitol-sweetened gums. The caries-preventive effects of polyol-containing gums and candies seem to be based on stimulation of the salivary flow, although an antimicrobial effect cannot be excluded. There is no evidence for a caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. These conclusions are in line with those of recent reviews and with the conclusions of the Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the EU Commission. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Alcohol consumption before and after a significant reduction of alcohol prices in 2004 in Finland: were the effects different across population subgroups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helakorpi, Satu; Mäkelä, Pia; Uutela, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To examine trends in adult alcohol consumption by age, gender and education from 1982 to 2008 and evaluate the effects that a significant reduction in alcohol prices in 2004 had on alcohol consumption in different population subgroups. The study population comprised respondents aged 25-64 (n = 79,100) replying to nationally representative annual postal surveys from 1982 to 2008 (average response rate 72%). The main measurements were the prevalence of respondents who had drunk at least eight (men) or five (women) drinks in the previous week ('moderate to heavy drinkers') and prevalence of those who weekly (men) or monthly (women) drank six or more drinks on a single occasion ('heavy episodic drinkers') (one 'drink' containing 11-13 g ethanol). Logistic models were used to test differences across population subgroups in the changes in drinking. Following the reduction of alcohol prices in 2004, drinking increased among men and women aged 45-64. Among men, both moderate to heavy drinking and heavy episodic drinking increased in the lowest educational group. Among women, moderate to heavy drinking increased mostly in the lowest and intermediate educational groups, while the highest increases for heavy episodic drinking were in the intermediate and highest female educational groups. Alcohol consumption increased especially among those aged 45-64 and among lower educated people following the reduction in alcohol prices in 2004 in Finland.

  6. The effect of alcohol on recombinant proteins derived from mammalian adenylyl cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Qualls-Creekmore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling pathway is implicated in the development of alcohol use disorder. Previous studies have demonstrated that ethanol enhances the activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC in an isoform specific manner; AC7 is most enhanced by ethanol, and regions responsible for enhancement by ethanol are located in the cytoplasmic domains of the AC7 protein. We hypothesize that ethanol modulates AC activity by directly interacting with the protein and that ethanol effects on AC can be studied using recombinant AC in vitro. AC recombinant proteins containing only the C1a or C2 domains of AC7 and AC9 individually were expressed in bacteria, and purified. The purified recombinant AC proteins retained enzymatic activity and isoform specific alcohol responsiveness. The combination of the C1a or C2 domains of AC7 maintained the same alcohol cutoff point as full-length AC7. We also find that the recombinant AC7 responds to alcohol differently in the presence of different combinations of activators including MnCl2, forskolin, and Gsα. Through a series of concentration-response experiments and curve fitting, the values for maximum activities, Hill coefficients, and EC50 were determined in the absence and presence of butanol as a surrogate of ethanol. The results suggest that alcohol modulates AC activity by directly interacting with the AC protein and that the alcohol interaction with the AC protein occurs at multiple sites with positive cooperativity. This study indicates that the recombinant AC proteins expressed in bacteria can provide a useful model system to investigate the mechanism of alcohol action on their activity.

  7. The reactivity of allyl and propargyl alcohols with solvated electrons: temperature and solvent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanassiev, A.M.; Okazaki, K.; Freeman, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The rate constants K 1 for the reaction of solvated electrons with allyl alcohol in a number of hydroxylic solvents differ by up to two orders of magnitude and decrease in the order tert-butyl alcohol > 2-propanol > l-propanol approximately ethanol > methanol approximately ethylene glycol > water. In methanol and ethylene glycol the rate constants (7 x 10 7 M -1 s -1 at 298 K) and activation energies (16 kJ/mol) are equal, in spite of a 32-fold difference in solvent viscosity (0.54 and 17.3 cP, respectively) and 3-fold difference in its activation energy (11 and 32 kJ/mol, respectively). The reaction in tert-butyl alcohol is nearly diffusion controlled and has a high activation energy that is characteristic of transport in that liquid (E 1 = 31 kJ/mol, E sub(eta) = 39 kJ/mol). The activation energies in the other alcohols are all 16 kJ/mol, and it is 14 kJ/mol in water. They do not correlate with transport properties. The solvent effect is connected primarily with the entropy of activation. The rate constants correlate with the solvated electron trap depth. When the electron affinity of the scavenger is small, a favorable configuration of solvent molecules about the electron/scavenger encounter pair is required for the electron jump to take place. The behavior of the rate parameters for propargyl alcohol is similar to that for allyl alcohol, but k 1 , A 1 , and E 1 are larger for the former. The ratio k(propargyl)/k(allyl) at 298 K equals 10.5 in water and decreases through the series, reaching 1.3 in tert-butyl alcohol. Rate parameters for several other scavengers are also reported. (author)

  8. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood alcohol limits: the presence of alcohol in traffic accidents according to category of driver in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Akan; İdiz, Nuri; Dalgiç, Mustafa; Uluçay, Tarik; Sincar, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under existing Turkish road traffic law, there are 2 different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits allowed for drivers in 2013: zero blood alcohol and ≤0.50 g/L. All public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol concentration while driving. Private vehicle drivers must maintain a BAC of 0.50 g/L or lower. The aim of the recent study was to evaluate the effect of these 2 legal blood alcohol limits on nonfatal traffic accidents that occurred due to the driver being under the influence of alcohol. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the blood alcohol concentration of 224 drivers in nonfatal road accidents between June 2010 and July 2011 using headspace gas chromatography at the Izmir Forensic Medicine Group Presidency, Turkey. All cases evaluated by the toxicology department were entered into a database. We used descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and independent sampling test to analyze the data. The total number of drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents was 224; 191 were private vehicle drivers and 33 were public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers. In the present study, alcohol was detected in the blood of about 27.2% (n = 61) of the 224 drivers. Sixty (31.4%) private vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents tested positive for alcohol. BAC values were also above the legal limit (0.50 g/L) in 27.7% (n = 53) of private vehicle drivers. However, the BAC was above the legal limit in only 3% (n = 1) of public transport, commercial, and official vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents. These results showed that private vehicle drivers subject to a BAC limit of ≤0.50 g/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of nonfatal accident involvement than drivers subject to a zero BAC limit (odds ratio [OR] = 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-92.22; Fisher's exact test, P drivers subject to a 0.50 g/L level (52.60 mg/dl

  9. Prediction of Thermal Properties and Effect of OH Substituent for Poly(vinyl alcohol)s by Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yooko; Yoshii, Noriyuki; Iwatsubo, Tetsushiro

    2004-08-01

    Since heat storage technology contributes greatly to the effective use of energy, we are attempting to develop latent heat storage materials. If computer simulations enable the estimation of material properties prior to experiments, they will provide us with very effective tools for the development of new materials. We use molecular dynamics calculations to predict the melting points and latent heats of fusion, which are crucial thermal properties for evaluating the suitability of heat-storage materials. As the object of calculation, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was chosen, because polymer materials are effective in that they can be made to cover all temperature ranges by changing the molecular weight. The melting points were determined from the volume change, and the latent heats of fusion were determined from the internal energy. As for these calculations, it was ascertained that these thermal properties were suitable values in comparison with the results of actual calorimetry. From the comparative calculation of the polymer consistent force field (PCFF) and optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS) force field, it was shown that the intermolecular potential could be simplified. Moreover, the stability of the structural isomer of PVA and the state of the hydrogen bond were evaluated, because a strong intermolecular bond leads to structural stability and a high melting temperature.

  10. Happy hours and other alcohol discounts in cafés: prevalence and effects on underage adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Joris; van Noordenburg, Marieke; de Jong, Menno

    2008-09-01

    Adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors may be affected by marketing efforts of the alcohol industry, retailers, and the catering industry. Most research has focused on the effects of commercials and media exposure. This article investigates another aspect of alcohol marketing in the Netherlands: the use of alcohol discounts by cafés. The prevalence of alcohol discounts was studied using unobtrusive café observations and website content analysis. It is estimated that 39% of the cafés offer some kind of cash discount for alcoholic beverages. The effects of alcohol discounts were investigated in a survey among adolescents (14-17 years old, N=409). Adolescents reported using alcohol discounts eight times a year, and consuming more alcohol when discounts were offered. Alcohol discounts, however, do not attract adolescents to visit particular cafés and/or to spend more money when going out. No differences were found between minors (16-17 years) and underage adolescents (14-15 years).

  11. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  12. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  13. A comparison of the anticipated and pharmacological effects of alcohol on cognitive bias, executive function, craving and ad-lib drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abigail K; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol administration alters automatic processing of alcohol-related cues, impairs executive functions and increases alcohol seeking. Few studies have investigated the effects of expecting to receive alcohol on these measures. Thirty-one social drinkers completed three experimental sessions receiving either 0.65 g/kg alcohol, a placebo and a control beverage (which they knew was not alcoholic) before reporting craving and completing a test battery including a measure of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility task), a measure of executive function (Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT)) and a taste test assessing ad-lib drinking. Results indicated that alcohol administration impaired performance on the COWAT and increased ad-lib drinking; however, there were no significant differences on these measures after administration of placebo versus control beverages. Craving was increased after alcohol and (to a lesser extent) after placebo. Automatic alcohol-approach tendencies were pronounced after both alcohol and placebo compared to the control beverage, with no difference between alcohol and placebo. Results suggest craving is sensitive to the anticipated and pharmacological effects of alcohol, alcohol-approach tendencies are particularly sensitive to the anticipated effects of alcohol, and measures of executive function and ad-lib drinking are affected by the pharmacological, but not the anticipated, effects of alcohol.

  14. Analgesic Effects of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Experimental Studies in Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trevor; Oram, Charlotte; Correll, Christoph U; Tsermentseli, Stella; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-05-01

    Despite the long-standing belief in the analgesic properties of alcohol, experimental studies have produced mixed results. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify whether alcohol produces a decrease in experimentally-induced pain and to determine the magnitude of any such effect. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases were searched from inception until April 21, 2016 for controlled studies examining the effect of quantified dosages of alcohol on pain response to noxious stimulation. Eighteen studies involving 404 participants were identified providing alcohol versus no-alcohol comparisons for 13 tests of pain threshold (n = 212) and 9 tests of pain intensity ratings (n = 192). Random effects meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (SMD) provided robust support for analgesic effects of alcohol. A mean blood alcohol content (BAC) of approximately .08% (3-4 standard drinks) produced a small elevation of pain threshold (SMD [95% CI] = .35 [.17-.54], P = .002), and a moderate to large reduction in pain intensity ratings (SMD [95% CI] = .64 [.37-.91], P alcohol is an effective analgesic that delivers clinically-relevant reductions in ratings of pain intensity, which could explain alcohol misuse in those with persistent pain despite its potential consequences for long-term health. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings for clinical pain states. This meta-analysis provides robust evidence for the analgesic properties of alcohol, which could potentially contribute to alcohol misuse in pain patients. Strongest analgesia occurs for alcohol levels exceeding World Health Organization guidelines for low-risk drinking and suggests raising awareness of alternative, less harmful pain interventions to vulnerable patients may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The multiplicative effect of combining alcohol with energy drinks on adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Canale, Natale; Potente, Roberta; Scalese, Marco; Griffiths, Mark D; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2018-07-01

    There has been increased concern about the negative effects of adolescents consuming a combination of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). To date, few studies have focused on AmED use and gambling. The present study analyzed the multiplicative effect of AmED consumption, compared to alcohol alone, on the likelihood of at-risk or problem gambling during adolescence. Data from the ESPAD®Italia 2015 study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students (ages 15 to 19years) were used to examine the association between self-reported AmED use (≥6 times,≥10 times, and ≥20 times during the last month) and self-reported gambling severity. Multivariate models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios to evaluate the association between alcohol use, AmED use, and gambling among a representative sample of adolescents who reported gambling in the last year and completed a gambling severity scale (n=4495). Among the 19% students classed as at-risk and problem gamblers, 43.9% were classed as AmED consumers, while 23.6% were classed as alcohol consumers (i.e. did not mix alcohol with energy drinks). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, AmED consumers were three times more likely to be at-risk and problem gamblers (OR=3.05) compared to non-consuming adolescents, while the effect became less pronounced with considering those who consumed alcohol without the addition of energy drinks (OR=1.37). The present study clearly established that consuming AmED might pose a significantly greater risk of experiencing gambling-related problems among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  17. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  18. Moderate Alcoholic Beer Consumption: The Effects on the Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity of Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luciana C; do Rio, Rafaela F; Lollo, Pablo C B; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-07-01

    Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. The purpose was to compare the effects of consuming alcoholic beer (AB) and nonalcoholic beer (NAB) on the biochemical blood parameters. Two beers were produced under known and controlled conditions from the same raw material, NAB (0.6%, v/v) and AB with the addition of 6% grain alcohol. Fifteen healthy adult men (aged 20 to 57 y) underwent 3 treatments (30 d per treatment). In Treatment 1 (Baseline), they followed their usual diet without drinking any alcoholic beverage; in Treatment 2, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL NAB; and in Treatment 3, they added the daily consumption of 330 mL AB. It was found that the use of AB for 30 d (16 g alcohol/d) reduced the blood insulin and fasting glucose, reducing insulin resistance. These data suggest that the daily intake of 330 mL AB could statistically change the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of adult men. The volunteers were healthy before and remained so after the intervention, with no change in their clinical status. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. [Effect of Dendrobium officinale granule on long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gui-Yuan; Xia, Chao-Qun; Chen, Su-Hong; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Pang; Li, Bo; Gao, Jian-Li

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of Dendrobium officinale granule (DOG) on symptoms, blood pressure and serum biochemical indexes of long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats. The alcohol-induced hypertension rat model was established by feeding alcohol drink to normal rats (the alcohol volume fraction increases from 5% to 22%). Since the 4th week, DOG was administered for 32 weeks, once everyday. During the experiment, body weight, kinematic parameters (locomotor activities, grip strength, duration of vertigo) and blood pressures (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure) were detected regularly. On the 28th and 32nd weeks, blood samples were collected to determine serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG). (1) Sign: The DOG-administered group showed reduction in the duration of vertigo and increase in appetite, body weight, locomotor activities and grip strength. (2) Blood pressure: The DOG-administered group showed significant decrease in blood pressure since the 8th week. (3) Biochemical indexes: The DOG-administered group showed notable decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP, Cr, UA, TG level, but without significant change in TC level. The long-term administration of DOG can relieve alcohol-induced hypertension, while alleviating general signs, liver and kidney injuries and abnormal blood fat biochemical indexes.

  20. Effects of vivo morpholino knockdown of lateral hypothalamus orexin/hypocretin on renewal of alcohol seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Asheeta A; McNally, Gavan P

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments used vivo morpholinos to assess the role of orexin/hypocretin in ABA renewal of extinguished alcohol seeking. Rats were trained to respond for alcoholic beer in a distinctive context, A, and then extinguished in a second distinctive context, B. When rats were tested in the extinction context, ABB, responding was low but when they were tested in the training context, ABA, responding was significantly higher. Microinjection of an orexin/hypocretin antisense vivo morpholino into LH significantly reduced orexin/hypocretin protein expression but had no effect on the ABA renewal of alcohol seeking (Experiment 1). Microinjection of a higher dose of the antisense vivo morpholino into LH also significantly reduced orexin/hypocretin protein expression but this was not selective and yielded significant reduction in melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) protein expression. This non-selective knockdown did significantly reduce ABA renewal as well as reduce the reacquisition of alcohol seeking. Taken together, these findings show an important role for LH in the ABA renewal of alcohol seeking but that orexin/hypocretin is not necessary for this renewal.

  1. Effects of vivo morpholino knockdown of lateral hypothalamus orexin/hypocretin on renewal of alcohol seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheeta A Prasad

    Full Text Available Two experiments used vivo morpholinos to assess the role of orexin/hypocretin in ABA renewal of extinguished alcohol seeking. Rats were trained to respond for alcoholic beer in a distinctive context, A, and then extinguished in a second distinctive context, B. When rats were tested in the extinction context, ABB, responding was low but when they were tested in the training context, ABA, responding was significantly higher. Microinjection of an orexin/hypocretin antisense vivo morpholino into LH significantly reduced orexin/hypocretin protein expression but had no effect on the ABA renewal of alcohol seeking (Experiment 1. Microinjection of a higher dose of the antisense vivo morpholino into LH also significantly reduced orexin/hypocretin protein expression but this was not selective and yielded significant reduction in melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH protein expression. This non-selective knockdown did significantly reduce ABA renewal as well as reduce the reacquisition of alcohol seeking. Taken together, these findings show an important role for LH in the ABA renewal of alcohol seeking but that orexin/hypocretin is not necessary for this renewal.

  2. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  3. Pre-steady state transients in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction: isotope effects and stereospecificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur

  4. Potent inhibitory effect of alcoholic beverages upon gastrointestinal passage of food and gallbladder emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Bożek, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Magdalena; Mgłosiek, Patrycja

    2013-12-01

    Current knowledge about the effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial functioning of the digestive system is scarce and inconsistent. This study addresses their influence upon meal movement along the gut and meal-induced gallbladder emptying. Three examination blocks involved each 12 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of a solid 1485 kJ meal was followed by intake of 400 ml beer (4.7%vol), 200 ml red wine (13.7%vol) or 100 ml whisky (43.5%vol) or matching volumes of control fluids. Gastric myoelectrical activity and emptying, orocecal transit and gallbladder emptying was monitored noninvasively. Alcoholic beverages (beer, red wine, whisky) caused a significant slowdown of the gastric evacuation of the solid meal, the delay being the more potent, the greater was the concentration of ethanol. This inhibitory effect was not caused by interference with the gastric myoelectric activity. Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation (beer, red wine), at odds with the effect of their counterpartying aqueous ethanol solutions, did not elongate the orocecal transit of the solid food. Products of distillation-whisky and high proof ethanol solution--elicited a profound delay of the orocecal transit. Alcoholic beverages exerted an inhibitory effect upon the meal-stimulated gallbladder emptying, the magnitude of which increased in the order: beer → red wine → whisky. Alcoholic beverages exert an inhibitory effect upon the gastric emptying of a solid food and the meal-induced gallbladder emptying, whereas the effect upon the orocecal transit depends on the type of a beverage-whisky elicits a delay but beer or red wine are devoid of this effect.

  5. Alcoholism & depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  6. Dutch courage? Effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-ratings and observer ratings of foreign language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt; Werthmann, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    A popular belief is that alcohol improves the ability to speak in a foreign language. The effect of acute alcohol consumption on perceived foreign language performance and actual foreign language performance in foreign language learners has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to test the effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-rated and observer-rated verbal foreign language performance in participants who have recently learned this language. Fifty native German speakers who had recently learned Dutch were randomized to receive either a low dose of alcohol or a control beverage that contained no alcohol. Following the experimental manipulation, participants took part in a standardized discussion in Dutch with a blinded experimenter. The discussion was audio-recorded and foreign language skills were subsequently rated by two native Dutch speakers who were blind to the experimental condition (observer-rating). Participants also rated their own individual Dutch language skills during the discussion (self-rating). Participants who consumed alcohol had significantly better observer-ratings for their Dutch language, specifically better pronunciation, compared with those who did not consume alcohol. However, alcohol had no effect on self-ratings of Dutch language skills. Acute alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the pronunciation of a foreign language in people who have recently learned that language.

  7. Beyond treatment effects: predicting emerging adult alcohol and marijuana use among substance-abusing delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingempeel, W Glenn; Henggeler, Scott W; Pickrel, Susan G; Brondino, Michael J; Randall, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    Secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial examined the effects of 4 putative risk factors and 2 protective factors in predicting drug use among 80 emerging adults treated 5 years earlier for delinquency and alcohol and/or marijuana use disorders. Frequency of marijuana use and the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders in adolescence predicted cannabis use in emerging adulthood. Increasing academic competence at high levels of social competence predicted less marijuana use. At emerging adulthood, greater use of alcohol and marijuana were associated with both criminality and psychopathology.

  8. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Effects of Amino-Modified Perillyl Alcohol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Hui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two series of amino-modified derivatives of (S-perillyl alcohol were designed and synthesized using (S-perillaldehyde as the starting material. These derivatives showed increased antiproliferative activity in human lung cancer A549 cells, human melanoma A375-S2 cells and human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells comparing with that of (S-perillyl alcohol. Among these derivatives, compounds VI5 and VI7 were the most potent agents, with the IC50s below 100 μM. It was demonstrated that the antiproliferative effect of VI5 was mediated through the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells.

  9. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  10. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  11. Effect of alcohol and paracetamol on aspect of the hematology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WBC) and lymphocyte counts as well as serum cholesterol level were used to access the effects of administration of alcohol and paracetamol to albino rats. Fifteen male albino rats weighing between 75 – 160 grams were grouped into five and ...

  12. Substituent effect of phenolic aldehyde inhibition on alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui Xie; Maobing Tu; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds significantly inhibit microbial fermentation of biomass hydrolysates. To understand thequantitative structure-inhibition relationship of phenolic aldehydes on alcoholic fermentation, the effect of 11 differentsubstituted benzaldehydes on the final ethanol yield was examined. The results showed that the degree of phenolic...

  13. The σ-stark effect of rotational transitions : Part II: The microwave spectrum of methyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, H.A.; Dymanus, A.

    1962-01-01

    The method described in Part I is applied to absorption lines of methyl alcohol in the microwave region. Recorded ΔM = ± 1 Stark patterns of absorption lines with linear Stark effect are compared with calculated patterns. The ΔM = ± 1 Stark patterns of 7 absorption lines with second order Stark

  14. Phenotyping the effect of diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de N.J.W.; Afman, L.A.; Mensink, M.R.; Muller, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the growing incidence of metabolic syndrome. Diet is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this review, we focused on recent publications reporting on the effect of macro- and micronutrients on development and

  15. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution and adipocytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Beers, R.M. van; Stolk, R.P.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution, adipose tissue secreted proteins (adiponectin and resistin), and insulin sensitivity in healthy middle-aged men with abdominal obesity. Research Methods and Procedures: Thirty-four healthy men between 35 and 70

  16. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  17. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 6. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A DFT study. Kundan Baruah Pradip Kr Bhattacharyya. Regular Articles Volume 127 Issue 6 June 2015 pp 1109-1117 ... Keywords. Membrane; electric field; DFT; reactivity descriptor; MHP.

  18. Supporting Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders:a Summary of Effective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer; Xu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong condition that significantly affects the individual's learning, development, behavior, family, and quality of life. Diagnosing children with this condition and providing effective supports is challenging for professionals because little intervention research has been performed with the…

  19. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mi; Neff, James Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both…

  1. The Influence of Being under the Influence: Alcohol Effects on Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Teasdale, Brent; Burchfield, Keri B.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between intoxication, chronic alcohol use, and violent behavior using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The authors introduce a method for disentangling spuriousness from the causal effects of situational variables. Their results suggest that drinkers are much more likely to commit…

  2. Effects of a National Information Campaign on Compliance With Age Restrictions for Alcohol Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of a national information campaign, introduced by the Dutch Food Retail Organization, named “Under 20? Show Your ID!,” on compliance with age restrictions on alcohol sales. The compliance level after the campaign was compared with a baseline compliance, that we

  3. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  5. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of cautionary messages and vulnerability factors on viewers' perceptions of alcohol advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Dwayne C; Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming

    2005-09-01

    This study examined how individual difference vulnerability factors affect college students' perceptions of beer commercial actors' age, attractiveness and drinking. We were also interested in whether viewers' exposure to a cautionary message would affect their perceptions of the actors' drinking behavior. Three groups of college students were exposed to the same set of two alcohol advertisements. After watching the ads, each group received a different cautionary message prior to answering questions about the ad's content: (1) a neutral message (viewed by 42% [n = 119] of the sample), (2) a U.S. federal warning (viewed by 31% [n = 89]) and (3) an industry message (viewed by 27% [n = 76]). We also examined three putative vulnerability factors: age (underage 21 or not), gender and family history of alcohol problems (yes or no) as well as the effects of quantity-frequency of alcohol consumption, episodic heavy drinking, severity of alcohol dependence, disinhibition sensation seeking and the eight factors of the Alcohol Expectancy Scale. The cautionary messages had no effect on viewers' perceptions of characters' age, attractiveness and drinking behavior. Although neither of the commercials depicted the physical act of drinking, the student raters nevertheless perceived the characters to be heavy episodic drinkers. Those reporting more alcohol dependence symptoms perceived increased drinking for the male characters, as did females and viewers with expectancies for social and physical pleasure. Perceptions of the drinking in beer commercials are based in part on the character depicted in the ad and in part on the demographic and personal vulnerability factors of the viewer.

  7. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  9. Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Proliferating Cells, Stem/Progenitor Cells, and Immature Neurons in the Adult Human Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maître, Tara Wardi; Dhanabalan, Gopalakrishnan; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik

    2018-03-01

    In animal studies, impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with behavioral pathologies including addiction to alcohol. We hypothesize that alcohol abuse may have a detrimental effect on the neurogenic pool of the dentate gyrus in the human hippocampus. In this study we investigate whether alcohol abuse affects the number of proliferating cells, stem/progenitor cells, and immature neurons in samples from postmortem human hippocampus. The specimens were isolated from deceased donors with an on-going alcohol abuse, and from controls with no alcohol overconsumption. Mid-hippocampal sections were immunostained for Ki67, a marker for cell proliferation, Sox2, a stem/progenitor cell marker, and DCX, a marker for immature neurons. Immunoreactivity was counted in alcoholic subjects and compared with controls. Counting was performed in the three layers of dentate gyrus: the subgranular zone, the granular cell layer, and the molecular layer. Our data showed reduced numbers of all three markers in the dentate gyrus in subjects with an on-going alcohol abuse. This reduction was most prominent in the subgranular zone, and uniformly distributed across the distances from the granular cell layer. Furthermore, alcohol abusers showed a more pronounced reduction of Sox2-IR cells than DCX-IR cells, suggesting that alcohol primarily causes a depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool and that immature neurons are secondarily affected. These results are in agreement with observations of impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animal studies and lend further support for the association between hippocampal dysfunction and alcohol abuse.

  10. Effects of the "Preparing for the Drug Free Years" curriculum on growth in alcohol use and risk for alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Kosterman, R; Hawkins, J D; Haggerty, K P; Duncan, T E; Duncan, S C; Spoth, R

    2000-09-01

    Preparing for the Drug-Free Years (PDFY) is a curriculum designed to help parents learn skills to consistently communicate clear norms against adolescent substance use, effectively and proactively manage their families, reduce family conflict, and help their children learn skills to resist antisocial peer influences. This study examined the effects of PDFY on the trajectories of these factors, as well as on the trajectory of alcohol use from early to mid adolescence. The sample consisted of 424 rural families of sixth graders from schools randomly assigned to an intervention or a control condition. Data were collected from both parents and students at pretest, posttest, and 1-, 2- and 3 1/2-year follow-ups. Latent growth models were examined. PDFY significantly reduced the growth of alcohol use and improved parent norms regarding adolescent alcohol use over time. Implications for prevention and evaluation are discussed.

  11. Modulation of the effects of alcohol on driving-related psychomotor skills by chronic exposure to cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Terry, P

    2002-03-01

    Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.

  12. THE EFFECT OF COMBINATION BETWEEN CHLORINE 0.5% AND ALCOHOL 70% TO BACTERIA’S GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzhidah Muzhidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Desinfection process at laringoscope by using alcohol 70% was not effective for hidrofil’s viruses. The activity mechanism of alcohol 70% is protein denaturation, baktericid for vegetative’s and tuberculoside’s cell. Decontamination with chlorine 0.5% and alcohol 70% have an enzyme inactivity, protein denaturation and inactivity sour of nukleat, so that alcohol desinfectan 70% and chlorine 0.5% much better in pursuing growth of microorganism, but the effectivities of chlorine 0.5% and alcohol 70% for amount of germ’s colony at laringoskop still need furthermore clarification. Objective of this study was aimed to explain the effectiveness of combination of alcohol 70% disinfectant and chlorine 0.5% to decrease germ’s colony in  laringoscope. Methode : A quasy eksperimental (control group pre-post test total sampling design was used in this study. Population were all of laringoscope which used at room operate of emergency departemen 5th floor Dr. Soetomo general hospital of Surabaya. The independent variable was 1 combination of alcohol 70% disinfectant and chlorine 0.5%, 2 alcohol 70% disinfectant only and dependent variable was germ’s colony. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level p<0.05. Result : The result showed that there was an effectiveness combination of chlorine 0.5% and alcohol 70% to decrease germ’s colony (p=0.000 and the effectiveness of alcohol 70% to decrease germ’s colony (p=0.591. Analysis : It can be concluded that combination of chlorine 0.5% and alcohol 70% more effective to decrease germ’s colony in  laringoscope. Discussion: It is recomended that the existence of periodical inspection of laryngoscope to decrease risk of nosocomial infection.

  13. The Effects of the Global Economic Recession and a Reduced Alcohol Tax on Hospitalizations Due to Alcohol-Attributed Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Mao Liao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is to assess the effects of the 2008 economic crisis and a 2009 alcohol tax reduction on alcohol-related morbidity for men of different socioeconomic statuses in Taiwan. Admissions data for the period from 2007 to 2012 for men aged 24–59 years in 2007 was retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database. With stratification over three income levels, an interrupted time-series analysis examining the effects of the crisis and taxation reduction on incidence rates of hospitalization for alcohol-attributed diseases (AADs was employed. The low income group showed a significant (p < 0.05 change in the rate of AAD-related hospitalizations in July 2008; specifically, an abrupt 7.11% increase that was then sustained for several months thereafter. In contrast, while the middle income group exhibited a significant 22.9% decline in the rate of AAD-related hospitalizations over the course of the crisis, that downward trend was gradual. The reduction of the alcohol tax resulted in increased rates of AADs among both the low and high income groups. The economic recession and the reduction of the alcohol tax resulted in an increased rate of AAD among low income men.

  14. Effects of Age and Acute Moderate Alcohol Administration on Electrophysiological Correlates of Working Memory Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Frazier, Ian; Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies suggest older adults may be differentially susceptible to the acute neurobehavioral effects of moderate alcohol intake. To our knowledge, no studies have addressed acute moderate alcohol effects on the electrophysiological correlates of working memory in younger and older social drinkers. This study characterized alcohol-related effects on frontal theta (FTP) and posterior alpha power (PAP) associated with maintenance of visual information during a working memory task. Older (55 to 70 years of age; n = 51, 29 women) and younger (25 to 35 years of age; n = 70, 39 women) community-dwelling moderate drinkers were recruited for this study. Participants were given either placebo or an active dose targeting breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.04 or 0.065 g/dl. Following absorption, participants completed a visual working memory task assessing cue recognition following a 9-s delay. FTP and PAP were determined via Fourier transformation and subjected to 2 (age group) × 3 (dose) × 2 (repeated: working memory task condition) mixed models analysis. In addition to expected age-related reductions in PAP, a significant age group × dose interaction was detected for PAP such that 0.04 g/dl dose level was associated with greater PAP in younger adults but lower PAP in their older counterparts. PAP was lower in older versus younger adults at both active doses. Further mixed models revealed a significant negative association between PAP and working memory efficiency for older adults. No effects of age, dose, or their interaction were noted for FTP. Results bolster the small but growing body of evidence that older adults exhibit differential sensitivity to the neurobehavioral effects of moderate alcohol use. Given the theoretical role of PAP in attentional and working memory function, these findings shed light on the attentional mechanisms underlying effects of acute moderate alcohol on working memory efficiency in older adults. Copyright

  15. Effectiveness of nurse-led brief alcohol intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Catherine A; Kaner, Eileen; Heather, Nick; Doughty, Julie; Crawshaw, Andrea; McNamee, Paul; Purdy, Sarah; Pearson, Pauline

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nurse-led screening and brief intervention in reducing excessive alcohol consumption among patients in primary health care. Excessive alcohol consumption is a major source of social, economic and health problems. However, such consumption is responsive to brief alcohol intervention. To date, brief intervention research in primary health care has focused on general practitioner-led interventions, and there is only circumstantial evidence of effectiveness in nurse-led interventions. However, nurses are increasingly taking a lead in health promotion work in primary care. A pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out between August 2000 and June 2003 to evaluate the effects of a brief intervention compared with standard advice (control condition). A total of 40 general practice clusters (intervention = 21 and control = 19) recruited 127 patients (intervention = 67 and control = 60) to the trial. Excessive consumption was identified opportunistically via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. After baseline assessment, patients received either a 5-10 minutes brief intervention using the 'Drink-Less' protocol or standard advice (control condition). Follow-up occurred at 6 and 12 months postintervention. Analysis of variance weighted for cluster size revealed no statistically significant differences between intervention and control patients at follow up. A majority of patients in both conditions reduced their alcohol consumption between assessment and subsequent measurement. Economic analysis suggested that the brief intervention led to no statistically significant changes in subsequent health service resource use relative to standard treatment. The brief intervention evaluated in this trial had no effect over standard advice delivered by nurses in primary health care. However, there was a reduction in excessive drinking across both arms of the trial over time. Due to

  16. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on growth axis in human adolescents of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J; Torres, J M; Rodriguez, R; Ruiz, E; Ortega, E

    2000-10-20

    We previously reported the deleterious effects of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) on pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenal axes hormones in human adolescents. In the present paper we studied the effects of AAI on the growth axis hormones, and the possible contribution of the insulin-glucose axis to the alcohol-induced dysfunction of the growth axis in human adolescents. Blood samples were drawn from adolescents that arrived at the emergency department with evident behavioural symptoms of drunkenness (AAI) or with nil consumption of alcohol (controls [C]). AAI produced in the adolescents of both sexes in our series: a decrease in growth hormone (GH) levels, without significant alteration of either insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3); an increase in plasma glucose and a decrease in insulin in the female adolescents but not in the males. Males and females undergo a significant period of bone growth during adolescence. Growth axis hormones play an important role in the pubertal spurt. Thus, ethanol consumption during adolescence could have long-lasting deleterious effects on this aspect of development. In industrialised countries, around 35% of alcohol drinkers are under 16 years old, therefore the result of this study should be made known to adolescents and the appropriate authorities.

  17. The edible cocktail: the effect of sugar and alcohol impregnation on the crunchiness of fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Elke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vacuum impregnation is seen as a valuable technique for flavor pairing in the catering industry. One of the applications of this technique is the creation of edible cocktails by impregnating fruits with liquors, leading to an interplay of different flavors. However, the effect of the impregnation of sugar and alcohol into the fruit will affect the texture of the fruit and therefore its crunchiness. Thus, the positive effect of flavor pairing might be inhibited by a negative effect in texture changes. Results This investigation focused on the change in crunchiness as a result of the impregnation of different sugar and alcohol containing solutions. When hypotonic solutions were used, the impregnation resulted in the rupture of the cells, thereby leading to a decrease in crunchiness. When hypertonic solutions were used, the cells shrunk, which also resulted in a decrease in crunchiness. Isotonic solutions resulted in crunchiness comparable to its fresh version. When alcohol was used, the crunchiness decreased at all concentrations investigated. Conclusions Crunchiness of fruit can only be maintained when impregnated with isotonic sugar solutions. When the sugar or alcohol content deviates from that in the fruit, impregnation of these liquids will lead to a decrease in crunchiness. This has consequences for the creation of edible cocktails: for an optimal crunchiness, the sugar content of the impregnation liquid has to be equal to the sugar content of the fruit or vegetable.

  18. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  19. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Acculturative stress as a moderator of the effect of drinking motives on alcohol use and problems among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Bridgid Mariko; Ejesi, Kida; Foster, Dawn W

    2017-12-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong relationship between drinking motives and alcohol use among young adult populations. Further, there is substantial evidence of the association between psychosocial stressors and greater alcohol consumption. In the present study, we examined whether acculturative stress would moderate the relationship between major drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors and alcohol-related problems, and whether this relationship differs by racial/ethnic group. Six hundred diverse undergraduate students (mean age=21.50, SD=2.46; 82.8% female; 40.2% White/Caucasian) completed a series of measures, including demographic information, alcohol use/alcohol problems, and acculturative stress. Findings showed varying patterns in the moderating effect of acculturative stress on the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, particularly for self-identified Hispanic, Black, and Asian students. Stronger drinking motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, and this relationship was stronger among Asian and Hispanic students who reported higher levels of acculturative stress. For Black students, greater acculturative stress was observed to weaken the relationship between coping, enhancement, and conformity motives and alcohol drinking frequency. Results are discussed in terms of incorporating acculturative stress in the development of tailored alcohol use interventions for vulnerable young adults, such as certain ethnic minority and immigrant groups. Clinical implications include screening for acculturative stress in primary care and counseling centers and early intervention programs to identify young adults who may be at-risk for or currently experiencing alcohol problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of C max , t max , area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β 60 ) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also t max (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (C max , t max, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β 60 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  3. Effect of paternal alcohol and drug dependence on offspring conduct disorder: gene-environment interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jon Randolph; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Jacob, Theodore; Grant, Julia D; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Duncan, Alexis E; Heath, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Not only are substance-use disorders and externalizing disorders frequently comorbid, they often co-occur in families across generations. The current study examined the role of genetic and environmental influences in the relationship between paternal histories of drug dependence or alcohol dependence and offspring conduct disorder using an offspring-of-twins design. Participants were male twins (n = 1,774) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, their offspring (n = 1,917), and mothers of the offspring (n = 1,202). Twins had a history of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, or neither. Based on the father's and his co-twin's drug-dependence or alcohol-dependence history and zygosity, risk groups were constructed to reflect different levels of genetic and environmental risk that were then used to predict offspring conduct disorder. After controlling for potentially confounding variables, the offspring of men with a history of drug dependence or alcohol dependence had significantly higher rates of conduct disorder, compared with offspring of men without this history. Offspring at higher genetic risk had higher rates of conduct disorder. High-risk offspring at lower environmental risk had lower rates of conduct disorder but only in the case of paternal drug-dependence risk. Lower environmental risk did not influence rates of offspring conduct disorder when the father had an alcohol-dependence history. Genetic risk associated with both paternal drug-dependence and paternal alcohol-dependence histories predicted offspring conduct-disorder risk, but only risk associated with paternal drug-dependence history was mitigated by having a low-risk environment. These results demonstrated a significant gene-environment interaction effect.

  4. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  5. Can the school context moderate the protective effect of parental support on adolescents' alcohol trajectories in urban Chicago?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2013-12-01

    Research explaining school effects on alcohol use is scare. This study examined the interactive effect between family support and school characteristics (size, poverty, and sector) on adolescents' alcohol use trajectories in Chicago. Longitudinal and multilevel data were from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods and the Common Core of Data (National Center for Educational Statistics). The sample consisted of 2205 adolescents in 558 schools. A three-level hierarchical linear model was used to estimate multilevel growth curve models and school effects on alcohol trajectories. In addition to the strong relationship between parental support and alcohol trajectories; the results also found school effects on the average baseline of alcohol use and the rates of change across time. Interestingly, high levels of parental support were more effective in preventing alcohol use in public schools, while adolescents attending private schools with low levels of parental support were more likely to consume alcohol. Similarly, students attending public schools with higher rates of poverty who enjoy higher levels of parental support were less likely to consume alcohol compared to students with lower parental support attending lower rates of schools poverty. Key findings highlight the importance of the interaction between parental support and school characteristics meaning that protective factors provided by parents could be reinforced or diminished by the school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic effects of hydro-alcoholic artemisia absinthium extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisia absinthium has many pharmacological effects, but toxic effects of it, were seen on nervous system and liver. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of different doses of Artemisia absinthium extract on the enzymes and histopathological changes of the liver tissue of adult normal male rat.

  7. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  8. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  9. Gabapentin's acute effect on mood profile -- a controlled study on patients with alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Specka, Michael; Leweke, F Markus; Nyhuis, Peter; Banger, Markus

    2007-03-30

    Delayed beneficial effects of gabapentin on mood were frequently reported in various patient populations. This is the first controlled study which addressed acute effects of gabapentin on mood. Analysis of the German version of Profile of Mood States (POMS) throughout a randomised placebo-controlled, double-blinded study of gabapentin on acute alcohol withdrawal [Bonnet, U., Banger, M., Leweke, F.M., Specka, M., Müller, B.W., Hashemi, T., Nyhuis, P.W., Kutscher, S., Burtscheidt, W., Gastpar, M. 2003. Treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal with gabapentin -- results from a controlled two-center trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol 23, 514-519]. In addition, subjective severity of alcohol withdrawal was determined by the Essen Self-Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (ESA) to control effects of concurrent withdrawal on POMS. Ratings were performed at intake (baseline), day 1 (study medication 400 mg q.i.d.), day 2 (study medication 400 mg q.i.d.) and day 7 (no study medication). Analyses could be performed on 46 out of 59 randomised subjects. Within the first two days of the study, a significant stronger increase in the POMS-vigour subscore occurred in the gabapentin group. A subgroup analysis suggests that gabapentin's effect on vigour largely results from a stronger improvement of vigour in a small group of 11 patients with co-morbid mild depression (according to ICD-10: dysthymia or depressive adjustment disorder). There were no significant differences between the treatment groups regarding the other POMS-subscores (dejection, fatigue, anger) ruling out an overall fast effect on mood. Moreover, ESA-measures were not significantly altered indicating a missing effect of 400 mg gabapentin q.i.d. on acute alcohol withdrawal itself. After tapering off study medication, no more significant differences between gabapentin and placebo group were observed on vigour, strongly suggesting that the initial effect results from a pharmacological gabapentin action. Gabapentin

  10. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the effect of alcohol consumption on the developing brain.

  11. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  12. Alcohol-Related Consequences among First-Year University Students: Effectiveness of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Nelson, Kinsey; DeYoung, Amanda; Renteria, Camryn Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a web-based personalized feedback program using an objective measure of alcohol-related consequences. Participants were assigned to either the intervention group or an assessment-only control group during university orientation. Sanctions received for campus alcohol policy violations were tracked over the…

  13. The association of alcohol intake with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels: Evidence for correlated genetic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J.H.D.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Sinke, M.R.T.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Lubke, G.H.; Kluft, C.; Neuteboom, J.; Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are used as a marker for (heavy) alcohol use. The role of GGT in the anti-oxidant defense mechanism that is part of normal metabolism supposes a causal effect of alcohol intake on GGT. However, there is variability in the response of GGT

  14. Effectiveness of the Brief Alcohol and Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS) Program with a Mandated Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFulvio, Gloria T.; Linowski, Sally A.; Mazziotti, Janet S.; Puleo, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention designed to reduce alcohol abuse among adjudicated college students. Participants: Participants were college students mandated to attend a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program and a randomly selected comparison group of…

  15. Effects of two doses of alcohol on simulator driving performance in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R; O'Connell, Trisha; Anderson, Deborah; Connor, Daniel F

    2006-01-01

    Prior studies have documented greater impairments in driving performance and greater alcohol consumption among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined whether alcohol consumption produces a differentially greater impairment in driving among adults with ADHD in comparison to a community control group. The present study compared 50 adults with ADHD (mean age 33 years) and 40 control adults (mean age 29 years) on the effects of 2 single, acute doses of alcohol (0.04 and 0.08 blood alcohol concentration) and a placebo on their driving performance. The authors used a virtual reality driving simulator, examiner and self-ratings of simulator performance, and a continuous performance test (CPT) to evaluate attention and inhibition. Approximately half of the adults in each group were randomized to either the low or high dose alcohol treatment arms. Alcohol consumption produced a greater impact on the CPT inattention measures of the ADHD than the control group. Similar results were obtained for the behavioral observations taken during the operation of the driving simulator. Driving simulator scores, however, showed mainly a deleterious effect of alcohol on all participants but no differentially greater effect on the ADHD group. The present results demonstrated that alcohol may have a greater detrimental effect on some aspects of driving performance in ADHD than control adults.

  16. Mediation and Moderation Effects of an In-Home Family Intervention : the "In control: No alcohol!" Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; van der Vorst, Haske; Schulten, Ingrid G. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a theory-based in-home family intervention (In control: No alcohol!) on adolescent alcohol cognitions via its putative mediators using a randomized controlled design. In the South Holland region of the Netherlands, a total of 213 children (11-12

  17. Mediation and Moderation Effects of an In-Home Family Intervention: the "In control: No alcohol!" Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Mares, S.H.W.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Vorst, H. van der; Schulten, I.G.H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a theory-based in-home family intervention (In control: No alcohol!) on adolescent alcohol cognitions via its putative mediators using a randomized controlled design. In the South Holland region of the Netherlands, a total of 213 children (11-12

  18. Effects of alcohol (BAC 0.5‰) and ecstasy (MDMA 100 mg) on simulated driving performance and traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldstra, J.L.; Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Molmans, B.H.W.; Verstraete, A.G.; Skopp, G.; Janstos, R.

    2012-01-01

    Rational An increasing number of fatal road-accidents have been reported in which ecstasy was found in the blood of drivers. Although, ecstasy is frequently found to have been used in combination with alcohol, studies on the acute effects of ecstasy co-administered with alcohol on driving

  19. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Consumption among French Hazardous Drinkers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemont, Juliette; Cogordan, Chloé; Nalpas, Bertrand; Nguyen-Thanh, Vi?t; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Arwidson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among hazardous drinkers. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted among adults identified as hazardous drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. The intervention delivers personalized normative…

  20. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Brown, Kyle G; King, Sarah E; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-06-09

    Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome), explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes). Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Twenty four studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all students) found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.05, 0.34). A meta-analysis integrating six studies (631 participants, all students) did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.16, 95 % CI = -0.05, 0.37). Meta-analyses of secondary outcome data found that exposure to alcohol portrayals increased explicit alcohol-related cognitions, but did not find that exposure to alcohol advertisements influenced explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions. Confidence in results is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals) may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1.69 units for females. The generalizability of this finding

  1. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidy Stautz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Methods Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome, explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes. Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Results Twenty four studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all students found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.05, 0.34. A meta-analysis integrating six studies (631 participants, all students did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.16, 95 % CI = −0.05, 0.37. Meta-analyses of secondary outcome data found that exposure to alcohol portrayals increased explicit alcohol-related cognitions, but did not find that exposure to alcohol advertisements influenced explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions. Confidence in results is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Conclusions Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1

  2. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  3. The effect of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol consumption among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Farris, Samantha G; Foa, Edna B

    2011-12-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use, and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among 151 participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial for alcohol dependence. We hypothesized that AS would moderate the association between PTSD symptoms and drinking behavior, with PTSD symptoms being more strongly associated with drinking behavior among individuals with high AS. Results showed that AS was strongly associated with PTSD (r = .48) and moderately associated with drinking behavior (r = .18). As predicted, the interaction of AS with severity of PTSD symptoms was associated with frequency of drinking; however, contrary to our hypothesis, PTSD symptoms were more strongly associated with drinking behavior among individuals with relatively low AS. The implication of the present results for treatment of both PTSD and alcohol dependence are discussed.

  4. Effectiveness of two prevention programs on alcohol use as a function of provider type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is still unclear how to translate effectively programs validated in research for use in real-world contexts. Among the efforts being made to identify strategies which optimize the application of these programs in everyday practice are tests of the differential effectiveness of the programs depending on the application agent. Method: this study analyses the effects of two programs on alcohol use and its variables as a function of provider type. Two hundred students from the first year of secondary education were distributed among five experimental conditions: four treatment conditions, in which the two programs were applied by teachers at the school or external psychologists, and a control condition. Results: the results suggest that, for both programs, teachers obtain better outcomes in alcohol use and concern about addiction. Conclusions: it is concluded that teachers are the ideal application agents in terms of efficiency, and we discuss the implications for research and preventive practice.

  5. The effect of glass shape on alcohol consumption in a naturalistic setting: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, David M; Maynard, Olivia M; Hickman, Matthew; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol-related harms are a major public health concern, and population-level interventions are needed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Glass shape is an easily modifiable target for public health intervention. Laboratory findings show beer is consumed slower from a straight glass compared to a curved glass, but these findings have not been replicated in a naturalistic setting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of glass shape on alcohol consumption in public houses. Straight and curved half-pint and pint glasses were delivered to three public houses over two weekends. Glass type was counterbalanced over the two weekends and between the public houses. Monetary takings were recorded as an indirect measure of consumption. Replacing stocks of glassware in public houses was feasible and can be enacted in a short space of time. One landlord found the study too disruptive, possibly due to a laborious exchange of glassware and complaints about the new glassware from some customers. One public house's dishwasher could not accommodate the supplied curved full-pint glasses. Obtaining monetary takings from public house staff was a feasible and efficient way of measuring consumption, although reporting absolute amounts may be commercially sensitive. Monetary takings were reduced by 24 % (95 % confidence interval 77 % reduction to 29 % increase) when straight glasses were used compared to curved glasses. This study shows that it is feasible to carry out a trial investigating glass shape in a naturalistic environment, although a number of challenges were encountered. Brewery owners and landlords are willing to engage with public health research in settings where alcohol is consumed, such as public houses. Good communication with stakeholders was vital to acquire good data, and highlighting the potential commercial benefits of participating was vital to the study's success. A

  6. School-level substance use: effects on early adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Gaines, Joanna; Su, Wei; Windle, Michael

    2010-07-01

    School-level use of tobacco and alcohol are related to individual students' use in high school, but few studies have examined the effects of school-level substance use in early adolescence. In addition, little is known about factors modifying individuals' vulnerability to school-level influences. This study examined school-wide levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in relation to early adolescents' substance use and the role of peer deviance and parenting practices as modifiers of school-level effects. This cross-sectional study included 542 students attending 49 public middle schools in a single metropolitan area. Students reported on their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, and friends' deviant behavior in the last 12 months. Parents provided information about parental nurturance and harsh and inconsistent discipline. School-wide levels of substance use were obtained from the Pride Surveys completed by all students in Grades 6-8 at each school. Multilevel logistic regressions modeled individual use as a function of school-level use for each substance. Interactions of friends' deviance and poor parenting with school-level substance use evaluated differential susceptibility. Among the three substances, only school-level rates of cigarette smoking were associated with individual smoking. The relationships of school-level smoking and alcohol use with individual use were stronger for students whose parents reported poorer parenting practices. Antismoking programs may need to preferentially target middle schools with high rates of cigarette smoking. Students who receive suboptimal parenting may benefit from increased support to deter them from early initiation of smoking and alcohol use, especially in high-risk schools.

  7. Modifying alcohol expectancies of Hispanic children: examining the effects of expectancy-targeted, developmentally congruous prevention videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Allison; Lisman, Stephen A; Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-03-01

    Children's expectations about the effects of alcohol consumption are known to predict the amount of alcohol they consume as adults. Previous research has used videotaped interventions to modify children's alcohol expectancies and found that puppet actors had the expected effect of decreasing children's positive alcohol expectancies, whereas adult actors did not. The current study sought to enhance the methods and outcomes of previous research by developing brief prevention videos that focus on pre-selected negative and sedating alcohol expectancies and include youth actors and age-relevant scenarios. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design (actor's age [youth or adult] × scenario relevance [youth or adult]), we examined the alcohol expectancies of 183 Hispanic third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (50% girls) in a public school setting. Expectancies were assessed before, immediately following the intervention, and 1 month later. The intervention consisted of four 8-minute videos based on beliefs associated with expectancies related to low alcohol consumption and a control group video about school bus safety. Positive alcohol expectancies were significantly lower directly after the intervention than at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, this effect decreased but was still significant. The current study adds to existing findings that expectancies can be modified in children, using interventions that are extremely brief, low-cost, and linked to research in children's cognitive and social development. In addition, it appears that children of different ages and genders respond differently to varying components of prevention media.

  8. Effects of alcohol-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) pretreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) on oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Chien-Hung; Jin, Yi-Ru; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lee, Jang-Hwa; Chiu, Chzng-Cheng; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2008-09-10

    Excessive alcohol consumption can induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues and influence the antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This paper investigates the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) pretreated in PBMC on the apoptosis and antioxidant status after the treatment of alcohol. The results show that the percentages of apoptotic cells in the alcohol-treated group were higher than those in the group without alcohol treatment. Additionally, there was higher glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx) activity when the PBMC were treated with 300 mg/dL of alcohol. With regard to the activity of GSH reductase (GRx), there was higher activity in the group pretreated with WPC than in the group with the treatment of alcohol only. On the contrary, the levels of GSH were reduced after the treatment of alcohol, but there was a higher level of GSH in the group pretreated with WPC. In this study, it was found that the increased level of GSH in PBMC might not be attributed to the effect of GRx because there was still a higher level of GSH in the group with the treatment of WPC and BCNU (a GRx inhibitor) in this study. The results indicated that PBMC pretreated with WPC might ameliorate alcohol-induced effects such as imbalance of the antioxidant status.

  9. [Remedial courses for alcohol apprehended drivers are effective!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensch, M

    1990-07-01

    The effectiveness of the IFT, I.R.A.K. and LEER courses for drinking drivers has been examined thoroughly in an exhaustive scientific study. Empirical tests have clearly demonstrated that all three models are successful. In a critical analysis of these results, Hundhausen questions the effectiveness of the models. Hundhausen's arguments in this analysis are based on erroneous assumptions. This reply demonstrates the incorrectness of his argumentation.

  10. Testing the effects of e-mailed personalized feedback on risky alcohol use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Zachary E; Henslee, Amber M; Correia, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Although research utilizing the Internet to intervene with college student drinkers is growing, this study is the first to investigate the use of a theoretically-based and empirically supported personalized feedback form delivered via a single e-mail to college students. Students (n=191) completed measures of their alcohol use, related consequences, and peer perceptions at baseline and 6weeks after the intervention. Students were randomly assigned to receive either e-mailed personalized feedback or e-mailed generic feedback. Students who received e-mailed personalized feedback reported consuming significantly fewer drinks in a given week, as well as a fewer number of days being drunk in the previous 30days. They also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of days they perceived their peers to have drunk alcohol and in the amount of alcohol they perceived their peers to consume per drinking occasion. e-Mailed personalized feedback appears to help students become more aware of normative drinking behavior and reduce the quantity of alcohol they consume. Furthermore, e-mailed personalized feedback may be a cost-effective manner in which to intervene with college student drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the Effects of Alcohol on Drivers and Driving Performance on Straight Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking driving is responsible for a high proportion of traffic accidents. To study the effects of alcohol on drivers and driving performance, 25 drivers’ subjective feelings and driving performance data in different blood-alcohol concentration (BAC levels were collected with simulated driving experiment. The investigation results revealed that alcohol affected drivers in many aspects, including attitude, judgment, vigilance, perception, reaction, and controlling. The analysis of accident rate showed that higher BAC level would lead to higher accident rate. The statistical analysis results of driving performance indicated that average speed, speed standard deviation, and lane position standard deviation were significantly higher under the influence of alcohol. They also had a statistically significant linear trend as the function of BAC level. The discrimination of drinking driving based on driving performance was performed with Fisher discrimination method. The results showed that drinking driving with higher BAC level was easier to discriminate from normal driving. Also, the results indicated that the three significant indicators on straight roadway could be used in the discrimination of drinking driving state. The conclusions can provide references for the study of drinking driving and the identification of driving state and then contribute to traffic safety.

  12. The effect of parental alcohol and drug disorders on adolescent personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Irene J; McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Iacono, William G

    2004-04-01

    The relationship of parental alcohol or drug diagnosis to offspring personality was examined in a population-based sample of 17-year-old twins (568 girls and 479 boys) participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Whether offspring personality characteristics 1) are specific to the type of substance use disorder in parents (alcohol versus drug) and 2) are found in high-risk offspring without substance use disorders as well as in offspring with substance use disorders was investigated. Personality was assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire; substance use disorders were assessed in person through diagnostic interviews. In both male and female offspring, parental history of alcohol dependence was associated with greater negative emotionality, aggression, stress reaction, and alienation but lower well-being; parental history of drug disorders was associated with lower constraint, control, harm avoidance, and traditionalism but higher social potency. Excluding offspring with a substance use disorder had virtually no effect on the statistical significance of these findings. In contrast to findings in some adult samples, personality characteristics associated with a family history of substance use disorders are found even in adolescent offspring who have not yet developed these disorders themselves, suggesting that personality might be one indicator of familial risk for substance use disorders during this developmental stage. Personality profiles of offspring of parents with substance use disorders also show some diagnostic specificity, with constraint associated with parental drug abuse and negative emotionality with parental alcoholism.

  13. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  14. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  15. Effects of Alcohol Consumption Frequency on Health Index in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee-Ju; Cho, Ik-Rae; Park, Hyo-Joo; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we examined the status of Korean women's alcohol consumption and identified the physical changes they undergo according to the level of consumption. The results of this study may thus be used as raw data to effectively control women' drinking habits. This study consists of a secondary analysis using data from female participants in the 6 th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(2013-2014, V-2). In total, 863 women were finally selected to analyze their anthropometric data [height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference], blood parameters (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and feeding glucose), blood pressure profile (systolic/diastolic), and nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and total energy intake). Women's alcohol consumption contributed significantly to an increase in body weight, body fat, and BMI as well as to an increase in total energy intake resulting from increased fat consumption. Further, the systolic blood pressure increased significantly when women were exposed to alcohol. The results of this study suggest that alcohol consumption in women is associated with a range of adverse health implications. Notably, an increase in drinking frequency significantly affects their body weight, blood parameters, and nutrients, thus posing substantial health risks to the women, including obesity. Therefore, the Korean government should help women curve their drinking habits through regular training and campaigns.

  16. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using the effect of alcohol as a comparison to illustrate the detrimental effects of noise on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R.C Molesworth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to provide a user-friendly index of the relative impairment associated with noise in the aircraft cabin. As such, the relative effect of noise, at a level typical of an aircraft cabin was compared with varying levels of alcohol intoxication in the same subjects. Since the detrimental effect of noise is more pronounced on non-native speakers, both native English and non-native English speakers featured in the study. Noise cancelling headphones were also tested as a simple countermeasure to mitigate the effect of noise on performance. A total of 32 participants, half of which were non-native English speakers, completed a cued recall task in two alcohol conditions (blood alcohol concentration 0.05 and 0.10 and two audio conditions (audio played through the speaker and noise cancelling headphones. The results revealed that aircraft noise at 65 dB (A negatively affected performance to a level comparable to alcohol intoxication of 0.10. The results also supported previous research that reflects positively on the benefits of noise cancelling headphones in reducing the effects of noise on performance especially for non-native English speakers. These findings provide for personnel involved in the aviation industry, a user-friendly index of the relative impairment associated with noise in the aircraft cabin as compared with the effects of alcohol. They also highlight the benefits of a simple countermeasure such as noise cancelling headphones in mitigating some of the detrimental effects of noise on performance.

  19. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IgM) compared to S. bachtiarica and Z. multiflora (p < 0.05). Both Z. membranacea and S. bachtiarica at 200 mg. kg-1 caused a significant increase in albumin levels in the rats (p < 0.05). Z. multiflora at 400 mg. kg-1 had the highest effect on ...

  20. Protective effect of alcohol extract of Yulangsan leaf on chemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: YLSL has protective effect against chemically-induced liver injury in mice. The mechanism may be related to attenuation of ... inflammatory, sedative memory-enhancing, immunity-boosting and anti-stress agent. The ... GSY-ⅱ was from Beijing Medical Equipment factory (Beijing, China); while color pathological.

  1. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percent and decrease in heterophils percent that indicates positive effect the on enhancement of body immune system by Satureja bachtiarica. In present study Satureja bachtiarica extract did not show a significant increase in IgM compared to control group. Satureja bachtiarica showed a significant increase in neutrophils ...

  2. Effect of alcoholic extract of garlic (Allium sativum on some food born pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiami Rad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to consumers' desire to consume foods without preservatives or containing a natural preservative, the use of plant extracts as a food preservative instead of chemicals has increased. This study was conducted to determine the antibacterial effect of different concentration of alcoholic extract of garlic (Allium sativum on standard strains of Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia entrocolitica. For this purpose, the agar well diffusion method was used. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were measured with microtiter plate method using the rezazurin reagent. The results showed that garlic alcoholic extract had an inhibitory effect on any four tested bacteria. The highest inhibitory effect was observed on B. subtilis;meanwhile,the slightest effect was found on S. enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.39 mg/ml was observed for B. subtilis, however the highest amount was estimated at 12.5 mg/ml for S. enteritidis. According to the results of recent research it was concluded that alcoholic extract of garlic had appropriate antibacterial impact against bacteria and therefore could be used as a natural preservative in various foods.

  3. In vitro effects of policosanol (Saccharum officinarum L wax alcohols on the 5-lipooxygenase enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    Full Text Available Introduction: policosanol, a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic alcohols purified from sugarcane with octacosanol as the main component, shows cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects in addition to an inhibitory effect on type I cicloxygenase. Objective: to determine whether policosanol may inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in vitro. Methods: effects on 5-LOX enzyme activities were assessed in rat blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Vehicle or Policosanol suspensions (0.6 to 6 000 µg/mL were added to tubes containing the reaction mix and then absorbance changes at 234 nm were measured. Results: added Policosanol inhibited in vitro 5-LOX activity by 30 %, which was not a significant figure but depended on the concentration(r= 0.992; p< 0.05; it was 1 250 µg/mL. Conclusions: policosanol did not significantly inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in rat PMNL preparations, so that it does not seem to be a dual inhibitor of COX and-LOX enzymes. This result differs from that found for beeswax alcohols and underlines the different effects of the mixtures of long-chain fatty alcohols purified from the sugarcane and the beeswax.

  4. Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan

    2016-02-01

    While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO "best buy" intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol taxation and pricing strategies differ in their impact on health inequalities. An econometric epidemiological model was built with England 2014/2015 as the setting. Four pricing strategies implemented on top of the current tax were equalised to give the same 4.3% population-wide reduction in total alcohol-related mortality: current tax increase, a 13.4% all-product duty increase under the current UK system; a value-based tax, a 4.0% ad valorem tax based on product price; a strength-based tax, a volumetric tax of £0.22 per UK alcohol unit (= 8 g of ethanol); and minimum unit pricing, a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per unit, below which alcohol cannot be sold. Model inputs were calculated by combining data from representative household surveys on alcohol purchasing and consumption, administrative and healthcare data on 43 alcohol-attributable diseases, and published price elasticities and relative risk functions. Outcomes were annual per capita consumption, consumer spending, and alcohol-related deaths. Uncertainty was assessed via partial probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and scenario analysis. The pricing strategies differ as to how effects are distributed across the population, and, from a public health perspective, heavy drinkers in routine/manual occupations are a key group as they are at greatest risk of health harm from their drinking. Strength-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have greater effects on mortality among drinkers in routine/manual occupations (particularly for heavy drinkers, where the estimated policy effects on mortality rates are as follows: current tax

  5. Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra S Meier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO "best buy" intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol taxation and pricing strategies differ in their impact on health inequalities.An econometric epidemiological model was built with England 2014/2015 as the setting. Four pricing strategies implemented on top of the current tax were equalised to give the same 4.3% population-wide reduction in total alcohol-related mortality: current tax increase, a 13.4% all-product duty increase under the current UK system; a value-based tax, a 4.0% ad valorem tax based on product price; a strength-based tax, a volumetric tax of £0.22 per UK alcohol unit (= 8 g of ethanol; and minimum unit pricing, a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per unit, below which alcohol cannot be sold. Model inputs were calculated by combining data from representative household surveys on alcohol purchasing and consumption, administrative and healthcare data on 43 alcohol-attributable diseases, and published price elasticities and relative risk functions. Outcomes were annual per capita consumption, consumer spending, and alcohol-related deaths. Uncertainty was assessed via partial probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA and scenario analysis. The pricing strategies differ as to how effects are distributed across the population, and, from a public health perspective, heavy drinkers in routine/manual occupations are a key group as they are at greatest risk of health harm from their drinking. Strength-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have greater effects on mortality among drinkers in routine/manual occupations (particularly for heavy drinkers, where the estimated policy effects on mortality rates are as

  6. Interaction Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Individual Social Support on Frequency of Alcohol Use in Youth Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Nugent, Nicole R; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Bruce, Douglas; Tanney, Mary R; Fernández, M Isabel; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2018-02-05

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) experience multiple disease-related stresses along with the same structural and developmental challenges faced by their uninfected peers; alcohol use among YLH represents a risk behavior by virtue of potential effects on youth health and increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex while drinking alcohol. Research aimed at better understanding the interplay of individual- and neighborhood-level influences on alcohol use for YLH is needed to inform interventions. This study examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) and social support influence, independently and through interaction, alcohol use in YLH. Data from the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) consisted of YLH across 538 neighborhoods in the United States who acquired HIV behaviorally. Neighborhood-specific data were compiled from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau and matched with individual-level data from the ATN (N = 1,357) to examine effects that contribute to variation in frequency of alcohol use. Other drug use, being male, being non-Black, and older age were associated with greater alcohol use. Higher social support was negatively associated with alcohol use frequency. A cross-level interaction indicated that the association found between decreasing social support and increasing alcohol use frequency was weakened in areas with lower SED. Implications are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  7. Effect of quality chronic disease management for alcohol and drug dependence on addiction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Witas, Julie; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of the quality of primary care-based chronic disease management (CDM) for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependence on addiction outcomes. We assessed quality using (1) a visit frequency based measure and (2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. The self-reported measure of care-when care was at a CDM clinic-was associated with lower drug addiction severity. The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere) was associated with lower alcohol addiction severity and abstinence. These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes. Quality measures based upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visit frequency measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  9. The Effect of Opioids, Alcohol, and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Fracture Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher J; Graf, Kenneth W; Mashru, Rakesh P

    2017-10-01

    The estimated rate of fracture nonunion is between 5% and 10%, adding significant cost to the health care system. The cause of fracture nonunion is multifactorial, including the severity of the injury, patient factors resulting in aberrancies in the biology of fracture, and the side effects of pain control modalities. Minimizing surgeon-controlled factors causing nonunion is important to reduce the cost of health care and improve patient outcomes. Opioids, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated as risk factors for fracture nonunion. Current literature was reviewed to examine the effects of opioids, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on fracture union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Various Drugs on Alcohol-induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this work was to investigate how alcohol-induced oxidative stress in combined chemotherapy changes the metabolic function of the liver in experimental animals. This research was conducted to establish how bromocriptine, haloperidol and azithromycin, applied to the experimental model, affected the antioxidative status of the liver. The following parameters were determined: reduced glutathione, activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation intensity. Alanine transaminase was measured in serum. Alcohol stress (AO group reduced glutathione and the activity of xanthine oxidase and glutathione peroxidase, but increased catalase and alanine transaminase activity. The best protective effect was achieved with the bromocriptine (AB1 group, while other groups had similar effects on the studied parameters.

  11. Effect of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of alcohols in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Carmen M.; Jimenez, Eulogio; Suarez, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of aqueous solutions has often been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on water. In this work, we present experimental results for surface tension of aqueous solutions of n-pentanol, n-hexanol, n-heptanol, and n-octanol at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K at several concentrations. The results were used to evaluate the limiting experimental slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction and the hydrophobicity constant of the Connors model at each temperature. The thermodynamic behavior of aqueous alcohol solutions is discussed in terms of the effect of the hydrocarbon chain on water structure. The temperature dependence of the limiting slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction, as well as the hydrophobicity constant derived from surface measurements, is interpreted in terms of alcohol hydration

  12. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  13. Synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and body mass on serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Tomé, Santiago; Fernandez-Merino, Carmen; Rey, Jesus; Meijide, Luis; Gude, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Cytokeratin-18 is an essential component of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells (including hepatocytes). Serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18 (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen [TPS]) are used as a marker of epithelial neoplasms. Here, we investigated the potential interaction between alcohol and obesity in relation to serum TPS concentrations. Alcohol consumption, body mass index, and components of metabolic syndrome were measured in a random sample (n = 420) of the adult population (aged 18 to 92 years, 45% men) from a single municipality. Regular alcohol intake of >20 g/d (women) or >30 g/d (men) was considered risky drinking. Serum TPS was measured with a commercial immunoassay. Risky drinking was associated with increased serum concentrations of TPS, which was particularly evident among obese individuals. Among individuals without risky drinking, TPS concentrations were similar for all levels of body mass. Conversely, among risky drinkers, serum TPS concentrations increased in parallel with body mass (p = 0.002). The odds ratio of a high (>100 U/l) TPS concentration for the combination of risky drinking and obesity was greater than the additive effect of the 2 separate factors, after adjusting for age and sex. A similar interaction was observed between risky drinking and abdominal adiposity, a major component of the metabolic syndrome. Serum TPS concentrations were correlated with markers of liver damage. Serum TPS was not superior to standard markers (gamma-glutamyl transferase and red blood cell mean volume) for the detection of risky drinking. There is a synergism between risky alcohol consumption and common metabolic disorders (particularly obesity) in relation to serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18 (TPS), which probably reflect liver disease. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behavior using a video poker task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Cronce, Jessica M

    2017-06-01

    Drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, and concurrent gambling and drinking may lead to greater negative consequences than either behavior alone. Building on prior research on the effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behaviors using a chance-based (nonstrategic) slot-machine task, the current study explored the impact of these factors on a skill-based (strategic) video poker task. We anticipated larger average bets and greater gambling persistence under alcohol relative to placebo, and expected alcohol effects to be moderated by initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions. Participants (N = 162; 25.9% female) were randomly assigned to alcohol (target BrAC = .08g%) or placebo and were given $10 to wager on a simulated video poker task, which was programmed to produce 1 of 3 initial outcomes (win, breakeven, or lose) before beginning a progressive loss schedule. Despite evidence for validity of the video poker task and alcohol administration paradigm, primary hypotheses were not supported. Individuals who received alcohol placed smaller wagers than participants in the placebo condition, though this effect was not statistically significant, and the direction of effects was reversed in at-risk gamblers (n = 41). These findings contradict prior research and suggest that alcohol effects on gambling behavior may differ by gambling type (nonstrategic vs. strategic games). Interventions that suggest alcohol is universally disinhibiting may be at odds with young adults' lived experience and thus be less effective than those that recognize the greater complexity of alcohol effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Combined effects of alcohol and nicotine on cardiovascular performance in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M C; Jain, A C; Billie, M

    1998-06-01

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are correlated. Smokers consume more alcohol than do nonsmokers, and alcohol consumers smoke more than do teetotalers. The independent effects of alcohol and nicotine on the cardiovascular system are well documented, but combined effects of short-term administration are unknown. This experimental work was designed to study the effects due to short-term administration of alcohol and nicotine on cardiovascular system. In phase I, 30 experiments were performed to study the dose-response curve of both the drugs. In phases II and III, 15 dogs were subjected to 30 experiments. In phase II, ethanol, 400 mg/kg, was given i.v., followed by nicotine 50 microg/kg, i.v., and in phase III, sequence of drug administration was reversed to study the effects on hemodynamics and coronary artery blood flow. The dose-response curve established the i.v. dose of ethanol, 400 mg/kg, and nicotine, 50 microg/kg. Ethanol administration caused a nonsignificant increase in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVS), and left ventricular mechanical work (LVMW), and a decrease in maximal rate of increase of LV pressure per second (dP/dt), stroke volume (SV), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), pulmonary artery mean pressure (PAM), right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and average peak velocity of coronary blood flow (APV) had mild significant increases as compared with controls. Nicotine significantly increased heart rate, mean arterial pressures, LVEDP, and pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary wedge, and right atrial pressures. Nicotine increased dP/dt (2,062-3,188; p 5,206; p < 0.005), MVO2, and LVMW. However, the excitatory effects of nicotine were attenuated when ethanol was administered after nicotine (dP/dt, reduced from 2,058 to 1,653; p < 0.04, and APV increased from 10 to 12; p < 0.02). We

  16. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v) of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Maurício Uchikawa; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Pinto, Flávia Morais Gomes; Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Lascala, Cesar Angelo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v) using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection W...

  17. Effects of alcohol-gasoline blends on exhaust and noise emissions in small scaled generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol or butanol addition to gasoline on exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated. Results showed that the concentrations of CO and NOx emissions were decreased depending on the higher alcohol contents and the carbon monoxide concentration of gasoline was higher than that of methanol or butanol-gasoline blends for all engine loads. It was determined that content of the HC was decreased at higher engine load but noise level was incr...

  18. Reorientation of Magnetic Graphene Oxide Nanosheets in Crosslinked Quaternized Polyvinyl Alcohol as Effective Solid Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shuin Lin; Wei-Ting Ma; Chao-Ming Shih; Bor-Chern Yu; Li-Wei Teng; Yi-Chun Wang; Kong-Wei Cheng; Fang-Chyou Chiu; Shingjiang Jessie Lue

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to clarify the effect of magnetic graphene oxide (GO) reorientation in a polymer matrix on the ionic conduction and methanol barrier properties of nanocomposite membrane electrolytes. Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared and dispersed on GO nanosheets (GO-Fe3O4). The magnetic GO-Fe3O4 was imbedded into a quaternized polyvinyl alcohol (QPVA) matrix and crosslinked (CL-) with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain a polymeric nanocomposite. A magnetic field was applied ...

  19. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks: Dose relationship with self-reported physiological stimulation and sedation side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Nicolas; Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Pennay, Amy; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Lubman, Dan I; Miller, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Negative physiological stimulation and sedation side effects are experienced by a significant proportion of consumers who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). Few studies have compared the frequency of side effects between sessions of AmED and sessions of alcohol only within-subject, and none have explored a dose relationship. Explore the occurrence of self-reported physiological stimulant and sedative side effects between sessions of AmED and alcohol only, and at varying ED dosage levels within AmED sessions. A convenience sample of 2953 residents of New South Wales, Australia completed an online survey. N=731 AmED users reported daily caffeine intake, typical alcohol and AmED consumption, and past 12-month experience of physiological stimulation and sedation side effects during AmED and alcohol only sessions. Within-subject analyses compared occurrence of side effects between session types. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses explored the association of ED dose during AmED sessions with the experience of physiological side effects. There were greater odds of most stimulant side effects, and lower odds of sedation side effects, during AmED sessions compared to alcohol only sessions. Compared to one ED, consumption of three or more EDs was significantly associated with the majority of both stimulant and alcohol intoxication side effects after controlling for demographics and consumption covariates. AmED is associated with perceived changes in physiological stimula